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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 30.
Cover Picture: Eur. J. Immunol. 1'13
Our colorful cover image shows a microarray measuring the expression level of 609 microRNAs (miRNAs) between mice sensitive to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, left) and those resistant to EAE (right). EAE was induced by subcutaneous immunization of MOG35–55 peptide in wild‐type C57BL/6 mice (which are sensitive to EAE induction) and CD44−/− C57BL/6 mice (which are rendered resistant to EAE induction by CD44 ablation). The image is taken from Guan et al. (pp. 104–114) in which the authors show that miRNA let‐7e is significantly upregulated in CD4+ T cells and infiltrated mononuclear cells of the ...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - January 16, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Cover Picture Source Type: research
Isoniazid prophylaxis started at 3-4 months of life does not prevent tuberculosis disease or infection in both HIV-infected and uninfected children
Setting: South Africa and Botswana Patients: The study looked at infants who were born to HIV-infected women. To be included in the study, the infants had to be between 91 and 120 days of life, not infected with or exposed to a case of tuberculosis, without other chronic illness, or immunosuppressed from an infection other than HIV. A total of 1351 children were included in the analysis and were split into two groups based on their HIV status after testing: HIV positive and HIV negative (table 1). Intervention: The infants in both groups were randomly assigned to receive either isoniazid at a daily dose of 10–20...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - January 16, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Iro, M. A., Brown, N. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, Child health, Infant health, Sexual health Structured abstracts of sentinel articles: Picket Source Type: research
ANSWERS From questions on page 16. ANSWER TO QUESTION 1 Answer is C, Linear immunoglobulin A (IgA) dermatosis is an autoimmune subepidermal vesiculobullous disease of children (chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood) and adults. It is the most common acquired blistering disease in the paediatric population and can appear as early as 6 months of age.1 Vesicles and bullae are usually arranged in an annular manner described as the ‘cluster of jewels’ appearance. Lesions in children occur mostly on the lower abdomen and anogenital areas with frequent oral and ocular involvement. Blood tests show antibodies di...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - January 16, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chattopadhyay, M., Burrows, N. P. Tags: Surgery, Eye Diseases, Epidemiologic studies, Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: infectious diseases, Infection (neurology), Ophthalmology, Pathology, Radiology, Sexual health, Dermatology, Surgical diagnostic tests, Clinical diagnostic tests, Poisoni Source Type: research
How to use Helicobacter pylori testing in paediatric practice
Introduction Helicobacter pylori is a slowly growing, gram negative microaerophilic bacterium that colonises the gastric mucosa. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies from both developed and developing countries suggest that the prevalence of H. pylori infection worldwide is declining, and may even be less than 10% in ‘westernised’ countries.1 2 H. pylori infection is acquired during the first decade of life and infection usually persists without treatment. Spontaneous clearance has been reported, although co-incidental antibiotic exposure may influence such ‘clearance’. H. pylori is the causative...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - January 16, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Crowley, E., Bourke, B., Hussey, S. Tags: Oncology, Surgery, Stomach and duodenum, Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: infectious diseases, Pain (neurology), Childhood nutrition, Childhood nutrition (paediatrics), Surgical diagnostic tests, Screening (epidemiology), Screening (public health) Source Type: research
Paediatric bullous dermatoses
Answers to the following quiz questions can be found on page 31. QUESTION 1 Case 1: A 13-month-old boy presented with multiple pruritic tense blisters on the lower abdomen, lower extremities, groin, perineum and perioral areas for the past 1 week. There was no family history of skin disease, and no history of recent upper respiratory tract infections or drug intake prior to the onset of blistering. Physical examination revealed annular erythema with circumferential vesicles and blisters giving a ‘cluster of jewels’ appearance. There was no mucosal involvement. What is the diagnosis? Select one best answer ...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - January 16, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chattopadhyay, M., Burrows, N. P. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: infectious diseases, TB and other respiratory infections, Epilepsy and seizures, Child health, Dermatology, Poisoning, Trauma, Occupational and environmental medicine, Injury Dermatophile Source Type: research
A new web-based method for automated analysis of muscle histology
Conclusions: A standardised and mainly automated quantitative assessment of histopathological parameters in the mdx mouse model is now available. Automated analysis of histological parameters is more rapid and less time-consuming. Moreover, results are unbiased and more reliable. Efficacy of therapeutic interventions, e.g. within the scope of a drug screening or therapeutic exon skipping, can be monitored. The automatic analysis system MyoScan used in this study is not limited exclusively to dystrophin-deficient mice but also represents a useful tool for applications in the research of other dystrophic pathologies, various...
Source: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders - January 16, 2013 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Cordula PertlMarkus EblenkampAnja PertlStefan PfeiferErich WintermantelHanns LochmüllerMaggie WalterSabine KrauseChristian Thirion Source Type: research
Immunological Nonresponse to ART Drugs in HIV InfectionImmunological Nonresponse to ART Drugs in HIV Infection
What is the best approach to treating the immunological nonresponse to ARV drugs in HIV infection? Future Virology
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - January 15, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: HIV/AIDS Journal Article Source Type: news
Belmont Confections Issues Allergy Alert on Undeclared Peanuts in "Dymatize Nutrition, Elite Gourmet Bars" (Cookies & Cream and Fudge Brownie)
Belmont Confections Inc. is recalling Dymatize Nutrition Elite Gourmet Cookies & Cream bars and Dymatize Nutrition Elite Gourmet Fudge Brownie bars in both the 1.5oz and 3oz packages because they may contain undeclared peanuts. Belmont became aware of the problem via a complaint to the distributor Dymatize Inc.
Source: Food and Drug Administration - January 15, 2013 Category: Food Science Source Type: news
Boba Direct Issues Allergy Alert on Undeclared Milk in BD Flavored Powders
Boba Direct (BD) announced the voluntary recall of the following BD Flavored Powders: Almond, Avocado, Banana, Blueberry, Café Latte, Cherry, Chocolate, Coconut, Honeydew, Lavender, Lychee, Mango, Matcha Green Tea, Milk Tea, Passionfruit, Peppermint, Pineapple, Red Bean, Strawberry, Taro, Vanilla and Watermelon in the 2.2 lb. plastic bags because of the incorrect label failing to declare milk as the source of sodium caseinate and lactose. Individuals with allergies to milk run the risk of serious or life-threatening allergic reaction if they consume these products.
Source: Food and Drug Administration - January 15, 2013 Category: Food Science Source Type: news
Evaluation of in vivo T cell kinetics: use of heavy isotope labeling in T1D
Abstract CD4+ memory cell development is dependent on TCR signal strength, antigen dose and the cytokine milieu, all of which are altered in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We hypothesized that CD4+ T cell turnover would be greater in type 1 diabetes subjects compared to controls. In vitro studies of T cell function are unable to evaluate dynamic aspects of immune cell homoeostasis. Therefore, we used deuterium oxide (2H2O) to assess in vivo turnover of CD4+ T cell subsets in T1D (N=10) and control subjects (N=10). Serial samples of naïve, memory and regulatory (Treg) CD4+ T cell subsets were collected and enrichment of deoxyribos...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jennifer B. Bollyky, S. Alice Long, Mark Fitch, Paul L. Bollyky, Mary Rieck, Rachel Rogers, Peter L. Samuels, Srinath Sanda, Jane H. Buckner, Marc K. Hellerstein, Carla J. Greenbaum Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Fast Foods Tied to Allergies, Eczema in Kids (CME/CE)
(MedPage Today) -- Children and teens who ate fast foods multiple times a week were at an increased risk for severe asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema, researchers found.
Source: MedPage Today Allergy - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: news
Fast-food 'link' to child asthma and eczema
Conclusion This cross-sectional study found that for both adolescents and children, fast-food consumption was associated with an increased risk of what the researchers defined as severe asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. Consumption of fruit at least three times per week, by contrast, was associated with a decreased risk of severe asthma. Although eating a balanced diet including the recommended daily intake of fruit and vegetables has many health benefits, there are limitations to this study, some of which were noted by the authors. These limitations include: The cross-sectional study design meant that the chil...
Source: NHS News Feed - January 15, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Food/diet Pregnancy/child Source Type: news
Fast Food Linked To Asthma And Eczema In Kids
Kids who eat fast food three or more times a week are likely to have more severe allergic asthma, rhinitis (hay fever), and eczema. The finding came from new international research and was published in the journal Thorax. Similarly, a previous study demonstrated that the benefits of breastfeeding in preventing asthma are cancelled out by eating fast food once or twice a week. The results of the new study motivated the investigators to believe that a fast food diet may be playing a part in the increase in these conditions...
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - January 15, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Nutrition / Diet Source Type: news
Sfrp5 correlates with insulin resistance and oxidative stress
ConclusionsIn contrast to obese mouse models, serum Sfrp5 was directly related to HOMA‐IR and oxidative stress in humans, but not with apolipoproteins, and thus associations differed from those found for circulating adiponectin. These differences between Sfrp5 and adiponectin might be explained by differences in the investigated species
Source: European Journal of Clinical Investigation - January 15, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Maren Carstensen, Christian Herder, Kerstin Kempf, Iris Erlund, Stephan Martin, Wolfgang Koenig, Jouko Sundvall, Siamak Bidel, Suvi Kuha, Michael Roden, Jaakko Tuomilehto Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research
The immunological response to spinal cord injury: Helpful or harmful?
Abstract The role of the immune response in spinal cord injury has become a frequent object of debate. Evidence exists to suggest that autoimmunity following neurotrauma can be either beneficial or detrimental to recovery. The following commentary examines the recent findings indicating that mice lacking mature B- and T-lymphocytes have improved behavioural and histological outcomes following thoracic spinal cord injury. These data, presented in the October issue of Experimental Neurology are discussed within the context of previous findings and differing viewpoints in the field of neuroimmunology. Limitations on t...
Source: Experimental Neurology - January 15, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Laliberte AM, Fehlings MG Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
The Transcription Factor Fli-1 Regulates Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cell Development in Mice.
This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID: 23320737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Immunology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Suzuki E, Williams S, Sato S, Gilkeson G, Watson DK, Zhang XK Tags: Immunology Source Type: research
Dressed not to kill: CD16(+) monocytes impair immune defence against tuberculosis.
Dressed not to kill: CD16(+) monocytes impair immune defence against tuberculosis. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Jan 15; Authors: Lugo-Villarino G, Neyrolles O Abstract Monocytes are blood leukocytes that can differentiate into several phagocytic cell types, including dendritic cells (DCs), which are instrumental to the inflammatory response and host defence against microbes. A study published in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology by Balboa et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2013. 43: XXXX-XXXX.] suggests that a shift of the CD16(-) monocyte population towards a CD16(+) subpopulation may represent an immune evasi...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lugo-Villarino G, Neyrolles O Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research
NK cells from pleural effusions are potent antitumor effector cells.
Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells express a set of activating and inhibitory receptors which, after interaction with their ligands, determine whether or not the target cell will be lysed. Many studies have clearly demonstrated that NK cells have the capacity to lyse stressed cells (such as tumor or virally-infected cells). However, NK cells that infiltrate tumors usually exhibit phenotypic and functional defects. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Vacca et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2013. 43: XXXX-XXXX] show that NK cells in pleural effusions of primary and metastatic tumors of various origins are not...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Terme M, Fridman WH, Tartour E Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research
Retinoic acid promotes the development of Arg1-expressing dendritic cells for the regulation of T-cell differentiation.
We report here that optimal expression of Arg1 in dendritic cells requires retinoic acid. Induction of Arg1 by retinoic acid is directly mediated by retinoic acid-responsive elements in the 5' non-coding region of the Arg1 gene. Arg1, produced by dendritic cells in response to retinoic acid, promotes the generation of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. Importantly, blocking the retinoic acid receptor makes dendritic cells hypo-responsive to known inducers of Arg1 such as IL-4 and GM-CSF in Arg1 expression. We found that intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells that are known to produce retinoic acid highly express Arg1. Our results e...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Chang J, Thangamani S, Kim MH, Ulrich B, Morris SM, Kim CH Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research
STUB1 is essential for T-cell activation by ubiquitinating CARMA1.
Abstract Antigen receptor engagement triggers lymphocyte activation and proliferation by activating several transcription factors including NF-κB. Caspase recruitment domain (CARD)-containing membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein1 (CARMA1) is an essential adaptor protein that links antigen receptors to NF-κB activation. Here, we identify stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 homology and U-box containing protein 1 (STUB1) as a CARMA1-associated protein. STUB1 constitutively interacted with CARMA1, and the interaction was intensified by TCR stimulation. Downregulation of STUB1 expression by RNAi markedly ...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Wang S, Li Y, Hu YH, Song R, Gao Y, Liu HY, Shu HB, Liu Y Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research
Quercetin inhibits transcriptional up-regulation of histamine H(1) receptor via suppressing protein kinase C-δ/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 signaling pathway in HeLa cells.
Abstract It has been reported that the histamine H(1) receptor (H1R) gene is up-regulated in patients with allergic rhinitis and H1R expression level strongly correlates with the severity of allergy symptoms. Accordingly compounds that suppress the H1R gene expression are promising as useful anti-allergic medications. Recently, we demonstrated that histamine or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulation induced the up-regulation of H1R gene expression through the protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 signaling pathway in HeLa cells expressing H1R endog...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Hattori M, Mizuguchi H, Baba Y, Ono S, Nakano T, Zhang Q, Sasaki Y, Kobayashi M, Kitamura Y, Takeda N, Fukui H Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Taraxerol inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses through suppression of TAK1 and Akt activation.
Abstract Taraxerol, a triterpenoid compound, has potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. In the study, taraxerol concentration dependently inhibited nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein and mRNA levels and these inhibitions decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin 2 (PGE(2)), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β induced by LPS. Furthermore, we found that taraxerol suppressed translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), phosphorylation of IκBα, blocked the IκBα degradation as well as I...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yao X, Li G, Bai Q, Xu H, Lü C Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Characterization of avian thymic hormone and chicken parvalbumin 3 target cells.
We report the identification of target cells for ATH and CPV3 and the immunophenotype of target cells for ATH. Newly hatched chicks were injected intracoelomically with ATH and killed 5, 10, 15 or 20min later. Naïve chickens also were killed at 1, 7 and 14days of age. Various tissues were examined by EM for the presence of either ATH or CPV3 using colloidal gold labeling. Gold particles were initially present on plasma membranes of lymphocytes in T cell areas of spleen and cecal tonsils from the chicks injected with ATH, internalized within 10min, and accumulated in nuclei by 20min. Immunofluorescence staining also identi...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kujundžić RN, Steffens WL, Brewer JM, Henzl MT, Ragland WL Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research
Understanding the immunological impact of the human mutation explosion.
Abstract The recent development of human exome sequencing technology has revealed that our immune system is riddled with more genetic defects than anyone imagined. As a legacy of the recent human population explosion, we each inherit hundreds of rare mutations that alter the sequence of proteins. This mutation load is ten times higher than that induced by experimental treatment of mice by ethylnitrosourea; a high fraction of which has substantial effects on immune function. This mutation burden is likely to be a major factor in the incidence of many human immune disorders, but understanding this at the level of ind...
Source: Trends in Immunology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Andrews TD, Sjollema G, Goodnow CC Tags: Trends Immunol Source Type: research
The risks of targeting co-inhibitory pathways to modulate pathogen-directed T cell responses.
Abstract The identification of T cell co-inhibition as a central mechanism in the regulation of adaptive immunity during infectious diseases provides new opportunities for immunotherapeutic interventions. However, the fact that T cell activity is frequently downregulated during pathogen-directed responses suggests a pivotal physiological role of co-inhibitory pathways during infectious disease. Reports of exacerbated immunopathology in conditions of impaired co-inhibition foster the view that downregulation of T cell activity is an essential negative feedback mechanism that protects from excessive pathogen-directed...
Source: Trends in Immunology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Frebel H, Oxenius A Tags: Trends Immunol Source Type: research
Economic savings versus health losses: the cost-effectiveness of generic antiretroviral therapy in the United States.
CONCLUSION: Compared with a slightly less effective generic-based regimen, the cost-effectiveness of first-line branded ART exceeds $100 000/QALY. Generic-based ART in the United States could yield substantial budgetary savings to HIV programs. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. PMID: 23318310 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Internal Medicine - January 15, 2013 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Walensky RP, Sax PE, Nakamura YM, Weinstein MC, Pei PP, Freedberg KA, Paltiel AD, Schackman BR Tags: Ann Intern Med Source Type: research
A Rare Adverse Effect Of Montelukast Treatment: Ecchymosis.
We report a rare case of a 31-year-old woman, with a history of allergic rhinitis and moderate persistent asthma, who experienced severe bruising on her lower extremities after starting montelukast treatment. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of unusual bruising during montelukast therapy, and in those patients, treatment with montelukast should be discontinued. PMID: 23322887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Respiratory Care - January 15, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aypak C, Türedi O, Solmaz N, Yikilkan H, Görpelioglu S Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research
EQUATE CHILDRENS ALLERGY RELIEF (Cetirizine Hydrochloride) Solution [Wal-Mart Stores Inc]
Updated Date: Jan 15, 2013 EST
Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST) - January 15, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: news
RNF126 is an E3 ligase for AID [Immunology]
Protein–protein interactions are typically identified by either biochemical purification coupled to mass spectrometry or genetic approaches exemplified by the yeast two-hybrid assay; however, neither assay works well for the identification of cofactors for poorly soluble proteins. Solubility of a poorly soluble protein is thought to increase upon cofactor binding, possibly...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 15, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Delker, R. K., Zhou, Y., Strikoudis, A., Stebbins, C. E., Papavasiliou, F. N. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Costimulation and coinhibition in Treg and Tconv [Immunology]
Costimulatory molecules of the CD28 family on T lymphocytes integrate cues from innate immune system sensors and modulate activation responses in conventional CD4+ T cells (Tconv) and their FoxP3+ regulatory counterparts (Treg). To better understand how costimulatory and coinhibitory signals might be integrated, we profiled the changes in gene expression...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 15, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Wakamatsu, E., Mathis, D., Benoist, C. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
NK cells promote tolerance regulating TH17 cells [Immunology]
Natural killer (NK) cells accumulate at the maternal–fetal interface in large numbers, but their exact roles in successful pregnancy remain poorly defined. Here, we provide evidence that TH17 cells and local inflammation can occur at the maternal–fetal interface during natural allogenic pregnancies. We found that decidual NK cells promote immune...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 15, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Fu, B., Li, X., Sun, R., Tong, X., Ling, B., Tian, Z., Wei, H. Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research
CTLA-4 controls thymic T-cell receptor selection [Immunology]
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4; CD152) is of pivotal importance for self-tolerance, with deficiency or unfavorable polymorphisms leading to autoimmune disease. Tolerance to self-antigens is achieved through thymic deletion of highly autoreactive conventional T (Tconv) cells and generation of FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. The main costimulatory molecule, CD28, augments...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 15, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Verhagen, J., Genolet, R., Britton, G. J., Stevenson, B. J., Sabatos-Peyton, C. A., Dyson, J., Luescher, I. F., Wraith, D. C. Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research
Asthma in children born after infertility treatment: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study
This study analyses data from follow-up surveys at 5 and 7 years of age (response rates of 79 and 70%, respectively). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Singleton children whose natural mothers provided follow-up data were included. Mothers reported whether their pregnancy was planned; planners provided TTC and details of any ART. The population was divided into ‘unplanned’ (unplanned and unhappy), ‘mistimed’ (unplanned but happy), ‘planned’ (planned, TTC < 12 months), ‘untreated subfertile’ (planned, TTC >12 months), ‘ovulation induced’ (received clo...
Source: Human Reproduction - January 15, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Carson, C., Sacker, A., Kelly, Y., Redshaw, M., Kurinczuk, J. J., Quigley, M. A. Tags: Reproductive epidemiology Source Type: research
Diverse functions of miR-125 family in different cell contexts
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as a novel class of non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. More than 1000 miRNAs have been identified in human cells to date, and they are reported to play important roles in normal cell homeostasis, cell metastasis and disease pathogensis and progression. MiR-125, which is a highly conserved miRNA throughout diverse species from nematode to humans, consists of three homologs hsa-miR-125a, hsa-miR-125b-1 and hsa-miR-125-2. Members of this family have been validated to be down-regulated, exhibiting its disease-suppressing properties in many dif...
Source: Journal of Hematology and Oncology - January 15, 2013 Category: Hematology Authors: Yu-Meng SunKang-Yu LinYue-Qin Chen Source Type: research
The cost effectiveness of treating paediatric cancer in low-income and middle-income countries: a case-study approach using acute lymphocytic leukaemia in Brazil and Burkitt lymphoma in Malawi
The objective of the present work was to determine cost-effectiveness thresholds for common paediatric cancers using acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Brazil and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) in Malawi as examples. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented by treatment were compared to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of each country to define cost-effectiveness thresholds using WHO-CHOICE (‘CHOosing Interventions that are Cost-Effective’) guidelines. The case examples were selected due to the data available and because ALL and BL both have the potential to yield significant health gains at a low...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - January 15, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Bhakta, N., Martiniuk, A. L. C., Gupta, S., Howard, S. C. Tags: Oncology, Health policy, Immunology (including allergy), Child health, Health economics, Health service research Global child health Source Type: research
Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy: a prospective follow-up of nine children
We describe the clinical course of nine infants with radiologically and histologically confirmed NEHI. Host or environmental factors were not associated with the disease development. All infants with lung function tests demonstrated findings consistent with severe irreversible peripheral airway obstruction, assessed with whole body plethysmography (6/6) or the rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique (5/5). While the symptoms abated in all infants, six infants developed a non-atopic asthma during the follow-up. Systemic or inhaled corticosteroid treatment did not affect the duration of the symptoms. NEHI may mimic seve...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - January 15, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lukkarinen, H., Pelkonen, A., Lohi, J., Malmstrom, K., Malmberg, L. P., Kajosaari, M., Lindahl, H., Fohr, A., Ruuskanen, O., Makela, M. J. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Child health, Asthma, Drugs: respiratory system Case reports Source Type: research
Chronic effects of ambient air pollution on lung function among Chinese children
Conclusions Long-term exposure to higher ambient air pollution levels was associated with lower lung function in Chinese schoolchildren, especially among boys. Adverse effects were observed on large and small airways, with a stronger effect on the latter.
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - January 15, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gao, Y., Chan, E. Y. Y., Li, L. P., He, Q. Q., Wong, T. W. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Immunology (including allergy), Child health, Airway biology, Asthma, Air pollution, Environmental issues Original articles Source Type: research
Deaths in childhood from cystic fibrosis: 10-year analysis from two London specialist centres
Conclusions The number of deaths in children with CF was small but often unpredictable, so active management was continued until late in the majority, reflected by the fact that almost all were in hospital, and more than half were ventilated. If death from respiratory failure is anticipated following a steady decline, palliative care should be instituted well in advance, with attention to appropriate end of life care.
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - January 15, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Urquhart, D. S., Thia, L. P., Francis, J., Prasad, S. A., Dawson, C., Wallis, C., Balfour-Lynn, I. M. Tags: Pancreas and biliary tract, Immunology (including allergy), Child health, End of life decisions (palliative care), Hospice, Cystic fibrosis, Artificial and donated transplantation, End of life decisions (ethics) Original articles Source Type: research
Bronchodilator responsiveness using spirometry in healthy and asthmatic preschool children
Conclusions BDR can be assessed reliably using FEV0.75 in wheezy preschoolers, provided within-subject variability and responsiveness in health are taken into consideration.
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - January 15, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Borrego, L. M., Stocks, J., Almeida, I., Stanojevic, S., Antunes, J., Leiria-Pinto, P., Rosado-Pinto, J. E., Hoo, A.-F. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Child health, Asthma, Drugs: respiratory system Original articles Source Type: research
Extracoronary echocardiographic findings as predictors of coronary artery lesions in the initial phase of Kawasaki disease
Conclusions Children with MR or PE should undergo careful assessment of coronary status at diagnosis. However, PE or MR at diagnosis is not predictive of persistent CAL at follow-up.
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - January 15, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lega, J. C., Bozio, A., Cimaz, R., Veyrier, M., Floret, D., Ducreux, C., Reix, P., Di Filippo, S. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: cardiovascular system, Echocardiography, Valvar diseases, Radiology, Dermatology, Clinical diagnostic tests, Radiology (diagnostics) Original articles Source Type: research
Asthma in Swedish children conceived by in vitro fertilisation
Conclusions This study verifies an association between IVF and asthma in children. This can be partly explained by neonatal morbidity and by maternal asthma acting as mediators, but the main risk factor is parental subfertility. The mechanism for this is unclear.
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - January 15, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Kallen, B., Finnstrom, O., Nygren, K.-G., Otterblad Olausson, P. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Immunology (including allergy), Pregnancy, Reproductive medicine, Child health, Asthma, Mechanical ventilation Original articles Source Type: research
Infertility treatment at the edge: discovery and risk converge at the limits of knowledge
The latter half of the twentieth century saw the rapid promulgation of technologies that continue to transform patterns of fertility globally. The introduction of the oral contraception pill in the early 1960s demonstrated an unrivalled capacity to precisely and reliably manage voluntary infertility, transforming the age distribution of female age at first birth and effectively emancipating women to engage with careers and education. In 1978, parallel research in assisted reproductive technology (ART) saw the first birth from in vitro fertilisation which proved the feasibility of effective treatment for involuntary inferti...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - January 15, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Davies, M. J. Tags: Oncology, Smoking and tobacco, Immunology (including allergy), Pregnancy, Reproductive medicine, Sexual health, Health education, Health promotion, Smoking Editorials Source Type: research
Up‐regulation of proliferative and migratory genes in regulatory T cells from patients with metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer
Abstract A higher frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with different types of solid tumors and hematological malignancies as compared to healthy donors. In prostate cancer patients, Tregs in PBMC have been shown to have increased suppressive function. Tumor‐induced biological changes in Tregs may enable tumor cells to escape immunosurveillance. We performed genome‐wide expression analyses comparing the expression levels of 38,500 genes in Tregs with similar suppressive activity, isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors and patien...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - January 15, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Ngar‐Yee Huen, Alan Lap‐Yin Pang, Jo A. Tucker, Tin‐Lap Lee, Matteo Vergati, Caroline Jochems, Chiara Intrivici, Vittore Cereda, Wai‐Yee Chan, Owen M. Rennert, Ravi A. Madan, James L. Gulley, Jeffrey Schlom, Kwong Y. Tsang Tags: Tumor Immunology Source Type: research
Anti‐tumor activity of CpG‐ODN aerosol in mouse lung metastases
Abstract Studies in preclinical models have demonstrated the superior anti‐tumor effect of CpGoligodeoxynucleotides (CpG‐ODN) when administered at the tumor site rather than systemically. We evaluated the effect of aerosolized CpG‐ODN on lung metastases in mice injected with immunogenic N202.1A mammary carcinoma cells or weakly immunogenic B16 melanoma cells. Upon reaching the bronchoalveolar space, aerosolized CpG‐ODN activated a local immune response, as indicated by production of IL‐12p40, IFN‐γ, and IL‐1β and by recruitment and maturation of DC cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice.Treatment wit...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - January 15, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lucia Sfondrini, Michele Sommariva, Monica Tortoreto, Alessandra Meini, Silvia Piconese, Marco Calvaruso, Nick Van Rooijen, Raffaella Bonecchi, Nadia Zaffaroni, Mario P. Colombo, Elda Tagliabue, Andrea Balsari Tags: Tumor Immunology Source Type: research
CEACAM‐1 negatively regulates G‐CSF production by breast tumor associated macrophages that mediate tumor angiogenesis
Abstract CEACAM1, a cell adhesion molecule expressed on epithelial cells and activated immune cells, is down‐regulated in many cancers and plays a role in inhibition of inflammation in part by inhibition of G‐CSF production by myeloid cells. Since macrophages are associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer, but play important roles in normal breast, we hypothesized that CEACAM1 down‐regulation would lead to tumor promotion under inflammatory conditions. Co‐cultures of pro‐inflammatory M1 macrophages with CEACAM1 negative MCF7 breast cells produced high levels of G‐CSF (10 ng/mL) compared to CEACAM1 transf...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - January 15, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Sridhar Samieni, Zhifang Zhang, John E. Shively Tags: Tumor Immunology Source Type: research
A phase 1b study of humanized KS-interleukin-2 (huKS-IL2) immunocytokine with cyclophosphamide in patients with EpCAM-positive advanced solid tumors
Conclusion: The combination of huKS-IL2 with low-dose cyclophosphamide was well tolerated. Although no objective responses were observed, the combination showed evidence of immunologic activity and 3 patients showed stable disease for >= 4 cycles.Trial registration: NCT00132522
Source: BMC Cancer - January 15, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Joseph ConnorMihaela CristeaNancy LewisLionel LewisPhilip KomarnitskyMaria MattiacciMildred FelderSarah StewartJosephine HarterJean Henslee-DowneyDaniel KramerRoland NeugebauerRoger Stupp Source Type: research
NK cells from malignant pleural effusions are not anergic but produce cytokines and display strong antitumor activity on short‐term IL‐2 activation
In this study, we analyzed NK cells present in pleural effusions (PEs) of patients with primary or metastatic tumors of different origin, including mesothelioma and lung, breast, colon, gastric, bladder, and uterus carcinoma. In all instances, freshly isolated PE‐NK cells displayed a CD56bright phenotype and expressed normal levels of both activating receptors and HLA class I‐specific inhibitory receptors. In addition, they rapidly released large amounts of IFN‐γ and TNF‐α after stimulation. Upon culture in IL‐2, they acquired a potent cytolytic activity against both allogeneic and autologous tumor cells. Tumor...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - January 15, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Paola Vacca, Stefania Martini, Valentina Garelli, Giovanni Passalacqua, Lorenzo Moretta, Maria Cristina Mingari Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research