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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 38.
Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.
Abstract Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in sho...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 1, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Graziotti GH, Chamizo VE, Ríos C, Acevedo LM, Rodríguez-Menéndez JM, Victorica C, Rivero JL Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Glucose transporter/T1R3-expressing cells in rat tracheal epithelium.
In conclusion, these findings reveal that different cell types are associated with the uptake of glucose in ASL and that, due to their T1R3 expression, SCCs and ciliated cells are most likely to participate in the chemosensory process in ASL. PMID: 22640462 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 1, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Merigo F, Benati D, Cristofoletti M, Amarù F, Osculati F, Sbarbati A Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Defining the normal acetabular vault in adult males and females using a novel three-dimensional model.
Abstract The management and quantification of bone loss is a major challenge in primary and revision total hip replacement. Defining the normal three-dimensional (3D) anatomy of the acetabular vault could aid in assessing pathologic changes and in designing prosthetic joint components. We performed a quantitative assessment of normal 3D acetabular vault structure to define the shape and location of weight-bearing acetabular bone referred to as the vault. Images from 70 normal hip computed tomography images were used to define the 3D acetabular vault anatomy and develop a 3D model. Variation in vault shape was quant...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 1, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Barsoum WK, Smith T, Buller L, Klika A, Mavroudis C, Bryan J Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Sexual dimorphism in multiple aspects of 3D facial symmetry and asymmetry defined by spatially dense geometric morphometrics.
Abstract Accurate measurement of facial sexual dimorphism is useful to understanding facial anatomy and specifically how faces influence, and have been influenced by, sexual selection. An important facial aspect is the display of bilateral symmetry, invoking the need to investigate aspects of symmetry and asymmetry separately when examining facial shape. Previous studies typically employed landmarks that provided only a sparse facial representation, where different landmark choices could lead to contrasting outcomes. Furthermore, sexual dimorphism is only tested as a difference of sample means, which is statistical...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 1, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Claes P, Walters M, Shriver MD, Puts D, Gibson G, Clement J, Baynam G, Verbeke G, Vandermeulen D, Suetens P Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Regional variations in the distribution and colocalization of extracellular matrix proteins in the juvenile bovine meniscus.
In this study, regional variations in the tissue-level and pericellular distributions of collagen types I, II and VI and the proteoglycans aggrecan, biglycan and decorin were examined in the juvenile bovine meniscus. The collagen networks were extensively, but not completely, colocalized, with tissue-level organization that varied with radial position across the meniscus. Type VI collagen exhibited close association with large bundles composed of type I and II collagen and, in contrast to type I and II collagen, was further concentrated in the pericellular matrix. Aggrecan was detected throughout the inner region of the me...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 1, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Vanderploeg EJ, Wilson CG, Imler SM, Ling CH, Levenston ME Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Morphology and ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta of the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis) with special reference to heterophagous areolas and the nature of interhaemal barrier.
This study provides a contribution to the reconstruction of the eulipotyphlan placental morphotype and also may help resolving a long-standing conflict about the interhaemal barrier in moles. As detailed descriptions of talpid placentation, only available for Talpa europaea and Scalopus aquaticus, led to a controversial debate on the nature of interhaemal barrier, the collection of more placental data of further mole species was strongly desired. Hence, the placentas of six gestational stages of Talpa occidentalis have been studied concerning their morphogenesis and ultrastructure with special focus on the structure of the...
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 1, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Siniza S, Lupiañez DG, Jiménez R, Zeller U Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
The potential of human toe flexor muscles to produce force.
In conclusion, if the ankle is plantar-flexed, dorsal flexion of the MPJ avoids a disadvantage of the force-length relationship of TFM. Therefore, MPJ dorsal flexion is a necessary function in the push-off phase of human locomotion to work against the loss of the mechanical output at the forefoot caused by plantar flexion of the ankle. PMID: 22747582 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Anatomy - August 1, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Goldmann JP, Brüggemann GP Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
The Molecular Anatomy of Human Hsp60 and its Similarity with that of Bacterial Orthologs and Acetylcholine Receptor Reveal a Potential Pathogenetic Role of Anti-Chaperonin Immunity in Myasthenia Gravis.
In this study, we demonstrate that Hsp60 proteins from humans and two common pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, share various sequence segments of potentially highly immunogenic epitopes with acetylcholine receptor α1 subunit (AChRα1). The structural data indicate that AChRα1 antibodies, implicated in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis, could very well be elicited and/or maintained by self- and/or bacterial Hsp60. PMID: 22258649 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - August 1, 2012 Category: Cytology Authors: Marino Gammazza A, Bucchieri F, Grimaldi LM, Benigno A, Conway de Macario E, Macario AJ, Zummo G, Cappello F Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research
Knowledge of skull base anatomy and surgical implications of human sacrifice among pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures.
Abstract Human sacrifice became a common cultural trait during the advanced phases of Mesoamerican civilizations. This phenomenon, influenced by complex religious beliefs, included several practices such as decapitation, cranial deformation, and the use of human cranial bones for skull mask manufacturing. Archaeological evidence suggests that all of these practices required specialized knowledge of skull base and upper cervical anatomy. The authors conducted a systematic search for information on skull base anatomical and surgical knowledge among Mesoamerican civilizations. A detailed exposition of these results is...
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - August 1, 2012 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Lopez-Serna R, Gomez-Amador JL, Barges-Coll J, Arriada-Mendicoa N, Romero-Vargas S, Ramos-Peek M, Celis-Lopez MA, Revuelta-Gutierrez R, Portocarrero-Ortiz L Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
The journey of discovering skull base anatomy in ancient Egypt and the special influence of Alexandria.
Abstract The field of anatomy, one of the most ancient sciences, first evolved in Egypt. From the Early Dynastic Period (3100 bc) until the time of Galen at the end of the 2nd century ad, Egypt was the center of anatomical knowledge, including neuroanatomy. Knowledge of neuroanatomy first became important so that sacred rituals could be performed by ancient Egyptian embalmers during mummification procedures. Later, neuroanatomy became a science to be studied by wise men at the ancient temple of Memphis. As religious conflicts developed, the study of the human body became restricted. Myths started to replace scienti...
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - August 1, 2012 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Elhadi AM, Kalb S, Perez-Orribo L, Little AS, Spetzler RF, Preul MC Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
Humphrey Ridley (1653-1708): 17th century evolution in neuroanatomy and selective cerebrovascular injections for cadaver dissection.
Abstract Humphrey Ridley, M.D. (1653-1708), is a relatively unknown historical figure, belonging to the postmedieval era of neuroanatomical discovery. He was born in the market town of Mansfield, 14 miles from the county of Nottinghamshire, England. After studying at Merton College, Oxford, he pursued medicine at Leiden University in the Netherlands. In 1688, he was incorporated as an M.D. at Cambridge. Ridley authored the first original treatise in English language on neuroanatomy, The Anatomy of the Brain Containing its Mechanisms and Physiology: Together with Some New Discoveries and Corrections of Ancient and M...
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - August 1, 2012 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Thakur JD, Sonig A, Chittiboina P, Khan IS, Wadhwa R, Nanda A Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
Evidence for endovascular aneurysm repair in patients with highly angulated neck anatomy.
Abstract Patients with highly angulated neck anatomy may account for up to a fifth of all patients treated by endovascular repair. However there is evidence that these patients have worse early and long-term outcomes, including sac expansion. This review explores the evidence supporting the use of endovascular repair in the setting of severe neck angulation, with particular emphasis on new technology with devices that have expanded the anatomical criteria for endovascular aneurysm repair such as the Lombard Aorfix and Medtronic Endurant endografts. PMID: 22854523 [PubMed - in process]
Source: The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery - August 1, 2012 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Weale AR, Beckitt T, Collin N, Hardman J Tags: J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) Source Type: research
Temporal bone characterization and cochlear implant feasibility in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
Abstract The marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a valuable non-human primate model for studying behavioral and neural mechanisms related to vocal communication. It is also well suited for investigating neural mechanisms related to cochlear implants. The purpose of this study was to characterize marmoset temporal bone anatomy and investigate the feasibility of implanting a multi-channel intracochlear electrode into the marmoset scala tympani. Micro computed tomography (microCT) was used to create high-resolution images of marmoset temporal bones. Cochlear fluid spaces, middle ear ossicles, semicircular canals and the ...
Source: Hearing Research - August 1, 2012 Category: Audiology Authors: Johnson LA, Della Santina CC, Wang X Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research
Heterochronic Protein Expression Patterns in the Developing Embryonic Chick Cerebellum
AbstractThe advantages of the embryonic chick as a model for studying neural development range from the relatively low cost of fertilized eggs to the rapid rate of development. We investigated in ovo cerebellar development in the chick, which has a nearly identical embryonic period as the mouse (19–22 days). We focused on three antigens: Calbindin (CB), Zebrin II (ZII), and Calretinin (CR), and our results demonstrate asynchronous expression patterns during cerebellar development. Presumptive CB+ Purkinje cells are first observed at embryonic day (E)10 in clusters in posterior cerebellum. At E12, corresponding with globa...
Source: The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist - August 1, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Ea Gilbert, Yh Lim, Mk Vickaryous, CL Armstrong Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research
Establishment of a canine model of human type 2 diabetes mellitus by overexpressing phosphoenolypyruvate carboxykinase.
In this study, we generated transgenic dogs expressing the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene, which is closely involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, we assessed the cloning efficiency associated with adult or fetal (cloned or natural mating) fibroblasts as a nuclear source. Cloning efficiency was determined by the fusion, pregnancy and cloning rates. The fusion rates were significantly high for fibroblasts from cloned fetuses, but the pregnancy and cloning rates were relatively high for cells from normal fetuses. Based on these data, f...
Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine - August 1, 2012 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Jeong YW, Lee GS, Kim JJ, Park SW, Ko KH, Kang M, Kim YK, Jung EM, Hyun SH, Shin T, Jeung EB, Hwang WS Tags: Int J Mol Med Source Type: research
Pediatric Neck Masses
This article addresses many aspects of the workup, diagnosis and eventual proper surgical or medical management of pediatric neck masses.
Source: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics - August 1, 2012 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Michael R. Goins, Michael S. Beasley Source Type: research
Differences in articular-eminence inclination between medieval and contemporary human populations
Abstract: The articular-eminence inclination is an important element in the biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint and the entire masticatory system; however, very little is known about this inclination in archaeological human populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the values of, in addition to the differences between, the articular-eminence inclination in medieval and contemporary human populations.The study was carried out on two dry skull groups. The first group consisted of 14 dry skulls from the medieval culture group Bijelo Brdo (BB) of East Croatia, and the other consisted of 137 recent ...
Source: Archives of Oral Biology - August 1, 2012 Category: Dentistry Authors: Josip Kranjčić, Denis Vojvodić, Domagoj Žabarović, Marin Vodanović, Daniel Komar, Ketij Mehulić Tags: Palaeontology Source Type: research
Adherens junctions and stem cells.
Abstract The specification, maintenance, division and differentiation of stem cells are integral to the development and homeostasis of many tissues. These stem cells often live in specialized anatomical areas, called niches. While niches can be complex, most involve cell-cell interactions that are mediated by adherens junctions. A diverse array of functions have been attributed to adherens junctions in stem cell biology. These include physical anchoring to the niche, control of proliferation and division orientation, regulation of signaling cascades and of differentiation. In this review, a number of model stem cel...
Source: Sub-Cellular Biochemistry - July 31, 2012 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lechler T Tags: Subcell Biochem Source Type: research
Effects of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide on the expression of colon-inflammatory mediators during the recovery phase of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium
Conclusions These results suggest that Gln administered either before or after the colitis mitigated inflammation of colitis that was not observed in group without Gln injection. Prophylactic treatment with Gln had more-beneficial effects on reducing inflammatory markers and enhancing the recovery of mucosa in DSS-induced colitis. Content Type Journal ArticleCategory Original ContributionPages 1-10DOI 10.1007/s00394-012-0416-3Authors Yu-Chen Hou, School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu Hsin Street, Taipei, 110 Taiwan, ROCChia-Chou Chu, School of Nutrition and Healt...
Source: European Journal of Nutrition - July 31, 2012 Category: Nutrition Tags: European Journal of Nutrition Source Type: research
Ocular Anatomy and Retinal Photoreceptors in a Skink, the Sleepy Lizard (Tiliqua rugosa)
AbstractThe Australian sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) is a large day‐active skink which occupies stable overlapping home ranges and maintains long‐term monogamous relationships. Its behavioral ecology has been extensively studied, making the sleepy lizard an ideal model for investigation of the lizard visual system and its specializations, for which relatively little is known. We examine the morphology, density, and distribution of retinal photoreceptors and describe the anatomy of the sleepy lizard eye. The sleepy lizard retina is composed solely of photoreceptors containing oil droplets, a characteristic of cones. Tw...
Source: The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Shaun TD New, Jan M Hemmi, Gregory D Kerr, C Michael Bull Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research
Late Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Aortopulmonary Window for Pulmonary Atresia/Stenosis and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals.
CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that patients can undergo creation of an aortopulmonary window with excellent early results. Few patients were amenable to complete repair at the second operation, and most required multiple reoperations to recruit sufficient arborization. We interpret these counterintuitive results to suggest that hypoplastic central pulmonary arteries and diminished pulmonary blood flow are markers for a less well developed pulmonary vascular bed. PMID: 22857982 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - July 31, 2012 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Mainwaring RD, Reddy VM, Perry SB, Peng L, Hanley FL Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research
Tracking Chromatid Segregation to Identify Human Cardiac Stem Cells that Regenerate Extensively the Infarcted Myocardium.
Conclusions: The impressive recovery in ventricular hemodynamics and anatomy mediated by clonal hCSCs carrying the "mother" DNA underscores the clinical relevance of this stem cell class for the management of heart failure in humans. PMID: 22851539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Circulation Research - July 31, 2012 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kajstura J, Bai Y, Cappetta D, Kim J, Arranto C, Sanada F, D'Amario D, Matsuda A, Bardelli S, Ferreira-Martins J, Hosoda T, Leri A, Rota M, Loscalzo J, Anversa P Tags: Circ Res Source Type: research
Ocular Anatomy and Retinal Photoreceptors in a Skink, the Sleepy Lizard (Tiliqua rugosa).
Abstract The Australian sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa) is a large day-active skink which occupies stable overlapping home ranges and maintains long-term monogamous relationships. Its behavioral ecology has been extensively studied, making the sleepy lizard an ideal model for investigation of the lizard visual system and its specializations, for which relatively little is known. We examine the morphology, density, and distribution of retinal photoreceptors and describe the anatomy of the sleepy lizard eye. The sleepy lizard retina is composed solely of photoreceptors containing oil droplets, a characteristic of cone...
Source: Anatomical Record - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: New ST, Hemmi JM, Kerr GD, Bull CM Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
What Determines Motor Neuron Number? Slow Scaling of Facial Motor Neuron Numbers With Body Mass in Marsupials and Primates.
Abstract How does the number of motor neurons in the brain correlate with the muscle mass to be controlled in the body? Numbers of motor neurons are known to be adjusted during development by cell death, but the change in the percentage of surviving motor neurons in response to experimental changes in target muscle mass is relatively small. Here we address the quantitative matching between final numbers of motor neurons in the facial nucleus and body mass (which we use as a proxy for the muscle mass). In 22 marsupial species, we found that the number of facial motor neurons is strongly correlated with body mass, an...
Source: Anatomical Record - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Watson C, Provis J, Herculano-Houzel S Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
The Location of the Major Ascending and Descending Spinal Cord Tracts in all Spinal Cord Segments in the Mouse: Actual and Extrapolated.
Abstract Information on the location of the major spinal cord tracts in the mouse is sparse. We have collected published data on the position of these tracts in the mouse and have used data from other mammals to identify the most likely position of tracts for which there is no mouse data. We have plotted the position of six descending tracts (corticospinal, rubrospinal, medial and lateral vestibulospinal, rostral and caudal reticulospinal) and eight ascending tracts (gracile; cuneate; postsynaptic dorsal columns; dorsolateral, lateral, and anterior spinothalamic; dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar) on diagrams of t...
Source: Anatomical Record - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Watson C, Harrison M Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Cortical Circuitry Associated With Reflex Cardiovascular Control in Humans: Does the Cortical Autonomic Network "Speak" or "Listen" During Cardiovascular Arousal.
Abstract Beginning with clinical evidence of fatal cardiac arrhythmias in response to severe stress, in epileptic patients, and following stroke, the role of the cerebral cortex in autonomic control of the cardiovascular system has gained both academic and clinical interest. Studies in anesthetized rodents have exposed the role of several forebrain regions involved in cardiovascular control. The introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques has enabled investigations into the conscious human brain to illuminate the temporal and spatial activation patterns of cortical regions that are involved with cardiovascul...
Source: Anatomical Record - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Shoemaker JK, Wong SW, Cechetto DF Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Identification of Sites of Sympathetic Outflow During Concurrent Recordings of Sympathetic Nerve Activity and fMRI.
Abstract The sympathetic division of the nervous system is critical for maintaining both resting arterial pressure and for producing changes in regional perfusion required by behavioral state changes. A primary determinant of arterial pressure is the level of vasoconstriction within skeletal muscle. It is well established that there is a tight relationship between dynamic changes in arterial pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) through the workings of the baroreflex. While the central circuitry underlying the baroreflex has been extensively investigated in anesthetized experimental animals, few stu...
Source: Anatomical Record - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Henderson LA, James C, Macefield VG Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Functional Neuroanatomy and Sleep-Disordered Breathing: Implications for Autonomic Regulation.
Abstract A major concern with sleep-disordered breathing conditions, which include obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central apnea, and congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), is the high incidence of accompanying autonomic dysfunction and metabolic disorders. Patients with OSA show exaggerated sympathetic tone, leading to hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, profuse sweating, impaired cerebral perfusion, and stroke. In addition, OSA appears in 86% of obese Type II diabetic patients, suggesting common deleterious processes. Autonomic deficiencies also appear in CCHS patients, who are often hypoglycemic. The i...
Source: Anatomical Record - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Harper RM, Kumar R, Macey PM, Ogren JA, Richardson HL Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Functional Imaging of the Brainstem and Cortical Sites of Autonomic Control in Human Subjects.
PMID: 22851520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Anatomical Record - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Macefield VG Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
The supratrochlear foramen of the humerus in a South African dry bone sample
AbstractThe supratrochlear foramen (STF) of the humerus is the aperture that forms when the septum separating the coronoid and olecranon fossa is perforated. There are no known studies in the literature on the STF among various South African ethnic groups. The presence and shapes of the STF were established by visual observation from a sample of 538 skeletonized individuals with paired humeri (1,076) and of equal numbers between the sexes. Measurements of the transverse (TD) and vertical (VD) distance of the STF were obtained using extended jaw calipers. An osteometric board was used to measure the epicondylar breadth (EB)...
Source: Clinical Anatomy - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Robert Ndou, Petunia Smith, Ryan Gemell, Ofentse Mohatla Tags: Original Communication Source Type: research
The Monro Bell controversy
AbstractAmongst the contributions in anatomy and surgery of the celebrated Monros was the contentious “discovery” by Monro Secundus of the interventricular foramen. Monro's account (1783) was vehemently criticized in London, especially by Charles Bell for presuming to describe something which was already well known and for inaccuracies. Monro with some justification in 1797 disputed this attack, although his anatomical description was shown by later anatomists to be mistaken. Clin. Anat., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Source: Clinical Anatomy - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: J.M.S. Pearce Tags: A Glimpse of Our Past Source Type: research
Cranial roots of the accessory nerve exist in the majority of adult humans
In this study, 43 adult cadavers (86 sides) were dissected via a posterior approach to the craniocervical junction. Observations were made for the presence or absence of cranial roots of the accessory nerve, and when present, their lengths and diameters were measured. Relationships of these rootlets were documented. A cranial root of the accessory nerve was identified in 76% of sides. When identified, 1–6 cranial rootlets (mean 4.5) of the accessory nerve were observed. They ranged in diameter from 0.1 to 1.1 mm (mean 0.7 mm). The length of these nerves ranged from 8 to 24 mm with a mean of 17 mm. In general, the more su...
Source: Clinical Anatomy - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: R. Shane Tubbs, Brion Benninger, Marios Loukas, Aaron A. Cohen Gadol Tags: Original Communication Source Type: research
The Location of the Major Ascending and Descending Spinal Cord Tracts in all Spinal Cord Segments in the Mouse: Actual and Extrapolated
AbstractInformation on the location of the major spinal cord tracts in the mouse is sparse. We have collected published data on the position of these tracts in the mouse and have used data from other mammals to identify the most likely position of tracts for which there is no mouse data. We have plotted the position of six descending tracts (corticospinal, rubrospinal, medial and lateral vestibulospinal, rostral and caudal reticulospinal) and eight ascending tracts (gracile; cuneate; postsynaptic dorsal columns; dorsolateral, lateral, and anterior spinothalamic; dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar) on diagrams of transverse...
Source: The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Charles Watson, Megan Harrison Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research
What Determines Motor Neuron Number? Slow Scaling of Facial Motor Neuron Numbers With Body Mass in Marsupials and Primates
AbstractHow does the number of motor neurons in the brain correlate with the muscle mass to be controlled in the body? Numbers of motor neurons are known to be adjusted during development by cell death, but the change in the percentage of surviving motor neurons in response to experimental changes in target muscle mass is relatively small. Here we address the quantitative matching between final numbers of motor neurons in the facial nucleus and body mass (which we use as a proxy for the muscle mass). In 22 marsupial species, we found that the number of facial motor neurons is strongly correlated with body mass, and scales ...
Source: The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist - July 31, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Charles Watson, Jan Provis, Suzana Herculano‐Houzel Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research
Endoscopic anatomy of sellar region
Abstract The transsphenoidal approach is the preferred access used in surgical treatment of most sellar region pathologies. The use of endoscopy is advantageous, and it is considered a good alternative to the traditional microsurgical technique. The purpose of this study is to recognize and describe anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus and the sellar region, mainly describing the anatomy of the posterior wall of the sphenoid sinus and analyzing intercarotid distances in 3 regions. Thirty sphenoid blocks treated with formaldehyde were injected and dissected. Using endoscopy, anatomical variations were ...
Source: Pituitary - July 30, 2012 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Pituitary Source Type: research
eMouseAtlas, EMAGE, and the spatial dimension of the transcriptome
Abstract eMouseAtlas (www.emouseatlas.org) is a comprehensive online resource to visualise mouse development and investigate gene expression in the mouse embryo. We have recently deployed a completely redesigned Mouse Anatomy Atlas website (www.emouseatlas.org/emap/ema) that allows users to view 3D embryo reconstructions, delineated anatomy, and high-resolution histological sections. A new feature of the website is the IIP3D web tool that allows a user to view arbitrary sections of 3D embryo reconstructions using a web browser. This feature provides interactive access to very high-volume 3D images via a tiled...
Source: Mammalian Genome - July 30, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Mammalian Genome Source Type: research
Low TLR9 expression defines an aggressive subtype of triple-negative breast cancer
Abstract Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) is a DNA receptor widely expressed in cancers. Although synthetic TLR9 ligands induce cancer cell invasion in vitro, the role of TLR9 in cancer pathophysiology is unclear. We discovered that low tumor TLR9 expression is associated with significantly shortened disease-specific survival in patients with triple negative but not with ER+ breast cancers. A likely mechanism of this clinical finding involves differential responses to hypoxia. Our pre-clinical studies indicate that while TLR9 expression is hypoxia-regulated, low TLR9 expression has different effects on triple neg...
Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment - July 30, 2012 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Source Type: research
Balloon-assisted enteroscopy in patients with surgically altered anatomy: a liver transplant center experience (with video)
Before the development of balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE), gaining endoscopic access to the Roux limb and biliary tree in surgically altered anatomy has been notoriously difficult to accomplish. This may be particularly the case in patients who have had a Whipple or Roux-en-Y procedure. Other instruments such as push enteroscopes and pediatric colonoscopes have been explored as potential options, but their failure rates have been high. Accordingly, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiograms, or even surgical approaches, have been required even for fairly basic diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy - July 30, 2012 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tee Joo Chua, Arthur John Kaffes Tags: Case Studies Source Type: research
Effect of Maintaining Apical Patency on Irrigant Penetration into the Apical Two Millimeters of Large Root Canals: An In Vivo Study
Conclusions: Maintaining apical patency improves the delivery of irrigants into the apical third of large human root canals.
Source: Journal of Endodontics - July 30, 2012 Category: Dentistry Authors: Jorge Vera, Erick M. Hernández, Mónica Romero, Ana Arias, Lucas W.M. van der Sluis Tags: Clinical Research Source Type: research
Effect of flow pulsatility on modeling the hemodynamics in the total cavopulmonary connection
In this study, 3D numerical simulations with both pulsatile and non-pulsatile boundary conditions were performed for 24 patients with different anatomies and flow boundary conditions from Georgia Tech database. Flow structures, energy dissipation rates and pressure drops were compared under rest and simulated exercise conditions. It was found that flow pulsatility is the primary factor in determining the appropriate choice of boundary conditions, whereas the anatomic configuration and cardiac output had secondary effects. Results show that the hemodynamics can be strongly influenced by the presence of pulsatile flow. Howev...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 30, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Reza H. Khiabani, Maria Restrepo, Elaine Tang, Diane De Zélicourt, Fotis Sotiropoulos, Mark Fogel, Ajit P. Yoganathan Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Echocardiographic Anatomy of the Mitral Valve: A Critical Appraisal of 2-Dimensional Imaging Protocols With a 3-Dimensional Perspective
Objective: To highlight the limitations of traditional 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic mitral valve (MV) examination methodologies, which do not account for patient-specific transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) probe adjustments made during an actual clinical perioperative TEE examination. Design: Institutional quality-improvement project. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Attending anesthesiologists certified by the National Board of Echocardiography. Intervention: Using the technique of multiplanar reformatting with 3-dimensional (3D) data, ambiguous 2D images of the MV were generated, which...
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - July 30, 2012 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Feroze Mahmood, Philip E. Hess, Robina Matyal, G. Burkhard Mackensen, Angela Wang, Aisha Qazi, Peter J. Panzica, Adam B. Lerner, Andrew Maslow Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Success Rate of Single- versus Two-visit Root Canal Treatment of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusions: Several factors play an important role in the decision-making process of 1- versus 2-visit endodontics. Among these are objective factors like preoperative diagnosis, the ability to obtain infection control, root canal anatomy, procedural complications, and subjective factors like patients' signs and symptoms. This study provided evidence that with a treatment protocol with instrumentation to predefined larger apical instrumentation sizes and irrigation with a negative apical pressure system can lead to healing in cases of apical periodontitis, which is a significant finding compared with more dated studies th...
Source: Journal of Endodontics - July 30, 2012 Category: Dentistry Authors: Jorge Paredes-Vieyra, Francisco Javier Jimenez Enriquez Tags: CONSORT Randomized Clinical Trial Source Type: research
Anatomy of the foot venous pump: physiology and influence on chronic venous disease.
In conclusion, the plantar veins play an important role in the physiology of the venous return since a venous reservoir of 25 mL of blood is mobilized upwards with each step during walking. Therefore, the impairment of the foot pump by a static foot disorder should be considered as an important risk factor for chronic venous disease, and should be evaluated and corrected in any patient with venous insufficiency. PMID: 22847928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Phlebology - July 30, 2012 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Uhl JF, Gillot C Tags: Phlebology Source Type: research
The vascular architecture of the supravaginal and vaginal parts of the human uterine cervix: a study using corrosion casting and scanning electron microscopy.
This study introduces the idea of two systems responsible for draining blood from the mucosal capillaries. It is also the first to suggest the possible existence of a countercurrent transport between adjoining veins and arteries. PMID: 22844876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Anatomy - July 30, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Bereza T, Tomaszewski KA, Bałajewicz-Nowak M, Mizia E, Pasternak A, Walocha J Tags: J Anat Source Type: research
Maternal factors associated with misperceptions of the second‐trimester sonogram
ConclusionLower educational attainment and lower income are associated with misperception of the sensitivity and safety of a second‐trimester sonogram. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Source: Prenatal Diagnosis - July 30, 2012 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Amy E. Wong, Justin P. Collingham, Stacey P. Koszut, William A. Grobman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
High‐resolution ultrasound of the pudendal nerve: Normal anatomy
Conclusion:High‐resolution ultrasound (US) can identify the pudendal nerve and its terminal branches. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Source: Muscle and Nerve - July 30, 2012 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Alberto Tagliafico, Maribel Miguel Perez, Carlo Martinoli Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Analysis of regional recurrence after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy for head and neck melanoma
ConclusionsThe risk of a false‐negative SLN biopsy in head and neck melanoma is independent of primary site and lymphatic drainage pattern. Patients with head and neck melanoma who have a regional recurrence after a negative SLN biopsy do not have a worse survival than that of patients who are initially SLN positive. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2012
Source: Head and Neck - July 29, 2012 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Kelly McDonald, Andrew J. Page, Sumanas W. Jordan, Carrie Chu, Andrea Hestley, Keith A. Delman, Douglas R. Murray, Grant W. Carlson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research