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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 14.
Effects of temporal fine structure stimulation on Mandarin speech recognition in cochlear implant users.
Conclusion: The investigated experimental coding strategies significantly improved tone identification as compared with the participants' everyday audio processor settings. However, this benefit could not be attributed entirely to temporal fine structure stimulation but seems to be caused by decreasing the lower corner frequency of the filter bank. The 6 week habituation period used in this study might have been too short to allow the listeners to derive additional lexical information from the unfamiliar stimulation patterns. Objectives: To evaluate a cochlear implant coding strategy that explicitly conveys temporal fine s...
Source: Acta Oto-Laryngologica - October 16, 2012 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Qi B, Krenmayr A, Zhang N, Dong R, Chen X, Schatzer R, Zierhofer C, Liu B, Han D Tags: Acta Otolaryngol Source Type: research
Temporal Processing in the Auditory System
Abstract Central auditory processing in humans was investigated by comparing the perceptual effects of temporal parameters of electrical stimulation in auditory midbrain implant (AMI) and cochlear implant (CI) users. Four experiments were conducted to measure the following: effect of interpulse intervals on detection thresholds and loudness; temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs); effect of duration on detection thresholds; and forward masking decay. The CI data were consistent with a phenomenological model that based detection or loudness decisions on the output of a sliding temporal integration win...
Source: JARO - Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology - October 16, 2012 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: JARO - Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology Source Type: research
Personal FM systems for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and/or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An initial investigation.
Abstract The goal of this initial investigation was to examine the potential benefit of a frequency modulation (FM) system for 11 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or both disorders through measures of speech recognition performance in noise, observed classroom behavior, and teacher-rated educational risk and listening behaviors. Use of the FM system resulted in significant average improvements in speech recognition in noise for the children with ASD and ADHD as well as large effect sizes. When compared to typically functioning peers, children ...
Source: Journal of Communication Disorders - October 16, 2012 Category: Speech Therapy Authors: Schafer EC, Mathews L, Mehta S, Hill M, Munoz A, Bishop R, Moloney M Tags: J Commun Disord Source Type: research
Hearing aid you wear on your back teeth could help those deaf in one ear
The system, now being tested in Britain, works by re-routing sounds from the deaf ear to the working one.
Source: the Mail online | Health - October 15, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Paraneoplastic encephalitis presenting as pure word deafness in a patient with small cell lung cancer
Content Type Journal ArticleCategory Letter to the EditorsPages 1-3DOI 10.1007/s00415-012-6699-8Authors Jose-Alberto Palma, Department of Neurology, University Clinic of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, SpainIsabel Lamet, Department of Neurology, University Clinic of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, SpainMario Riverol, Department of Neurology, University Clinic of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, SpainPablo Martínez-Lage, Centro de Investigación y Terapias Avanzadas, Fundación CITA-Alzheimer, San Sebastian, Spain Journal Journal of NeurologyOnline ISSN 1432-1459Print ISSN 0340-5354
Source: Journal of Neurology - October 13, 2012 Category: Neurology Tags: Journal of Neurology Source Type: research
Trauma-associated tinnitus: audiological, demographic and clinical characteristics - Kreuzer PM, Landgrebe M, Schecklmann M, Staudinger S, Langguth B.
BACKGROUND: Tinnitus can result from different etiologies. Frequently, patients report the development of tinnitus after traumatic injuries. However, to which extent this specific etiologic factor plays a role for the phenomenology of tinnitus is still inc...
Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated) - October 13, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
Outcome analysis of palatoplasty in various types of cleft palate
Conclusions: Socially acceptable quality of speech can be achieved in more than 85% of the patients. The postoperative fistula is associated with poor speech; bilateral cleft and older age being the risk factors for fistula formation. Many patients require audiological surveillance even when asymptomatic. Maxillary growth is impaired in all the patients despite early surgery.
Source: Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons - October 13, 2012 Category: Surgery Authors: Venkatesh M AnnigeriJai K MahajanAnu NagarkarSatinder P Singh Source Type: research
Twitter fiction: 21 authors try their hand at 140-character novels
We challenged well-known writers – from Ian Rankin and Helen Fielding to Jeffrey Archer and Jilly Cooper – to come up with a story of up to 140 characters. This is their stab at Twitter fictionGeoff DyerI know I said that if I lived to 100 I'd not regret what happened last night. But I woke up this morning and a century had passed. Sorry.James MeekHe said he was leaving her. "But I love you," she said. "I know," he said. "Thanks. It's what gave me the strength to love somebody else."Jackie CollinsShe smiled, he smiled back, it was lust at first sight, but then she discovered he was married, too bad it couldn't go anywh...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - October 12, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Geoff Dyer, Ian Rankin, James Meek, Andrew O'Hagan, Blake Morrison, David Lodge, AM Homes, AL Kennedy, Anne Enright, Patrick Neate, Hari Kunzru, Rachel Johnson, Simon Armitage Tags: Jeffrey Archer Jilly Cooper Jackie Collins The Guardian Rachel Johnson Anne Enright Charlie Higson AL Kennedy Blake Morrison Fiction Media David Lodge Books Technology Helen Fielding Features Hari Kunzru Twitter Interne Source Type: news
2012 Conference Resolutions
Type: Learn More URL: http://www.nad.org/about-us/priorities/2012-conference-resolutions
Source: National Association of the Deaf - October 12, 2012 Category: Audiology Authors: admin Source Type: news
Deaf baby becomes one of the youngest in Britain to undergo promising surgery for hearing loss
Seven-month-old Paige Evans will undergo a revolutionary cochlear implant after doctors gave the go-ahead for the treatment.
Source: the Mail online | Health - October 12, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Conductive deafness, caused by outer or middle ear obstruction, may be corrected, whereas sensorineural deafness cannot. Most deafness in dogs is congenital sensorineural hereditary deafness, associated with the genes for white pigment: piebald or merle. The genetic cause has not yet been identified. Dogs with blue eyes have a greater likelihood of hereditary deafness than brown-eyed dogs. Other common forms of sensorineural deafness include presbycusis, ototoxicity, noise-induced hearing loss, otitis interna, and anesthesia. Definitive diagnosis of deafness requires brainstem auditory evoked response testing.
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 12, 2012 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: George M. Strain Source Type: research
Dialectal Effects on a Clinical Spanish Word Recognition Test.
CONCLUSIONS: Dialects significantly affect clinical assessment of Spanish-speaking clients' word recognition. Clinicians are advised to consider the phonetic features of the dialect when scoring the client's performance. PMID: 23064417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Audiology - October 12, 2012 Category: Audiology Authors: Shi LF, Canizales LA Tags: Am J Audiol Source Type: research
New HRCT-based measurement of the human outer ear canal as a basis for acoustical methods: Development of the method and results.
CONCLUSION: The values obtained can be employed to develop a method that represents the shape of the auditory canal as accurately as possible to allow the best possible outcomes for hearing aid fitting. PMID: 23064418 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Audiology - October 12, 2012 Category: Audiology Authors: Grewe J, Thiele C, Mojallal H, Raab P, Sankowsky-Rothe T, Lenarz T, Blau M, Teschner M Tags: Am J Audiol Source Type: research
Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine for Adults with Immunocompromising Conditions: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).
This report outlines the new ACIP recommendations for PCV13 use; explains the recommendations for the use of PCV13 and PPSV23 among adults with immunocompromising conditions, functional or anatomic asplenia, CSF leaks, or cochlear implants; and summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP to make its recommendations. PMID: 23051612 [PubMed - in process]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - October 12, 2012 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
High doses of cobalt induce optic and auditory neuropathy.
Abstract The adverse biological effects of continuous exposure to cobalt and chromium have been well defined. In the past, this toxicity was largely an industrial issue concerning workers exposed in occupational setting. Nevertheless, recent reports have described a specific toxicity mediated by the high levels of cobalt and chromium released by metallic prostheses, particularly in patients who had received hip implants. Clinical symptoms, including blindness, deafness and peripheral neuropathy, suggest a specific neurotropism. However, little is known about the neuropathological basis of this process, and experime...
Source: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology - October 12, 2012 Category: Pathology Authors: Apostoli P, Catalani S, Zaghini A, Mariotti A, Poliani PL, Vielmi V, Semeraro F, Duse S, Porzionato A, Macchi V, Padovani A, Rizzetti MC, De Caro R Tags: Exp Toxicol Pathol Source Type: research
Normal and hypoacoustic infant cry signal classification using time–frequency analysis and general regression neural network
In this study, Short-time Fourier transform based time-frequency analysis is proposed. ► General Regression Neural Network based classification algorithm is proposed. ► The proposed method ensures better classification of infant cry signals. ► This method is helpful for classifying normal and pathological cries effectively.Abstract: Crying is the most noticeable behavior of infancy. Infant cry signals can be used to identify physical or psychological status of an infant. Recently, acoustic analysis of infant cry signal has shown promising results and it has been proven to be an excellent tool to investigate the patho...
Source: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine - October 11, 2012 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: M. Hariharan, R. Sindhu, Sazali Yaacob Tags: Section I: Methodology Source Type: research
Thresholds to Soft Tissue Conduction Stimulation Compared to Bone Conduction Stimulation
Audiol Neurotol 2013;18:31–35 (DOI:10.1159/000342823)
Source: Audiology and Neurotology - October 11, 2012 Category: Audiology Source Type: research
Cats have among the best hearing of all mammals in that they are extremely sensitive to a broad range of frequencies. The ear is a highly complex structure that is delicately balanced in terms of its biochemistry, types of receptors, ion channels, mechanical properties, and cellular organization. Sensorineural deafness is caused by “flawed” genes that are inherited from one or both parents. Hearing loss can also be acquired as a result of noise trauma from industrialized environment, viral infection, or blunt trauma. To date, it is not practical to intervene and attempt to correct these forms of deafness in cats.
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice - October 11, 2012 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: David K. Ryugo, Marilyn Menotti-Raymond Source Type: research
Awareness and regulation of emotions in deaf children - Rieffe C.
In this study, deaf children's understanding of their own emotions was compared with that of hearing peers. Twenty-six deaf children (mean age 11 years) and 26 hearing children, matched for age and gender, were presented with various tasks that tap into th...
Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated) - October 10, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
Acculturation and Disability Rates Among Filipino-Americans
Abstract Filipinos are the fastest growing Asian subgroup in America. Among immigrants, higher acculturation (adaptation to host society) predicts disability outcomes and may relate to disability prevalence among older Filipinos. We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2006 American Community Survey using a representative sample of older Filipinos (2,113 males; 3,078 females) to measure functional limitations, limitations in activities of daily living, blindness/deafness and memory/learning problems. Filipino males who were Americans by birth/naturalization had higher odds of blindness/deafness (OR 2.94; 95...
Source: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health - October 10, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health Source Type: research
The subcortical auditory structures in the mongolian gerbil: I. Golgi‐architecture
In this study, we will (i) confirm previous results about the organization of the gerbil's subcortical auditory pathway using other anatomical staining methods (e.g., Budinger et al., Eur J Neurosci 12, pp 2452‐74, 2000), (ii) add substantially to the knowledge about the laminar and cellular organization of the gerbil's subcortical auditory structures, in particular about the orientation of their fibrodendritic laminae and about the morphology of their most distinctive neuron types and (iii) demonstrate that the cellular organization of these structures, as seen by the Golgi‐technique, corresponds generally to that of ...
Source: The Journal of Comparative Neurology - October 10, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Judith Mylius, Michael Brosch, Henning Scheich, Eike Budinger Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Eustachian Tube Problems (Problems Clearing Your Ears)
Title: Eustachian Tube Problems (Problems Clearing Your Ears)Category: Diseases and ConditionsCreated: 5/29/1999 9:47:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 10/10/2012 12:00:00 AM
Source: MedicineNet Hearing General - October 10, 2012 Category: Audiology Source Type: news
Migration and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells transplanted into mature cochlea of rats with aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.
Conclusion: Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) transplanted into the scala tympani are able to migrate in the cochlea of rats deafened with aminoglycoside and partly restore the structure of sensory epithelia of the inner ear. Objectives: To explore the migration and differentiation of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-expressing ESCs by transplanting them into the scala tympani of rats with amikacin sulfate-induced hearing loss. Methods: Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were deafened with amikacin sulfate. Mouse ESCs expressing EGFP (EGFP-ESCs) were transplanted into the scala tympani. The migration and differentiat...
Source: Acta Oto-Laryngologica - October 10, 2012 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Zhao LD, Li L, Wu N, Li DK, Ren LL, Guo WW, Sun JH, Liu HZ, Chen ZT, Xing GQ, Yang SM Tags: Acta Otolaryngol Source Type: research
A 3‐dimensional model of frequency representation in the cochlear nucleus of the CBA/J mouse
Abstract The relationship between structure and function is an invaluable context with which to explore biological mechanisms of normal and dysfunctional hearing. The systematic and topographic representation of frequency originates at the cochlea, and is retained throughout much of the central auditory system. The cochlear nucleus (CN), which initiates all ascending auditory pathways, represents an essential link for understanding frequency organization. A model of the CN that maps frequency representation in three dimensions (3‐D) would facilitate investigations of possible frequency specializations and pathologic chan...
Source: The Journal of Comparative Neurology - October 10, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Michael A. Muniak, Alejandro Rivas, Karen L. Montey, Bradford J. May, Howard W. Francis, David K. Ryugo Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Audiological Follow-Up of Children with the m.1555A>G Mutation in Mitochondrial DNA
Audiol Neurotol 2013;18:23–30 (DOI:10.1159/000342905)
Source: Audiology and Neurotology - October 9, 2012 Category: Audiology Source Type: research
NAD to Host Board Meeting in Bay Area, California Oct 11-12
The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) will host its next Board meeting in the Bay Area, California at the California School for the Deaf – Fremont in the Little Gym. The Board meeting is open to the public on Thursday, October 11 from 1:30 – 5:00 pm and from 8 am to 4 pm on Friday, October 12. read more
Source: National Association of the Deaf - October 9, 2012 Category: Audiology Authors: admin Source Type: news
Netflix and the National Association of the Deaf Reach Historic Agreement to Provide 100% Closed Captions in On-Demand Streaming Content Within Two Years
Netflix Inc. and the National Association of the Deaf (NAD), a non-profit organization, have submitted a joint Consent Decree to a federal court in Springfield, Mass., ensuring closed captions in 100% of Netflix streaming content within two years. NAD, along with the Western Massachusetts Association of the Deaf and Hearing-Impaired (WMAD/HI) and Lee Nettles, a deaf Massachusetts resident, brought suit against Netflix seeking that commitment in 2010. read more
Source: National Association of the Deaf - October 9, 2012 Category: Audiology Authors: admin Source Type: news
First CVAA Captioning Deadline Has Arrived, FCC Posts Complaint Form
The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) is pleased to announce that the very first online closed captioning deadline arrived on September 30, 2012. The NAD was a key leader along with other consumer organizations in the push to pass the 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010 (CVAA) which requires access to online programming that has previously been shown on TV with captions. Following the passage of the CVAA, the NAD participated heavily in the FCC rulemaking process where the FCC established specific rules for the enforcement of the CVAA. read more
Source: National Association of the Deaf - October 9, 2012 Category: Audiology Authors: admin Source Type: news
Bilateral cochlear implants in children: acquisition of binaural hearing.
CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous and sequential short period implants acquired the advantages of binaural hearing. PMID: 23063379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Otorrinolaringologica Espanola - October 9, 2012 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ramos-Macías A, Deive-Maggiolo L, Artiles-Cabrera O, González-Aguado R, Borkoski-Barreiro SA, Masgoret-Palau E, Falcón-González JC, Bueno-Yanes J Tags: Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp Source Type: research
Sign language users drop politically incorrect signs
Britain's deaf community has dropped politically incorrect signs to refer to groups such as gay people, study finds.
Source: Telegraph Health - October 8, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy: A Clinical, Pathologic, and Biochemical Study
Abstract: Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy constitutes a distinct genetic disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance, and is distinguishable from the cerebro-hepato-renal syndrome of Zellweger and X-linked juvenile adrenoleukodystrophy, although all three conditions store very long chain fatty acids. Abnormal clinical features in neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy are generally present at birth, and include muscle hypotonia, severe psychomotor retardation, and failure to thrive. These infants are generally blind and deaf, with seizures developing during their first few weeks. A retinopathic “leopard spot” is common, and shoul...
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 8, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Donald F. Farrell Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Acoustic Neuroma SurgeryIntraoperative Neuromonitoring in Acoustic Neuroma Surgery
Unfavorable outcomes such as facial paralysis and deafness can be avoided in acoustic neuroma resection by following the intraoperative neuromonitoring techniques described in this review. Neurosurgical Focus
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - October 8, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Neurology & Neurosurgery Journal Article Source Type: news
Genetics of Hearing and Deafness.
This article is a review of the genes and genetic disorders that affect hearing in humans and a few selected mouse models of deafness. Genetics is playing an increasingly critical role in the practice of medicine. This is not only in part to the importance that genetic knowledge has on traditional genetic diseases but also in part to the fact that genetic knowledge provides an understanding of the fundamental biological process of most diseases. The proteins coded by the genes related to hearing loss (HL) are involved in many functions in the ear, such as cochlear fluid homeostasis, ionic channels, stereocilia morphology a...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Angeli S, Lin X, Liu XZ Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Human Cochlea: Anatomical Characteristics and their Relevance for Cochlear Implantation.
Abstract This is a review of the anatomical characteristics of human cochlea and the importance of variations in this anatomy to the process of cochlear implantation (CI). Studies of the human cochlea are essential to better comprehend the physiology and pathology of man's hearing. The human cochlea is difficult to explore due to its vulnerability and bordering capsule. Inner ear tissue undergoes quick autolytic changes making investigations of autopsy material difficult, even though excellent results have been presented over time. Important issues today are novel inner ear therapies including CI and new approaches...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Rask-Andersen H, Liu W, Erixon E, Kinnefors A, Pfaller K, Schrott-Fischer A, Glueckert R Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
The Cochlear Implant: Historical Aspects and Future Prospects.
This article reviews the key events and discoveries that led up to the current CI systems, and we review and present some among the many possibilities for further improvements in device design and performance. The past achievements include: (1) development of reliable devices that can be used over the lifetime of a patient; (2) development of arrays of implanted electrodes that can stimulate more than one site in the cochlea; and (3) progressive and large improvements in sound processing strategies for CIs. In addition, cooperation between research organizations and companies greatly accelerated the widespread availability...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Eshraghi AA, Nazarian R, Telischi FF, Rajguru SM, Truy E, Gupta C Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Progress Toward Development of a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis for Treatment of Bilateral Vestibular Deficiency.
This article reviews vestibular pathology and the requirements and progress made in the design and construction of a vestibular prosthesis. Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation is disabling. When vestibular hair cells are injured by ototoxic medications or other insults to the labyrinth, the resulting loss of sensory input disrupts vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that normally stabilize the eyes and body. Affected individuals suffer poor vision during head movement, postural instability, chronic disequilibrium, and cognitive distraction. Although most individuals with residual sensation com...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Fridman GY, Della Santina CC Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Acute Damage Threshold for Infrared Neural Stimulation of the Cochlea: Functional and Histological Evaluation.
This article provides a mini review of the current state of infrared neural stimulation (INS), and new experimental results concerning INS damage thresholds. INS promises to be an attractive alternative for neural interfaces. With this method, one can attain spatially selective neural stimulation that is not possible with electrical stimulation. INS is based on the delivery of short laser pulses that result in a transient temperature increase in the tissue and depolarize the neurons. At a high stimulation rate and/or high pulse energy, the method bears the risk of thermal damage to the tissue from the instantaneous tempera...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Goyal V, Rajguru S, Matic AI, Stock SR, Richter CP Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Biomedical Engineering Principles of Modern Cochlear Implants and Recent Surgical Innovations.
Abstract This review covers the most recent clinical and surgical advances made in the development and application of cochlear implants (CIs). In recent years, dramatic progress has been made in both clinical and basic science aspect of cochlear implantation. Today's modern CI uses multi-channel electrodes with highly miniaturized powerful digital processing chips. This review article describes the function of various components of the modern multi-channel CIs. A selection of the most recent clinical and surgical innovations is presented. This includes the preliminary results with electro-acoustic stimulation or hy...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Eshraghi AA, Gupta C, Ozdamar O, Balkany TJ, Truy E, Nazarian R Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
A Novel Organ of Corti Explant Model for the Study of Cochlear Implantation Trauma.
This study presents a novel in vitro model of electrode insertion trauma-induced hair cell (HC) damage and loss and its application for testing the efficacy of otoprotective drugs. In the cochlear implant (CI) procedure as a treatment for profound deafness, an electrode array is surgically inserted to provide electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. Mechanical trauma from insertion of a CI electrode into the scala tympani can lead to inflammation and a high level of oxidative stress, which can initiate the apoptosis of auditory HCs and intracochlear fibrosis. HC apoptosis and intracochlear fibrosis are thought to be c...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Bas E, Gupta C, Van De Water TR Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
The use of Neurotrophin Therapy in the Inner Ear to Augment Cochlear Implantation Outcomes.
Abstract Severe to profound deafness is most often secondary to a loss of or injury to cochlear mechanosensory cells, and there is often an associated loss of the peripheral auditory neural structures, specifically the spiral ganglion neurons and peripheral auditory fibers. Cochlear implantation is currently our best hearing rehabilitation strategy for severe to profound deafness. These implants work by directly electrically stimulating the remnant auditory neural structures within the deafened cochlea. When administered to the deafened cochlea in animal models, neurotrophins, specifically brain derived neurotrophi...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Budenz CL, Pfingst BE, Raphael Y Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
The Trk A, B, C's of Neurotrophins in the Cochlea.
Abstract The spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) are the afferent neurons of the cochlea, connecting the auditory sensory cells-hair cells-to the brainstem cochlear nuclei. The neurotrophins neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are expressed in the cochlea and both support SGN survival during development. These neurotrophins remain expressed in the postnatal cochlea and continue to play additional roles for SGNs, contributing to maintenance of hair cell-SGN synapses and regulating expression of ion channels, presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, and SGN membrane electrical properties in a ...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Green SH, Bailey E, Wang Q, Davis RL Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Evolution of Sound and Balance Perception: Innovations that Aggregate Single Hair Cells into the Ear and Transform a Gravistatic Sensor into the Organ of Corti.
Abstract Here, we review the molecular basis of mechanosensory cell and mechanosensory organ development and evolution with an emphasis on the conservation of transcription factors and emerging data on conserved gene networks. The ear, the organ of vertebrates dedicated to the perception of sound and balance, perceives these stimuli with the use of mechanosensory cells. The developmental gene regulatory network used during mechanosensory cellular development has been conserved from ancient bilaterian cells, and modified for the extraction of specific mechanical stimuli resulting in phenotypic changes. In the verteb...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Duncan JS, Fritzsch B Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Auditory Brainstem Implants: How Do They Work?
Abstract This review covers the design, structure, and function of auditory brainstem implants. Auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) are auditory prostheses initially designed to treat deafness in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). NF2 typically results in deafness due to disruption of the cochlear nerves. When the tumors are removed the auditory nerve is usually cut or nonfunctional anymore. In these cases, patients cannot benefit from peripheral devices such as cochlear implants (CI). Another cause of VIII nerve loss is bilateral temporal bone fracture. Worldwide, more than 500 persons have received an A...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Vincent C Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Conservation of hearing and protection of hair cells in cochlear implant patients' with residual hearing.
Abstract This review covers the molecular mechanisms involved in hair cell and hearing losses which can result from trauma generated during the process of cochlear implantation and the contributions of both the intrinsic and extrinsic cell death signaling pathways in producing these trauma/inflammation induced losses. Application of soft surgical techniques to conserve hearing and protect auditory sensory cells during the process of cochlear implantation surgery and insertion of the electrode array during the process of cochlear implantation are reviewed and discussed. The role of drug therapy and mode of drug deli...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Bas E, Dinh CT, Garnham C, Polak M, Van de Water TR Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Canalostomy as a Surgical Approach for Cochlear Gene Therapy in the Rat.
This article presents a unique approach for the delivery of gene therapy vectors into the cochlea of the laboratory rat. Mice and guinea pigs are established in vivo models for cochlear gene therapy each of which has distinct advantages and disadvantages. The rat has some of the molecular advantages of a mouse model combined with size advantages for surgical approaches. Vector delivery via cochleostomy or injection through the round window causes concomitant sensorineural hearing loss and is therefore not suitable for studies where the change in hearing is being followed. Compared to the mouse, the rat does not demonstrate...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Gassner D, Durham D, Pfannenstiel SC, Brough DE, Staecker H Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Review: Ototoxic Characteristics of Platinum Antitumor Drugs.
Abstract Cisplatin, carboplatin, nedaplatin, and oxaliplatin are widely used in contemporary oncology; however, their ototoxic and neurotoxic side effects are quite different as discussed in this review. Cisplatin is considered the most ototoxic, but despite its reputation, the magnitude of hair cell loss that occurs with a single, large drug bolus is limited and confined to the base of the cochlea. For all of these platinum compounds, a major factor limiting damage is drug uptake from stria vascularis into the cochlear fluids. Disrupting the blood-labyrinth barrier with diuretics or noise exposure enhances drug up...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Ding D, Allman BL, Salvi R Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research
Historical Aspects of Inner Ear Anatomy and Biology that Underlie the Design of Hearing and Balance Prosthetic Devices.
Abstract This review presents some of the major historical events that advanced the body of knowledge of the anatomy of the inner ear and its sensory receptors as well as the biology of these receptors that underlies the sensory functions of hearing and balance. This knowledge base of the inner ear's structure/function has been an essential factor for the design and construction of prosthetic devices to aid patients with deficits in their senses of hearing and balance. Prosthetic devices are now available for severely hearing impaired and deaf patients to restore hearing and are known as cochlear implants and audit...
Source: Anatomical Record - October 8, 2012 Category: Anatomy Authors: Van De Water TR Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research