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(Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - November 27, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

sEMG feature evaluation for identification of elbow angle resolution in graded arm movement
This study has demonstrated that it is possible to identify three discrete positions of the elbow; full extension, right angle, and mid-way point, with window size of only 200 milliseconds. It was seen that while most features were suitable for this purpose, Power Spectral Density Averages (PSD-Av) performed best. The system correctly classified the sEMG against the elbow angle for 100% cases when only two discrete positions (full extension and elbow at right angle) were considered, while correct classification was 89% when there were three discrete positions. However, sEMG was unable to accurately determine the elbow posi...
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Maria CastroEsther ColombiniPlinio JuniorSridhar ArjunanDinesh Kumar Source Type: research

Subspace-based technique for speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images
Conclusion: In general, the performance of the SDC filter is better than Lee, Wavelet and SBF in terms of noisereduction, improvement in image contrast and preservation of the autocorrelation profiles.Furthermore, the filter required less computational time compared to Lee, Wavelet and SBF, whichindicates its suitability for real time application. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Norashikin YahyaNidal KamelAamir Malik Source Type: research

Quels blocs opératoires pour quelles activités et quelles coopérations inter-établissements ? Implications techniques. Le point de vue de l’ingénieur biomédical
Publication date: Available online 25 November 2014 Source:IRBM News Author(s): L. Bourgeois , A. Hamdan , L. Badet , B. Barrou , B. Lepage , C. Vaillant , V. Moreno , A. Supiot , C. Beacco , J. Delode (Source: IRBM News)
Source: IRBM News - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A non-invasive, 3D, dynamic MRI method for measuring muscle moment arms in vivo: Demonstration in the human ankle joint and Achilles tendon
Muscle moment arms are used widely in biomechanics to relate joint torques and muscle forces, and to estimate changes in muscle length that accompany changes in joint angle. Some examples include the use of muscle moment arms to determine changes in the length of muscles of patients with muscle contractures [1], assessment of changes in muscle stiffness from joint torque measurements [2,3], or development of subject-specific musculoskeletal models [4,5]. These are applications that often involve dynamic joint motion, so ideally the methods used to measure muscle moment arms for dynamic applications would be non-invasive, s...
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - November 25, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: E.C. Clarke, J.H. Martin, A.G. d’Entremont, M.G. Pandy, D.R. Wilson, R.D. Herbert Source Type: research

Mobile device for the measurement of threshold perception frequency of the flickering source of visible light
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2014 Source:Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering Author(s): Krzysztof Różanowski , Jarosław Lewandowski , Tadeusz Sondej The article describes design solutions and test results of a mobile device for the measurement of threshold perception frequency of the flickering source of visible light. The device consists of an optical component, a programmable module and a control module. The measurement can be performed on the light source of any color in conjunction with a colored backlight. The authors of the research work developed and tested a unique solution that integra...
Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering - November 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Telemedicine supported by Augmented Reality: an interactive guide for untrained people in performing an ECG test
Conclusion: This application can be adapted to support the use of other medical equipment as well as other telemedicine tasks and it could be performed with a Tablet or a Smartphone. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - November 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Paolo BifulcoFabio NarducciRaffaele VertucciPasquale AmbruosiMario CesarelliMaria Romano Source Type: research

Bilan de l’usage des bonnes pratiques en ingénierie biomédicale
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2014 Source:IRBM News Author(s): G. Pénisson , F.Z. Meskini , G. Farges (Source: IRBM News)
Source: IRBM News - November 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Modelling the heart with the atrioventricular plane as a piston unit
Understanding cardiac pumping function is crucial to improving diagnosis, predicting the outcomes of intervention, and designing medical devices that interact with the cardiovascular system. The pumping physiology of the heart has been differently described over the years and is still not fully understood [1–3]. A common approach is to explain the filling and emptying of the heart in terms of a radial squeezing of the cardiac chambers [4,5] with considerable changes in total heart volume throughout the cardiac cycle, as supported by observations conducted during open heart surgery. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - November 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Elira Maksuti, Anna Bjällmark, Michael Broomé Source Type: research

Design optimization of a deflectable guidewire
In order to deal with difficult endovascular navigation, several endovascular instruments with improved maneuverability at the tip have been developed. Articulated catheters that can be steered and orientated via a magnetic field were proposed as early as 1951 [1]. This solution is similar to currently available systems, e.g., the one of Niobe Magnetic systems (Stereotaxis, Saint Louis, MO, USA). This type of methodology was also adapted to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [2]. In addition to the mentioned magnetic techniques, simple endovascular instruments, e.g., Venture (St. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - November 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: H.C.M. Clogenson, A. Simonetto, J.J. van den Dobbelsteen Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Examination of the protective roles of helmet/faceshield and directionality for human head under blast waves.
Abstract A parametric study was conducted to delineate the efficacy of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as ballistic faceshields and advanced combat helmets, in the case of a blast. The propagations of blast waves and their interactions with an unprotected head, a helmeted one, and a fully protected finite element head model (FEHM) were modeled. The biomechanical parameters of the brain were recorded when the FEHM was exposed to shockwaves from the front, back, top, and bottom. The directional dependent tissue response of the brain and the variable efficiency of PPE with respect to the blast orientation we...
Source: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering - November 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Sarvghad-Moghaddam H, Jazi MS, Rezaei A, Karami G, Ziejewski M Tags: Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin Source Type: research

Age Effects on Upper Limb Kinematics Assessed by the REAplan Robot in Healthy School-Aged Children.
This study was the first to use a robotic device to show the age effects on upper limb kinematics and establish norms in healthy children. PMID: 25413362 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Gilliaux M, Dierckx F, Vanden Berghe L, Lejeune TM, Sapin J, Dehez B, Stoquart G, Detrembleur C Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Numerical Simulation of Particle Transport and Deposition in the Pulmonary Vasculature
To quantify the transport and adhesion of drug particles in a complex vascular environment, computational fluid particle dynamics (CFPD) simulations of blood flow and drug particulate were conducted in three different geometries representing the human lung vasculature for steady and pulsatile flow conditions. A fully developed flow profile was assumed as the inlet velocity, and a lumped mathematical model was used for the calculation of the outlet pressure boundary condition. A receptor–ligand model was used to simulate the particle binding probability. The results indicate that bigger particles have lower deposition fra...
Source: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering - November 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A Refined Technique to Calculate Finite Helical Axes From Rigid Body Trackers
Finite helical axes (FHAs) are a potentially effective tool for joint kinematic analysis. Unfortunately, no straightforward guidelines exist for calculating accurate FHAs using prepackaged six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) rigid body trackers. Thus, this study aimed to: (1) describe a protocol for calculating FHA parameters from 6DOF rigid body trackers using the screw matrix and (2) to maximize the number of accurate FHAs generated from a given data set using a moving window analysis. Four Optotrak® Smart Markers were used as the rigid body trackers, two moving and two fixed, at different distances from the hinge joint of a c...
Source: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering - November 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A Novel Bioreactor for Mechanobiological Studies of Engineered Heart Valve Tissue Formation Under Pulmonary Arterial Physiological Flow Conditions
The ability to replicate physiological hemodynamic conditions during in vitro tissue development has been recognized as an important aspect in the development and in vitro assessment of engineered heart valve tissues. Moreover, we have demonstrated that studies aiming to understand mechanical conditioning require separation of the major heart valve deformation loading modes: flow, stretch, and flexure (FSF) (Sacks et al., 2009, "Bioengineering Challenges for Heart Valve Tissue Engineering," Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng., 11(1), pp. 289–313). To achieve these goals in a novel bioreactor design, we utilized a cylindrical conduit...
Source: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering - November 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

New Side-Looking Rogowski Coil Sensor for Measuring Large-Magnitude Fast Impulse Currents
Abstract This paper presents a new design of a side-looking “flat spiral” self-integrating Rogowski coil that is wound by twin coaxial cable with individual sheath. The coil is tested with different impulse current waveforms up to 7 kA peak value to improve its performance. The coil design is optimized to achieve bandwidth and sensitivity up to 7.854 MHz and 3.623 V/kA, respectively. The coil is calibrated versus two commercial impulse-current measurement devices at different coil-to-wire separations, coil inclination angles, and impulse current waveforms. Distortion of the coil output voltage waveform is ...
Source: Sensing and Imaging - November 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

A numerical study of the effect of varied blood pressure on the stability of carotid atherosclerotic plaque
Conclusion: The stress/strain distribution over the plaque is sensitive to the BP variability during one cardiac cycle, and the beat-to-beat BP variability could cause considerable impact on the progression of atherosclerosis in long-term. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - November 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Huahua XiongXin LiuXiaohong TianLina PuHeye ZhangMinhua LuWenhua HuangYuan-Ting Zhang Source Type: research

An adaptive spinal-like controller: tunable biomimetic behavior for a robotic limb
Conclusions: The controller shows that it can adapt to various behavioral contexts which are not included in previous biomimetic studies. The research supplements an earlier study by examining the tunability of the spinal-like controller for complex reaching tasks. This work is a step toward building more robust controllers for powered artificial limbs. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - November 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Filip StefanovicHenrietta Galiana Source Type: research

Interictal EEG noise cancellation: GEVD and DSS based approaches versus ICA and DCCA based methods
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014 Source:IRBM Author(s): S. Hajipour Sardouie , M.B. Shamsollahi , L. Albera , I. Merlet Denoising is an important preprocessing stage in some ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) applications. For this purpose, Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Decorrelated and Colored Component Analysis (DCCA), are commonly used. Although ICA and DCCA-based methods are powerful tools to extract sources of interest, the procedure of eliminating the effect of sources of non-interest is usually manual. It should be noted that some methods for a...
Source: IRBM - November 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Automatic method of analysis and measurement of additional parameters of corneal deformation in the Corvis tonometer
Conclusions: Using the proposed algorithm, it is possible to measure new, additional parameters of corneal deformation, which are not available in the original software. The presented analysis method provides three new parameters of the corneal reaction. Detailed clinical studies based on this method will be presented in subsequent papers. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - November 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Robert Koprowski Source Type: research

On feature extraction and classification in prostate cancer radiotherapy using tensor decompositions
External beam radiotherapy is one of the standard treatment for localized prostate cancer. The main challenge in Prostate Cancer RadioTherapy (PCRT) is to deliver the prescribed dose to the clinical target (prostate and seminal vesicles) while minimizing the dose to the neighboring Organs At Risk (OAR), namely the rectum and the bladder, and thus avoiding subsequent toxicity-related events. The precision of the radiotherapy has been recently increased by new techniques such as Intensity Modulated RT (IMRT) and Image Guided RT (IGRT) [7], which allows the dose to be increased to the target. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - November 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Auréline Fargeas, Laurent Albera, Amar Kachenoura, Gaël Dréan, Juan-David Ospina, Julie Coloigner, Caroline Lafond, Jean-Bernard Delobel, Renaud De Crevoisier, Oscar Acosta Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Evaluation of liver tissue damage and grasp stability using finite element analysis.
Abstract Minimizing tissue damage and maintaining grasp stability are essential considerations in surgical grasper design. Most past and current research analyzing graspers used for tissue manipulation in minimally invasive surgery is based on in vitro experiments. Most previous work assessed tissue injury and grasp security by visual inspection; only a few studies have quantified it. The goal of the present work is to develop a methodology with which to compute tissue damage magnitude and grasp quality that is appropriate for a wide range of grasper-tissue interaction. Using finite element analysis (FEA), four gra...
Source: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering - November 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Cheng L, Hannaford B Tags: Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin Source Type: research

Results of automatic image registration are dependent on initial manual registration.
Abstract Measurement of static alignment of articulating joints is of clinical benefit and can be determined using image-based registration. We propose a method that could potentially improve the outcome of image-based registration by using initial manual registration. Magnetic resonance images of two wrist specimens were acquired in the relaxed position and during simulated grasp. Transformations were determined from voxel-based image registration between the two volumes. The volumes were manually aligned to match as closely as possible before auto-registration, from which standard transformations were obtained. T...
Source: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering - November 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Johnson JE, Fischer KJ Tags: Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin Source Type: research

Estimation of muscle forces in gait using a simulation of the electromyographic activity and numerical optimization.
We present a technique that simulates the EMG activity and presents a good correlation with the muscle forces throughout the gait cycle. Also, this method showed great similarities whit the real EMG data recorded from the subjects doing the same movement. PMID: 25408069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering - November 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Ravera EP, Crespo MJ, Braidot AA Tags: Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin Source Type: research

Erratum to: The Assessment of the Spinal Curvatures in the Sagittal Plane of Children Using an Ultrasound-Based Motion Analysing System.
PMID: 25408358 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Takács M, Rudner E, Kovács A, Orlovits Z, Kiss RM Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Effect of Supercoiling on the Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Model Collagen IV Networks.
Abstract Collagen IV networks in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are essential for the maintenance and regulation of blood filtration in the kidneys. The GBM contains two different types of collagen IV networks: [α1(IV)]2α2(IV) and α3(IV)α4(IV)α5(IV), the latter of which has a higher number of supercoils (two or more collagens coiling around each other). To investigate the effects of supercoiling on the mechanical and permeability properties of collagen IV networks, we generated model collagen IV networks in the GBM and reconnected them to create different levels of supercoiling. We found that supercoil...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Gyoneva L, Segal Y, Dorfman KD, Barocas VH Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Impedance spectroscopy of changes in skin-electrode impedance induced by motion
Conclusion: Based on our results, we can conclude that the current frequency used for the impedance measurement has a great effect on the relationship of the measurement to the applied motion and its relationship with the resulting motion artifact. Therefore, when flat textile contact biopotential electrodes are used, frequencies higher than 17 kHz are best suited for impedance measurements intended for the estimation of electrode motion or motion artifact. For resistance, the best frequencies to use are higher than 11 kHz. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - November 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Alper CömertJari Hyttinen Source Type: research

Measurement of Passive Skeletal Muscle Mechanical Properties In Vivo: Recent Progress, Clinical Applications, and Remaining Challenges.
Abstract The ability to measure and quantify the properties of skeletal muscle in vivo as a method for understanding its complex physiological and pathophysiological behavior is important in numerous clinical settings, including rehabilitation. However, this remains a challenge to date due to the lack of a "gold standard" technique. Instead, there are a myriad of measuring techniques each with its own set of pros and cons. This review discusses the current state-of-the-art in elastography imaging techniques, i.e., ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography, as applied to skeletal muscle, and briefly reviews oth...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Bilston LE, Tan K Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

A Probabilistic Approach to Quantify the Impact of Uncertainty Propagation in Musculoskeletal Simulations.
The objective of this study was to develop an open-source probabilistic musculoskeletal modeling framework to assess how measurement error and parameter uncertainty propagate through a gait simulation. A baseline gait simulation was performed for a male subject using OpenSim for three stages: inverse kinematics, inverse dynamics, and muscle force prediction. A series of Monte Carlo simulations were performed that considered intrarater variability in marker placement, movement artifacts in each phase of gait, variability in body segment parameters, and variability in muscle parameters calculated from cadaveric investigation...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - November 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Myers CA, Laz PJ, Shelburne KB, Davidson BS Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Thomas Gaborski named 2014 Young Innovator by international Biomedical Engineering Society
(Rochester Institute of Technology) Thomas Gaborski, assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Rochester Institute of Technology, and his research team are developing ways to use ultra-thin nano-membranes and adipose stem cells to create the vascular network necessary in engineering tissue, skin and organs. For his work with thin membranes and cell culture on membranes, Gaborski received the 2014 Young Innovator Award in Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering given by the Biomedical Engineering Society. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 17, 2014 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Polymeric drug carriers—Control of the daily dose and therapy duration
This study evaluates the mass release of cyanocobalamin with various drug carriers. Monolithic structures with a liquid core covering a thick (>150μm) porous, polymer membrane are recommended. Membrane pore size should ensure easy diffusion of the drug molecules. The selection of the carrier's parameters to fit a required daily dose and therapy duration must consider the following criteria: 1′ the determination of its size (geometric surface); 2′ the number of carriers, if more than one is necessary; 3′ the thickness of membrane covering the carrier; and 4′ the mass of the loading drug. An algorithm to sele...
Source: Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering - November 16, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Fusion Based Seamless Mosaic for Remote Sensing Images
Abstract A fusion based seamless mosaic method for stitching remote sensing images is introduced in this paper. The proposed method focuses on one major problem in the process of mosaic: how to generate visually pleasant stitching result in the cases of misalignment, global and local intensity differences between images. First, two partially overlapped images are decomposed into high-frequency components and low-frequency components with Gaussian low-pass filter. Second, by considering the information characteristics contained in both separated components, different mosaic schemes are designed to accomplish stitc...
Source: Sensing and Imaging - November 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research