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Estimation of pelvis kinematics in level walking based on a single inertial sensor positioned close to the sacrum: validation on healthy subjects with stereophotogrammetric system
Conclusions: These results suggest that this inertial device is a reliable alternative to stereophotogrammetric systems for pelvis kinematics measurements, in addition to being easier to use and cheaper. The device can provide to the patient and to the examiner reliable feedback in real-time during routine clinical tests. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - October 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Francesca BuganèMaria BenedettiValentina D¿AngeliAlberto Leardini Source Type: research

Editorial: controlled release and drug delivery in diseases.
Abstract Designing therapeutic agents requires receptor targeting and drug delivery for optimal medication to improve health. Although innovative strategies help drug delivery, many therapeutic agents have side effects due to nonspecific binding. Biomedical engineering aims to target the therapeutic agents in controlled release over an extended period of time at specific rate to a targeted location of the body. Generally, administering engineered particles affect organ locally and this process reduces or eliminates the side effects compared to systemic drug delivery [1, 2]. This thematic issue reports recent develo...
Source: Protein and Peptide Letters - October 18, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tutar Y Tags: Protein Pept Lett Source Type: research

An equivalent circuit model for onset and offset exercise response
Conclusions: Compared with existing works, this model can accommodate the different exercise strengths at bothonset and offset of exercise, while also depicting human onset and offset exercise responses, and guaranteethe continuity of outputs during onset-offset switching. A unique adaption feature by allowingthe time constant and steady state gain to re-shift back to their original states, more closely mimicsthe different exercise strengths during normal daily exercise activities. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - October 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Yi ZhangAzzam HaddadSteven SuBranko CellerAaron CouttsRob DuffieldCheyne DongesHung Nguyen Source Type: research

Development of an efficient process intensification strategy for enhancing Pfu DNA polymerase production in recombinant Escherichia coli.
Abstract An efficient induction strategy that consisted of multiple additions of small doses of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) in the early cell growth phase was developed for enhancing Pfu DNA polymerase production in Escherichia coli. In comparison to the most commonly used method of a single induction of 1 mM IPTG, the promising induction strategy resulted in an increase in the Pfu activity of 13.5 % in shake flasks, while simultaneously decreasing the dose of IPTG by nearly half. An analysis of the intracellular IPTG concentrations indicated that the cells need to maintain an optimum intracellula...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - October 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Hu JH, Wang F, Liu CZ Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

High-productivity lipid production using mixed trophic state cultivation of Auxenochlorella (Chlorella) protothecoides.
Abstract A mixed trophic state production process for algal lipids for use as feedstock for renewable biofuel production was developed and deployed at subpilot scale using a green microalga, Auxenochlorella (Chlorella) protothecoides. The process is composed of two separate stages: (1) the photoautotrophic stage, focused on biomass production in open ponds, and (2) the heterotrophic stage focused on lipid production and accumulation in aerobic bioreactors using fixed carbon substrates (e.g., sugar). The process achieved biomass and lipid productivities of 0.5 and 0.27 g/L/h that were, respectively, over 250 and 67...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - October 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rismani-Yazdi H, Hampel KH, Lane CD, Kessler BA, White NM, Moats KM, Thomas Allnutt FC Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Continuous degradation of maltose: improvement in stability and catalytic properties of maltase (α-glucosidase) through immobilization using agar-agar gel as a support.
Abstract Maltose degrading enzyme was immobilized within agar-agar support via entrapment method due to its industrial utilization. The maximum immobilization efficiency (82.77 %) was achieved using 4.0 % agar-agar keeping the diameter of bead up to 3.0 mm. The matrix entrapment showed maximum catalytic activity at pH 7.0 and temperature 65 °C. Substrate saturation kinetics showed that the K m of immobilized enzyme increased from 1.717 to 2.117 mM ml(-1) where as Vmax decreased from 8,411 to 7,450 U ml(-1 )min(-1) as compared to free enzyme. The immobilization significantly increased the stability of malt...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - October 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Nawaz MA, Karim A, Aman A, Marchetti R, Qader SA, Molinaro A Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Improvement of catalytic activity of lipase in the presence of calix[4]arene valeric acid or hydrazine derivative.
Abstract Sol-gel encapsulation is a simple but powerful method to enhance the enantioselectivity of lipase-catalyzed transformations in an isooctane/aqueous buffer solution. Candida rugosa lipase was encapsulated according to a sol-gel procedure in the presence and absence of calix[4]arene hydrazine or carboxylic acid derivatives with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles as an additive. The activity of the encapsulated lipases was evaluated for the enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic Naproxen methyl ester and the hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenylpalmitate. The results indicate that the encapsulated lipase without calix[4]aren...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - October 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Akoz E, Sayin S, Kaplan S, Yilmaz M Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Ultrasound Technologies for Biomaterials Fabrication and Imaging.
Abstract Ultrasound is emerging as a powerful tool for developing biomaterials for regenerative medicine. Ultrasound technologies are finding wide-ranging, innovative applications for controlling the fabrication of bioengineered scaffolds, as well as for imaging and quantitatively monitoring the properties of engineered constructs both during fabrication processes and post-implantation. This review provides an overview of the biomedical applications of ultrasound for imaging and therapy, a tutorial of the physical mechanisms through which ultrasound can interact with biomaterials, and examples of how ultrasound tec...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Dalecki D, Hocking DC Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Head Injury Potential and the Effectiveness of Headgear in Women's Lacrosse.
Abstract Over the past 10 years, lacrosse has grown increasingly popular, making it one of the fastest growing team sports in the country. Similar to other sporting activities, head injuries in lacrosse can and do occur, and the number of lacrosse-related head injuries has increased in recent years. In women's lacrosse, protective headgear is not required, but U.S. Lacrosse and the American Society for Testing and Materials are currently working to develop a headgear standard for the women's game. In the interim, some female lacrosse programs and individual players are wearing soft headgear during play. The effect...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Rodowicz KA, Olberding JE, Rau AC Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

In Vitro Biomechanical Evaluation of Single Impulse and Repetitive Mechanical Shockwave Devices Utilized for Spinal Manipulative Therapy.
The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of several commercial shockwave devices to achieve a desired thrust profile in a benchtop setting, determine the thrust profile in a clinical analog, and determine the influence of operator experience level on device performance. We conducted two different types of testing: (1) bench testing to evaluate the devices themselves, and (2) clinical equivalent testing to determine the influence of the operator. The results indicated a significant dependence of thrust output on the compliance of the test media. The Activator V-E device matched the ideal half-sine thrust p...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - October 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Liebschner MA, Chun K, Kim N, Ehni B Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics publication information
(Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering information for authors
Provides instructions and guidelines to prospective authors who wish to submit manuscripts. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Corrections to “Breast Cancer Histopathology Image Analysis: A Review”
(Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

EMBC 2015 Milano
(Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Corrections to “Predicting Free-Living Energy Expenditure Using a Miniaturized Ear-Worn Sensor: An Evaluation Against Doubly Labeled Water”
Accurate estimation of daily total energy expenditure (EE) is a prerequisite for assisted weight management and assessing certain health conditions. The use of wearable sensors for predicting free-living EE is challenged by consistent sensor placement, user compliance, and estimation methods used. This paper examines whether a single ear-worn accelerometer can be used for EE estimation under free-living conditions. An EE prediction model as first derived and validated in a controlled setting using healthy subjects involving different physical activities. Ten different activities were assessed showing a tenfold cross valida...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Design of a Breath Analysis System for Diabetes Screening and Blood Glucose Level Prediction
It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics’ breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in bre...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Fetal Heart Rate Classification Using Generative Models
This paper presents novel methods for classification of fetal heart rate (FHR) signals into categories that are meaningful for clinical implementation. They are based on generative models (GMs) and Bayesian theory. Instead of using scalar features that summarize information obtained from long-duration data, the models allow for explicit use of feature sequences derived from local patterns of FHR evolution. We compare our methods with a deterministic expert system for classification and with a support vector machine approach that relies on system-identification and heart rate variability features. We tested the classifiers ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Microwave-Based Stroke Diagnosis Making Global Prehospital Thrombolytic Treatment Possible
Here, we present two different brain diagnostic devices based on microwave technology and the associated two first proof-of-principle measurements that show that the systems can differentiate hemorrhagic from ischemic stroke in acute stroke patients, as well as differentiate hemorrhagic patients from healthy volunteers. The system was based on microwave scattering measurements with an antenna system worn on the head. Measurement data were analyzed with a machine-learning algorithm that is based on training using data from patients with a known condition. Computer tomography images were used as reference. The detection meth...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Three-Dimensional Spatiotemporal Features for Fast Content-Based Retrieval of Focal Liver Lesions
Content-based image retrieval systems for $hbox{3}$-D medical datasets still largely rely on $hbox{2}$-D image-based features extracted from a few representative slices of the image stack. Most $hbox{2}$ -D features that are currently used in the literature not only model a $hbox{3}$-D tumor incompletely but are also highly expensive in terms of computation time, especially for high-resolution datasets. Radiologist-specified semantic labels are sometimes used along with image-based $hbox{2}$-D features to improve the retrieval performance. Since radiological labels show large interuser variability, are often unstructured, ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Toward Microendoscopic Electrical Impedance Tomography for Intraoperative Surgical Margin Assessment
No clinical protocols are routinely used to intraoperatively assess surgical margin status during prostate surgery. Instead, margins are evaluated through pathological assessment of the prostate following radical prostatectomy, when it is too late to provide additional surgical intervention. An intraoperative device potentially capable of assessing surgical margin status based on the electrical property contrast between benign and malignant prostate tissue has been developed. Specifically, a microendoscopic electrical impedance tomography (EIT) probe has been constructed to sense and image, at near millimeter resolution, t...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

The Effects of HCN and KLT Ion Channels on Adaptation and Refractoriness in a Stochastic Auditory Nerve Model
An accurate model of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) may assist in developing improved cochlear implant (CI) stimulation strategies. Previous studies have shown that the original Hodgkin–Huxley (HH) model may be better at describing nodes of Ranvier in ANFs than models for other mammalian axon types. However, the HH model is still unable to explain a number of phenomena observed in auditory nerve responses to CI stimulation such as adaptation to high-rate stimulation and the time course of relative refractoriness. Recent physiological investigations of ANFs have shown the presence of a number of ion channel types not c...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Noncontact Monitoring Breathing Pattern, Exhalation Flow Rate and Pulse Transit Time
We present optical imaging-based methods to measure vital physiological signals, including breathing frequency (BF), exhalation flow rate, heart rate (HR), and pulse transit time (PTT). The breathing pattern tracking was based on the detection of body movement associated with breathing using a differential signal processing approach. A motion-tracking algorithm was implemented to correct random body movements that were unrelated to breathing. The heartbeat pattern was obtained from the color change in selected region of interest (ROI) near the subject's mouth, and the PTT was determined by analyzing pulse patterns a...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Electromagnetic Thermotherapy for Deep Organ Ablation by Using a Needle Array Under a Synchronized-Coil System
In this study, a new synchronized-coil EMT system was demonstrated, which was equipped with two synchronized coils and magnetic field generators to provide a long-range, penetrated electromagnetic field to effectively heat up the needles. The heating effect of the needles at the center of the two coils was first explored. The newly designed two-section needle array combined with the synchronized-coil EMT system was thus demonstrated in the in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. Experimental data showed that the developed system is promising for minimally invasive surgery since it might provide superior performance for th...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Effect of Statistically Derived Fiber Models on the Estimation of Cardiac Electrical Activation
Myocardial fiber orientation plays a critical role in the electrical activation and subsequent contraction of the heart. To increase the clinical potential of electrophysiological (EP) simulation for the study of cardiac phenomena and the planning of interventions, accurate personalization of the fibers is a necessary yet challenging task. Due to the difficulties associated with the in vivo imaging of cardiac fiber structure, researchers have developed alternative techniques to personalize fibers. Thus far, cardiac simulation was performed mainly based on rule-based fiber models. More recently, there has been a significant...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Neonatal Seizure Detection Using Atomic Decomposition With a Novel Dictionary
Atomic decomposition (AD) can be used to efficiently decompose an arbitrary signal. In this paper, we present a method to detect neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG) seizure based on AD via orthogonal matching pursuit using a novel, application-specific, dictionary. The dictionary consists of pseudoperiodic Duffing oscillator atoms which are designed to be coherent with the seizure epochs. The relative structural complexity (a measure of the rate of convergence of AD) is used as the sole feature for seizure detection. The proposed feature was tested on a large clinical dataset of 826 h of EEG data from 18 full-term newborns...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Torsional Dynamics of Steerable Needles: Modeling and Fluoroscopic Guidance
Needle insertions underlie a diversity of medical interventions. Steerable needles provide a means by which to enhance existing needle-based interventions and facilitate new ones. Tip-steerable needles follow a curved path and can be steered by twisting the needle base during insertion, but this twisting excites torsional dynamics that introduce a discrepancy between the base and tip twist angles. Here, we model the torsional dynamics of a flexible rod—such as a tip-steerable needle—during subsurface insertion and develop a new controller based on the model. The torsional model incorporates time-varying mode ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Clinically Relevant CNT Dispersions With Exceptionally High Dielectric Properties for Microwave Theranostic Applications
We present a formulation for achieving stable high-concentration (up to 20 mg/ml) aqueous dispersions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with exceptionally high microwave-frequency (0.5–6 GHz) dielectric properties. The formulation involves functionalizing CVD-synthesized CNTs via sonication in nitric and sulfuric acid. The overall chemical integrity of the CNTs is largely preserved, as demonstrated via physical and chemical characterizations, despite significant shortening and functionalization with oxygen-containing groups. This is attributed to the protected inner walls of double-walled CNTs in the samples. The resulting...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Constraint-Based Soft Tissue Simulation for Virtual Surgical Training
Most of surgical simulators employ a linear elastic model to simulate soft tissue material properties due to its computational efficiency and the simplicity. However, soft tissues often have elaborate nonlinear material characteristics. Most prominently, soft tissues are soft and compliant to small strains, but after initial deformations they are very resistant to further deformations even under large forces. Such material characteristic is referred as the nonlinear material incompliant which is computationally expensive and numerically difficult to simulate. This paper presents a constraint-based finite-element algorithm ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research