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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 20.

Performance of on-site pilot static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for treating dairy processing wastewater and chemical oxygen demand balance modeling under different operational conditions.
Abstract The performance and operational stability of a pilot-scale static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for the treatment of dairy processing wastewater were investigated under a wide range of organic and hydraulic loading rates and temperature conditions. The SGBR achieved average chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS)-removal efficiencies higher than 90 % even at high loading rates up to 7.3 kg COD/m(3)/day, with an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9 h, and at low temperatures of 11 °C. The average methane yield of 0.26 L CH4/g CODremoved was possibly a...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - August 28, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Oh JH, Park J, Ellis TG Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Thermal, creep-recovery and viscoelastic behavior of high density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite nano particles for bone substitutes: effects of gamma radiation
Conclusion: Based on the experimental results, it is found that prepared HDPE nanocomposite properties improved due to the addition of HA nanoparticles and irradiation. So, the prepared HDPE/HA nanocomposite appears to have fairly good comprehensive properties that make it a good candidate as bone substitute. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - August 28, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Othman AlothmanH FouadS Al-ZahraniAyman EshraMohammed Al RezS Ansari Source Type: research

Structural and Mechanical Adaptations of Right Ventricle Free Wall Myocardium to Pressure Overload.
Abstract Right ventricular (RV) failure in response to pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe disease that remains poorly understood. PH-induced pressure overload leads to changes in the RV free wall (RVFW) that eventually results in RV failure. While the development of computational models can benefit our understanding of the onset and progression of PH-induced pressure overload, detailed knowledge of the underlying structural and biomechanical events remains limited. The goal of the present study was to elucidate the structural and biomechanical adaptations of RV myocardium subjected to sustained pressure overlo...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - August 28, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Hill MR, Simon MA, Valdez-Jasso D, Zhang W, Champion HC, Sacks MS Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

A novel device for the clearance and prevention of blockages within biomedical catheters
Biomedical catheters are commonly used to move fluids from one part of the body to another, or remove them from the body completely. In some instances, these catheters become occluded due to blood or other debris. Such occlusions may prove fatal or require re-operation with enormous costs and effects on the health-care system and the individual. We developed a model of occlusion in both a ventriculo-peritoneal shut system and en external ventricular drain. Having demonstrated that occlusions can be reliably generated in a manner that resembles the clinical situation we show that vibration can clear the blockages. (Source: ...
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - August 28, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Richard Fox, Jonathan Norton Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Rigid Body Localization Using Sensor Networks
A framework for joint position and orientation estimation of a rigid body using range measurements is proposed. We consider a setup in which a few sensors are mounted on a rigid body. The absolute position of the rigid body is not known. However, we know how the sensors are mounted on the rigid body, i.e., the sensor topology is known. The rigid body is localized using noisy range measurements between the sensors and a few anchors (nodes with known absolute positions), and without using any inertial measurements. We propose a least-squares (LS), and a number of constrained LS estimators, where the constrained estimators so...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Resource Optimization of Non-Additive Utility Functions in Localized SC-FDMA Systems
In this paper, we study the problem of resource allocation in SC-FDMA systems. A sum-utility maximization is considered where the utility of each user may be neither additive nor super additive. Unlike OFDMA, in addition to the restriction of allocating a subchannel to at most one user, the multiple subchannels allocated to a user in SC-FDMA must be consecutive. This makes the resource allocation problem prohibitively difficult and challenging. We provide a fundamental complexity analysis of the optimization problem for general non-additive utility functions and show that not only the problem is NP-hard but also approximat...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Table of contents
Presents the table of contents for this issue of the periodical. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Book review of "Methods in Research and Development of Biomedical Devices" edited by Kelvin K L Wong, Jiyuan Tu, Zhonghua Sun and Don W Dissanayake
This article is a review of the book "Methods in Research and Development of Biomedical Devices" (ISBN: 9789814434997, 98USD/65GBP, 177 pages) edited by Kelvin K L Wong, Jiyuan Tu, Zhonghua Sun and Don W Dissanayake published by the World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. in 2013. The content of the book and its importance for biomedical engineering have been discussed in this invited review. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - August 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Robert Koprowski Source Type: research

Accuracy assessment of Tri-plane B-mode ultrasound for non-invasive 3D kinematic analysis of knee joints
Conclusion: In this paper, we have presented a novel non-invasive approach to measuring the motion of the bones in a knee using tri-plane B-mode ultrasound and image registration. In our study, the image registration method determines the position of bony landmarks relative to a B-mode ultrasound sensor array with sub-pixel accuracy. The advantages of our proposed system over previous techniques are that it is non-invasive, does not require the use of ionizing radiation and can be used conveniently if miniaturized. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - August 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Md MasumMark PickeringAndrew LambertJennie ScarvellPaul Smith Source Type: research

Book review of ¿Methods in Research and Development of Biomedical Devices¿ edited by Kelvin K L Wong, Jiyuan Tu, Zhonghua Sun and Don W Dissanayake
This article is a review of the book “Methods in Research and Development of Biomedical Devices” (ISBN: 9789814434997, 98USD/65GBP, 177 pages) edited by Kelvin K L Wong, Jiyuan Tu, Zhonghua Sun and Don W Dissanayake published by the World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. in 2013. The content of the book and its importance for biomedical engineering have been discussed in this invited review. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - August 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Robert Koprowski Source Type: research

Is the callus shape an optimal response to a mechanobiological stimulus?
When a fracture occurs, bone tissue is disrupted and mechanical stability is impaired [1]. To restore bone tissue continuity and bone mechanical function, secondary bone healing takes place. Secondary bone healing is a four-stage process [2]. Initially, inflammation occurs [2–4], and a soft callus gradually appears. The callus serves as a splint, reducing interfragmentary strain and increasing stability. As stability increases, bone tissue advances next to cortical bone by intramembranous ossification and into the soft callus through endochondral ossification, utterly creating a hard, bony callus. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - August 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Frederico O. Ribeiro, João Folgado, José Manuel Garcia-Aznar, María José Gómez-Benito, Paulo R. Fernandes Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Pulse pressure waveform estimation using distension profiling with contactless optical probe
The profile of the arterial pressure pulse shows the result of the ventricular blood ejection over the arterial system, modulated by its mechanical properties. The load on the ventricle during ejection can be described by the systolic blood pressure. The arterial pressure wave travels from the central aorta to the peripheral arteries and several changes occur. The pulse pressure wave progressively steepens and increases in amplitude, while it loses the sharpness of the dicrotic notch [1]. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - August 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Tânia Pereira, Inês Santos, Tatiana Oliveira, Pedro Vaz, Telmo Pereira, Helder Santos, Helena Pereira, Carlos Correia, João Cardoso Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Intraluminal magnetisation of bowel by ferromagnetic particles for retraction and manipulation by magnetic probes
Feasibility studies are needed to demonstrate that safe and effective manipulation of bowel during Minimal Access Surgery (MAS) can be obtained by use of magnetic force. This paper characterises two classes of magnetic particles: stainless steel microparticles (SS-μPs) and iron oxide nanoparticles (IO-nPs) in terms of their magnetisation, chemical composition, crystallinity, morphology and size distribution. Both magnetic particles were dispersed in a high viscosity biological liquid for intraluminal injection of bowel. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - August 26, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Z. Wang, P. André, D. McLean, S.I. Brown, G.J. Florence, A. Cuschieri Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Low-Sampling-Rate Ultra-Wideband Channel Estimation Using Equivalent-Time Sampling
In this paper, a low-sampling-rate scheme for ultra-wideband channel estimation is proposed. The scheme exploits multiple observations generated by transmitting multiple pulses. In the proposed scheme, $P$ pulses are transmitted to produce channel impulse response estimates at a desired sampling rate, while the ADC samples at a rate that is $P$ times slower. To avoid loss of fidelity, the number of sampling periods (based on the desired rate) in the inter-pulse interval is restricted to be co-prime with $P$ . This condition is affected when clock drift is present and the transmitted pulse locations change. To handle this c...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Alternating Projections and Douglas-Rachford for Sparse Affine Feasibility
The problem of finding a vector with the fewest nonzero elements that satisfies an underdetermined system of linear equations is an NP-complete problem that is typically solved numerically via convex heuristics or nicely-behaved nonconvex relaxations. In this work we consider elementary methods based on projections for solving a sparse feasibility problem without employing convex heuristics. It has been shown recently that, locally, the fundamental method of alternating projections must converge linearly to a solution to the sparse feasibility problem with an affine constraint. In this paper we apply different analytical t...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Superoscillations With Optimum Energy Concentration
Oscillations of a bandlimited signal at a rate faster than the bandlimit are called “superoscillations” and have applications e.g. in superresolution and superdirectivity. The synthesis of superoscillating signals is a numerically difficult problem. Minimum energy superoscillatory signals seem attractive for applications because (i) the minimum-energy solution is unique (ii) it has the smallest energy cost (iii) it may yield a signal of the smallest possible amplitude. On the negative side, superoscillating functions of minimum-energy depend heavily on cancellation and give rise to expressions that have very ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

${cal H}_2$ Sampled—Data Filtering of Linear Systems
This paper addresses the ${cal H}_2$ state estimation problem in the context of sampled-data systems, which is closely related to ${cal H}_2$ filtering design under limited bandwidth constraints. Our first approach considers a fixed data-rate setting, for which a discrete-time equivalent system is devised and, based on this concept, sufficient conditions for the ${cal H}_2$ filtering design are yielded. These results are then generalized to obtain a robust filter that is able to cope with uneven data-rates. Academical examples illustrate the theoretical results and point out the main characteristics of the design technique...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Convex Optimization Approaches for Blind Sensor Calibration Using Sparsity
We investigate a compressive sensing framework in which the sensors introduce a distortion to the measurements in the form of unknown gains. We focus on blind calibration, using measures performed on multiple unknown (but sparse) signals and formulate the joint recovery of the gains and the sparse signals as a convex optimization problem. We divide this problem in 3 subproblems with different conditions on the gains, specifially i) gains with different amplitude and the same phase, ii) gains with the same amplitude and different phase and iii) gains with different amplitude and phase. In order to solve the first case, we p...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

$R$ -Dimensional ESPRIT-Type Algorithms for Strictly Second-Order Non-Circular Sources and Their Performance Analysis
High-resolution parameter estimation algorithms designed to exploit the prior knowledge about incident signals from strictly second-order (SO) noncircular (NC) sources allow for a lower estimation error and can resolve twice as many sources. In this paper, we derive the $R$ ${mathchar"702D}{rm D}$ NC Standard ESPRIT and the $R$ ${mathchar"702D}{rm D}$ NC Unitary ESPRIT algorithms that provide a significantly better performance compared to their original versions for arbitrary source signals. They are applicable to shift-invariant $R$ ${mathchar"702D}{rm D}$ antenna arrays and do not require a centro-symmetric array structu...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Theory, Design and Application of Arbitrary Order Arbitrary Delay Filterbanks
Classical design of filterbanks results in equal order inverses, thus resulting in filterbanks with equal analysis and synthesis filter length. While it is known that filterbanks may have unequal orders, there does not exist a simple, systematic method to design a $p$th-order analysis and $q$th-order synthesis filterbank where $p ne q$. Also, the design criteria of the $p$ th-order analysis having $q$ th-order synthesis filters ($p ne q$) with a flexibility to control the system delay has never been addressed concomitantly. In this work, we propose the use of unit non-diagonal matrix polynomials to design such filterbanks ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Multiuser MISO Beamforming for Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer
This paper studies a multiuser multiple-input single-output (MISO) broadcast simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system, where a multi-antenna access point (AP) sends wireless information and energy simultaneously via spatial multiplexing to multiple single-antenna receivers each of which implements information decoding (ID) or energy harvesting (EH). We aim to maximize the weighted sum-power transferred to all EH receivers subject to given minimum signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) constraints at different ID receivers. In particular, we consider two types of ID receivers (referred to a...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Front Cover
Presents the front cover of this issue of IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-SnO2-chitosan nanocomposite.
Abstract A sensitive amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor was developed based on the nanocomposite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles and chitosan (CHIT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Nafion were immobilized onto the nanocomposite film to prepare AChE biosensor for pesticide residues detection. The morphologies and electrochemistry properties of the surface modification were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Compared with individual MWCNTs-CHIT, SnO2-CHIT and bare gold electro...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Chen D, Sun X, Guo Y, Qiao L, Wang X Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Localized strain measurements of the intervertebral disc annulus during biaxial tensile testing.
Abstract Both inter-lamellar and intra-lamellar failures of the annulus have been described as potential modes of disc herniation. Attempts to characterize initial lamellar failure of the annulus have involved tensile testing of small tissue samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a method of measuring local surface strains through image analysis of a tensile test conducted on an isolated sample of annular tissue in order to enhance future studies of intervertebral disc failure. An annulus tissue sample was biaxial strained to 10%. High-resolution images captured the tissue surface throughout testing. Th...
Source: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Karakolis T, Callaghan JP Tags: Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin Source Type: research

Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model.
Abstract A reliable and fast numerical scheme is crucial for the 1D simulation of blood flow in compliant vessels. In this paper, a 1D blood flow model is incorporated with a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic arterial wall. This leads to a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system, which is then solved with four numerical schemes, namely: MacCormack, Taylor-Galerkin, monotonic upwind scheme for conservation law and local discontinuous Galerkin. The numerical schemes are tested on a single vessel, a simple bifurcation and a network with 55 arteries. The numerical solutions are checked favorably against analytical, semi-analytic...
Source: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Wang X, Fullana JM, Lagrée PY Tags: Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin Source Type: research

Construction of a conductive distortion reduced electromagnetic tracking system for computer assisted image-guided interventions
There are four major types of navigation systems used in computer-assisted image-guided interventions: mechanical, ultrasonic, optical, and electromagnetic tracking systems [1]. Considering the working volume, the tracker's accuracy, and the non-line-of-sight requirement between the emitter and receiver, EMTS is the best solution to allow the surgical instruments, such as catheters and needles, to be tracked flexibly inside the patient's body [2,3]. Studies have demonstrated that commercially available EMTS are sufficiently precise to provide effective imaging information in clinical applications [3,4]. (Source: Medical En...
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - August 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Mengfei Li, Tomasz Bien, Georg Rose Tags: Technical note Source Type: research

Theoretical optimization of the removal of cryoprotective agents using a dilution-filtration system
Conclusion: The proposed method for the dilution-filtration system is an ideal solution for not only guaranteeing the volume safety of RBCs but also shortening the washing time of CPAs. In practice, the optimization strategies provided here will be useful in the rapid preparation of cryopreserved blood for clinical use. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - August 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Heyuan QiaoWeiping DingSijie SunLiangquan GongDayong Gao Source Type: research

Optimizing promoters and secretory signal sequences for producing ethanol from inulin by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying Kluyveromyces marxianus inulinase.
Abstract Inulin is a polyfructan that is abundant in plants such as Jerusalem artichoke, chicory and dahlia. Inulinase can easily hydrolyze inulin to fructose, which is consumed by microorganisms. Generally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an industrial workhorse strain for bioethanol production, is known for not having inulinase activity. The inulinase gene from Kluyveromyces marxianus (KmINU), with the ability of converting inulin to fructose, was introduced into S. cerevisiae D452-2. The inulinase gene was fused to three different types of promoter (GPD, PGK1, truncated HXT7) and secretory signal sequence (KmINU, MFα...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - August 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Hong SJ, Kim HJ, Kim JW, Lee DH, Seo JH Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Online monitoring of concentration and dynamics of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion processes with mid-infrared spectroscopy.
Abstract An ATR-MIR-FTIR spectrometer was integrated into a laboratory scale anaerobic digestion setup. Automatically, a sludge sample from the digester was transferred to a measurement cell; an IR spectrum was recorded and evaluated by chemometric models to estimate the concentration of the individual volatile fatty acids (VFA). The calibration set included semi-artificial samples spiked with known concentrations of the VFA as well as original samples from a continuous fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference analysis of the samples. The models were optimized for a low ro...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - August 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Falk HM, Reichling P, Andersen C, Benz R Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Multimodal Image Reconstruction Using Supplementary Structural Information in Total Variation Regularization
Abstract In this paper, we propose an iterative reconstruction algorithm which uses available information from one dataset collected using one modality to increase the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of one collected by another modality. The method operates on the structural information only which increases its suitability across various applications. Consequently, the main aim of this method is to exploit available supplementary data within the regularization framework. The source of primary and supplementary datasets can be acquired using complementary imaging modes where different types of information...
Source: Sensing and Imaging - August 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Compressed-sensing-based fluorescence molecular tomographic image reconstruction with grouped sources
Conclusions: The proposed algorithm can significantly improve the speed and accuracy of the reconstruction of FMT. Furthermore, our compressed-sensing-based method can reduce the number of measurements. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - August 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Wei ZouXinyu Pan Source Type: research

Change of Direction in the Biomechanics of Atherosclerosis.
Abstract The non-uniform distribution of atherosclerosis within the arterial system has been attributed to pro-atherogenic influences of low, oscillatory haemodynamic wall shear stress (WSS) on endothelial cells (EC). This theory is challenged by the changes in lesion location that occur with age in human and rabbit aortas. Furthermore, a number of point-wise comparisons of lesion prevalence and WSS have failed to support it. Here we investigate the hypothesis that multidirectional flow-characterized as the average magnitude of WSS components acting transversely to the mean vector (transWSS)-plays a key role. Maps ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - August 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Mohamied Y, Rowland EM, Bailey EL, Sherwin SJ, Schwartz MA, Weinberg PD Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Design and Validation of a Novel Ferromagnetic Bare Metal Stent Capable of Capturing and Retaining Endothelial Cells.
In conclusion, we have designed a ferromagnetic bare metal stent from 2205 stainless steel that is functional, biocompatible, and able to capture and retain magnetically-labeled endothelial cells in order to promote rapid stent healing. PMID: 25138164 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering)
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - August 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Uthamaraj S, Tefft BJ, Klabusay M, Hlinomaz O, Sandhu GS, Dragomir-Daescu D Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Arterial Pressure and Flow Wave Analysis Using Time-Domain 1-D Hemodynamics.
Abstract We reviewed existing methods for analyzing, in the time domain, physical mechanisms underlying the patterns of blood pressure and flow waveforms in the arterial system. These are wave intensity analysis and separations into several types of waveforms: (i) forward- and backward-traveling, (ii) peripheral and conduit, or (iii) reservoir and excess. We assessed the physical information provided by each method and showed how to combine existing methods in order to quantify contributions to numerically generated waveforms from previous cardiac cycles and from specific regions and properties of the numerical dom...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - August 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Willemet M, Alastruey J Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Development of a closed-loop J–T cryoablation device with a long cooling area and multiple expansion parts
Cryoablation is a surgical procedure used to freeze defective cells by inserting a low temperature probe into a human body to destroy malignant tissues. Miniaturized Joule–Thomson (J–T) refrigerators are often used to minimize the volume of the cooling device and reduce the destruction zone of normal tissue. The cooling effects of the existing probes are not uniformly generated along the longitudinal direction of the probe, which makes their applications less effective in surgeries of incompetent great saphenous veins (GSVs), where the target cells are distributed over a broad range. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - August 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Cheonkyu Lee, Seungwhan Baek, Jisung Lee, Gyuwan Hwang, Sangkwon Jeong, Sang Woo Park Source Type: research