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Biomedical Engineering

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 20.

Short Duration Electrical Stimulation to Enhance Neurite Outgrowth and Maturation of Adult Neural Stem Progenitor Cells.
The objective of this study is to better understand how short duration ES can be harnessed to direct adult neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) neurogenesis, neurite extension, and maturation. Herein, NSPCs were exposed to physiological levels of electrical stimulation of 0.53 or 1.83 V/m (applied power supply setting of 1.2 and 2.5 V) of direct current (DC) for 10 min/days for 2 days with a total differentiation time of 3 days. Culturing conditions consisted of either mitogenic growth factors or the neuronal differentiation factor interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Stimulated NSPCs showed lengths that were over five times longer ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - June 24, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Kobelt LJ, Wilkinson AE, McCormick AM, Willits RK, Leipzig ND Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

An MR-Conditional High-Torque Pneumatic Stepper Motor for MRI-Guided and Robot-Assisted Intervention.
Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging allows for visualizing detailed pathological and morphological changes of soft tissue. MR-conditional actuations have been widely investigated for development of image-guided and robot-assisted surgical devices under the Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper presents a simple design of MR-conditional stepper motor which can provide precise and high-torque actuation without adversely affecting the MR image quality. This stepper motor consists of two MR-conditional pneumatic cylinders and the corresponding supporting structures. Alternating the pressurized air can drive the ...
Source: Annals of Biomedical Engineering - June 24, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Chen Y, Kwok KW, Tse ZT Tags: Ann Biomed Eng Source Type: research

Book review of ¿Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering¿ edited by Y Hanry Yu and Nur Aida Abdul Rahim
This article is a review of the book “Imaging in Cellular and Tissue Engineering” (ISBN-13: 978-1439848036, $149.95, 298 Pages, 114 Illustrations) edited by Y Hanry Yu and Nur Aida Abdul Rahim published by the CRC Press (Taylor&Francis) in 2013. The contents of the book and its relevance to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are discussed in this invited review. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - June 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Eric Brey Source Type: research

The effects of implant angulation on the resonance frequency of a dental implant
Abstract: Dental implants are ideally placed in an orientation that allows vertical transfer of occlusal forces along their long axis. Nevertheless, optimal situations for implant placement are seldom encountered resulting in implants placement in angulated positions, which may affect their long-term success. The resonance frequency (RF) is an objective tool used to monitor stability of the implant tissue integration; however, little is known of the effect of the implant orientation in bone on the RF and its potential significance. The purpose of this research was to determine the relation between the dental implant orient...
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - June 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: R. Harirforoush, S. Arzanpour, B. Chehroudi Tags: Papers Source Type: research

Computational fluid dynamics analysis of balloon-expandable coronary stents: Influence of stent and vessel deformation
In this study, CFD analyses were carried out to simulate pulsatile flow conditions in both NDF and realistically-deformed (RDF) models of three stented coronary arteries. While the NDF models were completely idealised, the RDF models were obtained from nonlinear structural analyses and accounted for both stent and vessel deformation. Following the completion of the CFD analyses, major differences were observed in the time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), time-averaged wall shear stress gradient (TAWSSG) and oscillatory shear index (OSI) distributions predicted on the luminal surface of the artery for the NDF and RDF mod...
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - June 23, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: David M. Martin, Eoin A. Murphy, Fergal J. Boyle Tags: Papers Source Type: research

A nanostructured aluminum oxide-based microfluidic device for enhancing immunoassay's fluorescence and detection sensitivity.
Abstract A nanostructured aluminum oxide (NAO)-based fluorescence biosensing platform with a programmable sample delivery microfluidic interface is reported. The NAO-based fluorescence sensor can tremendously enhance the fluorescence signals, typically up to 100 × or more, over the glass substrate. The programmable sample delivery microfluidic interface, which is integrated with the NAO-based sensors, can automatically generate and deliver a series of different concentrations of the biological samples to each individual sensor. Hence it can facilitate the fluorescence-based biodetection and analysis for high t...
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Li X, Yin H, Que L Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

Emphysema early diagnosis using X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging at synchrotron light source
Conclusion: Here we present USAXS images of early stage emphysematous and healthy samples, where the dependence of the USAXS signal on micro-structures of biomedical samples leads to improved diagnosis of emphysema in lung radiographs. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - June 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Linan DongJun LiWushuai JianLu ZhangMingshu WuHongli ShiShuqian Luo Source Type: research

Construction of a microrobot system using magnetotactic bacteria for the separation of Staphylococcus aureus.
This study is the first to demonstrate bacterial microrobots carrying pathogens and more importantly, it reflects the great potential of using magnetotactic bacteria to develop magnetic-guided, auto-propelled microrobots for pathogen isolation. PMID: 24951158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Microdevices)
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - June 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Chen CY, Chen CF, Yi Y, Chen LJ, Wu LF, Song T Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research

In vivo and in vitro decolorization of synthetic dyes by laccase from solid state fermentation with Trametes sp. SYBC-L4.
Abstract Synthetic decolorization of dyes through solid cassava residue substrate fermentation with Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 via in vivo and in vitro processes was investigated in this study. Effects of pH and mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole, HBT) concentration on dyes decolorization were evaluated. In vitro, decolorization ratios of dyes differed considerably in pH and increased with the increasing of HBT concentration. Crude laccase (50 U/L) derived from Trametes sp. SYBC-L4 decolorized 67.91 ± 1.25 % Congo red (100 mg/L), 94.58 ± 1.05 % aniline blue (100 mg/L) and 99.02 ± 0.54 % indigo carmine (100 m...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - June 21, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Li HX, Zhang RJ, Tang L, Zhang JH, Mao ZG Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Nonprofit to boost new technologies at Tech, Emory
A Miami-based nonprofit that aims to foster entrepreneurship hopes to seed Atlanta’s next generation of biotech companies. The Walter H. Coulter Foundation will invest $1.5 million per year to commercialize promising science at Georgia Tech and Emory University’s joint biomedical engineering department. The foundation, backed by an endowment, has similar programs with several schools, including Stanford University, Duke University, the University of Virginia and the University of Michigan. The… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - June 20, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ellie Hensley Source Type: research

The influence of emotion on keyboard typing: an experimental study using visual stimuli
Conclusions: Our findings support the conclusion that the keystroke duration, keystroke latency, and also the accuracy rate of typing, are influenced by emotional states. Notably, the finding about the size of effect suggests that the accuracy rate of the emotion recognition could be further improved if personalized models are utilized. On the other hand, the finding also provides an explanation of why real-world applications which authenticate the identity of users by monitoring keystrokes may not be interfered by the emotional states of users. The experiment was conducted using standard instruments and hence is expected ...
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - June 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Po-Ming LeeWei-Hsuan TsuiTzu-Chien Hsiao Source Type: research

Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of an articular cartilage extracellular matrix-hydroxyapatite bilayered scaffold with low permeability for interface tissue engineering
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a bilayered scaffold with low permeability, rather than complete isolation, represents a promising candidate for osteochondral interface tissue engineering. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - June 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Yongcheng WangHaoye MengXueling YuanJiang PengQuanyi GuoShibi LuAiyuan Wang Source Type: research

Energy harvesting for the implantable biomedical devices: issues and challenges
The development of implanted devices is essential because of their direct effect on the lives and safety of humanity. This paper presents the current issues and challenges related to all methods used to harvest energy for implantable biomedical devices. The advantages, disadvantages, and future trends of each method are discussed. The concept of harvesting energy from environmental sources and human body motion for implantable devices has gained a new relevance. In this review, the harvesting kinetic, electromagnetic, thermal and infrared radiant energies are discussed. Current issues and challenges related to the typical ...
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - June 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Mahammad HannanSaad MutasharSalina SamadAini Hussain Source Type: research

Automatic tracking of cells for video microscopy in patch clamp experiments
Conclusion: The techniques of digital image processing used in this work are an important addition to the set of microscopy tools used in modern electrophysiology, specially in experiments with neuron cultures and brain slices. (Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine)
Source: BioMedical Engineering OnLine - June 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Helton PeixotoHermany MungubaRossana CruzAna GuerreiroRichardson Leao Source Type: research

Influence of clearance on the time-dependent performance of the hip following hemiarthroplasty: A finite element study with biphasic acetabular cartilage properties
In this study, the influence of joint clearance on the biomechanical function of a generic hip model in hemiarthroplasty was investigated using biphasic numerical simulation. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - June 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Junyan Li, Xijin Hua, Zhongmin Jin, John Fisher, Ruth K. Wilcox Source Type: research

Optimal needle design for minimal insertion force and bevel length
In this study, the needle with lancet point (denoted as lancet needle) is applied to demonstrate the model-based optimization for needle design. Mathematical models to calculate the bevel length and inclination and rake angles for lancet needle are presented. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Source: Medical Engineering and Physics - June 20, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Yancheng Wang, Roland K. Chen, Bruce L. Tai, Patrick W. McLaughlin, Albert J. Shih Source Type: research

Power Allocation for Artificial-Noise Secure MIMO Precoding Systems
This paper investigates the power allocation problem for artificial noise (AN) secure precoding systems, and proposes closed-form solutions for maximizing the achievable secrecy rate. It is assumed that the transmitter knows the full channel information at the legitimate receiver, and knows only the statistics of the channel information at the eavesdropper. Lower bounds are derived for the secrecy rates in multiple-input single-output channels with single or multiple eavesdroppers and multiple-input multiple-output channels with multiple eavesdroppers. When the number of transmit antennas is sufficiently large, the bounds ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Distributed Estimation and Detection With Bounded Transmissions Over Gaussian Multiple Access Channels
A distributed inference scheme which uses bounded transmission functions over a Gaussian multiple access channel is considered. When the sensor measurements are decreasingly reliable as a function of the sensor index, the conditions on the transmission functions under which consistent estimation and reliable detection are possible is characterized. For the distributed estimation problem, an estimation scheme that uses bounded transmission functions is proved to be strongly consistent provided that the variances of the noise samples are bounded and that the transmission function is one-to-one. The proposed estimation scheme...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Group-Sparse Signal Denoising: Non-Convex Regularization, Convex Optimization
Convex optimization with sparsity-promoting convex regularization is a standard approach for estimating sparse signals in noise. In order to promote sparsity more strongly than convex regularization, it is also standard practice to employ non-convex optimization. In this paper, we take a third approach. We utilize a non-convex regularization term chosen such that the total cost function (consisting of data consistency and regularization terms) is convex. Therefore, sparsity is more strongly promoted than in the standard convex formulation, but without sacrificing the attractive aspects of convex optimization (unique minimu...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Distributed Information Theoretic Clustering
Distributed data collection and analysis over networks are ubiquitous, especially over the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Distributed clustering is one of the most important topics in distributed data analysis. It is desired to explore the hidden structure of the data collected/stored in geographically distributed nodes. In recent years, several distributed data clustering techniques have been developed based on the K-means algorithm or the Gaussian mixture model. In these methods, data structures are captured by measures only based on the first and the second order statistics. When the structure of cluster data is compl...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Regional Variance for Multi-Object Filtering
Recent progress in multi-object filtering has led to algorithms that compute the first-order moment of multi-object distributions based on sensor measurements. The number of targets in arbitrarily selected regions can be estimated using the first-order moment. In this work, we introduce explicit formulae for the computation of the second-order statistic on the target number. The proposed concept of regional variance quantifies the level of confidence on target number estimates in arbitrary regions and facilitates information-based decisions. We provide algorithms for its computation for the probability hypothesis density (...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

On the Robust Design of Adaptive Distributed Beamforming for Wireless Sensor/Relay Networks
A considerable volume of research into adaptive schemes for transmit beamforming in distributed networks has emerged in recent years. A noise-free received signal strength (RSS) measurement and a static environment were often considered. However, in practical scenarios, system uncertainties often arise, which may lead to the aforementioned idealistic assumptions failing. In this paper, we focus on the robust design of distributed beamforming and proposed a systematic analytical framework for the convergence of a general set of adaptive schemes under the condition that the RSS at the receiver is corrupted by noise. Furtherm...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Reduced-Order Generalized $H_{infty}$ Filtering for Linear Discrete-Time Systems With Application to Channel Equalization
This paper investigates the problem of reduced-order generalized $H_{infty}$ filtering for linear discrete-time systems. Generalized $H_{infty}$ filtering covers standard $H_{infty}$ filtering as a special case and can make use of the frequency-domain characteristics of practical signals. Moreover, reduced-order filters are more attractive than full-order ones regarding implementability. By virtue of the generalized bounded real lemma, a new necessary and sufficient condition is proposed for analyzing the generalized $H_{infty}$ performance of the filtering error system. To compute reduced-order generalized $H_{infty}$ fil...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Relations Between Zero-IF Receiver I/Q and TI-ADC Channel Mismatches
This paper shows that the in-phase and quadrature (I/Q) channel mismatch problem for complex signals in zero-IF receivers (ZIFRs) is related to the real-signal channel-mismatch problem in two-channel time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters (TI-ADCs). The problems are related in that, given one of the problems, it can be converted to the other problem via relatively simple signal processing operations. This offers more options for the estimation of and compensation for I/Q and TI-ADC channel mismatches. In particular, if there is a need to perform both I/Q and TI-ADC channel mismatch correction, one can make use of th...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Superoscillations of Prescribed Amplitude and Derivative
Superoscillations occur when a bandlimited signal oscillates at a rate higher than its maximum frequency. We show that it is possible to construct superoscillations by constraining not only the value of the signal but also that of its derivative. This allows a better control of the shape of the superoscillations. We find that for any given bandwidth, no matter how small, there exists a unique signal of minimum energy that satisfies any combination of amplitude and derivative constraints, on a sampling grid as fine as desired. We determine the energy of the signal, for any grid, regular or irregular. When the set of derivat...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

General Factorization of Conjugate-Symmetric Hadamard Transforms
Complex-valued conjugate-symmetric Hadamard transforms ( $BBC $-CSHT) are variants of complex Hadamard transforms and found applications in signal processing. In addition, their real-valued transform counterparts ($BBR $-CSHTs) perform comparably with Hadamard transforms (HTs) despite their lower computational complexity. Closed-form factorizations of $BBC $-CSHTs and $BBR $-CSHTs have recently been proposed to make calculations more efficient. However, there is still room to find effective and general factorizations. This paper presents a simple closed-form complete factorization of $BBC $-CSHTs based on that of $BBR $ -C...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Bandwidth Efficient Variable Rate HARQ Under Orthogonal Space-Time Block Codes
We propose a bandwidth and power efficient hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) transceiver system that preserves full retransmission diversity under orthogonal space-time block codes (OSTBC) with low decoding complexity. This new HARQ scheme is built upon traditional OSTBC transmission to achieve full space-time diversity. During retransmissions upon packet losses, space-time encoding can be compressed in time to reduce bandwidth utility and achieve joint detection of multiple transmissions without training. By formulating the joint detection model at the receiver into a Quasi-Orthogonal Space-Time transmission, we can ...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

IEEE Healthcare Innovation Point-of-Care Technologies Conference
Describes the above-named upcoming conference event. May include topics to be covered or calls for papers. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Learning From Data: Recognizing Glaucomatous Defect Patterns and Detecting Progression From Visual Field Measurements
A hierarchical approach to learn from visual field data was adopted to identify glaucomatous visual field defect patterns and to detect glaucomatous progression. The analysis pipeline included three stages, namely, clustering, glaucoma boundary limit detection, and glaucoma progression detection testing. First, cross-sectional visual field tests collected from each subject were clustered using a mixture of Gaussians and model parameters were estimated using expectation maximization. The visual field clusters were further estimated to recognize glaucomatous visual field defect patterns by decomposing each cluster into sever...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

[Front cover]
Presents the front cover for this issue of the publication. (Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering)
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of fluorescent gold nanoparticles using an edible freshwater red alga, Lemanea fluviatilis (L.) C.Ag. and antioxidant activity of biomatrix loaded nanoparticles.
Abstract Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles has been accomplished via reduction of an aqueous chloroauric acid solution with the dried biomass of an edible freshwater epilithic red alga, Lemanea fluviatilis (L.) C.Ag., as both reductant and stabilizer. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies. The UV-visible spectrum of the synthesized gold nanoparticles showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at around 530 nm. The powder XRD pattern furnis...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Sharma B, Purkayastha DD, Hazra S, Thajamanbi M, Bhattacharjee CR, Ghosh NN, Rout J Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Increased power generation from primary sludge in microbial fuel cells coupled with prefermentation.
Abstract Raw primary sludge and the prefermentation liquor (PL) of primary sludge were used to generate electricity in single-chambered air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The MFCs treating the primary sludge produced 0.53 V and 370 mW/m(2) for the maximum potential and power density, respectively. In the primary sludge-fed MFCs, only 5 % of the total energy production was produced from direct electricity generation, whereas 95 % of that resulted from the conversion of methane to electricity. MFCs treating the PL generated the maximum potential of 0.58 V and maximum power density of 885 mW/m(2), respecti...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Choi J, Ahn Y Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Kinetics of sucrose conversion to fructo-oligosaccharides using enzyme (invertase) under free condition.
Abstract The study reports the synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) from sucrose using invertase derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reaction was conducted in a batch mode under free enzyme condition. Fructo-oligosaccharide formation was detected at a high sucrose concentration of over 200 g/L. The investigation was extended to study the effect of different parameters such as initial sucrose concentration (ISC), pH, and enzyme concentration. A maximum FOS yield of 10 % (dry basis) was observed using 525 g/L of ISC, with 6 U/mL of the enzyme, and pH 5.5 at 40 °C. 1-Kestose was the major product of ...
Source: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Khandekar DC, Palai T, Agarwal A, Bhattacharya PK Tags: Bioprocess Biosyst Eng Source Type: research

Estimation of surface heat flux and temperature distributions in a multilayer tissue based on the hyperbolic model of heat conduction.
In this study, an inverse algorithm based on the conjugate gradient method and the discrepancy principle is applied to solve the inverse hyperbolic heat conduction problem in estimating the unknown time-dependent surface heat flux in a skin tissue, which is stratified into epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers, from the temperature measurements taken within the medium. Subsequently, the temperature distributions in the tissue can be calculated as well. The concept of finite heat propagation velocity is applied to the modeling of the bioheat transfer problem. The inverse solutions will be justified based on the numeric...
Source: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Lee HL, Chen WL, Chang WJ, Yang YC Tags: Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin Source Type: research

Stress analysis of a complete maxillary denture under various drop impact conditions: a 3D finite element study.
Abstract Complete maxillary dentures are one of the most economic and easy ways of treatment for edentulous patients and are still widely used. However, their survival rate is slightly above three years. It is presumed that the failure reasons are not only due to normal fatigue but also emerge from damage based on unavoidable improper usage. Failure types other than long-term fatigue, such as over-deforming, also influence the effective life span of dentures. A hypothesis is presumed, stating that the premature/unexpected failures may be initiated by impact on dentures, which can be related to dropping them on the ...
Source: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Sunbuloglu E Tags: Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin Source Type: research