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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 14.
Convergence of oncogenic and hormone receptor pathways promotes metastatic phenotypes
Cyclin D1b is a splice variant of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 and is known to harbor divergent and highly oncogenic functions in human cancer. While cyclin D1b is induced during disease progression in many cancer types, the mechanisms underlying cyclin D1b function remain poorly understood. Herein, cell and human tumor xenograft models of prostate cancer were utilized to resolve the downstream pathways that are required for the protumorigenic functions of cyclin D1b. Specifically, cyclin D1b was found to modulate the expression of a large transcriptional network that cooperates with androgen receptor (AR) signaling ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - December 22, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Michael A. Augello, Craig J. Burd, Ruth Birbe, Christopher McNair, Adam Ertel, Michael S. Magee, Daniel E. Frigo, Kari Wilder-Romans, Mark Shilkrut, Sumin Han, Danielle L. Jernigan, Jeffry L. Dean, Alessandro Fatatis, Donald P. McDonnell, Tapio Visakorpi, Source Type: research
Treg-mediated suppression of atherosclerosis requires MYD88 signaling in DCs
TLR activation on CD11c+ DCs triggers DC maturation, which is critical for T cell activation. Given the expansion of CD11c+ DCs during the progression of atherosclerosis and the key role of T cell activation in atherogenesis, we sought to understand the role of TLR signaling in CD11c+ DCs in atherosclerosis. To this end, we used a mouse model in which a key TLR adaptor involved in DC maturation, MYD88, is deleted in CD11c+ DCs. We transplanted bone marrow containing Myd88-deficient CD11c+ DCs into Western diet–fed LDL receptor knockout mice and found that the transplanted mice had decreased activation of effector T...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - December 22, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Manikandan Subramanian, Edward Thorp, Goran K. Hansson, Ira Tabas Source Type: research
Iron deficiency accelerates Helicobacter pylori–induced carcinogenesis in rodents and humans
Gastric adenocarcinoma is strongly associated with Helicobacter pylori infection; however, most infected persons never develop this malignancy. H. pylori strains harboring the cag pathogenicity island (cag+), which encodes CagA and a type IV secretion system (T4SS), induce more severe disease outcomes. H. pylori infection is also associated with iron deficiency, which similarly augments gastric cancer risk. To define the influence of iron deficiency on microbial virulence in gastric carcinogenesis, Mongolian gerbils were maintained on iron-depleted diets and infected with an oncogenic H. pylori cag+ strain. Iron depletion ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - December 22, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jennifer M. Noto, Jennifer A. Gaddy, Josephine Y. Lee, M. Blanca Piazuelo, David B. Friedman, Daniel C. Colvin, Judith Romero-Gallo, Giovanni Suarez, John Loh, James C. Slaughter, Shumin Tan, Douglas R. Morgan, Keith T. Wilson, Luis E. Bravo, Pelayo Corre Source Type: research
p62 Links β-adrenergic input to mitochondrial function and thermogenesis
The scaffold protein p62 (sequestosome 1; SQSTM1) is an emerging key molecular link among the metabolic, immune, and proliferative processes of the cell. Here, we report that adipocyte-specific, but not CNS-, liver-, muscle-, or myeloid-specific p62-deficient mice are obese and exhibit a decreased metabolic rate caused by impaired nonshivering thermogenesis. Our results show that p62 regulates energy metabolism via control of mitochondrial function in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Accordingly, adipocyte-specific p62 deficiency led to impaired mitochondrial function, causing BAT to become unresponsive to β-adrenergic ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - December 22, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Timo D. Müller, Sang Jun Lee, Martin Jastroch, Dhiraj Kabra, Kerstin Stemmer, Michaela Aichler, Bill Abplanalp, Gayathri Ananthakrishnan, Nakul Bhardwaj, Sheila Collins, Senad Divanovic, Max Endele, Brian Finan, Yuanqing Gao, Kirk M. Habegger, Jaz Source Type: research
The Xbp1s/GalE axis links ER stress to postprandial hepatic metabolism
Postprandially, the liver experiences an extensive metabolic reprogramming that is required for the switch from glucose production to glucose assimilation. Upon refeeding, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is rapidly, though only transiently, activated. Activation of the UPR results in a cessation of protein translation, increased chaperone expression, and increased ER-mediated protein degradation, but it is not clear how the UPR is involved in the postprandial switch to alternate fuel sources. Activation of the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) branch of the UPR signaling pathway triggers expression of the transcriptio...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - December 22, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yingfeng Deng, Zhao V. Wang, Caroline Tao, Ningguo Gao, William L. Holland, Anwarul Ferdous, Joyce J. Repa, Guosheng Liang, Jin Ye, Mark A. Lehrman, Joseph A. Hill, Jay D. Horton, Philipp E. Scherer Source Type: research
A systematic study of labelling an α-helix in a protein with a lanthanide using IDA-SH or NTA-SH tags.
Abstract The previously published IDA-SH and NTA-SH tags are small synthetic lanthanide-binding tags derived from cysteine, which afford site-specific lanthanide labelling by disulfide-bond formation with a cysteine residue of the target protein. Following attachment to a single cysteine in an α-helix, sizeable pseudocontact shifts (PCS) can be observed, if the lanthanide is immobilized by additional coordination to a negatively charged amino-acid side chain that is located in a neighboring turn of the helix. To identify the best labelling strategy for PCS measurements, we performed a systematic study, where IDA-S...
Source: Journal of Bimolecular NMR - December 22, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yagi H, Maleckis A, Otting G Tags: J Biomol NMR Source Type: research
Changes in population growth, consumption and farming begin to return former farmlands to nature
Researchers led by Rockefeller's Jesse Ausubel analyzed factors such as global land use and population growth over the last 50 years. Looking at the production index of all crops of the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization, they found that from 1961 to 2009 land farmed grew by only 12 percent while the index rose about 300 percent. More »
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - December 21, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Science News Source Type: news
Cell 151: 1417-1430 (12-21-12)
Cell 151: 1417-1430 MeCP2 binds to 5hmC enriched within active genes and accessible chromatin in the nervous system Marian Mellén, Pinar Ayata, Scott Dewell, Skirmantas Kriaucionis and Nathaniel Heintz
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - December 21, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Research Update Source Type: news
In the News
Is the Cure for Cancer Inside You? “In the long struggle that was to come, [Ralph] Steinman would try anything and everything that might extend his life, but he placed his greatest hope in a field he helped create, … More »
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - December 21, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: In the News Source Type: news
To Donate a Kidney: Public Perspectives from Pakistan
This article analyzes the results of in‐depth interviews with 105 members of the public focusing on opinions and knowledge about juristic rulings regarding kidney donations, donor‐family dynamics in deceased donation decisions, and attitudes towards buying kidneys. The objective was to determine the influence if any of cultural and religious values, and norms of traditional family structures and kinships, on decisions to donate. Study participants view donation of kidneys, particularly from the deceased, through a different lens from that used by jurists and physicians, one that also does not conform to familiar paradi...
Source: Bioethics - December 21, 2012 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Farhat Moazam, Aamir M. Jafarey, Bushra Shirazi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Tandem Repeat Polymorphisms
Genetic Plasticity, Neural Diversity and Diseaseseries:Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology.
Source: Springer Biomedical Sciences titles - December 21, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biomedicine (general) Source Type: news
Mechanics of the mitral valve : A critical review, an in vivo parameter identification, and the effect of prestrain.
Abstract Alterations in mitral valve mechanics are classical indicators of valvular heart disease, such as mitral valve prolapse, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis. Computational modeling is a powerful technique to quantify these alterations, to explore mitral valve physiology and pathology, and to classify the impact of novel treatment strategies. The selection of the appropriate constitutive model and the choice of its material parameters are paramount to the success of these models. However, the in vivo parameters values for these models are unknown. Here, we identify the in vivo material parameters for ...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - December 21, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rausch MK, Famaey N, Shultz TO, Bothe W, Miller DC, Kuhl E Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research
Scientist or science‐stuffed? Discourses of science in North American medical education
Conclusions: That discourses of scientific medicine have reinforced the centrality of biomedicine in medical education helps to explain the persistent marginalisation of other important knowledge domains. Medical educators need to be aware of the effects of these discourses on understandings of medical knowledge, particularly when contemplating curricular reform.
Source: Medical Education - December 21, 2012 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Cynthia Whitehead Tags: curricular focus Source Type: research
In the News
Farmland Peaks, Crop Space to Revert Back to Nature, Report Finds “Humanity has reached what Rockefeller University scientists, in a new report, call ‘peak farmland.’ In the next half-century, a geographical area more than twice the size of France … More »
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: In the News Source Type: news
Nature 492: 382–386 (12-20-12)
Nature 492: 382–386 FMRP targets distinct mRNA sequence elements to regulate protein expression Manuel Ascano, Neelanjan Mukherjee, Pradeep Bandaru, Jason B. Miller, Jeffrey D. Nusbaum, David L. Corcoran, Christine Langlois, Mathias Munschauer, Scott Dewell, Markus Hafner, Zev Williams, Uwe Ohler … More »
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Research Update Source Type: news
Linking respiratory chain uncoupling to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis implies potential treatment with herbal extracts containing genipin
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown cause, and numerous approaches have tried to find plausible explanations for the onset of ALS. One explanation, which i found very reasonable, combines recent findings in that field. Physical exercise is known to induce activity of the sympathetic nervous system and in turn activates uncoupling proteins in muscles and in brown adipose tissues . In general, uncoupling of the mitochondrial respiratory chain induces benefits under specific circumstances, e.g. to avoid or counteract stressful cellular conditions or to generate heat in case of l...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M. Hoffmann Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research
Is abnormal vestibulomotor responses related to idiopathic scoliosis onset or severity?
Abstract: Results from several studies have suggested that brainstem dysfunction occurs more often in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis compared to healthy individuals. The vestibular nuclei occupy a prominent position in the brainstem. Because the lateral vestibulospinal tract controls axial muscles, alteration in the brainstem during body growth (i.e., preadolescent and adolescent period) may translate in abnormal trunk activation and thus cause permanent spinal deformities. We conceive that vestibular dysfunction may be observed only in AIS patients with severe spine deviation. Consequently, adolescent with severe id...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jean-Philippe Pialasse, Simon Laurendeau, Martin Descarreaux, Jean Blouin, Martin Simoneau Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Latent viral immune inflammatory response model for chronic multisymptom illness
Abstract: A latent viral immune inflammatory response (LVIIR) model is presented which integrates factors that contribute to chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) in both the veteran and civilian populations. The LVIIR model for CMI results from an integration of clinical experience with a review of the literature in four distinct areas: (1) studies of idiopathic multisymptom illness in the veteran population including two decades of research on Gulf War I veterans with CMI, (2) new evidence supporting the existence of chronic inflammatory responses to latent viral antigens and the effect these responses may have on the nervo...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: CDR Sean R. Maloney, Susan Jensen, Virginia Gil-Rivas, Paula Goolkasian Tags: Articles Source Type: research
The region-dependent dynamic properties of porcine temporomandibular joint disc under unconfined compression
In this study, the dynamic compressive properties in five different regions of the porcine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc are investigated over a wide range of loading frequencies. The aim was, thus far, to evaluate the regional difference and the frequency-related effect of the applied load on these properties. Eleven porcine TMJ discs were used; each disc was divided into 5 regions, anterior, central, posterior, lateral and medial. Sinusoidal compressive strain was applied with an amplitude of 1.0% and a frequency range between 0.01 and 10Hz. The dynamic storage and loss moduli increase with frequency, the highest va...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pelayo Fernández, María Jesús Lamela, Alberto Ramos, Alfonso Fernández-Canteli, Eiji Tanaka Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Smooth muscle cell contraction increases the critical buckling pressure of arteries
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of smooth muscle cell contraction on the critical buckling pressure of arteries. Porcine common carotid arteries were perfused in an ex vivo organ culture system overnight under physiological flow and pressure. The perfusion pressure was adjusted to determine the critical buckling pressure of these arteries at in vivo and reduced axial stretch ratios (1.5 and 1.3) at baseline and after smooth muscle contraction and relaxation stimulated by norepinephrine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the critical buckling pressure was significa...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Danika M. Hayman, Jinzhou Zhang, Qin Liu, Yangming Xiao, Hai-Chao Han Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Mechanical loading promotes mast cell degranulation via RGD-integrin dependent pathways
Abstract: Mast cells are known to respond to a number of stimuli, such as IgE antibody–antigen complexes, pathogens, chemical compounds, and physical stimulation, resulting in the activation of these cells and subsequent release of cytokines, inflammatory mediators and granules which can influence the pathophysiology of neighboring cells. Although different forms of physical stimulation (i.e. shear stress and acupuncture) have been investigated, the effect of cyclic tensile loading on mast cell activation has not. To characterize the response of mast cells to tensile loading, RBL-2H3 cells were embedded in a 3-dimensiona...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Vennece Fowlkes, Christopher G. Wilson, Wayne Carver, Edie C. Goldsmith Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Subject-specific bone loading estimation in the human distal radius
Abstract: High-resolution in vivo bone micro-architecture assessment, as possible now for the distal forearm, in combination with bone remodelling simulation algorithms could, eventually, predict patient-specific bone morphology changes. To simulate load-adaptive bone remodelling, however, physiological loading conditions must be defined. In this paper we test a previously developed algorithm to estimate such physiological loading conditions from the bone micro-architecture. The aims of this study were to investigate if realistic boundary forces and moments are predicted for the scanned distal radius section and how these ...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Patrik Christen, Keita Ito, Ingrid Knippels, Ralph Müller, G. Harry van Lenthe, Bert van Rietbergen Tags: Papers Source Type: research
The emergence of mechanoregulated endochondral ossification in evolution
Abstract: The differentiation of skeletal tissue phenotypes is partly regulated by mechanical forces. This mechanoregulatory aspect of tissue differentiation has been the subject of many experimental and computational investigations. However, little is known about what factors promoted the emergence of mechanoregulated tissue differentiation in evolution, even though mechanoregulated tissue differentiation, for example during development or healing of adult bone, is crucial for vertebrate phylogeny. In this paper, we use a computational framework to test the hypothesis that the emergence of mechanosensitive genes that trig...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hanifeh Khayyeri, Patrick J. Prendergast Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Bone fragility beyond strength and mineral density: Raman spectroscopy predicts femoral fracture toughness in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis
Abstract: Clinical prediction of bone fracture risk primarily relies on measures of bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is strongly correlated with bone strength, but strength is independent of fracture toughness, which refers to the bone's resistance to crack initiation and propagation. In that sense, fracture toughness is more relevant to assessing fragility-related fracture risk, independent of trauma. We hypothesized that bone biochemistry, determined by Raman spectroscopy, predicts bone fracture toughness better than BMD. This hypothesis was tested in tumor necrosis factor-transgenic mice (TNF-tg), which develop inflammat...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jason A. Inzana, Jason R. Maher, Masahiko Takahata, Edward M. Schwarz, Andrew J. Berger, Hani A. Awad Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Adhesive strength of atherosclerotic plaque in a mouse model depends on local collagen content and elastin fragmentation
Abstract: Atherosclerotic plaque rupture is a major cause of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. The adhesive strength of the bond between a plaque and the vascular wall, measured as local energy release rate, , is used for quantitative plaque stability estimation. We tested the hypothesis that adhesive strength varies with plaque composition. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP12) deficiency was previously reported to alter lesion composition. To estimate values, peeling experiments are performed on aortic plaques from apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE KO) and apoE MMP12 double knockout (DKO) male mice after 8 months on...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ying Wang, John A. Johnson, Abigail Fulp, Michael A. Sutton, Susan M. Lessner Tags: Papers Source Type: research
Changes in the viscoelastic properties of cortical bone by selective degradation of matrix protein
Abstract: We have studied stress relaxation of bovine femoral cortical bone specimens treated with KOH aqueous solution which had been known to degrade selectively protein molecules in bone. With the KOH treatment, we found an increase in specimens' volume. This increase was regarded as swelling of the bone specimen, presumably due to matrix protein network degradation including that of collagen. In an analogy of bone to gel structure, an increasing ratio of specimen volume was used as an indicating parameter for the matrix protein network degradation by the treatment. Although an empirical equation with a linearly combine...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hideki Shirakawa, Kazuya Furusawa, Akimasa Fukui, Shigeru Tadano, Naoki Sasaki Tags: Papers Source Type: research
The influence of axial image resolution on atherosclerotic plaque stress computations
Abstract: Biomechanical models are used extensively to study risk factors, such as peak stresses, for vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Typically, 3D patient-specific arterial models are reconstructed by interpolating between cross sectional contour data which have a certain axial sampling, or image, resolution. The influence of the axial sampling resolution on computed stresses, as well as the comparison of 3D with 2D simulations, is quantified in this study. A set of histological data of four atherosclerotic human coronary arteries was used which were reconstructed in 3D with a high sampling (HS) and low samplin...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: H.A. Nieuwstadt, A.C. Akyildiz, L. Speelman, R. Virmani, A. van der Lugt, A.F.W. van der Steen, J.J. Wentzel, F.J.H. Gijsen Tags: Papers Source Type: research
The use of linear ion trap for qualitative analysis of phytochemicals in Korean ginseng tea.
Abstract A new approach to qualitative analysis of ginsenosides in challenging matrices was developed on the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Using the extracts from samples of ginseng tea, the approach was validated. Analysis of extracts was carried out using a reversed-phase chromatography with SB-C(18) sorbent. For compound identification, electrospray ionization and a quadrupole/linear ion trap mass-spectrometer in different modes were used. A meticulous study of the fragmentation of ginsenosides in the linear ion trap and its application for analysis of these compounds ...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stavrianidi A, Rodin I, Braun A, Shpigun O Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research
L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS) co-administered with entacapone improves freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a variety of motor symptoms including freezing of gait (FOG), in which walking is transiently halted as if the patient’s feet were ‘glued to the ground’. Treatment of FOG is still challenging. Although L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (L-DOPS), a precursor of noradrenaline, has been on the market in Japan because of its beneficial effect for FOG, clinical use of L-DOPS has been far from satisfying. However, the fact that there were some responders to L-DOPS encouraged us to hypothesize that the enhancement of L-DOPS concentration i...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kei Fukada, Takuyuki Endo, Masaru Yokoe, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Takanori Hazama, Saburo Sakoda Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Dietary nitrate and reductive polyphenols may potentiate the vascular benefit and alleviate the ulcerative risk of low-dose aspirin
Abstract: The recent revelation that daily low-dose aspirin not only lowers risk for vascular events, but also can notably decrease risk for a range of adenocarcinomas, decreasing total cancer mortality by about 20%, makes it highly desirable to implement this protective strategy on a population-wide basis. Nonetheless, the fact that low-dose aspirin approximately doubles risk for serious gastrointestinal bleeding may impede health authorities from recommending its use by people judged to be at low cardiovascular risk. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts gastroprotective effects by boosting blood flow and mucus production in the gast...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mark F. McCarty Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Type 2 diabetes: A side effect of the adaptation of neurons and fat cells to support increased cognitive performance
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes is a serious disease that is affecting an increasing part of the population in most countries. A new hypothesis is presented in this paper about the underlying causes and mechanisms that lead to the development of this disease. It is proposed that the disease is the price that the organism pays for having improved cognitive performance that is achieved through increased level of neurite growth dynamics of neurons. The suggested mechanism of the disease development involves neural centres that deal with the sensing of fat and sugar levels in the blood and cerebro-spinal fluid, the regulation of the...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Peter Andras, Alina Andras Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Are oestrogens and genetic predisposition etiologic factors in the development of clear cell carcinoma of the peritoneum?
Abstract: A literature search was carried out for clinical observations that could explain the possible aetiology of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma (CCC) including diagnostic dilemmas, various theories of origin, oestrogen dependence and genetic association. It was found to be an extremely rare tumour (CCC) arising in the peritoneum and is often misdiagnosed as mesothelioma or serous carcinoma or metastatic adenocarcinoma due to overlapping morphological features. The awareness of such dilemmas is important even before making a diagnosis. Clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical studies like WT1, CK20 ...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rekha Wuntakal, Alexandra Lawrence Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Altered psychophysiological reactivity as a prognostic indicator of early childhood stress in chronic pain
Abstract: There is considerable evidence that early life stress (ELS) can have a lasting impact upon adult physiology. Various childhood (and even prenatal) stressors such as parental separation, neglect, and trauma, can leave an enduring impact upon immune, autonomic and endocrine systems. These changes are increasingly understood to represent vulnerabilities to developing later life medical (and psychological) morbidity. In this article it is hypothesized that these enduring physiological changes may also serve as markers to detect the presence of ELS or rather it’s impact upon the individual. Until now, the detection ...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M.D. Bartholomeusz, R. Callister, D.M. Hodgson Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Stress and strain adaptation in load-dependent remodeling of the embryonic left ventricle.
This study showed that confocal microscopy, three-dimensional reconstruction, and finite element analysis can provide a detailed model of stress and strain in the trabeculated embryonic heart. The method was used to test the hypothesis that end-diastolic strains are normalized after altered loading of the LV during the stages of trabecular compaction and chamber formation. Stage-29 chick LVs subjected to pressure overload and underload at stage 21 were reconstructed with full trabecular morphology from confocal images and analyzed with finite element techniques. Measured material properties and intraventricular pressures w...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Buffinton CM, Faas D, Sedmera D Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research
Chronic oxidative stress upregulates Drusen-related protein expression in adult human RPE stem cell-derived RPE cells: A novel culture model for dry AMD.
Conclusions: RPESC-derived hRPE cells change significantly when exposed to repeated oxidative stress conditions, upregulating expression of several drusen-related proteins and transcripts. This is consistent with the hypothesis that hRPE cells are competent to be a source of proteins found in drusen deposits. Our results suggest that donor-specific genetic and environmental factors influence the RPE stress response. ARPE-19 cells appear to be less representative of AMD-like changes than RPESC-derived hRPE. This adult stem cell-based system using chronic TBHP treatment of hRPE represents a novel in vitro model useful for th...
Source: Aging - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rabin DM, Rabin RL, Blenkinsop TA, Temple S, Stern JH Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research
Directed cardiomyocyte differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells by modulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling under fully defined conditions
Nature Protocols 8, 162 (2013). doi:10.1038/nprot.2012.150 Authors: Xiaojun Lian, Jianhua Zhang, Samira M Azarin, Kexian Zhu, Laurie B Hazeltine, Xiaoping Bao, Cheston Hsiao, Timothy J Kamp & Sean P Palecek The protocol described here efficiently directs human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to functional cardiomyocytes in a completely defined, growth factor– and serum-free system by temporal modulation of regulators of canonical Wnt signaling. Appropriate temporal application of a glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitor combined with
Source: Nature Protocols - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiaojun LianJianhua ZhangSamira M AzarinKexian ZhuLaurie B HazeltineXiaoping BaoCheston HsiaoTimothy J KampSean P Palecek Tags: Protocol Source Type: research
Thermodynamic analysis of protein-ligand binding interactions in complex biological mixtures using the stability of proteins from rates of oxidation
Nature Protocols 8, 148 (2013). doi:10.1038/nprot.2012.146 Authors: Erin C Strickland, M Ariel Geer, Duc T Tran, Jagat Adhikari, Graham M West, Patrick D DeArmond, Ying Xu & Michael C Fitzgerald The detection and quantification of protein-ligand binding interactions is crucial in a number of different areas of biochemical research from fundamental studies of biological processes to drug discovery efforts. Described here is a protocol that can be used to identify the protein targets of biologically
Source: Nature Protocols - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Erin C StricklandM Ariel GeerDuc T TranJagat AdhikariGraham M WestPatrick D DeArmondYing XuMichael C Fitzgerald Tags: Protocol Source Type: research
Site-directed spin-labeling of nucleotides and the use of in-cell EPR to determine long-range distances in a biologically relevant environment
Nature Protocols 8, 131 (2013). doi:10.1038/nprot.2012.136 Authors: Mykhailo Azarkh, Vijay Singh, Oliver Okle, Isabelle T Seemann, Daniel R Dietrich, Jörg S Hartig & Malte Drescher Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) is an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique used to determine distance distributions in the nanometer range between spin labels by measuring their dipole-dipole interactions. Here we describe how in-cell DEER can be applied to spin-labeled DNA sequences to unravel their conformations
Source: Nature Protocols - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mykhailo AzarkhVijay SinghOliver OkleIsabelle T SeemannDaniel R DietrichJörg S HartigMalte Drescher Tags: Protocol Source Type: research
Adapting human pluripotent stem cells to high-throughput and high-content screening
Nature Protocols 8, 111 (2013). doi:10.1038/nprot.2012.139 Authors: Sabrina C Desbordes & Lorenz Studer The increasing use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a source of cells for drug discovery, cytotoxicity assessment and disease modeling requires their adaptation to large-scale culture conditions and screening formats. Here, we describe a simple and robust protocol for the adaptation of human
Source: Nature Protocols - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sabrina C DesbordesLorenz Studer Tags: Protocol Source Type: research
(-)-Epicatechin is associated with increased angiogenic and mitochondrial signaling in the hindlimb of rats selectively bred for innate low running capacity
Alternative approaches to reduce congenital muscle dysfunction are needed in cases where the ability to exercise is limited. (‑)‑Epicatechin is found in cocao and may stimulate capillarity and mitochondrial proliferation in skeletal muscle. Twenty-one male rats bred for low running capacity (LCR) from generation 28 were randomized into three groups: vehicle for 30 days (control); (‑)‑epicatechin for 30 days; and (‑)‑epicatechin for 30 days followed by 15 days without (‑)‑epicatechin. Groups 2 and 3 received 1.0 mg/kg of body weight of (‑)‑epicatechin twi...
Source: Clinical Science - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M Hüttemann, I Lee, G A. Perkins, S L. Britton, L G. Koch, M H. Malek Source Type: research
Absolute Hypoxic Exercise Training Enhances in vitro Thrombin Generation by Increasing Procoagulant Platelet-derived Microparticles under High Shear Stress in Sedentary Men
This study investigated how exercise training with/without hypoxia affected TG mediated by PDMPs under physio-pathological shear flows. Seventy five sedentary males were randomly divided into five groups (n=15 in each group): 21%O2 (normoxic control, NC) or 15%O2 (hypoxic control, HC) at rest or were trained at 50% of peak work-rate under 21%O2 (normoxic training, NT) or 15%O2 (hypoxic-absolute training, HAT), or 50% of heart rate reserve under 15%O2 (hypoxic-relative training, HRT) for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. The PDMP characteristics and dynamic TG were measured by flow cytometry and thrombinography, resp...
Source: Clinical Science - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Y Chen, I Chen, J Wang Source Type: research
Ribosomal Protein S19 is a novel therapeutic agent in inflammatory kidney disease.
In this study, we sought to establish whether recombinant RPS19 can exert anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis in which MIF is known to play an important role. Accelerated anti-GBM glomerulonephritis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by immunization with sheep IgG followed 5 days later by administration of sheep anti-mouse GBM serum. Groups of 8 mice were treated once daily i.p. with 6 mg RPS19/kg or an irrelevant control protein (human secretoglobin 2A1), or received no treatment, from day 0 until being killed on day 10. Mice that received control or no treatm...
Source: Clinical Science - December 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: J Lv, X Ru Huang, J Klug, S Fröhlich, P Lacher, A Xu, A Meinhardt, H Yao Lan Source Type: research
Provision of healthcare in the context of financial crisis: approaches to the Greek health system and international implications
Abstract Both healthcare professionals and the healthcare system must defend each patient's health individually while simultaneously seeking to protect the population's health in general. Nowadays, there is an important increase in the cost of healthcare supply, mainly due to the developments of medical science, the public's expectations and the demographic ageing. Since healthcare resources are not unlimited, it is obvious that immoderate consumption of them by certain patients limits the use of the same funds by others. Therefore, we have to seek an optimal distribution of the existing resources in order to manage a cons...
Source: Nursing Philosophy - December 20, 2012 Category: Nursing Authors: Charalampos Milionis Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
JIMD Reports - Case and Research Reports, 2012/6
series:JIMD ReportsJIMD Reports publishes case and short research reports in the area of inherited metabolic disorders. Case reports highlight some unusual or previously unrecorded feature relevant to the disorder, or serve as an important reminder of clinical or biochemical features of a Mendelian disorder.
Source: Springer Biomedical Sciences titles - December 19, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Human Genetics Source Type: news
Leucocyte esterase in the rapid diagnosis of paediatric septic arthritis
Abstract: Septic arthritis may affect any age group but is more common in the paediatric population. Infection is generally bacterial in nature. Prompt diagnosis is crucial, as delayed treatment is associated with lifelong joint dysfunction. A clinical history and application of Kocher’s criteria may indicate that there is a septic arthritis. However, definitive diagnosis is made on culture of septic synovial fluid. The culture process can take over 24h for the initial culture to yield bacterial colonies.Leucocyte esterase is released by leucocytes at the site of an infection. We hypothesise that leucocyte esterase can b...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 19, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: E.G. Kelly, J.P. Cashman Tags: Articles Source Type: research
The biochemistry of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity and rescue: a mathematical model
Conclusions: The mathematical model provides a new tool for studying the effects of various doses of acetaminophen on the liver metabolism of acetaminophen and glu- tathione. It can be used to study how the metabolism of acetaminophen depends on the expression level of liver enzymes. Finally, it can be used to predict patient metabolic and physiological responses to APAP doses and different NAC dosing strategies.
Source: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling - December 19, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rotem Ben-ShacharYifei ChenShishi LuoCatherine HartmanMichael ReedH Nijhout Source Type: research
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109: 21076-21080 (12-18-12)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109: 21076-21080 Contribution of active hair-bundle motility to nonlinear amplification in the mammalian cochlea Fumiaki Nin, Tobias Reichenbach, Jonathan A. N. Fisher and A. J. Hudspeth
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - December 18, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Research Update Source Type: news
Transient Willis–Ekbom’s disease (restless legs syndrome) during pregnancy may be caused by estradiol-mediated dopamine overmodulation
Abstract: Willis–Ekbom’s disease (WED), formerly called restless legs syndrome, is more common in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, implying that the physiological and biochemical changes during pregnancy influence its development. During pregnancy, many hormone levels undergo significant changes, and some hormones significantly increase in activity and can interfere with other hormones. For example, the steroid hormone estradiol interferes with the neuroendocrine hormone dopamine. During pregnancy, the activity of the thyroid axis is enhanced to meet the increased demand for thyroid hormones during this state. Dopa...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - December 18, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: José Carlos Pereira, Ingrid Ramos Rocha e Silva, Márcia Pradella-Hallinan Tags: Articles Source Type: research
P73 and age-related diseases: is there any link with Parkinson Disease?
Abstract P73 is a member of the p53 transcription factors family with a prominent role in neurobiology, affecting brain development as well as controlling neuronal survival. Accordingly, p73 has been identified as key player in many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, neuroAIDS and Niemann-Pick type C disease. Here we investigate possible correlations of p73 with Parkinson disease. Tyrosine hydroxylase is a crucial player in Parkinson disease being the enzyme necessary for dopamine synthesis. In this work we show that levels of tyrosine hydroxylase can be influenced by p73. We also ...
Source: Aging - December 18, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Grespi F, Melino G Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research