Biomedical Science This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.
This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.
Pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, oxidative stress, insulin, Zn and Cu: Interrelations with obesity in Egyptian non-diabetic obese children and adolescents
Conclusions We concluded that obesity with pro-inflammatory adipocytokines and hypozincemia together by many mechanisms participate in excessive oxidative stress and are highly associated with inflammation and the development of obesity-related complications. Obesity represents a critical risk factor for development of insulin resistance status. (Source: Advances in Medical Sciences)
Source: Advances in Medical Sciences - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Widespread correlation patterns of fMRI signal across visual cortex reflect eccentricity organization
The human visual system can be divided into over two-dozen distinct areas, each of which contains a topographic map of the visual field. A fundamental question in vision neuroscience is how the visual system integrates information from the environment across different areas. Using neuroimaging, we investigated the spatial pattern of correlated BOLD signal across eight visual areas on data collected during rest conditions and during naturalistic movie viewing. The correlation pattern between areas reflected the underlying receptive field organization with higher correlations between cortical sites containing overlapping rep...
Source: eLife - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Arcaro, M. J., Honey, C. J., Mruczek, R. E., Kastner, S., Hasson, U. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Effectiveness of traveller screening for emerging pathogens is shaped by epidemiology and natural history of infection
During outbreaks of high-consequence pathogens, airport screening programs have been deployed to curtail geographic spread of infection. The effectiveness of screening depends on several factors, including pathogen natural history and epidemiology, human behavior, and characteristics of the source epidemic. We developed a mathematical model to understand how these factors combine to influence screening outcomes. We analyzed screening programs for six emerging pathogens in the early and late stages of an epidemic. We show that the effectiveness of different screening tools depends strongly on pathogen natural history and ep...
Source: eLife - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gostic, K. M., Kucharski, A. J., Lloyd-Smith, J. O. Tags: Epidemiology and global health Source Type: research
Effects of Heavy-Resistance Strength and Balance Training on Unilateral and Bilateral Leg Strength Performance in Old Adults
by Rainer Beurskens, Albert Gollhofer, Thomas Muehlbauer, Marco Cardinale, Urs Granacher The term “bilateral deficit” (BLD) has been used to describe a reduction in performance during bilateral contractions when compared to the sum of identical unilateral contractions. In old age, maximal isometric force production (MIF) decreases and BLD increases indicating the need for training interventions to mitigate this impact in seniors. In a cross-sectional approach, we examined age-related differences in MIF and BLD in young (age: 20–30 years) and old adults (age: >65 years). In addition, a randomized-controlled trial was...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rainer Beurskens et al. Source Type: research
Analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni Genome by SMRT DNA Sequencing Identifies Restriction-Modification Motifs
by Jason L. O’Loughlin, Tyson P. Eucker, Juan D. Chavez, Derrick R. Samuelson, Jason Neal-McKinney, Christopher R. Gourley, James E. Bruce, Michael E. Konkel Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis. The goal of this study was to analyze the C. jejuni F38011 strain, recovered from an individual with severe enteritis, at a genomic and proteomic level to gain insight into microbial processes. The C. jejuni F38011 genome is comprised of 1,691,939 bp, with a mol.% (G+C) content of 30.5%. PacBio sequencing coupled with REBASE analysis was used to predict C. jejuni F38011 genomic sites and en...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jason L. O’Loughlin et al. Source Type: research
Rural/Urban and Socioeconomic Differentials in Quality of Antenatal Care in Ghana
by Patience A. Afulani Background Approximately 800 women die of pregnancy-related complications every day. Over half of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Most maternal deaths can be prevented with high quality maternal health services. It is well established that use of maternal health services vary by place of residence and socioeconomic status (SES), but few studies have examined the determinants of quality of maternal health services in SSA. The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of antenatal care (ANC) quality in Ghana–focusing on the role of place of residence and SES (education and ...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Patience A. Afulani Source Type: research
Role of Hydrogen Sulfide in Early Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia
by Zheng Jiang, Chun Li, Morganne L. Manuel, Shuai Yuan, Christopher G. Kevil, Kimberly D. McCarter, Wei Lu, Hong Sun We determined the role of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) in cerebral vasodilation/hyperemia and early BBB disruption following ischemic stroke. A cranial window was prepared over the left frontal, parietal and temporal cortex in mice. Transient focal cerebral Ischemia was induced by directly ligating the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for two hours. Regional vascular response and cerebral blood flow (CBF) during ischemia and reperfusion were measured in real time. Early BBB disruption was assessed by Ev...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zheng Jiang et al. Source Type: research
Substrate-Dependent Activation of the Vibrio cholerae vexAB RND Efflux System Requires vexR
by Dawn L. Taylor, Vanessa M. Ante, X. Renee Bina, Mondraya F. Howard, James E. Bina Vibrio cholerae encodes six resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux systems which function in antimicrobial resistance, virulence factor production, and intestinal colonization. Among the six RND efflux systems, VexAB exhibited broad substrate specificity and played a predominant role in intrinsic antimicrobial resistance. The VexAB system was encoded in an apparent three gene operon that included vexR; which encodes an uncharacterized TetR family regulator. In this work we examined the role of vexR in vexRAB expression. We found that...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dawn L. Taylor et al. Source Type: research
Accumulation of a Bioactive Benzoisochromanequinone Compound Kalafungin by a Wild Type Antitumor-Medermycin-Producing Streptomycete Strain
by Jin Lü, Qiang He, Luyao Huang, Xiaofeng Cai, Wenwen Guo, Jing He, Lili Zhang, Aiying Li Medermycin and kalafungin, two antibacterial and antitumor antibiotics isolated from different streptomycetes, share an identical polyketide skeleton core. The present study reported the discovery of kalafungin in a medermycin-producing streptomycete strain for the first time. A mutant strain obtained through UV mutagenesis showed a 3-fold increase in the production of this antibiotic, compared to the wild type strain. Heterologous expression experiments suggested that its production was severely controlled by the gene cluster for ...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jin Lü et al. Source Type: research
Effects of Long-Term 50Hz Power-Line Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Cell Behavior in Balb/c 3T3 Cells
by Guang-Zhou An, Hui Xu, Yan Zhou, Le Du, Xia Miao, Da-Peng Jiang, Kang-Chu Li, Guo-Zhen Guo, Chen Zhang, Gui-Rong Ding Power-line frequency electromagnetic field (PF-EMF) was reported as a human carcinogen by some epidemiological research, but the conclusion is lack of robust experiment evidence. To identify the effects of long-term PF-EMF exposure on cell behavior, Balb/c 3T3 cells in exponential growth phase were exposed or sham-exposed to 50 Hertz (Hz) PF-EMF at 2.3 mT for 2 hours (h) one day, 5 days every week. After 11 weeks exposure, cells were collected instantly. Cell morphology was observed under invert microsc...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Guang-Zhou An et al. Source Type: research
Correlation of Six-Minute Walking Performance with Quality of Life is Domain- and Gender-Specific in Healthy Older Adults
by Andrey Jorge Serra, Paulo de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Fernanda Lanza, Camila de Amorim Flandes, Shirley Cardoso Silva, Frank Shiguemitsu Suzuki, Danilo Sales Bocalini, Erinaldo Andrade, Cezar Casarin, José Antonio Silva We analyzed the relationship between performance on the 6-min walk test (6MWT) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older subjects. Our secondary aim was to determine the distance to be completed on the 6MWT for the subject to achieve a score of 50 on the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Associations were tested using linear correlation and multivariate linear regression. Participants ...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Andrey Jorge Serra et al. Source Type: research
Deep-Brain Electrical Microstimulation Is an Effective Tool to Explore Functional Characteristics of Somatosensory Neurons in the Rat Brain
by Han-Jia Jiang, Kuang-Hsuan Chen, Fu-Shan Jaw In neurophysiology researches, peripheral stimulation is used along with recordings of neural activities to study the processing of somatosensory signals in the brain. However, limited precision of peripheral stimulation makes it difficult to activate the neuron with millisecond resolution and study its functional properties in this scale. Also, tissue/receptor damage that could occur in some experiments often limits the amount of responses that can be recorded and hence reduces data reproducibility. To overcome these limitations, electrical microstimulation (ES) of the brai...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Han-Jia Jiang et al. Source Type: research
Alterations in Peripheral and Central Components of the Auditory Brainstem Response: A Neural Assay of Tinnitus
by Andrea S. Lowe, Joseph P. Walton Chronic tinnitus, or “ringing of the ears”, affects upwards of 15% of the adult population. Identifying a cost-effective and objective measure of tinnitus is needed due to legal concerns and disability issues, as well as for facilitating the effort to assess neural biomarkers. We developed a modified gap-in-noise (GIN) paradigm to assess tinnitus in mice using the auditory brainstem response (ABR). We then compared the commonly used acoustic startle reflex gap-prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI) and the ABR GIN paradigm in young adult CBA/CaJ mice before and after administrating sodium sa...
Source: PLoS One - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Andrea S. Lowe et al. Source Type: research
A chemical approach for site-specific identification of NMR signals from protein side-chain NH3 (+) groups forming intermolecular ion pairs in protein-nucleic acid complexes.
Abstract Protein-nucleic acid interactions involve intermolecular ion pairs of protein side-chain and DNA or RNA phosphate groups. Using three protein-DNA complexes, we demonstrate that site-specific oxygen-to-sulfur substitution in phosphate groups allows for identification of NMR signals from the protein side-chain NH3 (+) groups forming the intermolecular ion pairs. A characteristic change in their (1)H and (15)N resonances upon this modification (i.e., substitution of phosphate to phosphorodithioate) can represent a signature of an intermolecular ion pair. Hydrogen-bond scalar coupling between protein side-chai...
Source: Journal of Bimolecular NMR - February 19, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anderson KM, Nguyen D, Esadze A, Zandrashvili L, Gorenstein DG, Iwahara J Tags: J Biomol NMR Source Type: research
Investigating and Reporting Adverse Reactions Related to Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) Regulated Solely under Section 361 of the Public Health Service Act and 21 CFR Part 1271 - Draft
(Source: What's New at CBER)
Source: What's New at CBER - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: news
The future of industrial bioprocessing: Batch or continuous?
(Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering)
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Matthew S. Croughan, Konstantin B. Konstantinov, Charles Cooney Tags: Viewpoint Source Type: research
MethylC-seq library preparation for base-resolution whole-genome bisulfite sequencing
Nature Protocols 10, 475 (2015). doi:10.1038/nprot.2014.114 Authors: Mark A Urich, Joseph R Nery, Ryan Lister, Robert J Schmitz & Joseph R Ecker Current high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies enable acquisition of billions of data points through which myriad biological processes can be interrogated, including genetic variation, chromatin structure, gene expression patterns, small RNAs and protein–DNA interactions. Here we describe the MethylC-sequencing (MethylC-seq) library preparation method, a 2-d protocol (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mark A UrichJoseph R NeryRyan ListerRobert J SchmitzJoseph R Ecker Tags: Protocol Source Type: research
Supercooling preservation and transplantation of the rat liver
Nature Protocols 10, 484 (2015). doi:10.1038/nprot.2015.011 Authors: Bote G Bruinsma, Tim A Berendsen, Maria-Louisa Izamis, Heidi Yeh, Martin L Yarmush & Korkut Uygun The current standard for liver preservation involves cooling of the organ on ice (0–4 °C). Although it is successful for shorter durations, this method of preservation does not allow long-term storage of the liver. The gradual loss of hepatic viability during preservation puts pressure on (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bote G BruinsmaTim A BerendsenMaria-Louisa IzamisHeidi YehMartin L YarmushKorkut Uygun Tags: Protocol Source Type: research
Self-assembled carrageenan/protamine polyelectrolyte nanoplexes—Investigation of critical parameters governing their formation and characteristics
Publication date: 5 June 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 123 Author(s): Maria Dul , Krzysztof J. Paluch , Hazel Kelly , Anne Marie Healy , Astrid Sasse , Lidia Tajber The aim of this work was to investigate the feasibility of cross-linker free polyelectrolyte complex formation at the nanoscale between carrageenan (CAR) and protamine (PROT). The properties of CAR/PROT nanoparticles (NPs) were dependent on the carrageenan type: kappa (KC), iota (IC) and lambda (LC), concentration of components, addition of divalent cations, weight mixing ratio (WMR) of constituents and mode of component addition. In the case of 0...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
Correction: Fluorescent sensors reporting the activity of ammonium transceptors in live cells
Source: eLife - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: De Michele, R., Ast, C., Loque, D., Ho, C.-H., Andrade, S. L., Lanquar, V., Grossmann, G., Gehne, S., Kumke, M. U., Frommer, W. B. Tags: Plant biology Source Type: research
A molecular basis for the differential roles of Bub1 and BubR1 in the spindle assembly checkpoint
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors and promotes kinetochore–microtubule attachment during mitosis. Bub1 and BubR1, SAC components, originated from duplication of an ancestor gene. Subsequent sub-functionalization established subordination: Bub1, recruited first to kinetochores, promotes successive BubR1 recruitment. Because both Bub1 and BubR1 hetero-dimerize with Bub3, a targeting adaptor for phosphorylated kinetochores, the molecular basis for such sub-functionalization is unclear. We demonstrate that Bub1, but not BubR1, enhances binding of Bub3 to phosphorylated kinetochores. Grafting a short motif of...
Source: eLife - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Overlack, K., Primorac, I., Vleugel, M., Krenn, V., Maffini, S., Hoffmann, I., Kops, G. J. P. L., Musacchio, A. Tags: Cell biology Source Type: research
The stress-responsive kinases MAPKAPK2/MAPKAPK3 activate starvation-induced autophagy through Beclin 1 phosphorylation
Autophagy is a fundamental adaptive response to amino acid starvation orchestrated by conserved gene products, the autophagy (ATG) proteins. However, the cellular cues that activate the function of ATG proteins during amino acid starvation are incompletely understood. Here we show that two related stress-responsive kinases, members of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway MAPKAPK2 (MK2) and MAPKAPK3 (MK3), positively regulate starvation-induced autophagy by phosphorylating an essential ATG protein, Beclin 1, at serine 90, and that this phosphorylation site is essential for the tumor suppressor f...
Source: eLife - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wei, Y., An, Z., Zou, Z., Sumpter, R., Su, M., Zang, X., Sinha, S., Gaestel, M., Levine, B. Tags: Cell biology Source Type: research
Role of visual and non-visual cues in constructing a rotation-invariant representation of heading in parietal cortex
As we navigate through the world, eye and head movements add rotational velocity patterns to the retinal image. When such rotations accompany observer translation, the rotational velocity patterns must be discounted to accurately perceive heading. The conventional view holds that this computation requires efference copies of self-generated eye/head movements. Here we demonstrate that the brain implements an alternative solution in which retinal velocity patterns are themselves used to dissociate translations from rotations. These results reveal a novel role for visual cues in achieving a rotation-invariant representation o...
Source: eLife - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sunkara, A., DeAngelis, G. C., Angelaki, D. E. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Vascular remodeling is governed by a VEGFR3-dependent fluid shear stress set point
Vascular remodeling under conditions of growth or exercise, or during recovery from arterial restriction or blockage is essential for health, but mechanisms are poorly understood. It has been proposed that endothelial cells have a preferred level of fluid shear stress, or ‘set point’, that determines remodeling. We show that human umbilical vein endothelial cells respond optimally within a range of fluid shear stress that approximate physiological shear. Lymphatic endothelial cells, which experience much lower flow in vivo, show similar effects but at lower value of shear stress. VEGFR3 levels, a component of a...
Source: eLife - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Baeyens, N., Nicoli, S., Coon, B. G., Ross, T. D., Van den Dries, K., Han, J., Lauridsen, H. M., Mejean, C. O., Eichmann, A., Thomas, J.-L., Humphrey, J. D., Schwartz, M. A. Tags: Human biology and medicine Source Type: research
Noncanonical binding of BiP ATPase domain to Ire1 and Perk is dissociated by unfolded protein CH1 to initiate ER stress signaling
In this study, we identify a noncanonical interaction between the ATPase domain of the ER chaperone BiP and the luminal domains of the UPR sensors Ire1 and Perk that dissociates when authentic ER unfolded protein CH1 binds to the canonical substrate binding domain of BiP. Unlike the interaction between chaperone and substrates, we found that the interaction between BiP and UPR sensors was unaffected by nucleotides. Thus, we discover that BiP is dual functional UPR sensor, sensing unfolded proteins by canonical binding to substrates and transducing this event to noncanonical, signaling interaction to Ire1 and Perk. Our obse...
Source: eLife - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Carrara, M., Prischi, F., Nowak, P. R., Kopp, M. C., Ali, M. M. Tags: Biophysics and structural biology Source Type: research
Bisphenol A Promotes Cell Survival Following Oxidative DNA Damage in Mouse Fibroblasts
by Natalie R. Gassman, Erdem Coskun, Donna F. Stefanick, Julie K. Horton, Pawel Jaruga, Miral Dizdaroglu, Samuel H. Wilson Bisphenol A (BPA) is a biologically active industrial chemical used in production of consumer products. BPA has become a target of intense public scrutiny following concerns about its association with human diseases such as obesity, diabetes, reproductive disorders, and cancer. Recent studies link BPA with the generation of reactive oxygen species, and base excision repair (BER) is responsible for removing oxidatively induced DNA lesions. Yet, the relationship between BPA and BER has yet to be examine...
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Natalie R. Gassman et al. Source Type: research
Diverse Virulent Pneumophages Infect Streptococcus mitis
In this study, the two virulent phages Cp-1 (Podoviridae) and Dp-1 (Siphoviridae), previously isolated from S. pneumoniae, were found to also infect S. mitis. Microbiological assays showed that both pneumophages could not only replicate in S. mitis but also produced more visible plaques on this host. However, the burst size and phage adsorption data were lower in S. mitis as compared to S. pneumoniae. A comparison of the genomes of each phage grown on both hosts produced identical nucleotide sequences, confirming that the same phages infect both bacterial species. We also discovered that the genomic sequence of podophage C...
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Siham Ouennane et al. Source Type: research
A De Novo Transcriptome and Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Colaphellus bowringi
Conclusion The abundant putative C. bowringi transcript sequences reported enrich the genomic resources of this beetle. Importantly, the larger number of gene sequences and valid reference genes provide a valuable platform for future gene expression studies, especially with regard to exploring the molecular mechanisms of different physiological processes in this species. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Qian-Qian Tan et al. Source Type: research
Gender Differences in the Risk Factors for Endothelial Dysfunction in Chinese Hypertensive Patients: Homocysteine Is an Independent Risk Factor in Females
Conclusions There are gender-related differences in the risk factors for endothelial dysfunction in Chinese hypertensive patients. Homocysteine is an independent factor for endothelial dysfunction in female hypertensive patients. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Cheng Cao et al. Source Type: research
Heat-Attributable Deaths between 1992 and 2009 in Seoul, South Korea
Conclusion This study estimated RRs and deaths attributable to high ambient temperature for a wide variety of diseases. Prevention-related policies must account for both particular vulnerabilities (heat-sensitive diseases with high RRs) and the major causes of the heat mortality burden (common conditions less sensitive to high temperatures). (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Clara T. Kim et al. Source Type: research
Temporal and Spatial Transcriptional Fingerprints by Antipsychotic or Propsychotic Drugs in Mouse Brain
by Kensuke Sakuma, Hidetoshi Komatsu, Minoru Maruyama, Sachiko Imaichi, Yugo Habata, Masaaki Mori Various types of antipsychotics have been developed for the treatment of schizophrenia since the accidental discovery of the antipsychotic activity of chlorpromazine. Although all clinically effective antipsychotic agents have common properties to interact with the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activation, their precise mechanisms of action remain elusive. Antipsychotics are well known to induce transcriptional changes of immediate early genes (IEGs), raising the possibility that gene expressions play an essential role to improv...
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kensuke Sakuma et al. Source Type: research
Prior Individual Training and Self-Organized Queuing during Group Emergency Escape of Mice from Water Pool
by Caesar Saloma, Gay Jane Perez, Catherine Ann Gavile, Jacqueline Judith Ick-Joson, Cynthia Palmes-Saloma We study the impact of prior individual training during group emergency evacuation using mice that escape from an enclosed water pool to a dry platform via any of two possible exits. Experimenting with mice avoids serious ethical and legal issues that arise when dealing with unwitting human participants while minimizing concerns regarding the reliability of results obtained from simulated experiments using ‘actors’. First, mice were trained separately and their individual escape times measured over several trials...
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Caesar Saloma et al. Source Type: research
Nest Etiquette—Where Ants Go When Nature Calls
by Tomer J. Czaczkes, Jürgen Heinze, Joachim Ruther Sanitary behaviour is an important, but seldom studied, aspect of social living. Social insects have developed several strategies for dealing with waste and faecal matter, including dumping waste outside the nest and forming specialised waste-storage chambers. In some cases waste material and faeces are put to use, either as a construction material or as a long-lasting signal, suggesting that faeces and waste may not always be dangerous. Here we examine a previously undescribed behaviour in ants – the formation of well-defined faecal patches. Lasius niger ants were ho...
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tomer J. Czaczkes et al. Source Type: research
Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Diabetes in Bangladesh: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Conclusions Diabetes has become a national health concern in Bangladesh; however, treatment and control are quite low. Improving detection, awareness, and treatment strategies is urgently needed to prevent the growing burden associated with diabetes. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Md. Shafiur Rahman et al. Source Type: research
Disclosing Bias in Bisulfite Assay: MethPrimers Underestimate High DNA Methylation
by Andrea Fuso, Giampiero Ferraguti, Sigfrido Scarpa, Isidre Ferrer, Marco Lucarelli Discordant results obtained in bisulfite assays using MethPrimers (PCR primers designed using MethPrimer software or assuming that non-CpGs cytosines are non methylated) versus primers insensitive to cytosine methylation lead us to hypothesize a technical bias. We therefore used the two kinds of primers to study different experimental models and methylation statuses. We demonstrated that MethPrimers negatively select hypermethylated DNA sequences in the PCR step of the bisulfite assay, resulting in CpG methylation underestimation and non-...
Source: PLoS One - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Andrea Fuso et al. Source Type: research
Pentacycloundecane lactam vs lactone norstatine type protease HIV inhibitors: binding energy calculations and DFT study
Conclusions: A general trend is observed that the lactam species appears to have a larger negative charge distribution around the heteroatoms, larger quadrupole constant, dipole moment and better solvation energy, in comparison to the PCU-lactone model. It can be argued that these characteristics will ensure better eletronic interaction between the lactam and the receptor, corresponding to the observed HIV protease activities in terms of experimental IC50 data. (Source: Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: Journal of Biomedical Science - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bahareh HonarparvarSachin PawarCláudio AlvesJerônimo LameiraGlenn MaguireJosé SilvaThavendran GovenderHendrik Kruger Source Type: research
Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Extracellular Kynurenine Levels, as Detected by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
In this study, we investigated the influence of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on KYN production by cultured endothelial cells. KYN and tryptophan (TRP) concentrations in cell supernatants were simultaneously measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with a fluorescence detector (FLD) and an ultraviolet detector (UVD). Our results revealed that lipopolysaccharide-stimulated endothelial cells produced more KYN, which was accompanied by a parallel decrease in TRP. When co-cultured with BMSCs, KYN and TRP production were significantly decreased compared to lipopolysaccharide (LP...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Slows Down the Progression of Osteoarthritis by Inhibiting Nitric Oxide Production and Metalloproteinase Synthesis
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common arthritis and also one of the major causes of joint pain in elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) on degenerated-related changes in osteoarthritis (OA). SW1353 cells were stimulated with IL-1β to establish the chondrocyte injury model in vitro. PQQ was administrated into SW1353 cultures 1 h before IL-1β treatment. Amounts of MMP-1, MMP-13, P65, IκBα, ERK, p-ERK, P38, and p-P38 were measured via western blot. The production of NO was determined by Griess reaction assay and reflected by the iNOS leve...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Celecoxib Combined with Diacerein Effectively Alleviates Osteoarthritis in Rats via Regulating JNK and p38MAPK Signaling Pathways
Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) has long been a difficult to overcome joint disease for medical workers. However, there is still a lack of effective treatments for OA. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the treatment effect of celecoxib (CLX) combined with diacerein (DC) on OA and delineate the underlying molecular mechanism. The OA model was established by using rats, and OA rats were treated with either CLX alone, DC alone, and CLX combined with DC. The results showed that, as compared with a single treatment of CLX or DC, CLX combined with DC markedly attenuated OA and inhibited the levels of inflammatory ...
Source: Inflammation - February 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Effective communication enhances the patients’ endoscopy experience
Conclusion Structured information leaflets and improved staff communication skills reduce anxiety and enhance patients’ experiences. They are now standard operating procedures. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - February 18, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research
The 23 rd Sylvester O’Halloran Surgical Scientific Symposium
greatly acknowledges the support given to the meeting
by the following companies:
(Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - February 18, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in China
This article mainly reviewed the indications and contraindications of HBOT, as well as the status of clinical and experimental HBOT research in China. At the same time, there is a brief introduction of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) in China. (Source: Medical Gas Research)
Source: Medical Gas Research - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research
[Editorial] Joining forces to drive biomedical translation
(Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shi, T. Z., Liang, H., Liang, X., Zhan, Q., Dai, K., Alving, B. M., Liu, D., Dai, J., Shekhar, A., Fu, X. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
[Focus] (Re)solving atherosclerosis
Delivery of nanoparticles with arterial tropism containing the annexin A1 fragment Ac2-26 reduces signs of lesion instability in a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis (Fredman et al., this issue). (Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Soehnlein, O. Tags: Focus Source Type: research
[Research Articles] Targeted nanoparticles containing the proresolving peptide Ac2-26 protect against advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice
Chronic, nonresolving inflammation is a critical factor in the clinical progression of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. In the normal inflammatory response, resolution is mediated by several agonists, among which is the glucocorticoid-regulated protein called annexin A1. The proresolving actions of annexin A1, which are mediated through its receptor N-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX), can be mimicked by an amino-terminal peptide encompassing amino acids 2–26 (Ac2-26). Collagen IV (Col IV)–targeted nanoparticles (NPs) containing Ac2-26 were evaluated for their therapeutic effect on chronic, advanced atheros...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fredman, G., Kamaly, N., Spolitu, S., Milton, J., Ghorpade, D., Chiasson, R., Kuriakose, G., Perretti, M., Farokzhad, O., Tabas, I. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
[Research Articles] Regulation of immune responses to protein therapeutics by transplacental induction of T cell tolerance
Central tolerance plays a key role in modulating immune responses to self and exogenous antigens. The absence of self-antigen expression, as in patients with genetic deficiencies, prevents the development of antigen-specific immune tolerance. Hence, a substantial number of patients develop neutralizing antibodies to the corresponding protein therapeutics after replacement treatment. In this context, the administration of missing antigens during fetal development, a key period for self-tolerance establishment, should confer early and long-lasting antigen-specific tolerance. To this end, we exploited the physiological pathwa...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gupta, N., Culina, S., Meslier, Y., Dimitrov, J., Arnoult, C., Delignat, S., Gangadharan, B., Lecerf, M., Justesen, S., Gouilleux-Gruart, V., Salomon, B. L., Scott, D. W., Kaveri, S. V., Mallone, R., Lacroix-Desmazes, S. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
[Research Articles] Rational development and characterization of humanized anti-EGFR variant III chimeric antigen receptor T cells for glioblastoma
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are synthetic molecules designed to redirect T cells to specific antigens. CAR-modified T cells can mediate long-term durable remissions in B cell malignancies, but expanding this platform to solid tumors requires the discovery of surface targets with limited expression in normal tissues. The variant III mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) results from an in-frame deletion of a portion of the extracellular domain, creating a neoepitope. We chose a vector backbone encoding a second-generation CAR based on efficacy of a murine scFv–based CAR in a xenograft model...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Johnson, L. A., Scholler, J., Ohkuri, T., Kosaka, A., Patel, P. R., McGettigan, S. E., Nace, A. K., Dentchev, T., Thekkat, P., Loew, A., Boesteanu, A. C., Cogdill, A. P., Chen, T., Fraietta, J. A., Kloss, C. C., Posey, A. D., Engels, B., Singh, R., Ezell, Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
[Research Articles] NPC1L1 is a key regulator of intestinal vitamin K absorption and a modulator of warfarin therapy
Vitamin K (VK) is a micronutrient that facilitates blood coagulation. VK antagonists, such as warfarin, are used in the clinic to prevent thromboembolism. Because VK is not synthesized in the body, its intestinal absorption is crucial for maintaining whole-body VK levels. However, the molecular mechanism of this absorption is unclear. We demonstrate that Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein, a cholesterol transporter, plays a central role in intestinal VK uptake and modulates the anticoagulant effect of warfarin. In vitro studies using NPC1L1-overexpressing intestinal cells and in vivo studies with Npc1l1-knockout mice ...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Takada, T., Yamanashi, Y., Konishi, K., Yamamoto, T., Toyoda, Y., Masuo, Y., Yamamoto, H., Suzuki, H. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
[Editors' Choice] A mighty "MyD" guardian of heart function
(Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - February 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Haldar, S. M. Tags: Editors ' Choice Source Type: research