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Biomedical Science

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.

The cystine/glutamate antiporter: when too much of a good thing goes bad
Glutamate excitotoxicity represents a major cellular component of ischemic brain injury. In this issue of the JCI, Soria and colleagues reveal that the cystine/glutamate exchanger is an important source of excitotoxic glutamate in response to ischemia induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation. As the exchanger is a primary determinant of both extracellular glutamate and intracellular glutathione, the findings from this study not only provide important insight into the mechanisms of brain ischemia but also demonstrate the complexity of the yin and yang of glutamate homeostasis and cellular redox balance. (Source: Journal of...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kathryn J. Reissner Source Type: research

A brain network response to sham surgery
Evaluation of potential therapies for neurological disease has been challenging due to beneficial responses in patients receiving the sham/placebo treatment. Placebo effects are especially prominent in Parkinson’s disease (PD), which has become a useful model for studying the neurobiology of placebo responses. In this issue of the JCI, Ko and colleagues identify a neural circuit associated with the placebo response in a PD patient cohort. The observed placebo effect–associated pattern involved metabolic activity increases that corresponded with long-term motor improvements after sham surgery. Presurgery activity in thi...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mariya V. Cherkasova, A. Jon Stoessl Source Type: research

Wetting the whistle: neurotropic factor improves salivary function
Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common side effect of head and neck radiotherapy, Sjögren syndrome, diabetes, old age, and numerous medications. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao and colleagues identified glial cell line–derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a potential stimulus for salivary stem cell growth. Due to its ability to promote neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival, GDNF is currently being used in clinical trials as a treatment for Parkinson disease; therefore, the findings of Xiao and colleagues may initiate a potential treatment for the millions of patients who suffer from xerostomia each year. (Source...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Adam Swick, Randall J. Kimple Source Type: research

Radiation and ATM inhibition: the heart of the matter
Numerous in vitro studies have shown that human cell lines lacking functional ATM are extremely radiosensitive. In this issue, Moding et al. demonstrate using a murine model of sarcoma that deletion of the Atm gene has much less of a radiosensitizing effect on normal cardiac endothelia than on rapidly proliferating tumor endothelia. This work confounds our assumptions about the generality of the role of ATM in radiation sensitivity and the potential use of ATM inhibitors as radiosensitizers. (Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ester M. Hammond, Ruth J. Muschel Source Type: research

A “kiss” before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF
A 30-year-old primigravid (G1P000) female with infertility secondary to her partner’s oligospermia and her chronic anovulation presented 13 days after an oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization (IVF) with a positive home pregnancy test, abdominal distention, a 5-pound weight gain, nausea, shortness of breath, and reduced urinary frequency. Her IVF cycle included the usual cocktail for gonadotropin stimulation and was uncomplicated, except for excessively stimulated ovaries that led to a peak estradiol level of 6,000 pg/ml and the retrieval of 30 oocytes. Her past history was relevant only for anovulation due to polyc...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Steven L. Young Source Type: research

Islet amyloid and type 2 diabetes: overproduction or inadequate clearance and detoxification?
A hallmark of type 2 diabetes is the reduction of pancreatic islet β cell mass through induction of apoptosis and lack of regeneration. In most patients, β cell dysfunction is associated with the presence of extracellular amyloid plaques adjacent to β cells and intracellular toxic oligomers that are comprised of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). In this issue of the JCI, three independent research groups reveal that a functional autophagy system normally prevents the accumulation of toxic IAPP oligomers in human IAPP–expressing murine models. Furthermore, mice expressing human IAPP but deficient for β cell autophagy ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dhananjay Gupta, Jack L. Leahy Source Type: research

Determinants of behavior of students as pedestrian and car occupants in relation to traffic laws in 2013, Gorgan, Iran: an application of Health Belief Model - Heshmati H, Behnampour N, Binaei G, Khajavai S.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the behavioral pattern of Golestan University of Medical Science (GUMS) students as pedestrian and car occupants in relation to traffic law based on Health Belief Model. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed dur... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated) - July 18, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news

Arginine infusion in septic shock patients increases nitric oxide production without hemodynamic instability
In conclusion, a4-fold increase of plasma arginine with intravenous arginine infusion in sepsis stimulates de novo arginine and NO production and reduces whole body protein breakdown. These potential beneficial metabolic effects occurred without negative alterations in hemodynamic parameters, although improvement of regional perfusion could not be demonstrated in the eight patients with septic shock that were studied. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Y C Luiking, M Poeze, N EP Deutz Source Type: research

The role of glottal surface adhesion on vocal folds biomechanics.
Abstract The airway surface liquid (ASL) is a very thin mucus layer and covers the vocal fold (VF) surface. Adhesion mediated by the ASL occurs during phonation as the VFs separate after collision. Such adhesion is hypothesized to determine voice quality and health. However, biomechanical insights into the adhesive processes during VF oscillation are lacking. Here, a computational study is reported on self-sustained VF vibration involving contact and adhesion. The VF structural model and the glottal airflow are considered fully three-dimensional. The mechanical behavior of the ASL is described through a constitutiv...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bhattacharya P, Siegmund T Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

Evolving anisotropy and degree of elastolytic insult in abdominal aortic aneurysms: Potential clinical relevance?
Accurately estimating patient-specific rupture risk remains a primary challenge in timing interventions for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). By re-analyzing published biaxial mechanical testing data from surgically repaired human AAAs, material anisotropy emerged as a potentially important determinant of patient-specific lesion progression. That is, based on a new classification scheme, we discovered that anisotropic aneurysmal specimens correlated with increased patient age at surgery when compared with more isotropic specimens (79.7 vs. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: John S. Wilson, J.D. Humphrey Source Type: research

Killing two birds with one stone: the potential role of aripiprazole for patients with comorbid major depressive disorder and nicotine dependence via altering brain activity in the anterior cingulate cortex
Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality globally and has numerous detrimental health effects, including cardiovascular disease, respiratory illness and even several types of cancer [1]. Individuals with depression are known to have a higher risk of cigarette smoking and more difficulty in stopping smoking [2]. According to a national report from the United States, the prevalence of smoking among the depressed population is 43%, compared to 22% among healthy people [3]. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Che-Sheng Chu, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, Hsin-An Chang, Chuan-Chia Chang, Tien-Yu Chen Source Type: research

Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS
To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Amy M. Goss, Paula C. Chandler-Laney, Fernando Ovalle, Laura Lee Goree, Ricardo Azziz, Renee A. Desmond, G. Wright Bates, Barbara A. Gower Source Type: research

Activity-dependent alterations in the sensitivity to BDNF-TrkB signaling may promote excessive dendritic arborization and spinogenesis in fragile X syndrome in order to compensate for compromised postsynaptic activity
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited human mental retardation, results from the loss of function of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). To date, most researchers have thought that FXS neural pathologies are primarily caused by extreme dendritic branching and spine formation. With this rationale, several researchers attempted to prune dendritic branches and reduce the number of spines in FXS animal models. We propose that increased dendritic arborization and spinogenesis in FXS are developed rather as secondary compensatory responses to counteract the compromised postsynaptic activity during...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sang Woo Kim, Kyoung Joo Cho, Byung In Lee Source Type: research

Melatonin as potential inducer of Th17 cell differentiation
The subset of T lymphocytes producing IL-17 (Th17) plays a key role in the immune system. It has been implicated in host defense, inflammatory diseases, tumorigenesis, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection. Careful analysis of the data available holds that Th17 cell subpopulation should be under the direct control of pineal hormone melatonin: the key Th17 differentiation factor RORα serves in the meantime as a high-affinity melatonin receptor. Since the levels of melatonin have diurnal and seasonal variation, as well as substantial deviations in some physiological or pathological conditions, melatonin-dependent re...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Elena M. Kuklina Source Type: research

Can the difference in serum concentration of urea and cystatin C be used in diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure?
Changes in renal function are an important diagnostic and prognostic indicator in patients with heart failure (HF). They are caused by decreased renal perfusion and consequently decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or by the effect of increased neurohormonal activity (sympathetic nervous system [SNS], rennin–angiotensin–aldosterone system [RAAS] and arginine vasopressin [AVP]). However, the increase of serum concentration of urea, creatinine and other metabolites is not specific for HF. Therefore, it is not possible to distinguish HF from renal diseases solely based on the increase of their concentration, since ...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ante Matana, Teodora Zaninović Jurjević, Zrinka Matana Kaštelan Source Type: research

The use of osteochondral allograft with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells and hinge joint distraction in the treatment of post-collapse stage of osteonecrosis of the femoral head
Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is an entity which occurs mainly in young and active patients aged between 20 and 50. The success of hip joint preserving treatments ranges from 15% to 50% depending on the stage and amount of osteonecrotic lesion. Total hip replacement is indicated in late post-collapse hips but it has unsatisfactory survival because of the wear and osteolysis in young and active patients. Osteochondral allografts have been reported in the treatment of large articular lesions with defects in underlying bone in knee, talus and shoulder. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 18, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: J. Gagala, M. Tarczynska, K. Gaweda, L. Matuszewski Source Type: research

Cell 158, 300–313
Crosstalk between Muscularis Macrophages and Enteric Neurons Regulates Gastrointestinal Motility Paul Andrew Muller, Balázs Koscsó, Gaurav Manohar Rajani, Korey Stevanovic, Marie-Luise Berres, Daigo Hashimoto, Arthur Mortha, Marylene Leboeuf, Xiu-Min Li, Daniel Mucida, E. Richard Stanley, Stephanie Dahan, … More » (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - July 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Research Update Source Type: news

Providing Submissions in Electronic Format — Postmarketing Safety Reports for Vaccines
(Source: What's New at CBER)
Source: What's New at CBER - July 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: news

A nanoparticle formula for delivering siRNA or miRNAs to tumor cells in cell culture and in vivo
Nature Protocols 9, 1900 (2014). doi:10.1038/nprot.2014.128 Authors: Ki Young Choi, Oscar F Silvestre, Xinglu Huang, Naoki Hida, Gang Liu, Don N Ho, Seulki Lee, Sang Wook Lee, Jong In Hong & Xiaoyuan Chen To improve RNA delivery, we present a protocol to produce an RNA carrier based on a Zn(II)-dipicolylamine (Zn-DPA) analog, which is an artificial receptor for phosphate anion derivatives. We further functionalized this Zn-DPA analog to hyaluronic acid (HA)-based self-assembled nanoparticles (HA-NPs) with a hydrodynamic (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - July 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ki Young ChoiOscar F SilvestreXinglu HuangNaoki HidaGang LiuDon N HoSeulki LeeSang Wook LeeJong In HongXiaoyuan Chen Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

iMAD, a genetic screening strategy for dissecting complex interactions between a pathogen and its host
Nature Protocols 9, 1916 (2014). doi:10.1038/nprot.2014.133 Authors: Tamara J O'Connor & Ralph R Isberg Insertional mutagenesis and depletion (iMAD) is a genetic screening strategy for dissecting complex interactions between two organisms. The simultaneous genetic manipulation of both organisms allows the identification of aggravating and alleviating genetic interactions between pairs of gene disruptions, one from each organism. Hierarchial clustering and (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - July 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tamara J O'ConnorRalph R Isberg Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

Quantitative and unbiased analysis of directional persistence in cell migration
Nature Protocols 9, 1931 (2014). doi:10.1038/nprot.2014.131 Authors: Roman Gorelik & Alexis Gautreau The mechanism by which cells control directional persistence during migration is a major question. However, the common index measuring directional persistence, namely the ratio of displacement to trajectory length, is biased, particularly by cell speed. An unbiased method is to calculate direction autocorrelation as a (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - July 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Roman GorelikAlexis Gautreau Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

A combined numerical and experimental framework for determining permeability properties of the arterial media.
In this study, the water transport properties of medial tissue were characterised in a numerical model, utilising experimentally obtained data for the medial microstructure and the relative permeability of different constituents. For the model, a new solver for flow in porous materials, based on a high-order splitting scheme, was implemented in the spectral/hp element library nektar++ and validated. The data were obtained by immersing excised aortic bifurcations in a solution of fluorescent protein tracer and subsequently imaging them with a confocal microscope. Cuboidal regions of interest were selected in which the micro...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - July 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Comerford A, Chooi KY, Nowak M, Weinberg PD, Sherwin SJ Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

Simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin in Swertia mussotii Franch by capillary zone electrophoresis with running buffer modifier.
Abstract The method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV detection was developed for the determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin. and then for the first time successfully applied to the analysis of four analytes in Swertia mussotii Franch and its preparations. Various factors affecting the CZE procedure were investigated and optimized, and the optimal conditions were: 50 × 10(-3)  mol/L borate-phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) with 5.0 × 10(-3)  mol/L β-cyclodextrin, 15 kV separation voltage, 20 °C column temperature, 250 nm detection wavelength and 5...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gao R, Wang L, Yang Y, Ni J, Zhao L, Dong S, Guo M Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

HPLC-ELSD determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth.
Abstract A novel method for the direct determination of kanamycin B in the presence of kanamycin A in fermentation broth using high performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed. An Agilent Technologies C18 column was utilized, evaporation temperature of 40°C and nitrogen pressure of 3.5 bar, the optimized mobile phase was water-acetonitrile (65:35, v/v), containing 11.6 mM heptafluorobutyric acid (isocratic elution with flow rate of 0.5 mL/min) with the gain 11. Kanamycin B was eluted at 5.6 min with an asymmetry factor of 1.827. The method showed g...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhang Y, He HM, Zhang J, Liu FJ, Li C, Wang BW, Qiao RZ Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

The end of the age of antibiotics and the rise of the superbugs
(NaturalNews) Antibiotics have been hailed as medical science's greatest contribution in the fight against illness. Now, over a century after they first came into use, an increasing number of people are coming to believe that the development and widespread use of antibiotics may go... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Source: NaturalNews.com - July 16, 2014 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Nanotechnology in drug delivery: the need for more cell culture based studies in screening
Advances in biomedical science are leading to upsurge synthesis of nanodelivery systems for drug delivery. The systems were characterized by controlled, targeted and sustained drug delivery ability. Humans are the target of these systems, hence, animals whose systems resembles humans were used to predict outcomeThus, increasing costs in money and time, plus ethical concerns over animal usage. However, with consideration and planning in experimental conditions, in vitro pharmacological studies of the nanodelivery can mimic the in vivo system. This can function as a simple method to investigate the effect of such materials w...
Source: Chemistry Central Journal - July 16, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Aminu KuraSharida FakuraziMohd HusseinPalanisamy Arulselvan Source Type: research

Microdevices for examining immunological responses of single cells to HIV.
Abstract More than 60 million people in the world have been diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections since the virus was recognized as the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the 1980s. Even though more than half of the infected patients have died, effective disease treatment and prevention measures have not been established. Antiretroviral therapy is the only proven HIV treatment which sustains suppression of patient viremia. Current routine approaches to treat HIV infections are targeted at developing vaccines that will induce humoral or cell memory immune responses...
Source: Bioscience Reports - July 16, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Choi J, Jeong Y, Lee KH Tags: Biosci Rep Source Type: research

Effects of supplemental long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content on circulating inflammatory markers in a randomized controlled trial of healthy adults
The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated (n-3 PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may have anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the dose-response effect of EPA+DHA supplementation on circulating TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP and explored associations between red blood cell (RBC) membrane PUFA content and TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP. Young adults with low fish intake (n=116) received one of five doses (0, 300, 600, 900, or 1,800mg/d EPA+DHA) for 5 months. There were no significant effects of supplemental EPA+DHA on IL-6 or CRP; however, there was a marginal treatment effect for TNF-α (p (Source: Prostaglandins...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 16, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Michael R. Flock, Ann C. Skulas-Ray, William S. Harris, Trent L. Gaugler, Jennifer A. Fleming, Penny M. Kris-Etherton Source Type: research

Empirical Evaluation of gastrocnemius and soleus function during walking
Distinguishing gastrocnemius and soleus muscle function is relevant for treating gait disorders in which abnormal plantarflexor activity may contribute to pathological movement patterns. Our objective was to use experimental and computational analysis to determine the influence of gastrocnemius and soleus activity on lower limb movement, and determine if anatomical variability of the gastrocnemius affected its function. Our hypothesis was that these muscles exhibit distinct functions, with the gastrocnemius inducing limb flexion and the soleus inducing limb extension. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rachel L. Lenhart, Carrie A. Francis, Amy L. Lenz, Darryl G. Thelen Source Type: research

Does adiposity affect muscle function during walking in children?
The biomechanical mechanisms responsible for the altered gait in obese children are not well understood, particularly as they relate to increases in adipose tissue. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that as body-fat percentage (BF%) increased: (1) knee flexion during stance would decrease while pelvic obliquity would increase; (2) peak muscle forces normalized to lean-weight would increase for gluteus medius, gastrocnemius, and soleus, but decrease for the vasti; and (3) the individual muscle contributions to center of mass (COM) acceleration in the direction of their primary function(s) would not change...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zachary F. Lerner, Sarah P. Shultz, Wayne J. Board, Stacey Kung, Raymond C. Browning Source Type: research

Initial External Validation of REGRESS in Public Health Graduate Students
Abstract Linear regression is typically taught as a second and potentially last required (bio)statistics course for Public Health and Clinical and Translational Science students. There has been much research on the attitudes of students toward basic biostatistics, but there has not been much assessing students’ understanding of critical regression topics. The REGRESS (REsearch on Global Regression Expectations in StatisticS) quiz developed at Mayo Clinic utilizes 27 questions to assess understanding for simple and multiple linear regression. We performed an initial external validation of this tool with 117 University of ...
Source: Clinical and Translational Science - July 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kelley M. Kidwell, Felicity B. Enders Tags: Article Source Type: research

NIH Career Development Awards in Clinical and Translational Science Award Institutions: Distinguishing Characteristics of Top Performing Sites
ConclusionThe CTSA network of institutions is committed to developing the next generation of physician scientists in order to meet the pressing health needs of society. Educators and evaluators within this network may need to provide training to junior investigators beyond the traditional KL2 programs in order to advance their career development as physician scientists and clinical translational researchers. Clin Trans Sci 2014; Volume #: 1–6 (Source: Clinical and Translational Science)
Source: Clinical and Translational Science - July 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lourdes R. Guerrero, Terry Nakazono, Pamela L. Davidson Tags: Communication Source Type: research

High‐Density Lipoprotein: A Novel Target for Antirestenosis Therapy
Abstract Restenosis is an integral pathological process central to the recurrent vessel narrowing after interventional procedures. Although the mechanisms for restenosis are diverse in different pathological conditions, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and myofibroblasts transition have been thought to play crucial role in the development of restenosis. Indeed, there is an inverse relationship between high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, relatively studies on the direct assessment of HDL effect on restenosis are li...
Source: Clinical and Translational Science - July 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kai Yin, Devendra K Agrawal Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Big Data and Large Sample Size: A Cautionary Note on the Potential for Bias
Abstract A number of commentaries have suggested that large studies are more reliable than smaller studies and there is a growing interest in the analysis of “big data” that integrates information from many thousands of persons and/or different data sources. We consider a variety of biases that are likely in the era of big data, including sampling error, measurement error, multiple comparisons errors, aggregation error, and errors associated with the systematic exclusion of information. Using examples from epidemiology, health services research, studies on determinants of health, and clinical trials, we conclude that i...
Source: Clinical and Translational Science - July 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robert M. Kaplan, David A. Chambers, Russell E. Glasgow Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Prediction of cell growth rate over scaffold strands inside a perfusion bioreactor.
Abstract Mathematical and computational modeling of the dynamic process where tissue scaffolds are cultured in perfusion bioreactors is able to provide insight into the cell and tissue growth which can facilitate the design of tissue scaffolds and selection of optimal operating conditions. To date, a resolved-scale simulation of cell growth in the culture process, by taking account of the influences of the supply of nutrients and fluid shear stress on the cells, is not yet available in the literature. This paper presents such a simulation study specifically on cartilage tissue regeneration by numerically solving th...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - July 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hossain MS, Bergstrom DJ, Chen XB Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

New faculty member uses genetic sequencing to investigate childhood brain disease
Joseph Gleeson, a neurogeneticist, has left the University of California, San Diego, to establish his lab at Rockefeller, where he will continue hunting down the single-gene mutations responsible for an array of neurodevelopmental disorders. More » (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - July 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Campus News Source Type: news

Lessons from diversity of directed evolution experiments by an analysis of 3,000 mutations
ABSTRACT Diversity generation by random mutagenesis is often the first key step in directed evolution experiments and screening of 1,000–2,000 clones is in most directed evolution campaigns sufficient to identify improved variants. For experimentalists important questions such as how many positions are mutated in the targeted gene and what amino acid substitutions can be expected after screening of 1,000–2,000 clones are surprisingly not answered by a statistical analysis of mutant libraries. Therefore three random mutagenesis experiments (epPCR with a low‐ and a high‐mutation frequency and a transversion‐enriche...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - July 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jing Zhao, Tsvetan Kardashliev, Anna Joëlle Ruff, Marco Bocola, Ulrich Schwaneberg Tags: Article Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic comparisons by UPLC-MS/MS of isomer paeoniflorin and albiflorin after oral administration decoctions of single-herb Radix Paeoniae Alba and Zengmian Yiliu prescription to rats.
Abstract Zengmian Yiliu (ZMYL), a traditional Chinese formula, is designed to improve clinical efficacy and reduce adverse effects in combination with cisplatin in ovarian cancer chemotherapy. In ZMYL, Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA, made from root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) acts as an adjunctive drug in cancer treatment by ameliorating side effects induced by radio- and chemotherapy. The pharmacokinetics differences between isomer albiflorin and paeoniflorin, the main components of RPA, after oral administration decoction of single-herb RPA and ZMYL were compared using a sensitive and accurate UPLC-MS/MS. The results ...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gong C, Yang H, Wei H, Qi C, Wang CH Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic study of five ginsenosides using a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method following single and multiple oral administration of Shexiang Baoxin pills to rats.
In conclusion, the LC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides after single and multiple oral administrations of SBP. The ginsenosides did not accumulate after multiple dosing. The ppd-type ginsenosides displayed more favorable pharmacokinetic properties compared with the ppt-type ginsenosides. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID: 25042644 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC)
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Peng C, Yang Y, Lv C, Jin H, Tao J, Yuan X, Huang H, Han L, Chang W, Liu R, Zhang W Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

Effect of microgravity on the biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal intervertebral discs in mice
We examined the effect of microgravity on biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal discs from mice having been on 15-day shuttle mission STS-131. Sixteen C57BL/C mice (spaceflight group, n=8; ground-based control group, n=8) were sacrificed immediately after spaceflight. Physiological disc height (PDH) was measured in situ, and compressive creep tests were performed to parameterize biomechanical properties into endplate permeability (k), nuclear swelling pressure strain dependence (D), and annular viscoelasticity (G). (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jeannie F. Bailey, Alan R. Hargens, Kevin K. Cheng, Jeffrey C. Lotz Source Type: research

Nature Cell Biology online July 13, 2014
Par3-mInsc and Gαi3 cooperate to promote oriented epidermal cell divisions through LGN Scott E. Williams, Lyndsay A. Ratliff, Maria Pia Postiglione, Juergen A. Knoblich and Elaine Fuchs (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - July 13, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Research Update Source Type: news

Differential Levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty Acids in women with preeclampsia delivering male and female babies
This study for the first time examines the maternal and cord LCPUFA levels in preeclamptic mothers delivering male and female infants. In this study 122 normotensive control pregnant women (gestation≥37 weeks) and 90 women with preeclampsia were recruited. Results indicate lower maternal plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels (p (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Suchitra Roy, Madhavi Dhobale, Kamini Dangat, Savita Mehendale, Girija Wagh, Sanjay Lalwani, Sadhana Joshi Source Type: research

Genome-wide profiling of the microRNA-mRNA regulatory network in skeletal muscle with aging.
Abstract Skeletal muscle degenerates progressively, losing mass (sarcopenia) over time, which leads to reduced physical ability and often results in secondary diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The regulation of gene expression by microRNAs is a key event in muscle development and disease. To understand genome-wide changes in microRNAs and mRNAs during muscle aging, we sequenced microRNAs and mRNAs from mouse gastrocnemius muscles at two different ages (6 and 24 months). Thirty-four microRNAs (15 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated) were differentially expressed with age, including the microRNAs miR-206 and -434...
Source: Aging - July 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kim JY, Park YK, Lee KP, Lee SM, Kang TW, Kim HJ, Dho SH, Kim SY, Kwon KS Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research

Cocaine-induced environmental conditioning: Sleep deprivation as a neglected contributor
In the present year, Medical Hypotheses allowed us to publish a new idea suggesting that sleep deprivation could be a potential detrimental factor to the extinction process of previously established drug-environment conditioning [1]. In the light of the common neuroadaptations underlying sleep deprivation [2–4], psychostimulants’ administration [5] and drug-induced environmental conditioning [6], we hypothesized that sleep loss would extend the pairing between the reinforcing effects of these drugs and environmental cues. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Laís F. Berro, Roberto Frussa-Filho, Sergio Tufik, Monica L. Andersen Source Type: research

Associations of erythrocyte membrane fatty acids with the concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and adiponectin in 1373 men
Dietary and endogenous fatty acids could play a role in low-grade inflammation. In this cross-sectional study the proportions of erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (EMFA) and the concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and adiponectin were measured and their confounder-adjusted associations examined in 1373 randomly selected Finnish men aged 45–70 years participating in the population based Metsim study in Eastern Finland. The sum of n−6 EMFAs, without linoleic acid (LA), was positively associated with concentrations of CRP and IL-1Ra (rpartial=0.139 and rpartial=0.115, P (S...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - July 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M.J. Takkunen, V.D.F. de Mello, U.S. Schwab, J.J. Ågren, J. Kuusisto, M.I.J. Uusitupa Source Type: research

The Basic Reproduction Number for Cellular SIR Networks.
Abstract The basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is the average number of new infections produced by a typical infective individual in the early stage of an infectious disease, following the introduction of few infective individuals in a completely susceptible population. If [Formula: see text], then the disease dies, whereas for [Formula: see text] the infection can invade the host population and persist. This threshold quantity is well studied for SIR compartmental or mean field models based on ordinary differential equations, and a general method for its computation has been proposed by van den Driessc...
Source: Acta Biotheoretica - July 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sidiki A, Tchuente M Tags: Acta Biotheor Source Type: research

Comparison of the sensitivities of WaterLOGSY and saturation transfer difference NMR experiments.
Abstract The WaterLOGSY (WL) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments have proven to be extremely useful techniques to characterize interactions between small molecules and large biomolecules. In this work we compare the relative sensitivities of WL and STD NMR using 3 experimental systems: ketoprofen (KET)-bovine serum albumin (BSA), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ)-hemagglutinin (HA), and chloramphenicol (CAM)-ribosome (70S). In all cases we find that WL is more sensitive than STD for a given experimental time with the ratios ranging from 3.2 for KET-BSA to 16 for TBHQ-HA and CAM-70S. We attribute t...
Source: Journal of Bimolecular NMR - July 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Antanasijevic A, Ramirez B, Caffrey M Tags: J Biomol NMR Source Type: research