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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.

Gaby Maimon honored with a McKnight Scholar Award
Maimon, the head of the Laboratory of Integrative Brain Function, will receive $75,000 per year for three years to support his research. Given by The McKnight Endowment Fund, the award seeks to support young scientists whose work could have implications for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of brain diseases. More » (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Awards and Honors Gaby Maimon Laboratory of Integrative Brain Function McKnight Award neuroscience Source Type: news

Inhibitory effects of platelet-rich plasma on intervertebral disc degeneration: a preclinical study in a rabbit model.
Conclusions Platelet-rich plasma interventions can effectively attenuate the IDD process in rabbits. PMID: 25965093 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - May 15, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Comparison between Breast MRI and Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography.
Conclusions Our results indicate that CESM has the potential to be a valuable diagnostic method that enables accurate detection of malignant breast lesions, has high negative predictive value, and a false-positive rate similar to that of breast MRI. PMID: 25963880 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - May 15, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Development of a wireless swallowable capsule with potentiostatic electrochemical sensor for gastrointestinal track investigation
Publication date: 31 October 2015 Source:Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Volume 218 Author(s): C. Mc Caffrey , K. Twomey , V.I. Ogurtsov The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially the small intestine, remains largely inaccessible to modern medical science. While swallowable capsule technologies are emerging, endoscopy and colonoscopy remain the primary method for GI tract analysis. This paper presents an alternative wireless device, with electrochemical sensing technique, which behaves autonomously as it travels through the GI tract. The capsule includes a direct access, multi electrode electronic tongue sensor that ...
Source: Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical - May 15, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Challenges and opportunities for microalgae‐mediated CO2 capture and biorefinery
ABSTRACT Aquacultures of microalgae are frontrunners for photosynthetic capture of CO2 from flue gases. Expedient implementation mandates coupling of microalgal CO2 capture with synthesis of fuels and organic products, so as to derive value from biomass. An integrated biorefinery complex houses a biomass growth and harvesting area and a refining zone for conversion to product(s) and separation to desired purity levels. As growth and downstream options require energy and incur loss of carbon, put together, the loop must be energy positive, carbon negative, or add substantial value. Feasibility studies can, thus, aid the cho...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jyoti R. Seth, Pramod P. Wangikar Tags: Review Source Type: research

A novel multicolor immunostaining method using ethynyl deoxyuridine for analysis of in situ immunoproliferative response
Abstract Immune responses are generally accompanied by antigen presentation and proliferation and differentiation of antigen-specific lymphocytes (immunoproliferation), but analysis of these events in situ on tissue sections is very difficult. We have developed a new method of simultaneous multicolor immunofluorescence staining for immunohistology and flow cytometry using a thymidine analogue, 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU). Because of the small size of azide dye using click chemistry and elimination of DNA denaturation steps, EdU staining allowed for immunofluorescence staining of at least four colors incl...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Prospects for clinical use of reprogrammed cells for autologous treatment of macular degeneration
Since the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in 2006, the symptoms of many human diseases have been reversed in animal models with iPSC therapy, setting the stage for future clinical development. From the animal data it is clear that iPSC are rapidly becoming the lead cell type for cell replacement therapy and for the newly developing field of iPSC-derived body organ transplantation. The first human pathology that might be treated in the near future with iPSC is age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which has recently passed the criteria set down by regulators for phase I clinical trials with allogeneic h...
Source: Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ana Alvarez PalomoSamuel McLenachanFred ChenLyndon Da CruzRodney DilleyJordi RequenaMichaela LucasAndrew LucasMicha DrukkerMichael Edel Source Type: research

Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to Moderate Levels of Ethanol Can Have Long-Lasting Effects on Hippocampal Glutamate Uptake in Adolescent Offspring
This study indicates that impairment of glutamate uptake can be dose-dependent and the glutamate system has a higher vulnerability to ethanol toxicity after moderate ethanol exposure In utero. The effects of pre- and postnatal ethanol exposure can have long-lasting impacts on the glutamate system in adolescence and potentially into adulthood. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Giovana Brolese et al. Source Type: research

Age and Gender Variations in Cancer Diagnostic Intervals in 15 Cancers: Analysis of Data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink
by Nafees U. Din, Obioha C. Ukoumunne, Greg Rubin, William Hamilton, Ben Carter, Sal Stapley, Richard D. Neal Background Time from symptomatic presentation to cancer diagnosis (diagnostic interval) is an important, and modifiable, part of the patient’s cancer pathway, and can be affected by various factors such as age, gender and type of presenting symptoms. The aim of this study was to quantify the relationships of diagnostic interval with these variables in 15 cancers diagnosed between 2007 and 2010 using routinely collected data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) in the UK. Methods Symptom lists for e...
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nafees U. Din et al. Source Type: research

Hybrid Epidemics—A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker
by Changwang Zhang, Shi Zhou, Benjamin M. Chain Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm’s spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm’s effectiveness. Ou...
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Changwang Zhang et al. Source Type: research

The Novel Gene CRNDE Encodes a Nuclear Peptide (CRNDEP) Which Is Overexpressed in Highly Proliferating Tissues
by Lukasz Michal Szafron, Anna Balcerak, Ewa Anna Grzybowska, Barbara Pienkowska-Grela, Anna Felisiak-Golabek, Agnieszka Podgorska, Magdalena Kulesza, Natalia Nowak, Pawel Pomorski, Juliusz Wysocki, Tymon Rubel, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Bozena Konopka, Martyna Lukasik, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk CRNDE, recently described as the lncRNA-coding gene, is overexpressed at RNA level in human malignancies. Its role in gametogenesis, cellular differentiation and pluripotency has been suggested as well. Herein, we aimed to verify our hypothesis that the CRNDE gene may encode a protein product, CRNDEP. By using bioinformatics meth...
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lukasz Michal Szafron et al. Source Type: research

Gut Microbiota Dynamics during Dietary Shift in Eastern African Cichlid Fishes
This study sets the basis for a future large-scale investigation of the gut microbiota of cichlids and its adaptation in the process of the host adaptive radiation. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Laura Baldo et al. Source Type: research

Personalized Mortality Prediction Driven by Electronic Medical Data and a Patient Similarity Metric
Conclusions The present study provides crucial empirical evidence for the promising potential of personalized data-driven decision support systems. With the increasing adoption of electronic medical record (EMR) systems, our novel medical data analytics contributes to meaningful use of EMR data. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joon Lee et al. Source Type: research

Health Behaviors of Breast Cancer Survivors with Hypertension: A Propensity Analysis of KNHANES III-V (2005-2012)
Conclusions Breast cancer survivors require active interventions for healthy behaviors related to the management of comorbid conditions such as hypertension to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and improve their overall survival rate. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ju-Ri Jeong et al. Source Type: research

Immunostimulatory Effects Triggered by Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 Probiotic Strain Involve Activation of Dendritic Cells and Interferon-Gamma Production
by Matías Alejandro Molina, Ailén Magalí Díaz, Christina Hesse, Wiebke Ginter, María Virginia Gentilini, Guillermo Gabriel Nuñez, Andrea Mercedes Canellada, Tim Sparwasser, Luciana Berod, Marisa Silvia Castro, Marcela Alejandra Manghi Probiotics can modulate the immune system, conferring beneficial effects on the host. Understanding how these microorganisms contribute to improve the health status is still a challenge. Previously, we have demonstrated that Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121 implants itself and persists in the murine gastrointestinal tract, and enhances and skews the profile of cytokines towards the Th1 p...
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Matías Alejandro Molina et al. Source Type: research

Comparing Glaucoma Progression on 24-2 and 10-2 Visual Field Examinations
by Harsha L. Rao, Viquar U. Begum, Deepa Khadka, Anil K. Mandal, Sirisha Senthil, Chandra S. Garudadri Purpose To compare the rate of mean deviation (MD) change on 24-2 versus 10-2 VFs in treated glaucomatous eyes with 5 or more examinations. Methods In a retrospective study, 24-2 and 10-2 VFs of 131 glaucoma patients (167 eyes) who had undergone at least 5 VFs examinations during their follow-up were analyzed. All these patients had VF defects both on 24-2 and 10-2 VFs. Rates of MD change were calculated using best linear unbiased predictions (BLUP). Results Median age, MD on 24-2 VF at baseline, number of VFs performed d...
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Harsha L. Rao et al. Source Type: research

covR Mediated Antibiofilm Activity of 3-Furancarboxaldehyde Increases the Virulence of Group A Streptococcus
This study demonstrates that, covR mediated antibiofilm activity may increase the virulence of GAS. This also emphasizes the importance to analyse the acclimatization response and virulence of the pathogen in the presence of antibiofilm compounds prior to their clinical trials. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ganapathy Ashwinkumar Subramenium et al. Source Type: research

Cytochrome P450 in living donor liver transplantation
Cytochrome P450 metabolizes many drugs in the liver. Three genotypes of CYP2C19 with extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizing activity, respectively, have been identified in peripheral blood of transplant recipients and new liver grafts in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The expression of the final genotype in liver graft biopsies depends on the donor, whereas the expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells depends on the recipient. The metabolizing isoenzyme of the major anti-rejection agents passes through CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and MDR1, which have also been identified to have similar biological characteri...
Source: Journal of Biomedical Science - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: King-Wah ChiuToshiaki NakanoKuang-Den ChenLi-Wen HsuChia-Yun LaiChing-Yin HuangYu-Fan ChengShigeru GotoChao-Long Chen Source Type: research

Low-level laser therapy on bone repair: is there any effect outside the irradiated field?
Abstract The biological effects of local therapy with laser on bone repair have been well demonstrated; however, this possible effect on bone repair outside the irradiated field has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (λ = 830 nm) on repair of surgical bone defects outside the irradiated field, in rats. Sixty Wistar rats were submitted to osteotomy on the left femur and randomly separated into four groups (n = 15): group I, control, bone defect only; group II, laser applied on the right femur (distant dose); group III, laser applied lo...
Source: Lasers in Medical Science - May 15, 2015 Category: Laser Surgery Source Type: research

Is magnetic resonance imaging of human brain is harmful ?
In human brains, there are a lot of macroscopic ( nm) magnetite granules. Exposure of the patient’s head in high strength magnetic fields could lead to penetrance of those particles into brain neurons and their staying there for a long period. That conclusion is the consequence of calculations based on the equations describing the dynamics of those particles under the action of ponderomotive magnetic, elastic and viscous forces. The role of iron in brain metabolism is not conclusively clear but there is evidence of the connection between excess iron and neurodegenerative diseases. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: E.Z. Meilikhov Source Type: research

Etiology of phantom limb syndrome: insights from a 3D default space consciousness model
In this article, we examine phantom limb syndrome to gain insights into how the brain functions as the mind and how consciousness arises. We further explore our previously proposed consciousness model in which consciousness and body schema arise when information from throughout the body is processed by corticothalamic feedback loops and integrated by the thalamus. The parietal lobe spatially maps visual and non-visual information and the thalamus integrates and recreates this processed sensory information within a three-dimensional space termed the “3D default space.” We propose that phantom limb syndrome and phantom l...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ravinder Jerath, Molly W Crawford, Mike Jensen Source Type: research

Multipathway Modulation of Exercise and Glucose Stress Effects upon GH Secretion in Healthy Men
Exercise evokes pulsatile GH release followed by autonegative feedback, whereas glucose suppresses GH release followed by rebound-like GH release (feedforward escape). Here we test the hypothesis that age, sex steroids, insulin, body composition and physical power jointly determine these dynamic GH responses. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Johannes D. Veldhuis, Thomas P. Olson, Paul Y. Takahashi, John M. Miles, Michael J. Joyner, Rebecca J. Yang, Jean Wigham Source Type: research

Stimulus-selective crosstalk via the NF-{kappa}B signaling system reinforces innate immune response to alleviate gut infection
Tissue microenvironment functions as an important determinant of the inflammatory response elicited by the resident cells. Yet, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Our systems-level analyses identified a duration code that instructs stimulus specific crosstalk between TLR4-activated canonical NF-B pathway and lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) induced non-canonical NF-B signaling. Indeed, LTβR costimulation synergistically enhanced the late RelA/NF-B response to TLR4 prolonging NF-B target gene-expressions. Concomitant LTβR signal targeted TLR4-induced newly synthesized p100, encoded by Nfkb2...
Source: eLife - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Banoth, B., Chatterjee, B., Vijayaragavan, B., Prasad, M., Roy, P., Basak, S. Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Interneurons and oligodendrocyte progenitors form a structured synaptic network in the developing neocortex
NG2 cells, oligodendrocyte progenitors, receive a major synaptic input from interneurons in the developing neocortex. It is presumed that these precursors integrate cortical networks where they act as sensors of neuronal activity. We show that NG2 cells of the developing somatosensory cortex form a transient and structured synaptic network with interneurons that follows its own rules of connectivity. Fast-spiking interneurons, highly connected to NG2 cells, target proximal subcellular domains containing GABAA receptors with 2 subunits. Conversely, non-fast-spiking interneurons, poorly connected with these progenitors, targ...
Source: eLife - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Orduz, D., Maldonado, P. P., Balia, M., Velez-Fort, M., de Sars, V., Yanagawa, Y., Emiliani, V., Angulo, M. C. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cytosolic Hsp70 and co-chaperones constitute a novel system for tRNA import into the nucleus
tRNAs are unique among various RNAs in that they shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and their localization is regulated by nutrient conditions. Although nuclear export of tRNAs has been well documented, the import machinery is poorly understood. Here, we identified Ssa2p, a major cytoplasmic Hsp70 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a tRNA-binding protein whose deletion compromises nuclear accumulation of tRNAs upon nutrient starvation. Ssa2p recognizes several structural features of tRNAs through its nucleotide-binding domain, but prefers loosely-folded tRNAs, suggesting that Ssa2p has a chaperone-like activity fo...
Source: eLife - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Takano, A., Kajita, T., Mochizuki, M., Endo, T., Yoshihisa, T. Tags: Cell biology Source Type: research

Altered mechanical state in the embryonic heart results in time-dependent decreases in cardiac function.
Abstract Proper blood flow patterns are critical for normal cardiac morphogenesis, a process that occurs rapidly in order to support further development of all tissue and organs. Previously, intracardiac fluid forces have been shown to play a critical role in cardiac morphogenesis. Altered blood flow in early development can result in an array of cardiac defects including ventricular septal defects, valve malformations, and impaired cardiac looping. However, given the dynamic and highly transient nature of cardiac morphogenesis, time dependency of the mechanical environment as an epigenetic factor in relation to in...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Johnson B, Bark D, Van Herck I, Garrity D, Dasi LP Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

Sequential backbone assignment based on dipolar amide-to-amide correlation experiments.
Abstract Proton detection in solid-state NMR has seen a tremendous increase in popularity in the last years. New experimental techniques allow to exploit protons as an additional source of information on structure, dynamics, and protein interactions with their surroundings. In addition, sensitivity is mostly improved and ambiguity in assignment experiments reduced. We show here that, in the solid state, sequential amide-to-amide correlations turn out to be an excellent, complementary way to exploit amide shifts for unambiguous backbone assignment. For a general assessment, we compare amide-to-amide experiments with...
Source: Journal of Bimolecular NMR - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiang S, Grohe K, Rovó P, Vasa SK, Giller K, Becker S, Linser R Tags: J Biomol NMR Source Type: research

Is magnetic resonance imaging of human brain is harmful?
In human brains, there are a lot of macroscopic (∼100nm) magnetite granules. Exposure of the patient’s head in high strength magnetic fields could lead to penetrance of those particles into brain neurons and their staying there for a long period. That conclusion is the consequence of calculations based on the equations describing the dynamics of those particles under the action of ponderomotive magnetic, elastic and viscous forces. The role of iron in brain metabolism is not conclusively clear but there is evidence of the connection between excess iron and neurodegenerative diseases. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: E.Z. Meilikhov Source Type: research

Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.
The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases. PMID: 25991677 [Pub...
Source: Aging - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Walker RF, Liu JS, Peters BA, Ritz BR, Wu T, Ophoff RA, Horvath S Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research

Biological ageing and frailty markers in breast cancer patients.
In this study we explored the relationship of potential ageing/frailty biomarkers with age and clinical frailty. On a population of 82 young and 162 older non-metastatic breast cancer patients, we measured mean leukocyte telomere length and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). We also developed a new tool to summarize clinical frailty, designated Leuven Oncogeriatric Frailty Score (LOFS), by integrating GA results in a single, semi-continuous score. LOFS' median score was...
Source: Aging - May 15, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Brouwers B, Dalmasso B, Hatse S, Laenen A, Kenis C, Swerts E, Neven P, Smeets A, Schöffski P, Wildiers H Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research

In the News – Forbes – Tessier-Lavigne
Genentech Brain Trust Leaves With $217 Million For New Startup To Fight Alzheimer’s And Parkinson’s   “Three former top researchers at Genentech, the legendary biotech that is now part of Roche Holding, have raised $217 million in venture capital to … More » (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: In the News Source Type: news

Is Technology Dumbing Down Your Doctor?
Is incredible access to medical science information, in all its forms, dumbing down your doctor, or making her “smarter”? Does the difference between the information that doctors neurologically host (“working knowledge,” or in health care often referred to as “fund of knowledge”), versus the information that they are able to reach with a few keystrokes matter? (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)
Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News - May 14, 2015 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: Roy Smythe Source Type: news

Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase: activating mechanisms and signaling pathways.
Authors: Pizzi M, Gaudiano M, Todaro M, Inghirami G Abstract The discovery of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) by Stephan Morris and colleagues twenty years ago has led to an unprecedented opportunity and provided the basis for a novel and clinically powerful stratification of human cancers. The molecular and biological characterization of ALK and the recognition of alternative mechanisms of activation of the tyrosine kinase receptors have then set the basis for the development and the subsequent application of selective small molecules. These achievements have fostered a new era in oncology, and the result of this...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

The anaplastic lymphoma kinase as an oncogene in solid tumors.
Authors: Voena C, Peola S, Chiarle R Abstract Twenty years ago anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) was discovered in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), but the interest in ALK as an oncogene grew only in recent years when ALK rearrangements were reported as recurrent genetic lesions in lung carcinoma and activating single point mutations were described in neuroblastoma. In this review we will describe the main features of ALK-rearranged solid tumors, with particular emphasis to NSCLC and neuroblastoma. We will discuss the numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that confirmed ALK as the driver oncogene in these tumo...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

The origins of ALK translocations.
Authors: Roukos V, Mathas S Abstract Translocations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene locus on chromosome 2p23 were first described in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Although most commonly fused to the nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene on chromosome 5q35, which results in the t(2;5)(p23;q35)/NPM1-ALK translocation, several other ALK translocation partners have meanwhile been identified. Furthermore, apart from ALCL, ALK-involving translocations have been described in other hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cancers. However, despite a rapid increase in literature on the nature and tissue distribu...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma: an evolving story.
Authors: Bonzheim I, Steinhilber J, Fend F, Lamant L, Quintanilla-Martinez L Abstract The current classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the integrated utilisation of morphological, immunohistochemical, genetic and clinical criteria to define disease entities. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a paradigm for the identification of a disease entity based on morphological observations and immunophenotype, which paved the way for the subsequent discovery of the characteristic cytogenetic abnormality the translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35). In 1994, the t(2;5) was cloned and the NPM-ALK fusion gene generated by this...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Twenty years of modelling NPM-ALK-induced lymphomagenesis.
Authors: Giuriato S, Turner SD Abstract Our current understanding of oncogenic Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)-induced lymphomagenesis has relied for over 20 years on multiple and complementary studies performed on various experimental models, encompassing ALK oncogene expressing cells, their grafts into immune-compromised mice, the generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and, when available, the use of patient samples from Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) tumour banks. Of note, and to our knowledge, no ALK-positive ALCL 3D culture system has been described so far. In this review, we will fi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

The role of AP-1 and epigenetics in ALCL.
Authors: Schiefer AI, Vesely P, Hassler MR, Egger G, Kenner L Abstract Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an aggressive, highly proliferative, T-cell lymphoma with increasing incidence worldwide. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) fusions occur in about 50% of all cases. Most ALK positive cases of ALCL harbor the t(2;5) translocation that leads to expression of Nucleophosmin-Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (NPM-ALK). NPM-ALK induces a variety of oncogenic signaling pathways that lead to malignant transformation of T-cells via Activator Protein-1 (AP-1), STAT3 and other (transcription) factors. In addition to the com...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

MicroRNA and ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Authors: Hoareau-Aveilla C, Merkel O, Meggetto F Abstract In this review we describe the current literature covering the role of microRNA in anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). MicroRNA is one of the best characterized subgroups of non-coding RNAs and it is now becoming clear that its importance in oncogenesis has been greatly underestimated. In ALCL the deregulation of a diverse range of microRNA has been demonstrated however much less is known about the physiological consequences of this deregulation. Here we focus on the subgroup of ALCL bearing the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation (ALK+). The p...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Prognostic factors in paediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: role of ALK.
In conclusion, MDD, MRD, ALK-antibody titres and histological subtype are strong biological risk factors in childhood ALCL. The combination of MDD and ALK-antibody titre may serve for patient stratification in upcoming clinical trials. PMID: 25961696 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Ageing, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.
Authors: Ward RJ, Dexter DT, Crichton RR Abstract During ageing, different iron complexes accumulate in specific brain regions which are associated with motor and cognitive dysfunction. In neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, changes in local iron homoeostasis result in altered cellular iron distribution and accumulation, ultimately inducing neurotoxicity. The use of iron chelators which are able to penetrate the blood brain barrier and reduce excessive iron accumulation in specific brain regions have been shown to reduce disease progression in both Parkinson's disease an...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Drug repositioning in Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Corbett A, Williams G, Ballard C Abstract Drug repositioning offers an innovative approach to drug discovery with great potential in the field of Alzheimer's Disease and dementia therapeutics. Investigation of licensed compounds enables processing through the drug discovery pipeline in a rapid and cost-effective manner. A growing body of evidence supports the translation of priority compounds to be taken forward to clinical trials, based on established and proposed mechanisms of action. A number of drugs have already entered clinical trial following repositioning, and novel technologies have been created t...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Matrix metalloproteinase function in non-mammalian model organisms.
Authors: Buckley JJ, Jessen JR Abstract Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), adamalysins, astacins, and serralysins are members of the metzincin superfamily of proteases. MMPs constitute a large protein family of both secreted and membrane-tethered enzymes that are synthesized as zymogens (proMMP) and activated by a cysteine-switch mechanism. First described over 50 years ago by Gross and Lapiere as a collagenolytic activity in amphibian tissues, the human MMP family now encompasses 23 different genes whose encoded proteins are capable of cleaving a variety of extracellular matrix protein substrates. Since their expre...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Degradomics of matrix metalloproteinases in inflammatory diseases.
Authors: Dufour A Abstract Organisms have evolved to react to stress, tissue damage and pathogen invasion to assure their survival. Leukocytes are the primary responders and they regulate repair, immune defense and inflammation with the aid of a wide variety of other cells (e.g. epithelial, fibroblasts). To assure proper responses, a plethora of proteins are involved including signaling molecules, chemokines and proteases to orchestrate a step-by-step reaction. Inflammation is an essential biological process, however, when it persists, it can lead to various diseases that are challenging to heal or cure. The techno...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Historical perspective of matrix metalloproteases.
Authors: Pulkoski-Gross AE Abstract Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were identified as early as 1962. Since this seminal finding, this family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases has been studied extensively. This collective work has resulted in delineation of MMP gene and protein structures, the mechanisms of control of MMPs, the action of MMPs on both extracellular matrices and other proteins such as growth factors and cytokines, naturally-occurring mechanisms of control, and of course their role in normal physiology and their crucial roles in pathophysiology. Stemming from the discovery that MMPs contribute to arth...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Endangered species: mitochondrial DNA loss as a mechanism of human disease.
Authors: Herrera A, Garcia I, Gaytan N, Jones E, Maldonado A, Gilkerson R Abstract Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small maternally inherited DNA that is typically present in hundreds of copies in a single human cell. Thus, despite its small size (16,569 base pairs), the mitochondrial genome comprises a large proportion of the cell's genetic material, and plays a crucial role in the metabolic homeostasis of the cell. Our understanding of mtDNA genotype-phenotype relationships is derived largely from studies of the classical mitochondrial neuromuscular diseases, in which inherited or sporadic mutations of mtDNA...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Roles of lncRNA in breast cancer.
Authors: Liu Y, Sharma S, Watabe K Abstract   Recent systematic genomic studies have revealed a broad spectrum of lncRNAs that are involved in a variety of disease (diseases), including tumor progression, by regulating gene expression at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, their exact roles of physiological function and the mechanism (mechanisms) of action are yet to be clarified. In breast cancer research, several lncRNAs are identified as tumor driving oncogenic lncRNAs and few are identified as tumor suppressive lncRNAs. They are involved in cell growth, apoptosis, cell migrat...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Colorectal endometriosis and pregnancy wish: why doing primary surgery.
Authors: Roman H Abstract One of the most interesting debates surrounding deep endometriosis concerns the management of patients with colorectal lesions and pregnancy intention, for which no strong first level of evidence data exists to recommend performing surgical excision of colorectal endometriosis or ART. Studies assessing the policy of primary IVF have recorded pregnancy rates inferior to 45% and estimated cumulative pregnancy rates after up to 3 cycles or IVF as high as 68%. Other authors have reported pregnancy rates over 60% in patients undergoing primary surgery for colorectal endometriosis, with spontane...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

How fisetin reduces the impact of age and disease on CNS function.
Authors: Maher P Abstract It is becoming increasingly clear that neurological diseases are multi-factorial involving disruptions in multiple cellular systems. Thus, while each disease has its own initiating mechanisms and pathologies, certain common pathways appear to be involved in most, if not all, neurological diseases. Thus, it is unlikely that modulating only a single factor will be effective at either preventing disease development or slowing disease progression. A better approach is to identify small ( 900 daltons) molecules that have multiple biological activities relevant to the maintenance of brain functi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 14, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research