Medicine RSS Search Engine

Biomedical Science Biomedical Science RSS feedThis is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.

Metabolomic analysis of acid stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
In this study, a metabolomics approach was conducted to understand the effect of lactic acid induced stress on metabolite pools in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cells were cultured with lactic acid as the acidulant, with or without initial pH control, i.e., at pH 6 or pH 2.5, respectively. Under conditions of low pH, lactic acid led to a decrease in the intracellular pH and specific growth rate; however, these parameters remained unaltered in the cultures with pH control. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry followed by a statistical principal component analysis was used to identify the metabolites and measure the incre...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Novel acidophilic β-galactosidase with high activity at extremely acidic pH region from Teratosphaeria acidotherma AIU BGA-1
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015 Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering Author(s): Serina Chiba , Miwa Yamada , Kimiyasu Isobe A β-galactosidase exhibiting maximal activity at pH 1.0 was purified from Teratosphaeria acidotherma AIU BGA-1. The enzyme had a molecular mass of 180 kDa and consisted of two heterosubunits of 120 kDa and 66 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the large subunit was found to be SPNLQDIVTVDGESY. These physicochemical properties differed from those of other microbial β-galactosidases. At pH values of 1.5 and pH 4.5, the enzyme exhibited its highest activity at t...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cell–extracellular matrix interactions in oral tumorigenesis: Roles of podoplanin and CD44 and modulation of Hippo pathway
Conclusion Signaling pathways initiated by adhesion molecule-mediated crosstalk between tumor cells and extracellular matrices play important roles in driving and maintaining tumor-specific tissue architecture and contributing to tumor survival, growth, and metastasis. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Correction: A new topology of the HK97-like fold revealed in Bordetella bacteriophage by cryoEM at 3.5 A resolution
(Source: eLife)
Source: eLife - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhang, X., Guo, H., Jin, L., Czornyj, E., Hodes, A., Hui, W. H., Nieh, A. W., Miller, J. F., Zhou, Z. H. Tags: Microbiology and infectious disease Source Type: research

Ribosomes slide on lysine-encoding homopolymeric A stretches
Protein output from synonymous codons is thought to be equivalent if appropriate tRNAs are sufficiently abundant. Here we show that mRNAs encoding iterated lysine codons, AAA or AAG, differentially impact protein synthesis: insertion of iterated AAA codons into an ORF diminishes protein expression more than insertion of synonymous AAG codons. Kinetic studies in E. coli reveal that differential protein production results from pausing on consecutive AAA-lysines followed by ribosome sliding on homopolymeric A sequence. Translation in a cell-free expression system demonstrates that diminished output from AAA-codon-containing r...
Source: eLife - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Koutmou, K. S., Schuller, A. P., Brunelle, J. L., Radhakrishnan, A., Djuranovic, S., Green, R. Tags: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Two-signal requirement for growth-promoting function of Yap in hepatocytes
In this study, we present evidence that Yap activation is insufficient to promote growth in the otherwise normal tissue. Using a mosaic mouse model, we demonstrate that Yap overexpression in a fraction of hepatocytes does not lead to their clonal expansion, as proliferation is counterbalanced by increased apoptosis. To shift the activity of Yap towards growth, a second signal provided by tissue damage or inflammation is required. In response to liver injury, Yap drives clonal expansion, suppresses hepatocyte differentiation, and promotes a progenitor phenotype. These results suggest that Yap activation is insufficient to p...
Source: eLife - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Su, T., Bondar, T., Zhou, X., Zhang, C., He, H., Medzhitov, R. Tags: Cell biology Source Type: research

Dengue vascular leakage is augmented by mast cell degranulation mediated by immunoglobulin Fc{gamma} receptors
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most significant human arboviral pathogen and causes ~400 million infections in humans each year. In previous work, we observed that mast cells (MC) mediate vascular leakage during DENV infection in mice and that levels of MC activation are correlated with disease severity in human DENV patients (St John et al., 2013b). A major risk factor for developing severe dengue is secondary infection with a heterologous serotype. The dominant theory explaining increased severity during secondary DENV infection is that cross-reactive but non-neutralizing antibodies promote uptake of virus and allow enhanced...
Source: eLife - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Syenina, A., Jagaraj, C. J., Aman, S. A., Sridharan, A., St John, A. L. Tags: Microbiology and infectious disease Source Type: research

Uni-directional ciliary membrane protein trafficking by a cytoplasmic retrograde IFT motor and ciliary ectosome shedding
The role of the primary cilium in key signaling pathways depends on dynamic regulation of ciliary membrane protein composition, yet we know little about the motors or membrane events that regulate ciliary membrane protein trafficking in existing organelles. Recently, we showed that cilium-generated signaling in Chlamydomonas induced rapid, anterograde IFT-independent, cytoplasmic microtubule-dependent redistribution of the membrane polypeptide, SAG1-C65, from the plasma membrane to the periciliary region and the ciliary membrane. Here, we report that the retrograde IFT motor, cytoplasmic dynein 1b, is required in the cytop...
Source: eLife - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Cao, M., Ning, J., Hernandez-Lara, C. I., Belzile, O., Wang, Q., Dutcher, S. K., Liu, Y., Snell, W. J. Tags: Cell biology Source Type: research

[Focus] Sponsors meet scientists to speed pediatric medicines development
The Point-Person Project, a child-health research initiative, enables rapid response to opportunities for participation in multicenter pediatric clinical trials. (Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Davis, J. M., Smoyer, W. E., Connor, E. M., Huskins, W. C., Pastern, C., Purucker, M., Schrader, E. C., Jackson, C. R., Kaskel, F. J., Hirschfeld, S. Tags: Focus Source Type: research

[Focus] Small RNA: From development to regeneration
A microRNA cluster that targets the Hippo pathway can reintroduce terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes into the cell cycle, promoting heart regeneration (Tian et al., this issue). (Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tao, G., Wang, J., Martin, J. F. Tags: Focus Source Type: research

[Research Articles] MG53-mediated cell membrane repair protects against acute kidney injury
We report that MG53, a member of the TRIM family of proteins, participates in repair of injured PTE cells and protects against the development of AKI. We show that MG53 translocates to acute injury sites on PTE cells and forms a repair patch. Ablation of MG53 leads to defective membrane repair. MG53-deficient mice develop pronounced tubulointerstitial injury and increased susceptibility to I/R-induced AKI compared to wild-type mice. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein can target injury sites on PTE cells to facilitate repair after I/R injury or nephrotoxin exposure. Moreover, in animal studies, intravenous delivery of ...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Duann, P., Li, H., Lin, P., Tan, T., Wang, Z., Chen, K., Zhou, X., Gumpper, K., Zhu, H., Ludwig, T., Mohler, P. J., Rovin, B., Abraham, W. T., Zeng, C., Ma, J. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

[Research Articles] Modeling the impact on virus transmission of Wolbachia-mediated blocking of dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti
Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans and is a public health burden in more than 100 countries. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stably infected with strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia are resistant to dengue virus (DENV) infection and are being tested in field trials. To mimic field conditions, we experimentally assessed the vector competence of A. aegypti carrying the Wolbachia strains wMel and wMelPop after challenge with viremic blood from dengue patients. We found that wMelPop conferred strong resistance to DENV infection of mosquito abdomen tissue and largely prevented disseminated infection. ...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ferguson, N. M., Hue Kien, D. T., Clapham, H., Aguas, R., Trung, V. T., Bich Chau, T. N., Popovici, J., Ryan, P. A., O'Neill, S. L., McGraw, E. A., Long, V. T., Dui, L. T., Nguyen, H. L., Vinh Chau, N. V., Wills, B., Simmons, C. P. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

[Research Articles] A microRNA-Hippo pathway that promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac regeneration in mice
In contrast to lower vertebrates, the mammalian heart has limited capacity to regenerate after injury in part due to ineffective reactivation of cardiomyocyte proliferation. We show that the microRNA cluster miR302-367 is important for cardiomyocyte proliferation during development and is sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte proliferation in the adult and promote cardiac regeneration. In mice, loss of miR302-367 led to decreased cardiomyocyte proliferation during development. In contrast, increased miR302-367 expression led to a profound increase in cardiomyocyte proliferation, in part through repression of the Hippo signal ...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tian, Y., Liu, Y., Wang, T., Zhou, N., Kong, J., Chen, L., Snitow, M., Morley, M., Li, D., Petrenko, N., Zhou, S., Lu, M., Gao, E., Koch, W. J., Stewart, K. M., Morrisey, E. E. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

[Research Articles] Human skin is protected by four functionally and phenotypically discrete populations of resident and recirculating memory T cells
The skin of an adult human contains about 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice, but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in human skin. We discriminated resident from recirculating T cells in human-engrafted mice and lymphoma patients using alemtuzumab, a medication that depletes recirculating T cells from skin, and then analyzed these T cell populations in healthy human skin. All nonrecirculating resident memory T cells (TRM) expressed CD69, but most...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Watanabe, R., Gehad, A., Yang, C., Scott, L. L., Teague, J. E., Schlapbach, C., Elco, C. P., Huang, V., Matos, T. R., Kupper, T. S., Clark, R. A. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

[Research Articles] Exploiting selective BCL-2 family inhibitors to dissect cell survival dependencies and define improved strategies for cancer therapy
The BCL-2/BCL-XL/BCL-W inhibitor ABT-263 (navitoclax) has shown promising clinical activity in lymphoid malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. However, its efficacy in these settings is limited by thrombocytopenia caused by BCL-XL inhibition. This prompted the generation of the BCL-2–selective inhibitor venetoclax (ABT-199/GDC-0199), which demonstrates robust activity in these cancers but spares platelets. Navitoclax has also been shown to enhance the efficacy of docetaxel in preclinical models of solid tumors, but clinical use of this combination has been limited by neutropenia. We used venetoclax and th...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Leverson, J. D., Phillips, D. C., Mitten, M. J., Boghaert, E. R., Diaz, D., Tahir, S. K., Belmont, L. D., Nimmer, P., Xiao, Y., Ma, X. M., Lowes, K. N., Kovar, P., Chen, J., Jin, S., Smith, M., Xue, J., Zhang, H., Oleksijew, A., Magoc, T. J., Vaidya, K. S Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

[Research Articles] Improved antitumor activity of immunotherapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors in BRAFV600E melanoma
Combining immunotherapy and BRAF targeted therapy may result in improved antitumor activity with the high response rates of targeted therapy and the durability of responses with immunotherapy. However, the first clinical trial testing the combination of the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and the CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab was terminated early because of substantial liver toxicities. MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) kinase] inhibitors can potentiate the MAPK inhibition in BRAF mutant cells while potentially alleviating the unwanted paradoxical MAPK activation in BRAF wild-type cells that lead to side effects when usi...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hu-Lieskovan, S., Mok, S., Homet Moreno, B., Tsoi, J., Robert, L., Goedert, L., Pinheiro, E. M., Koya, R. C., Graeber, T. G., Comin-Anduix, B., Ribas, A. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

[Editors' Choice] The ultimate combination immunotherapy
(Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Maus, M. V. Tags: Editors ' Choice Source Type: research

[Editors' Choice] Knocked out: Sleep disturbances after traumatic brain injury
(Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nishijima, D. K. Tags: Editors ' Choice Source Type: research

[Editors' Choice] You can't unring a bell
(Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Stecker, E. C. Tags: Editors ' Choice Source Type: research

[Editors' Choice] Fine-tuning inflammasome activity with a small molecule or ketogenic diet
(Source: Science Translational Medicine)
Source: Science Translational Medicine - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Erbay, E. Tags: Editors ' Choice Source Type: research

Comparison of Current Diagnostic Criteria for Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure
Conclusion Different diagnostic criteria for ACLF caused different patient prognosis. So, it is imperative to formulate a unifying diagnostic criteria for ACLF worldwide, thus attaining early identification and treatment, and eventual improvement in survival of ACLF patients. Baseline CLIF-SOFA score, and the maximum rising rates of CLIF-SOFA score, MELD-Na score and total bilirubin may early predict post-enrollment development of EASL-CLIF ACLF. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Qian Zhang et al. Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Remote Limb Ischemic Perconditioning on the Liver Grafts of Rats with a Novel Model
Conclusion In conclusion, we successfully established a novel model of RIC in rat LT, the optimal RIC 5min*3 algorithm seemed to be more efficient to alleviate IRI of the liver graft in both functional and morphological categories, which due to its antioxidative, anti-inflammation activities and activating PI3K Akt pathway. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Junjun Jia et al. Source Type: research

Drug Synergy Drives Conserved Pathways to Increase Fission Yeast Lifespan
by Xinhe Huang, Markos Leggas, Robert C. Dickson Aging occurs over time with gradual and progressive loss of physiological function. Strategies to reduce the rate of functional loss and mitigate the subsequent onset of deadly age-related diseases are being sought. We demonstrated previously that a combination of rapamycin and myriocin reduces age-related functional loss in the Baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and produces a synergistic increase in lifespan. Here we show that the same drug combination also produces a synergistic increase in the lifespan of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and does so by ...
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xinhe Huang et al. Source Type: research

Multilevel Effects of Wealth on Women's Contraceptive Use in Mozambique
Conclusion This analysis highlights the need for the studies on contraceptive behavior to specifically address the individual and contextual effects arising from the poverty-wealth dimension in rural and urban areas separately. The inclusion in a particular community of residence is not relevant in urban areas, but it is an important feature in rural areas. Although the women's individual position within the community of residence has a similar effect on contraceptive adoption in rural and urban settings, the impact of community wealth is greater in rural areas and smaller in urban areas. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: José G. Dias et al. Source Type: research

STEP Levels Are Unchanged in Pre-Frontal Cortex and Associative Striatum in Post-Mortem Human Brain Samples from Subjects with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder
by Thomas A. Lanz, J. Julie Joshi, Veronica Reinhart, Kjell Johnson, Lonnie E. Grantham II, Dmitri Volfson Increased protein levels of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) have recently been reported in postmortem schizophrenic cortex. The present study sought to replicate this finding in a separate cohort of postmortem samples and to extend observations to striatum, including subjects with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in the analysis. No statistically significant changes between disease and control subjects were found in STEP mRNA or protein levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or associati...
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thomas A. Lanz et al. Source Type: research

In Vivo Therapeutic Protection against Influenza A (H1N1) Oseltamivir-Sensitive and Resistant Viruses by the Iminosugar UV-4
by Eric J. Stavale, Hong Vu, Aruna Sampath, Urban Ramstedt, Kelly L. Warfield Our lead iminosugar analog called UV-4 or N-(9-methoxynonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin inhibits activity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) α-glucosidases I and II and is a potent, host-targeted antiviral candidate. The mechanism of action for the antiviral activity of iminosugars is proposed to be inhibition of ER α-glucosidases leading to misfolding of critical viral glycoproteins. These misfolded glycoproteins would then be incorporated into defective virus particles or targeted for degradation resulting in a reduction of infectious progeny virions. UV...
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Eric J. Stavale et al. Source Type: research

IMD-4690, a Novel Specific Inhibitor for Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, Reduces Allergic Airway Remodeling in a Mouse Model of Chronic Asthma via Regulating Angiogenesis and Remodeling-Related Mediators
We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with ...
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Toshifumi Tezuka et al. Source Type: research

Aging-Related Systemic Manifestations in COPD Patients and Cigarette Smokers
Conclusions Aging-related abnormalities in patients with COPD are also found in smokers with minor lung dysfunction manifesting as a KCO decrease. Decreased KCO might be useful, particularly among women, for identifying smokers at high risk for aging-related systemic manifestations and telomere shortening. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Laurent Boyer et al. Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetes and Diabetic Retinopathy in Liaoning Province, China: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusion According to this study, 1 in 10 people has diabetes, 2 in 10 people have prediabetes, and 1 in 10 diabetics has DR in Liaoning province. In rural areas, diabetes was poorly recognized with limited medical resources, which probably resulted in more diabetes patient at a high risk of DR. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yuedong Hu et al. Source Type: research

The Examination of the Musculoskeletal System Based Only on the Evaluation of Pelvic-Hip Complex Muscle and Trunk Flexibility May Lead to Failure to Screen Children for Generalized Joint Hypermobility
Conclusions Clinical examination of the pelvic-hip complex muscles and trunk flexibility by use of SLR, O-JHF, T-JHF, FTF and LTF revealed to be insufficient in diagnosing GJH in children aged 10–13 years. Thus, the Beighton scale should be considered a standard element of physiotherapeutic examination of the musculoskeletal system in children and youth. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dariusz Czaprowski et al. Source Type: research

Pyrrolidinyl caffeamide against ischemia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes through AMPK/AKT pathways
Conclusions: AMPK and AKT are synergistically activated by PLCA, which lead facilities glucose utilization, thereby attenuating lactate accumulation and cell death. The cardioprotective dose of PLCA was lower than those of metformin and caffeic acid. We provide a new insight into this potential drug for the treatment of myocardial I/R injury. (Source: Journal of Biomedical Science)
Source: Journal of Biomedical Science - March 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shih-Yi LeeHui-Chun KuYueh-Hsiung KuoHis-Lin ChiuMing-Jai Su Source Type: research

BioEssays 4∕2015
In good shape. On pages 413–425, Jiang et al. take a look at the impressive variety of bacterial shapes. The molecular mechanisms responsible for creating this diversity – ranging from rods to spheres, spirals, and even more complex shapes – are still largely unknown. Evolutionary cell biology approaches help to provide new insights into bacterial cell shape generation and evolution. These approaches encompass four key steps: rigorous phylogenetic analysis, quantification of phenotypic variation, identification of candidate evolutionary mechanisms and functional studies of genes or pathways. Advancing our knowledge o...
Source: BioEssays - March 18, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Tags: Cover Picture Source Type: research

Laser all-ceramic crown removal and pulpal temperature—a laboratory proof-of-principle study
The objective of this proof-of-principle laboratory pilot study was to evaluate the temperature increase in the pulp chamber in a worst case scenario during Er:YAG laser debonding of all-ceramic crowns. Twenty extracted molars were prepared to receive all-ceramic IPS E.max CAD full contour crowns. The crowns were bonded to the teeth with Ivoclar Multilink Automix. Times for laser debonding and temperature rise in the pulp chamber using micro-thermocouples were measured. The Er:YAG was used with 560 mJ/pulse. The irradiation was applied at a distance of 5 mm from the crown surface. Additional air–water spray for cooling...
Source: Lasers in Medical Science - March 18, 2015 Category: Laser Surgery Source Type: research

Synovial fluid and plasma n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with inflammatory arthritis
Relationships between n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in plasma and synovial fluid (SF) were examined in 36 patients with knee effusion within the context of a variety of rheumatic diagnoses and various stated fish oil (FO) intakes (from 0 to 30mL of standard FO daily) of variable duration. In a sub-group of patients, correlations between PUFA in SF mononuclear cells (MNC) and cell-free supernatants of SF and between SF MNC and peripheral blood (PB) MNC were examined. Correlations were also sought between clinical data (stated FO intake, pain score) and n-3 LC-PUFA. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotriene...
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mahin Moghaddami, Michael James, Susanna Proudman, Leslie G Cleland Source Type: research

The Impact of Boundary Conditions on Surface Curvature of Polypropylene Mesh in Response to Uniaxial Loading
Exposure following pelvic organ prolapse repair has been observationally associated with wrinkling of the implanted mesh. The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of variable boundary conditions on the out-of-plane deformations of mesh subjected to tensile loading. Using photogrammetry and surface curvature analyses, deformed geometries were accessed for two commercially available products. Relative to standard clamping methods, the amount of out-of-plane deformation significantly increased when point loads were introduced to simulate suture fixation in-vivo. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: William R. Barone, Rouzbeh Amini, Spandan Maiti, Pamela A. Moalli, Steven D. Abramowitch Source Type: research

Polyphasic characterization of an anaerobic hexachlorobenzene-dechlorinating microbial consortium with a wide dechlorination spectrum for chlorobenzenes
Publication date: Available online 17 March 2015 Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering Author(s): Xue Zhou , Chunfang Zhang , Dongdong Zhang , Takanori Awata , Zhixing Xiao , Qi Yang , Arata Katayama An anaerobic consortium that was capable of reductively dechlorinating hexachlorobenzene (HCB) to benzene was enriched from contaminated sediment. The consortium was capable of dechlorinating all chlorobenzene isomers except 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Singly and doubly flanked chlorines, as well as unflanked meta-substituted chlorines, were dechlorinated, although doubly flanked chlorines were preferred. Formate, acetate...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Immobilization of feruloyl esterases on magnetic nanoparticles and its potential in production of ferulic acid
This study presents immobilization of partially purified feruloyl esterases from the fermentation liquor of recombinant Pichia on magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Furthermore, the optimal conditions for the immobilization and some characteristics of immobilized enzyme were studied. The optimal immobilization conditions observed were enzyme 0.2 mg (1 mg/mL, 0.2 mL), magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles 4 mg, pH 6.0, immobilization time 3 h. The results showed that the optimal reaction temperature of immobilized enzyme was increased from 45°C to 55°C. Thermal stability of the immobilized enzyme also had an improvement, the resid...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Metabolic correlation between polyol and energy-storing carbohydrate under osmotic and oxidative stress condition in Moniliella megachiliensis
Publication date: Available online 17 March 2015 Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering Author(s): Yosuke Kobayashi , Hisashi Iwata , Junjiro Yoshida , Jun Ogihara , Jun Kato , Takafumi Kasumi Moniliella megachiliensis, the osmo-tolerant basidiomycetous yeast was found to accumulate intracellularly energy-storing carbohydrates (trehalose and glycogen) along with polyols (glycerol and erythritol) up to stationary growth phase. In trehalose-loaded cell, osmotic-stress resulted in the rapid generation of glycerol, and oxidative stress with menadione resulted in the rapid generation of erythritol. Under either of th...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Optimization of cell line development in the GS-CHO expression system using a high-throughput, single cell-based clone selection system
In this study, we applied the high-throughput ClonePix FL system for cell line development using CHO-K1SV cells and investigated efficient conditions for single cell-based clone selection. CHO-K1SV cell growth at the pre-picking stage was improved by optimizing the formulation of semi-solid medium. The efficiency of picking and cell growth at the post-picking stage was improved by optimization of the plating time without decreasing the diversity of clones. The conditions for selection, including the medium formulation, were the most important factors for the single cell-based clone selection system to construct a high-prod...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

MiR-494-3p induced by compressive force inhibits cell proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells
In conclusion, compressive force affected expressions of several miRNAs including miR-494-3p in MC3T3-E1 cells. Compressive force might inhibit cell proliferation in osteoblasts by up-regulating miR-494-3p followed by FGFR2 and ROCK1 gene repressions. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Culture characteristics of the atmospheric and room temperature plasma-mutated Spirulina platensis mutants in CO2 aeration culture system for biomass production
This study revealed that the ARTP mutagenesis could generate the S. platensis mutants suitable for CO2 aeration culture aiming at biomass production. (Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering)
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nitrous oxide emission in autotrophic partial nitritation system: Macro- and microanalyses
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2015 Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering Author(s): Kai Ju , Lei Wang , Yongtao Lv , Xueling Zhang , Rui Miao , Xudong Wang A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor fed with synthetic high-ammonium wastewater was operated for autotrophic partial nitritation, and the characteristics of N2O emission were investigated by both macro- and microanalysis. A N2O emission quantity of 5.98 ± 1.24 mg (n = 17) was observed, accounting for 0.997% ± 0.408% of the influent nitrogen. The N2O level in the off-gas first increased to a maximum of 91.5 ppmv in the initial 5...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Absolute quantitation of glycolytic intermediates reveals thermodynamic shifts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking PFK1 or ZWF1 genes
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2015 Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering Author(s): Shunsuke Nishino , Nobuyuki Okahashi , Fumio Matsuda , Hiroshi Shimizu Internal standard based absolute quantitation of glycolytic intermediates was performed to characterize the thermodynamic states of Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism. A mixture of 13C-labeled glycolytic intermediates was prepared via extraction from S. cerevisiae cells cultivated using a synthetic medium containing [U-13C] glucose as the sole carbon source. The 13C-labeled metabolite mixture was used as an internal standard for the analysis o...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Graded Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent coupling of voltage-gated CaV1.2 channels
In the heart, reliable activation of Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the plateau of the ventricular action potential requires synchronous opening of multiple CaV1.2 channels. Yet the mechanisms that coordinate this simultaneous opening during every heartbeat are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that CaV1.2 channels form clusters that undergo dynamic, reciprocal, allosteric interactions. This ‘functional coupling’ facilitates Ca2+ influx by increasing activation of adjoined channels and occurs through C-terminal-to-C-terminal interactions. These interactions are initiated by binding of incoming ...
Source: eLife - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dixon, R. E., Moreno, C. M., Yuan, C., Opitz-Araya, X., Binder, M. D., Navedo, M. F., Santana, L. F. Tags: Biophysics and structural biology Source Type: research

Linking traits based on their shared molecular mechanisms
There is growing recognition that co-morbidity and co-occurrence of disease traits are often determined by shared genetic and molecular mechanisms. In most cases, however, the specific mechanisms that lead to such trait–trait relationships are yet unknown. Here we present an analysis of a broad spectrum of behavioral and physiological traits together with gene-expression measurements across genetically diverse mouse strains. We develop an unbiased methodology that constructs potentially overlapping groups of traits and resolves their underlying combination of genetic loci and molecular mechanisms. For example, our me...
Source: eLife - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Oren, Y., Nachshon, A., Frishberg, A., Wilentzik, R., Gat-Viks, I. Tags: Genomics and evolutionary biology Source Type: research

Registered report: Intestinal inflammation targets cancer-inducing activity of the microbiota
The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of 50 papers in the field of cancer biology published between 2010 and 2012. This Registered report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from ‘Intestinal Inflammation Targets Cancer-Inducing Activity of the Microbiota’ by Arthur et al. (2012), published in Science in 2012. Arthur and colleagues identified a genotoxic island in Escherichia coli NC101 that appeared to be responsible for causing neoplastic lesions in inflammation-induced IL10&nd...
Source: eLife - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Eaton, K., Yang, W., Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology Tags: Microbiology and infectious disease Source Type: research

Secreted CLCA1 modulates TMEM16A to activate Ca2+-dependent chloride currents in human cells
Calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) activates calcium-dependent chloride currents; neither the target, nor mechanism, is known. We demonstrate that secreted CLCA1 activates calcium-dependent chloride currents in HEK293T cells in a paracrine fashion, and endogenous TMEM16A/Anoctamin1 conducts the currents. Exposure to exogenous CLCA1 increases cell surface levels of TMEM16A and cellular binding experiments indicate CLCA1 engages TMEM16A on the surface of these cells. Altogether, our data suggest that CLCA1 stabilizes TMEM16A on the cell surface, thus increasing surface expression, which results in increas...
Source: eLife - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sala-Rabanal, M., Yurtsever, Z., Nichols, C. G., Brett, T. J. Tags: Cell biology Source Type: research

Triaging Shakespeare
What if every creative endeavor had to go through Peer Review? Indira M Raman considers the possibility. (Source: eLife)
Source: eLife - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Raman, I. M. Tags: Living science Source Type: research

Conservation of transcription factor binding specificities across 600 million years of bilateria evolution
Divergent morphology of species has largely been ascribed to genetic differences in the tissue-specific expression of proteins, which could be achieved by divergence in cis-regulatory elements or by altering the binding specificity of transcription factors (TFs). The relative importance of the latter has been difficult to assess, as previous systematic analyses of TF binding specificity have been performed using different methods in different species. To address this, we determined the binding specificities of 242 Drosophila TFs, and compared them to human and mouse data. This analysis revealed that TF binding specificitie...
Source: eLife - March 17, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nitta, K. R., Jolma, A., Yin, Y., Morgunova, E., Kivioja, T., Akhtar, J., Hens, K., Toivonen, J., Deplancke, B., Furlong, E. E. M., Taipale, J. Tags: Genomics and evolutionary biology Source Type: research