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Biomedical Science

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.

Estimating total knee replacement joint load ratios from kinematics
This study investigates the accuracy of predicting joint loads from joint kinematics. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Clare K. Fitzpatrick, Paul J. Rullkoetter Source Type: research

Comparison of discrete-point vs. dimensionality-reduction techniques for describing performance-related aspects of maximal vertical jumping
The aim of this study was to assess and compare the ability of discrete point analysis (DPA), functional principal component analysis (fPCA) and analysis of characterizing phases (ACP) to describe a dependent variable (jump height) using vertical ground reaction force curves captured during the propulsion phase of a countermovement jump. FPCA and ACP are continuous data analysis techniques that reduce the dimensionality of a data set by identifying phases of variation (key phases), which are used to generate subject scores that describe a subject׳s behavior. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chris Richter, Noel E. O׳Connor, Brendan Marshall, Kieran Moran Source Type: research

Validated biomechanical model for efficiency and speed of rowing
The speed of a competitive rowing crew depends on the number of crew members, their body mass, sex and the type of rowing--sweep rowing or sculling. The time-averaged speed is proportional to the rower's body mass to the 1/36th power, to the number of crew members to the 1/9th power and to the physiological efficiency (accounted for by the rower's sex) to the 1/3rd power. The quality of the rowing shell and propulsion system is captured by one dimensionless parameter that takes the mechanical efficiency, the shape and drag coefficient of the shell and the Froude propulsion efficiency into account. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Peter F. Pelz, Angela Vergé Source Type: research

Dynamic stability of superior vs. inferior body segments in individuals with transtibial amputation walking in destabilizing environments
This study quantified how superior (i.e., head, trunk, and pelvis) and inferior (i.e., thigh, shank, and feet) segments of the body respond to continuous visual or mechanical perturbations during walking. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rainer Beurskens, Jason M. Wilken, Jonathan B. Dingwell Source Type: research

Simultaneous determination of plasma creatinine, uric acid, kynurenine and tryptophan by high-performance liquid chromatography: method validation and in application to the assessment of renal function.
Abstract A high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of a set of reliable markers of renal function, including creatinine, uric acid, kynurenine and tryptophan in plasma. Separation was achieved by an Agilent HC-C18 (2) analytical column. Gradient elution and programmed wavelength detection allowed the method to be used to analyze these compounds by just one injection. The total run time was 25 min with all peaks of interest being eluted within 13 min. Good linear responses were found with correlation coefficient >0.999 for ...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhao J Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

Development of a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of eleven constituents in rat serum and its application to a pharmacokinetic study of a Chinese medicine Shengmai injection.
Abstract A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of 11 constituents, ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rf, Rg2, Rb1, Rd, Rc, ophiopogonin D, schisandrin, schisandrol B and schizandrin B, in rat serum using digoxin as the internal standard (IS). The serum samples were pretreated and extracted with a two-step liquid-liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 analytical column with a proper gradient elution using 0.02% acetic acid aqueous solution and 0.02% acetic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. MS detection was performed using...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhan S, Shao Q, Fan X, Li Z Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

In the News
Scientists Join the World of Crowdfunding   “’But science has yet to gain Veronica Mars status,’ notes Jeanne Garbarino, director of science outreach at Rockefeller University in New York, who has used crowdfunding and informally advised others. Instead, scientific projects … More » (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - July 9, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: In the News crowdfunding Jeanne Garbarino social media Source Type: news

Nature online: July 9, 2014
Metastasis-suppressor transcript destabilization through TARBP2 binding of mRNA hairpins | Newswire Hani Goodarzi, Steven Zhang, Colin G. Buss, Lisa Fish, Saeed Tavazoie and Sohail F. Tavazoie (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - July 9, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Research Update Source Type: news

Identification of metabolites of gardenin A in rats by combination of high-performance liquid chromatography with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer based on multiple data processing techniques.
Abstract Gardenin A is one of the less abundant hydroxylated polymethoxyflavonoids (OH-PMFs) in nature, and has many potential significant health benefits. In the present study, an efficient strategy was established using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer to profile the in vivo metabolic fate of gardenin A in rat plasma and various tissues. First, an online LC-MS(n) data acquisition method was developed to trace all the probable metabolites. Second, a combination of offline data processing methods including extracted ion chromatography and multiple mass d...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 9, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhang J, Wang F, Cai W, Zhang Q, Liu Y, Li Y, Liu R, Cao G Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of Pulsatilla saponin D in rat plasma and its application in a rat pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study.
Abstract A simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of Pulsatilla saponin D, a potential antitumor constituent isolated from Pulsatilla chinensis in rat plasma. Rat plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. The method validation was performed in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of Pulsatilla saponin D in rats. Copyright © 2014 John W...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 9, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ouyang H, Guo Y, He M, Zhang J, Huang X, Zhou X, Jiang H, Feng Y, Yang S Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

Effect of temperature change on anammox activity
In this study we report the short‐term effect of temperature on the maximum biomass specific activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria as evaluated by means of batch tests. The experiments were performed on anammox biomass sampled from two full‐scale reactors and two lab‐scale reactors, all characterized by different reactor configurations and operating conditions. The results indicate that for the anammox conversion the temperature dependency cannot be accurately modeled by one single Arrhenius coefficient (i.e. Θ) as typically applied for other biological processes. The temperature effect is incr...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - July 9, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: T. Lotti, R. Kleerebezem, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht Tags: Article Source Type: research

Modeling enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates using confocal fluorescence microscopy I: Filter paper cellulose
In this study we present a method to image cellulosic substrates with complex three‐dimensional structure, such as filter paper, undergoing hydrolysis under conditions relevant to industrial saccharification processes (i.e. temperature of 50°C, using commercial cellulolytic cocktails). Fluorescence intensities resulting from confocal images were used to estimate parameters for a diffusion and reaction model. Furthermore, the observation of a relatively constant bound enzyme fluorescence signal throughout hydrolysis supported our modeling assumption regarding the structure of biomass during hydrolysis. The observed behav...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - July 9, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jeremy S. Luterbacher, Jose M. Moran‐Mirabal, Eric W. Burkholder, Larry P. Walker Tags: Article Source Type: research

Modeling enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates using fluorescent confocal microscopy II: Pretreated biomass
In this study, we extend imaging and modeling work that was done in Part I of this report for a pure cellulose substrate (filter paper) to more industrially relevant substrates (untreated and pretreated hardwood and switchgrass). Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, we are able to track both the structure of the biomass particle via its autofluorescence, and bound enzyme from a commercial cellulase cocktail supplemented with a small fraction of fluorescently labeled Trichoderma reseii Cel7A. Imaging was performed throughout hydrolysis at temperatures relevant to industrial processing (50°C). Enzyme bound predominantly ...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - July 9, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jeremy S. Luterbacher, Jose M. Moran‐Mirabal, Eric W. Burkholder, Larry P. Walker Tags: Article Source Type: research

Modeling the nutrient removal process in aerobic granular sludge system by coupling the reactor‐ and granule‐scale models
Abstract We developed a model for nutrient removal in an aerobic granular sludge system. This model can quantitatively describe the start‐up of the system by coupling a model for studying the population dynamics of the granules in the reactor (reactor‐scale model) and a model for studying the microbial community structure in the granules (granule‐scale model). The reactor‐scale model is used for simulation for 10 days from the start, during which the granule size is relatively small; the granule‐scale model is used after Day 10. The present approach proposes the output data of the reactor‐scale model after 10 d...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - July 9, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Y. Kagawa, J. Tahata, N. Kishida, S. Matsumoto, C. Picioreanu, M.C.M. van Loosdrecht, S. Tsuneda Tags: Article Source Type: research

Use of a small molecule cell cycle inhibitor to control cell growth and improve specific productivity and product quality of recombinant proteins in CHO cell cultures
Abstract The continued need to improve therapeutic recombinant protein productivity has led to ongoing assessment of appropriate strategies in the biopharmaceutical industry to establish robust processes with optimized critical variables, i.e. viable cell density (VCD) and specific productivity (product per cell, qP). Even though high VCD is a positive factor for titer, uncontrolled proliferation beyond a certain cell mass is also undesirable. To enable efficient process development to achieve consistent and predictable growth arrest while maintaining viable cell density, as well as improving qP, without negative impacts o...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - July 9, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhimei Du, David Treiber, John McCarter, Dina Fomina Yadlin, Ramsey A. Saleem, Rebecca E. McCoy, Yuling Zhang, Tharmala Tharmalingam, Matthew Leith, Brian D. Follstad, Brad Dell, Brent Grisim, Craig Zupke, Carole Heath, Arvia E. Morris, Pranhitha Reddy Tags: Article Source Type: research

Chronic viral infection promotes sustained Th1-derived immunoregulatory IL-10 via BLIMP-1
In this study, we traced IL-10 production over the course of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in an IL-10 reporter mouse line. Using this model, we demonstrated that virus-specific T cells with reduced inflammatory function, particularly Th1 cells, display elevated and sustained IL-10 expression during chronic LCMV infection. Furthermore, ablation of IL-10 from the T cell compartment partially restored T cell function and reduced viral loads in LCMV-infected animals. We found that viral persistence is needed for sustained IL-10 production by Th1 cells and that the transcription factor BLIMP-1 is ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ian A. Parish, Heather D. Marshall, Matthew M. Staron, Philipp A. Lang, Anne Brüstle, Jonathan H. Chen, Weiguo Cui, Yao-Chen Tsui, Curtis Perry, Brian J. Laidlaw, Pamela S. Ohashi, Casey T. Weaver, Susan M. Kaech Source Type: research

Trace amounts of sporadically reappearing HCV RNA can cause infection
Successful hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is defined as the absence of viremia 6 months after therapy cessation. We previously reported that trace amounts of HCV RNA, below the sensitivity of the standard clinical assay, can reappear sporadically in treatment responders. Here, we assessed the infectivity of this RNA and infused 3 chimpanzees sequentially at 9-week intervals with plasma or PBMCs from patients who tested positive for trace amounts of HCV RNA more than 6 months after completing pegylated IFN-α/ribavirin therapy. A fourth chimpanzee received HCV RNA–negative plasma and PBMCs from healthy blood donors. Th...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Naga Suresh Veerapu, Su-Hyung Park, Damien C. Tully, Todd M. Allen, Barbara Rehermann Source Type: research

CDK9 inhibitor FIT-039 prevents replication of multiple DNA viruses
A wide range of antiviral drugs is currently available; however, drug-resistant viruses have begun to emerge and represent a potential public health risk. Here, we explored the use of compounds that inhibit or interfere with the action of essential host factors to prevent virus replication. In particular, we focused on the cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) inhibitor, FIT-039, which suppressed replication of a broad spectrum of DNA viruses through inhibition of mRNA transcription. Specifically, FIT-039 inhibited replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, human adenovirus, and human cytomegalovirus in cultured cell...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Makoto Yamamoto, Hiroshi Onogi, Isao Kii, Suguru Yoshida, Kei Iida, Hiroyuki Sakai, Minako Abe, Toshiaki Tsubota, Nobutoshi Ito, Takamitsu Hosoya, Masatoshi Hagiwara Source Type: research

RAS interaction with PI3K p110α is required for tumor-induced angiogenesis
Direct interaction of RAS with the PI3K p110α subunit mediates RAS-driven tumor development: however, it is not clear how p110α/RAS-dependant signaling mediates interactions between tumors and host tissues. Here, using a murine tumor cell transfer model, we demonstrated that disruption of the interaction between RAS and p110α within host tissue reduced tumor growth and tumor-induced angiogenesis, leading to improved survival of tumor-bearing mice, even when this interaction was intact in the transferred tumor. Furthermore, functional interaction of RAS with p110α in host tissue was required for efficient establishment ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Miguel Manuel Murillo, Santiago Zelenay, Emma Nye, Esther Castellano, Francois Lassailly, Gordon Stamp, Julian Downward Source Type: research

Periostin promotes liver steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia through downregulation of PPARα
Hepatosteatosis is characterized by an aberrant accumulation of triglycerides in the liver; however, the factors that drive obesity-induced fatty liver remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that the secreted cell adhesion protein periostin is markedly upregulated in livers of obese rodents and humans. Notably, overexpression of periostin in the livers of WT mice promoted hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Conversely, both genetic ablation of periostin and administration of a periostin-neutralizing antibody dramatically improved hepatosteatosis and hypertriglyceridemia in obese mice. Overexpression of perio...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yan Lu, Xing Liu, Yang Jiao, Xuelian Xiong, E Wang, Xiaolin Wang, Zhijian Zhang, Huijie Zhang, Lingling Pan, Youfei Guan, Dongsheng Cai, Guang Ning, Xiaoying Li Source Type: research

Transplant restoration of spinal cord inhibitory controls ameliorates neuropathic itch
The transmission of pruritoceptive (itch) messages involves specific neural circuits within the spinal cord that are distinct from those that transmit pain messages. These itch-specific circuits are tonically regulated by inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn. Consistent with these findings, it has previously been reported that loss of GABAergic interneurons in mice harboring a deletion of the transcription factor Bhlhb5 generates a severe, nonremitting condition of chronic itch. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the neuropathic itch in BHLHB5-deficient animals can be treated by restoring inhibitory controls through...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joao M. Braz, Dina Juarez-Salinas, Sarah E. Ross, Allan I. Basbaum Source Type: research

Pediatric Crohn disease patients exhibit specific ileal transcriptome and microbiome signature
Interactions between the host and gut microbial community likely contribute to Crohn disease (CD) pathogenesis; however, direct evidence for these interactions at the onset of disease is lacking. Here, we characterized the global pattern of ileal gene expression and the ileal microbial community in 359 treatment-naive pediatric patients with CD, patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and control individuals. We identified core gene expression profiles and microbial communities in the affected CD ilea that are preserved in the unaffected ilea of patients with colon-only CD but not present in those with UC or control individ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yael Haberman, Timothy L. Tickle, Phillip J. Dexheimer, Mi-Ok Kim, Dora Tang, Rebekah Karns, Robert N. Baldassano, Joshua D. Noe, Joel Rosh, James Markowitz, Melvin B. Heyman, Anne M. Griffiths, Wallace V. Crandall, David R. Mack, Susan S. Baker, Curtis H Source Type: research

Genetically driven gut feelings help female flies choose a mate
Researchers at Rockefeller University have determined that the Abdominal-B (Abd-B) gene, previously known as the gene that sculpts the posterior parts of the developing fly, is also important for a complex courtship behavior, at least in the case of female flies. More » (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Science News Drosophila melanogaster Leslie B. Vosshall neuroscience RNA interference Source Type: news

Draft Guidance for Industry: Design and Analysis of Shedding Studies for Virus or Bacteria-Based Gene Therapy and Oncolytic Products
(Source: What's New at CBER)
Source: What's New at CBER - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: news

Cognitive Dysfunction in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome
This study provides evidence for deficits in selective attention and cognitive processing in patients with POTS, in the seated position when orthostatic stress is minimized. In contrast, other measures of cognitive function including memory assessments were not impaired in these patients, suggesting selectivity in these deficits. These findings provide new insight into the profile of cognitive dysfunction in POTS, and provide the basis for further studies to identify clinical strategies to better manage the mental clouding associated with this condition. (Source: Clinical Science)
Source: Clinical Science - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A C Arnold, K Haman, E M Garland, V Raj, W D Dupont, I Biaggioni, D Robertson, S R Raj Source Type: research

Novel Human D-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitors Stabilize an Active Site Lid Open Conformation.
Abstract The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a central regulator of synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Human D-amino acid oxidase (hDAAO) indirectly reduces NMDAR activity by degrading the NMDAR co-agonist D-serine. Because NMDAR hypofunction is thought to be a foundational defect in schizophrenia, hDAAO inhibitors have potential as treatments for schizophrenia and other nervous system disorders. Here, we sought to identify novel chemicals that inhibit hDAAO activity. We used computational tools to design a focused, purchasable library of compounds. After screening this library for hDAAO inhibiti...
Source: Bioscience Reports - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Terry-Lorenzo RT, Chun LE, Brown SP, Heffernan ML, Fang QK, Orsini MA, Pollegioni L, Hardy LW, Spear KL, Large TH Tags: Biosci Rep Source Type: research

Selective (15)N-labeling of the side-chain amide groups of asparagine and glutamine for applications in paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy.
Abstract The side-chain amide groups of asparagine and glutamine play important roles in stabilizing the structural fold of proteins, participating in hydrogen-bonding networks and protein interactions. Selective (15)N-labeling of side-chain amides, however, can be a challenge due to enzyme-catalyzed exchange of amide groups during protein synthesis. In the present study, we developed an efficient way of selectively labeling the side chains of asparagine, or asparagine and glutamine residues with (15)NH2. Using the biosynthesis pathway of tryptophan, a protocol was also established for simultaneous selective (15)N-...
Source: Journal of Bimolecular NMR - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Cao C, Chen JL, Yang Y, Huang F, Otting G, Su XC Tags: J Biomol NMR Source Type: research

Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, reduces post-meal glucose excursion in patients with type 2 diabetes by a non-renal mechanism: results of a randomized trial
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Peter Stein, Jolene K. Berg, Linda Morrow, David Polidori, Eunice Artis, Sarah Rusch, Nicole Vaccaro, Damayanthi Devineni Source Type: research

Decreased Plasma Levels of Select Very Long Chain Ceramide Species are Associated With The Development of Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 8, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Richard L. Klein, Samar M. Hammad, Nathaniel L. Baker, Kelly J. Hunt, Mohammed M. Al Gadban, Patricia A. Cleary, Gabriel Virella, Maria F. Lopes-Virella, the DCCT/EDIC Research Group Source Type: research

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase is regulated by ERK phosphorylation at S602.
Abstract Endothelial nitric oxide synthase contains a MAP kinase binding site associated with a major eNOS control element. Purified ERK phosphorylates eNOS with a stoichiometry of 2-3 phosphates per eNOS monomer. Phosphorylation decreases NO synthesis and cytochrome c reductase activity. Three sites of phosphorylation were detected by mass spectrometry. All sites matched the SP and TP MAP kinase phosphorylation motif. S602 lies at the N terminal edge of the 42-residue eNOS autoinhibitory element (AI). The pentabasic MAP kinase binding site lies at the opposite end of the AI, and other critical regulatory features ...
Source: Bioscience Reports - July 7, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Salerno JC, Ghosh DK, Razdan R, Helms KA, Brown CC, McMurry JL, Rye EA, Chrestensen CA Tags: Biosci Rep Source Type: research

Thermogenic adipocytes From cells to physiology and medicine
(Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 7, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mauricio Berriel Diaz, Stephan Herzig, Alexandros Vegiopoulos Source Type: research

A history of health and medical research in Australia.
This article highlights some important milestones in the history of health and medical research in Australia. PMID: 25047775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Med J Aust)
Source: Med J Aust - July 7, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Dyke T, Anderson WP Tags: Med J Aust Source Type: research

Proximal femur elastic behaviour is the same in impact and constant displacement rate fall simulation
Understanding proximal femur fracture may yield new targets for fracture prevention screening and treatment. The goal of this study was to characterize force-displacement and failure behaviours in the proximal femur between displacement control and impact loading fall simulations. Twenty-one human proximal femurs were tested in two ways, first to a sub-failure load at a constant displacement rate, then to fracture in an impact fall simulator. Comparisons of sub-failure energy and stiffness were made between the tests at the same compressive force. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 7, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: S. Gilchrist, K.K. Nishiyama, P. de Bakker, P. Guy, S.K. Boyd, T. Oxland, P.A. Cripton Source Type: research

3D finite element model of the diabetic neuropathic foot: A gait analysis driven approach
Diabetic foot is an invalidating complication of diabetes that can lead to foot ulcers. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) allows characterizing the loads developed in the different anatomical structures of the foot in dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to develop a subject specific 3D foot FE model (FEM) of a diabetic neuropathic (DNS) and a healthy (HS) subject, whose subject specificity can be found in term of foot geometry and boundary conditions. Kinematics, kinetics and plantar pressure (PP) data were extracted from the gait analysis trials of the two subjects with this purpose. (Source: ...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 7, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Annamaria Guiotto, Zimi Sawacha, Gabriella Guarneri, Alessandra Scarton, Angelo Avogaro, Claudio Cobelli Source Type: research

Thermogenic adipocytes: From cells to physiology and medicine
The identification of active brown fat in humans has evoked widespread interest in the biology of non-shivering thermogenesis among basic and clinical researchers. As a consequence we have experienced a plethora of contributions related to cellular and molecular processes in thermogenic adipocytes as well as their function in the organismal context and their relevance to human physiology. In this review we focus on the cellular basis of non-shivering thermogenesis, particularly in relation to human health and metabolic disease. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - July 7, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mauricio Berriel Diaz, Stephan Herzig, Alexandros Vegiopoulos Source Type: research

A degradation study of cefepime hydrochloride in solutions under various stress conditions by TLC-densitometry.
Abstract A rapid, accurate and sensitive thin-layer chromatography (TLC) method with densitometric detection has been developed and validated for the determination of cefepime in pharmaceuticals. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a silica gel TLC F254 plates with a mobile phase consisting of ethanol-2-propanol-glacial acetic acid 99.5%-water (4:4:1:3, v/v). Densitometric detection was carried out at wavelength of 266 nm in reflectance/absorbance mode. The validation of the method was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy (from 99.24 to 101.37%) and precision (RSD from 0.06 to 0.36%). Additionally, ...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 7, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dąbrowska M, Starek M, Krzek J, Papp E, Król P Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

Resolution and isolation of enantiomers of (±)-isoxsuprine using thin silica gel layers impregnated with l-glutamic acid, comparison of separation of its diastereomers prepared with chiral derivatizing reagents having l-amino acids as chiral auxiliaries.
Abstract Thin silica gel layers impregnated with optically pure l-glutamic acid were used for direct resolution of enantiomers of (±)-isoxsuprine in their native form. Three chiral derivatizing reagents, based on DFDNB moiety, were synthesized having l-alanine, l-valine and S-benzyl-l-cysteine as chiral auxiliaries. These were used to prepare diastereomers under microwave irradiation and conventional heating. The diastereomers were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 column with detection at 340 nm using gradient elution with mobile phase containing aqueous trifluoroacetic a...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - July 7, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bhushan R, Nagar H Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

Contribution of the skin, rectus abdominis and their sheaths to the structural response of the abdominal wall
A better understanding of the abdominal wall biomechanics could help designing new treatments for incisional hernia. In the current study, an experimental protocol was developed to evaluate the contributions of the abdominal wall components to the structural response of the anterior part of the abdominal wall. The specimens underwent 3 dissections (removal of (1) skin and subcutaneous fat, (2) anterior rectus sheath, (3) rectus abdominis muscles). After each dissection, they were subjected to air pressure up to 3kPa. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 5, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: D. Tran, D. Mitton, D. Voirin, F. Turquier, P. Beillas Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Percussion circuits and brain function – A hypothesis” [Med. Hypotheses 82 (2014) 595–600]
The authors regret the incompleteness of Fig. 3 (the formation of tryptophan betaine). (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - July 5, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: D.S. Robertson Source Type: research

Body segment inertial parameters and low back load in individuals with central adiposity
There is a paucity of information regarding the impact of central adiposity on the inertial characteristics of body segments. Deriving low back loads during lifting requires accurate estimate of inertial parameters. The purpose was to determine the body segment inertial parameters of people with central adiposity using a photogrammetric technique, and then to evaluate the impact on lumbar spine loading. Five participants with central adiposity (waist:hip ratio>0.9, waist circumference>102cm) were compared to a normal BMI group. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 5, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robert Pryce, Dean Kriellaars Source Type: research

Borrowed philosophy: bedside physicalism and the need for a sui generis metaphysic of medicine
Abstract The character of medicine has changed over the last 100 years such that medicine is more interested in diseases than the people who suffer from them. Despite notable efforts to address this, the medical humanities do not challenge doctors' fundamental view of the world. Students adopt a metaphysic of physicalism during basic science training that gets carried into medical training. While necessary for medical science, physicalism is insufficient for clinical care. Physicalism offers no foundation for the sine qua non of medicine, the doctor–patient relationship. The character of medicine will not see a renewed...
Source: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice - July 5, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Shawn D. Whatley Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Host cell protein testing by ELISAs and the use of orthogonal methods
This report reviews the use of the HCP ELISA, discusses its limitations, and demonstrates the importance of orthogonal methods, including mass spectrometry, to complement the platform HCP ELISA for support of process development. In addition, risk and impact assessment for low‐level HCPs is also outlined, with consideration of clinical information. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering)
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - July 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Judith Zhu‐Shimoni, Christopher Yu, Julie Nishihara, Robert M. Wong, Feny Gunawan, Margaret Lin, Denise Krawitz, Peter Liu, Wendy Sandoval, Martin Vanderlaan Tags: Review Source Type: research

A Philosophical Evaluation of Adaptationism as a Heuristic Strategy.
Abstract Adaptationism has prompted many a debate in philosophy of biology but the focus is usually on empirical and explanatory issues rather than methodological adaptationism (MA). Likewise, the context of evolutionary biology has provided the grounding for most discussions of the heuristic role of adaptationism. This paper extends the debate by drawing on case studies from physiology and systems biology to discuss the productive and problematic aspects of adaptationism in functional as well as evolutionary studies at different levels of biological organization. Gould and Lewontin's Spandrels-paper famously criti...
Source: Acta Biotheoretica - July 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Green S Tags: Acta Biotheor Source Type: research

Hypoxia activates IKK-NF-κB and the immune response in Drosophila melanogaster.
Abstract Hypoxia, or low oxygen availability, is an important physiological and pathological stimulus for multicellular organisms. Molecularly, hypoxia activates a transcriptional programme directed at restoration of oxygen homeostasis and cellular survival. In mammalian cells, hypoxia activates the Hypoxia Inducible Factor family, but also additional transcription factors such as NF-κB. Here we show that hypoxia activates the IKK-NF-κB pathway and the immune response in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that NF-kB activation is required for organism survival in hypoxia. Finally, we identify a role for the tumour ...
Source: Bioscience Reports - July 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bandarra D, Biddlestone J, Mudie S, Muller HA, Rocha S Tags: Biosci Rep Source Type: research

The N-terminal Portion of Autoinhibitory Element Modulates Human Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase Activity through Coordinated Controls of Phosphorylation at Thr-495 and Ser-1177.
Abstract Nitric oxide (·NO) production catalyzed by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in the cardiovascular system. A variety of agonists activate eNOS through the Ser1177 phosphorylation concomitant with Thr495 dephosphorylation, resulting in increased ·NO production with a basal level of calcium. To date, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We have previously demonstrated that perturbation of the autoinhibitory element (AIE) in the FMN-binding subdomain can also lead to eNOS activation with a basal level of calcium, implying that the AIE might regulate eNOS activation throug...
Source: Bioscience Reports - July 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wu PR, Chen BR, Hsieh CC, Lin WC, Wu KK, Hwu Y, Chen PF Tags: Biosci Rep Source Type: research

Elevation and orientation of external loads influence trunk neuromuscular response and spinal forces despite identical moments at the L5–S1 level
A wide range of loading conditions involving external forces with varying magnitudes, orientations and locations are encountered in daily activities. Here we computed the effect on trunk biomechanics of changes in force location (two levels) and orientation (5 values) in 4 subjects in upright standing while maintaining identical external moment of 15Nm, 30Nm or 45Nm at the L5–S1. Driven by measured kinematics and gravity/external loads, the finite element models yielded substantially different trunk neuromuscular response with moderate alterations (up to 24% under 45 Nm moment) in spinal loads as the load orientation var...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Z. El Ouaaid, A. Shirazi-Adl, A. Plamondon, N. Arjmand Source Type: research

Mechanical properties vary for different regions of the finger extensor apparatus
The extensor apparatus, an aponeurosis that covers the dorsal side of each finger, transmits force from a number of musculotendons to the phalanges. Multiple tendons integrate directly into the structure at different sites and the extensor apparatus attaches to the phalanges at multiple points. Thus, prediction of the force distribution within the extensor apparatus, or hood, and the transmission to the phalanges is challenging, especially as knowledge of the underlying mechanical properties of the tissue is limited. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kai Qian, Kay Traylor, Sang Wook Lee, Benjamin Ellis, Jeffrey Weiss, Derek Kamper Source Type: research

Glenohumeral joint cartilage contact in the healthy adult during scapular plane elevation depression with external humeral rotation
The shoulder (glenohumeral) joint has the greatest range of motion of all human joints; as a result, it is particularly vulnerable to dislocation and injury. The ability to non-invasively quantify in-vivo articular cartilage contact patterns of joints has been and remains a difficult biomechanics problem. As a result, little is known about normal in-vivo glenohumeral joint contact patterns or the consequences that surgery has on altering them. In addition, the effect of quantifying glenohumeral joint contact patterns by means of proximity mapping, both with and without cartilage data, is unknown. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Daniel F. Massimini, Jon J.P. Warner, Guoan Li Source Type: research

Quantification of plantar soft tissue changes due to agingin various metatarsophalangeal joint angles with realistic tissue deformation
The nonlinearity of plantar soft tissue is seldom examined because of the small extent of deformation induced during indentation for measurement purposes. Furthermore, in most indentation experiments, the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) angle is not well controlled, although it has been proven to have a significant stiffening effect on sub-metatarsal head (MTH) pads. Hence, the study aims to quantify changes in the mechanical properties of plantar soft tissue due to aging in an experimental condition which is similar to walking. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jee Chin Teoh, V.P.W. Shim, Taeyong Lee Source Type: research

Heterogeneous fascicle behavior within the biceps femoris long head at different muscle activation levels
Magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging have shown hamstring strain injuries occur most often in the biceps femoris long head (BFLH), and particularly in the proximal vs. distal region of this muscle. Animal research and musculoskeletal modeling (MSK) have detected heterogeneous fascicle behavior within muscle regions, and within fascicles. Understanding architectural behavior differences during muscle contractions may help to discern possible mechanisms behind proximal BFLH injuries. The purpose of our study was to assess the magnitude of shortening of the proximal and distal fascicles of the BFLH under a range of muscl...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - July 4, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hunter J. Bennett, Patrick M. Rider, Zachary J. Domire, Paul DeVita, Anthony S. Kulas Source Type: research