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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.

Region-Specific Defects of Respiratory Capacities in the Ndufs4(KO) Mouse Brain
Conclusion Our data suggests that locally insufficient respiration capacity of the nerve terminals may drive focal neurodegeneration. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - January 29, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ernst-Bernhard Kayser et al. Source Type: research

Melatonin Signaling Controls the Daily Rhythm in Blood Glucose Levels Independent of Peripheral Clocks
by Sharon Owino, Susana Contreras-Alcantara, Kenkichi Baba, Gianluca Tosini Melatonin is rhythmically secreted by both the pineal gland and retina in a circadian fashion, with its peak synthesis occurring during the night. Once synthesized, melatonin exerts its effects by binding to two specific G-protein coupled receptors–melatonin receptor type 1(MT1) and melatonin receptor type 2(MT2). Recent studies suggest the involvement of MT1 and MT2 in the regulation of glucose homeostasis; however the ability of melatonin signaling to impart timing cues on glucose metabolism remains poorly understood. Here we report that the r...
Source: PLoS One - January 29, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sharon Owino et al. Source Type: research

Neighbourhood Deprivation and Outcomes of Stop Smoking Support – An Observational Study
The objectives were to assess the association between neighbourhood deprivation, completion of treatment to support quit attempts and success of quit attempts—while taking into account other predictors of outcome. Methods 555,744 quit attempts supported by English Stop Smoking Services in 2009–2012 were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2010 ranks for the clients’ neighbourhood and split into deciles relative to the national IMD. Logistic regressions tested the association between neighbourhood deprivation and completion (4-week follow-up) of treatment and biochemically validated success (expired-air ...
Source: PLoS One - January 29, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Leonie S. Brose et al. Source Type: research

Prader-Willi Critical Region, a Non-Translated, Imprinted Central Regulator of Bone Mass: Possible Role in Skeletal Abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome
by Ee-Cheng Khor, Bruce Fanshawe, Yue Qi, Sergei Zolotukhin, Rishikesh N. Kulkarni, Ronaldo F. Enriquez, Louise Purtell, Nicola J. Lee, Natalie K. Wee, Peter I. Croucher, Lesley Campbell, Herbert Herzog, Paul A. Baldock Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a maternally imprinted disorder and leading cause of obesity, is characterised by insatiable appetite, poor muscle development, cognitive impairment, endocrine disturbance, short stature and osteoporosis. A number of causative loci have been located within the imprinted Prader-Willi Critical Region (PWCR), including a set of small non-translated nucleolar RNA’s (snoRNA). Rece...
Source: PLoS One - January 29, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ee-Cheng Khor et al. Source Type: research

Validation of the Martin Method for Estimating Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Korean Adults: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2011
by Jongseok Lee, Sungok Jang, Heejeong Son Despite the importance of accurate assessment for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald formula has primarily been used as a cost-effective method to estimate LDL-C when triglycerides are less than 400 mg/dL. In a recent study, an alternative to the formula was proposed to improve estimation of LDL-C. We evaluated the performance of the novel method versus the Friedewald formula using a sample of 5,642 Korean adults with LDL-C measured by an enzymatic homogeneous assay (LDL-CD). Friedewald LDL-C (LDL-CF) was estimated using a fixed factor of 5 for the ratio ...
Source: PLoS One - January 29, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jongseok Lee et al. Source Type: research

Age-related deficits in skeletal muscle recovery following disuse are associated with neuromuscular junction instability and ER stress, not impaired protein synthesis.
Abstract Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength can be accelerated by impaired recovery of muscle mass following a transient atrophic stimulus. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms underlying the attenuated recovery of muscle mass and strength in old rats following disuse-induced atrophy. Adult (9 month) and old (29 month) male F344BN rats underwent hindlimb unloading (HU) followed by reloading. HU induced significant atrophy of the hindlimb muscles in both adult (17-38%) and old (8-29%) rats, but only the adult rats exhibited full recovery of muscle mass and strength upon reloading. Upon relo...
Source: Aging - January 29, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Baehr LM, West DW, Marcotte G, Marshall AG, De Sousa LG, Baar K, Bodine SC Tags: Aging (Albany NY) Source Type: research

A computational model to explore the role of angiogenic impairment on endochondral ossification during fracture healing.
In this study, computational models were used to explore how angiogenic impairment impacts oxygen availability within a fracture callus and hence regulates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation and bone regeneration. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed algorithm which assumed that MSC fate is governed by oxygen tension and substrate stiffness. This model was updated based on the hypothesis that cell death, chondrocyte hypertrophy and endochondral ossification are regulated by oxygen availability. To test this, the updated model was used to simulate the time course of normal fracture heal...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - January 29, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: OReilly A, Hankenson KD, Kelly DJ Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

Lewis Thomas Prize to be awarded to Sean B. Carroll
Evolutionary biologist and author Sean B. Carroll to receive Rockefeller University’s science writing prize. The award recognizes Carroll's body of work, including his 2013 book Brave Genius: A Scientist, A Philosopher and their Daring Adventures from the French Resistance to the Nobel Prize. More » (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Awards and Honors Jesse Ausubel Lewis Thomas Prize Sean B. Carroll Source Type: news

Diagnosing Malaria Cases Referred to the Malaria Reference Laboratory in Tehran University of Medical Science, Iran.
CONCLUSION: In the case of existing atypical issues to diagnose, it is needed to perform more precise microscopical examination beyond the current standard conditions. Sometimes molecular method is required to verify the exact agent of the disease. PMID: 26811720 [PubMed] (Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology)
Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology - January 28, 2016 Category: Parasitology Tags: Iran J Parasitol Source Type: research

The International Scene in 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking and ISBER.
Authors: Vaught J PMID: 26812640 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biopreservation and Biobanking)
Source: Biopreservation and Biobanking - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biopreserv Biobank Source Type: research

Blood DNA Yield but Not Integrity or Methylation Is Impacted After Long-Term Storage.
In this study, EDTA whole blood samples were collected from 8 healthy volunteers, and different durations (up to 1 year) and temperatures (room temperature, 4°C, -20°C, and -80°C) of storage were compared. The effect of the addition of a DNA preservative agent was also assessed before and after storage. DNA concentrations measured by UV spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry were used to calculate DNA extraction yields and double-strand DNA ratios. DNA integrity was controlled by agarose gel electrophoresis and long-range polymerase chain reaction. The impact of storage conditions on DNA methylation was also evaluated...
Source: Biopreservation and Biobanking - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biopreserv Biobank Source Type: research

An Independent Evaluation of the CryoXtract Instruments' CXT350 Frozen Sample Aliquotter Using Tissue and Fecal Biospecimens.
Authors: Mathieson W, Sanchez I, Mommaerts K, Frasquilho S, Betsou F Abstract The ability to take targeted multiple cores from a single frozen biospecimen would enable several research projects to be fueled from one biospecimen, a small piece of tissue to be quality-control tested, and for pathologically-discrete areas of a biospecimen (e.g., tumor, stromal, and normal tissue) to be selectively sampled for comparative analyses. CryoXtract Instruments' CXT350 Frozen Sample Aliquotter can potentially achieve this by producing multiple cores from one cryopreserved biospecimen without thawing either the parent biospeci...
Source: Biopreservation and Biobanking - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biopreserv Biobank Source Type: research

Inverse Association between Sodium Channel-Blocking Antiepileptic Drug Use and Cancer: Data Mining of Spontaneous Reporting and Claims Databases.
Conclusion: Multi-methodological approaches using different methodologies, algorithms, and databases suggest that sodium channel-blocking AED use is inversely associated with colorectal cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, and hematological malignancies. PMID: 26816494 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research

The Association of Mitofusion-2 Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility of Essential Hypertension in Northern Han Chinese Population.
Conclusions: This study demonstrated that Mfn2 gene polymorphisms were associated with essential hypertension in northern Han Chinese population, especially in male subjects. PMID: 26816493 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers: A Panel for Early Detection, Management, and Risk Stratification in the West Virginian Population.
Conclusion: Based on the evidence presented within the literature, the aforementioned biomarkers correlate significantly with metabolic syndrome and could provide a minimally-invasive means for early detection and specific treatment of these disorders. Further research is encouraged to determine the efficacy of applying these biomarkers to diagnosis and treatment in a clinical setting. PMID: 26816492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research

Predicting Acute Kidney Injury Following Mitral Valve Repair.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the STS renal failure score can be used to accurately predict stage 2 and 3 AKI after mitral valve repair. The ACEF score is a simple tool with satisfactory power in screening patients at risk of all AKI stages. Additional studies can aim to determine the clinical implications of combining preoperative risk stratification and novel biomarkers. PMID: 26816491 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research

The Prodomain-Containing BMP9 Produced from a Stable Line Effectively Regulates the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.
Conclusions: We have established a producer line that stably expresses a high level of active BMP9 protein. Such producer line should be a valuable resource for generating biologically active BMP9 protein for studying BMP9 signaling mechanism and functions. PMID: 26816490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research

Right Ventricular and Right Atrial Involvement Can Predict Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?
CONCLUSION: Reduced MAPSE measurements and enlarged LA volumes seems to be a common feature in patients with HCM, whereas reduced TAPSE and RA dilatation only seem to be altered in patients with history of AF and those developing AF. Therefore, they could serve as easy determinable markers of AF in patients with HCM. PMID: 26812947 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: International Journal of Medical Sciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Int J Med Sci Source Type: research

Hyaluronan-positive plasma membrane protrusions exist on mesothelial cells in vivo
Abstract Previous observations of our research group showed that HAS2 and HAS3 overexpression in cultured cells induces the formation of long and numerous microvillus-like cell protrusions, which are present also in cultured cell types with naturally high hyaluronan secretion and the cell protrusions resemble those found in mesothelial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these hyaluronan secreting, actin-dependent protrusions exist also in vivo. It was found that rat mesothelium in vivo is positive for hyaluronan and Has1–3. Also microvilli in rat mesothelium and live primary cultures of ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Genome-wide quantification of 5′-phosphorylated mRNA degradation intermediates for analysis of ribosome dynamics
Nature Protocols 11, 359 (2016). doi:10.1038/nprot.2016.026 Authors: Vicent Pelechano, Wu Wei & Lars M Steinmetz Co-translational mRNA degradation is a widespread process in which 5′–3′ exonucleolytic degradation follows the last translating ribosome, thus producing an in vivo ribosomal footprint that delimits the 5′ position of the mRNA molecule within the ribosome. To study this degradation process and ribosome dynamics, (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Vicent PelechanoWu WeiLars M Steinmetz Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

High-sensitivity infrared attenuated total reflectance sensors for in situ multicomponent detection of volatile organic compounds in water
We present a high-sensitivity method for in situ analysis of multicomponent VOCs at low (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rui LuWen-Wei LiBoris MizaikoffAbraham KatzirYosef RaichlinGuo-Ping ShengHan-Qing Yu Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

In vitro assay to determine SUMOylation sites on protein substrates
Nature Protocols 11, 387 (2016). doi:10.1038/nprot.2016.023 Authors: Francis P McManus, Christine Desroches Altamirano & Pierre Thibault Protein SUMOylation regulates the activity of a wide range of cellular substrates, and the identification of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-modified sites is often required to understand how this modification affects protein function. However, the site-specific identification of modified lysine residues by mass spectrometry (MS) remains (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Francis P McManusChristine Desroches AltamiranoPierre Thibault Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: “Impact attenuation properties of new and used lacrosse helmets” [J. Biomech. 48 (2015) 3782–3787]
The authors regret the errors in references and reference list as listed below. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thomas G. Bowman, Katherine M. Breedlove, Evan L. Breedlove, Thomas M. Dodge, Eric A. Nauman Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model
We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiao-Fei WANG, Shohei NISHI, Mami MATSUKAWA, Arthur Ghigo, Pierre-Yves LAGRÉE, Jose-Maria FULLANA Source Type: research

The coordinated action of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase and cellular retinol-binding proteins for regulation of vitamin A esterification
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin required for many physiological functions. The intracellular transport of vitamin A is assisted by proteins called cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBP I/II). The absorption, storage and usage of vitamin A are regulated by a protein called lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), a retinol-related enzyme that transfers free fatty acids derived from an sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine to retinol. LRAT is a member of the protein family which includes HRAS-like tumor suppressors (HRASLS). (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yoshihiro Mezaki, Takahiko J. Fujimi, Haruki Senoo, Tomokazu Matsuura Source Type: research

Analysis of cortical rhythms in intracranial EEG by temporal difference operators during epileptic seizures
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Volume 26 Author(s): Abhishek Malali, Ganne Chaitanya, Shashi Gowda, Kaushik Majumdar Brain oscillations have traditionally been studied by time-frequency analysis of the electrophysiological signals. In this work we demonstrated the usefulness of two nonlinear combinations of differential operators on intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings to study abnormal oscillations in human brain during intractable focal epileptic seizures. Each one dimensional time domain signal was visualized as the trajectory of a particle moving in a force field with ...
Source: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A novel method for visualization of the inferior alveolar nerve for clinical and educational purposes
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2016 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences Author(s): Joe Iwanaga, Tsuyoshi Saga, Yoko Tabira, Koichi Watanabe, Koh-ichi Yamaki The detailed nervous system in the mandibular bone cannot be observed on computed tomography. Dental professionals need to understand the running route of the inferior alveolar nerve and can do so by using gross anatomical dissection. However, the nervous system is difficult to dissect and visualize clearly because it is surrounded by a hard cortical plate. To develop an educational material for dental professionals, we visualized the inferior alveo...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation is dependent on extracellular DNA in primary low pH conditions
Conclusions Insoluble glucan-independent biofilm formation by S. mutans was significantly influenced by increasing eDNA in primary low pH culture conditions. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Profiling subgingival microbiota of plaque biofilms in the elderly
Conclusions This study suggests that an increase in P. gingivalis and T. forsythia may be associated with periodontitis in the elderly, and we have identified characteristic pathogenic fimA genotypes that target this vulnerable group. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Oral biosciences: The annual review 2015
Conclusion These reviews published in the Journal of Oral Biosciences have inspired the readers of the journal to broaden their knowledge regarding various aspects of oral biosciences. The current editorial review introduces these exciting review articles. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect of Brazilian green propolis on oral pathogens and human periodontal fibroblasts
Conclusions These results suggest that BGP has antibacterial properties but is not significantly cytotoxic to periodontal fibroblasts. (Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The SQUU-B cell line spreads its metastatic properties to nonmetastatic clone SQUU-A from the same patient through exosomes
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2015 Source:Journal of Oral Biosciences Author(s): Tomoyo Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Masahiko Morioka, Yoshikazu Hayashi, Takuya Nishinakagawa, Mai Hazekawa, Shintaro Kawano, Seiji Nakamura, Manabu Nakashima Emerging evidence indicates that cancer-derived exosomes increase the tumorigenic potential of tumor cells by reprogramming the cells associated with the tumor microenvironment. Our aim was to examine the cross talk via exosomes between two oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) clones from the same patient. Our data showed that exosomes derived from highly metastatic SQUU...
Source: Journal of Oral Biosciences - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Atomic structure of the 26S proteasome lid reveals the mechanism of deubiquitinase inhibition
The 26S proteasome is responsible for the selective, ATP-dependent degradation of polyubiquitinated cellular proteins. Removal of ubiquitin chains from targeted substrates at the proteasome is a prerequisite for substrate processing and is accomplished by Rpn11, a deubiquitinase within the ‘lid’ sub-complex. Prior to the lid’s incorporation into the proteasome, Rpn11 deubiquitinase activity is inhibited to prevent unwarranted deubiquitination of polyubiquitinated proteins. Here we present the atomic model of the isolated lid sub-complex, as determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 3.5 Å resolution,...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dambacher, C. M., Worden, E. J., Herzik, M. A., Martin, A., Lander, G. C. Tags: Biophysics and structural biology Source Type: research

Glutaminase 2 is a novel negative regulator of small GTPase Rac1 and mediates p53 function in suppressing metastasis
In this study, we found that GLS2 but not GLS1 binds to small GTPase Rac1 and inhibits its interaction with Rac1 activators guanine-nucleotide exchange factors, which in turn inhibits Rac1 to suppress cancer metastasis. This function of GLS2 is independent of GLS2 glutaminase activity. Furthermore, decreased GLS2 expression is associated with enhanced metastasis in human cancer. As a p53 target, GLS2 mediates p53’s function in metastasis suppression through inhibiting Rac1. In summary, our results reveal that GLS2 is a novel negative regulator of Rac1, and uncover a novel function and mechanism whereby GLS2 suppresse...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhang, C., Liu, J., Zhao, Y., Yue, X., Zhu, Y., Wang, X., Wu, H., Blanco, F., Li, S., Bhanot, G., Haffty, B. G., Hu, W., Feng, Z. Tags: Genes and chromosomes Source Type: research

The yin-yang of kinase activation and unfolding explains the peculiarity of Val600 in the activation segment of BRAF
Many driver mutations in cancer are specific in that they occur at significantly higher rates than – presumably – functionally alternative mutations. For example, V600E in the BRAF hydrophobic activation segment (AS) pocket accounts for >95% of all kinase mutations. While many hypotheses tried to explain such significant mutation patterns, conclusive explanations are lacking. Here, we use experimental and in silico structure-energy statistical analyses, to elucidate why the V600E mutation, but no other mutation at this, or any other positions in BRAF’s hydrophobic pocket, is predominant. We find that B...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kiel, C., Benisty, H., Llorens-Rico, V., Serrano, L., Seeliger, M. Tags: Computational and systems biology Source Type: research

Correction: Multivariate analysis of electrophysiological diversity of Xenopus visual neurons during development and plasticity
(Source: eLife)
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ciarleglio, C. M., Khakhalin, A. S., Wang, A. F., Constantino, A. C., Yip, S. P., Aizenman, C. D. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Kindlin-2 cooperates with talin to activate integrins and induces cell spreading by directly binding paxillin
Integrins require an activation step prior to ligand binding and signaling. How talin and kindlin contribute to these events in non-hematopoietic cells is poorly understood. Here we report that fibroblasts lacking either talin or kindlin failed to activate β1 integrins, adhere to fibronectin (FN) or maintain their integrins in a high affinity conformation induced by Mn2+. Despite compromised integrin activation and adhesion, Mn2+ enabled talin- but not kindlin-deficient cells to initiate spreading on FN. This isotropic spreading was induced by the ability of kindlin to directly bind paxillin, which in turn bound focal...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Theodosiou, M., Widmaier, M., Böttcher, R. T., Rognoni, E., Veelders, M., Bharadwaj, M., Lambacher, A., Austen, K., Müller, D. J., Zent, R., Fässler, R. Tags: Cell biology Source Type: research

Dendritic mitochondria reach stable positions during circuit development
Mitochondria move throughout neuronal dendrites and localize to sites of energy demand. The prevailing view of dendritic mitochondria as highly motile organelles whose distribution is continually adjusted by neuronal activity via Ca2+-dependent arrests is based on observations in cultured neurons exposed to artificial stimuli. Here, we analyze the movements of mitochondria in ganglion cell dendrites in the intact retina. We find that whereas during development 30% of mitochondria are motile at any time, as dendrites mature, mitochondria all but stop moving and localize stably to synapses and branch points. Neither spontane...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Faits, M. C., Zhang, C., Soto, F., Kerschensteiner, D., Carelli, V., Edwards, R. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

The kinetochore prevents centromere-proximal crossover recombination during meiosis
During meiosis, crossover recombination is essential to link homologous chromosomes and drive faithful chromosome segregation. Crossover recombination is non-random across the genome, and centromere-proximal crossovers are associated with an increased risk of aneuploidy, including Trisomy 21 in humans. Here, we identify the conserved Ctf19/CCAN kinetochore sub-complex as a major factor that minimizes potentially deleterious centromere-proximal crossovers in budding yeast. We uncover multi-layered suppression of pericentromeric recombination by the Ctf19 complex, operating across distinct chromosomal distances. The Ctf19 co...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Vincenten, N., Kuhl, L.-M., Lam, I., Oke, A., Kerr, A. R., Hochwagen, A., Fung, J., Keeney, S., Vader, G., Marston, A. L. Tags: Genes and chromosomes Source Type: research

Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether ‘classical’ signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of acti...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hegde, R. N., Parashuraman, S., Iorio, F., Ciciriello, F., Capuani, F., Carissimo, A., Carrella, D., Belcastro, V., Subramanian, A., Bounti, L., Persico, M., Carlile, G., Galietta, L., Thomas, D. Y., Di Bernardo, D., Luini, A. Tags: Human biology and medicine Source Type: research

A serial multiplex immunogold labeling method for identifying peptidergic neurons in connectomes
Electron microscopy-based connectomics aims to comprehensively map synaptic connections in neural tissue. However, current approaches are limited in their capacity to directly assign molecular identities to neurons. Here, we use serial multiplex immunogold labeling (siGOLD) and serial-section transmission electron microscopy (ssTEM) to identify multiple peptidergic neurons in a connectome. The high immunogenicity of neuropeptides and their broad distribution along axons, allowed us to identify distinct neurons by immunolabeling small subsets of sections within larger series. We demonstrate the scalability of siGOLD by usin...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shahidi, R., Williams, E. A., Conzelmann, M., Asadulina, A., Veraszto, C., Jasek, S., Bezares-Calderon, L. A., Jekely, G. Tags: Research article Source Type: research

A dystonia-like movement disorder with brain and spinal neuronal defects is caused by mutation of the mouse laminin {beta}1 subunit, Lamb1
A new mutant mouse (lamb1t) exhibits intermittent dystonic hindlimb movements and postures when awake, and hyperextension when asleep. Experiments showed co-contraction of opposing muscle groups, and indicated that symptoms depended on the interaction of brain and spinal cord. SNP mapping and exome sequencing identified the dominant causative mutation in the Lamb1 gene. Laminins are extracellular matrix proteins, widely expressed but also known to be important in synapse structure and plasticity. In accordance, awake recording in the cerebellum detected abnormal output from a circuit of two Lamb1-expressing neurons, Purkin...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Liu, Y. B., Tewari, A., Salameh, J., Arystarkhova, E., Hampton, T. G., Brashear, A., Ozelius, L. J., Khodakhah, K., Sweadner, K. J. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Hippocampal ensemble dynamics timestamp events in long-term memory
The capacity to remember temporal relationships between different events is essential to episodic memory, but little is currently known about its underlying mechanisms. We performed time-lapse imaging of thousands of neurons over weeks in the hippocampal CA1 of mice as they repeatedly visited two distinct environments. Longitudinal analysis exposed ongoing environment-independent evolution of episodic representations, despite stable place field locations and constant remapping between the two environments. These dynamics time-stamped experienced events via neuronal ensembles that had cellular composition and activity patte...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rubin, A., Geva, N., Sheintuch, L., Ziv, Y. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Neural evidence accumulation persists after choice to inform metacognitive judgments
The ability to revise one’s certainty or confidence in a preceding choice is a critical feature of adaptive decision-making but the neural mechanisms underpinning this metacognitive process have yet to be characterized. In the present study, we demonstrate that the same build-to-threshold decision variable signal that triggers an initial choice continues to evolve after commitment, and determines the timing and accuracy of self-initiated error detection reports by selectively representing accumulated evidence that the preceding choice was incorrect. We also show that a peri-choice signal generated in medial frontal c...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Murphy, P. R., Robertson, I. H., Harty, S., O'Connell, R. G. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Synchronized amplification of local information transmission by peripheral retinal input
Sensory stimuli have varying statistics influenced by both the environment and by active sensing behaviors that rapidly and globally change the sensory input. Consequently, sensory systems often adjust their neural code to the expected statistics of their sensory input to transmit novel sensory information. Here, we show that sudden peripheral motion amplifies and accelerates information transmission in salamander ganglion cells in a 50 ms time window. Underlying this gating of information is a transient increase in adaptation to contrast, enhancing sensitivity to a broader range of stimuli. Using a model and natural image...
Source: eLife - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jadzinsky, P. D., Baccus, S. A. Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimat...
Source: PLoS One - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti et al. Source Type: research

Control of Somatosensory Cortical Processing by Thalamic Posterior Medial Nucleus: A New Role of Thalamus in Cortical Function
by Carlos Castejon, Natali Barros-Zulaica, Angel Nuñez Current knowledge of thalamocortical interaction comes mainly from studying lemniscal thalamic systems. Less is known about paralemniscal thalamic nuclei function. In the vibrissae system, the posterior medial nucleus (POm) is the corresponding paralemniscal nucleus. POm neurons project to L1 and L5A of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in the rat brain. It is known that L1 modifies sensory-evoked responses through control of intracortical excitability suggesting that L1 exerts an influence on whisker responses. Therefore, thalamocortical pathways targeting L1 co...
Source: PLoS One - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Carlos Castejon et al. Source Type: research

Correlation between Extraocular Muscle Size Measured by Computed Tomography and the Vertical Angle of Deviation in Thyroid Eye Disease
by Ju-Yeun Lee, Kunho Bae, Kyung-Ah Park, In Jeong Lyu, Sei Yeul Oh The aim of this study was to investigate extraocular muscle (EOM) volume and cross-sectional area using computed tomography (CT), and to determine the relationship between EOM size and the vertical angle of deviation in thyroid eye disease (TED). Twenty-nine TED patients (58 orbits) with vertical strabismus were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination including prism, alternate cover, and Krimsky tests. Orbital CT scans were also performed on each patient. Digital image analysis was used to quantify superior rectus (S...
Source: PLoS One - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ju-Yeun Lee et al. Source Type: research

Symbiotic Bacteria in Gills and Guts of Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) Differ from the Free-Living Bacteria in Water
This study revealed the relationship between the symbiotic bacteria of Chinese mitten crab and their habitat, affording information on the assembly factors of commensal bacteria in aquatic animals. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Meiling Zhang et al. Source Type: research

Relevant Obstetric Factors for Cerebral Palsy: From the Nationwide Obstetric Compensation System in Japan
Conclusion CP after 33 weeks’ gestation in the recently reported cases in Japan was strongly associated with acute delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status, uterine rupture, and placental abruption. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - January 28, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Junichi Hasegawa et al. Source Type: research