Medicine RSS Search Engine

Biomedical Science Biomedical Science RSS feedThis is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.

The effect of dosage on the efficiency of LLLT in new bone formation at the expanded suture in rats
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effect that dosage has on the efficiency of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in bone formation in a rat study model. Twenty-eight rats were divided into four groups as only expansion (OE), expansion + low dose (0.15 J) (LD), expansion + medium dose (0.65 J) (MD), and expansion + high dose (198 J) (HD) laser therapy groups. The midpalatal suture was expanded during 5 days. Afterwards, irradiations were started and performed with an 820 nm, continuous wave, Ga-Al-As diode laser (Doris, CTL-1106MX, Warsaw, Poland). At the end of experiment, the prem...
Source: Lasers in Medical Science - September 17, 2014 Category: Laser Surgery Source Type: research

Effects of percutaneous coronary intervention on the ambulatory blood pressure of patients with hypertension and coronary heart disease
Conclusion PCI can significantly improve the autonomic nerve function and ambulatory blood pressure indices of patients with hypertension and coronary heart disease. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 17, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Irish Endocrine Society 39th Annual Meeting 14th and 15th November 2014
(Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 17, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

ASIC2 is present in human mechanosensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia and in mechanoreceptors of the glabrous skin
Abstract Mechanosensory neurons lead to the central nervous system touch, vibration and pressure sensation. They project to the periphery and form different kinds of mechanoreceptors. The manner in which they sense mechanical signals is still not fully understood, but electrophysiological experiments have suggested that this may occur through the activation of ion channels that gate in response to mechanical stimuli. The acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), especially ASIC2, may function as mechanosensors or are required for mechanosensation, and they are expressed in both mechanosensory neurons and mechanoreceptors...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The monocarboxylate transporters exist in the cattle endocrine pancreas
This study, for the first time, showed the cellular localization and expression of MCT1–MCT5, MCT8, MCT13, and MCT14 within the ruminant pancreas. The distribution and expression pattern of MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, and CD147 in the cattle pancreas are different from that previously published on monogastric pancreas. Our study suggested that MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, MCT5, MCT13, and MCT14 may participate in the regulation of the pancreatic endocrine secretions in ruminants. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Microporation is an efficient method for siRNA-induced knockdown of PEX5 in HepG2 cells: evaluation of the transfection efficiency, the PEX5 mRNA and protein levels and induction of peroxisomal deficiency
In conclusion, we propose microporation as an efficient and reproducible method to transfect HepG2 cells with PEX5 siRNA. We succeeded to transiently knockdown PEX5 mRNA and its protein level leading to functional consequences similar as observed in peroxisome deficiencies. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Issue information.
Authors: PMID: 25213725 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC)
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - September 16, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

Characterization of apoptosis in PER.C6® batch and perfusion cultures
This study is a first step in understanding the mechanisms of PER.C6® cell death, which will be helpful to support applications of the cell line. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering)
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sarah M. Mercier, Bas Diepenbroek, Dirk Martens, Rene H. Wijffels, Mathieu Streefland Tags: Article Source Type: research

In the News – Washington Post
New ‘cool videos’ from NIH look at Alzheimer’s, heart attacks, MS, coral reefs   “A ‘stop heart attack’ refrain echoes through Rockefeller University’s ‘molecular biomedicine music video’ featuring some flashy animation and seriously geeky dancing.” (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - September 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: In the News Barry S. Coller Source Type: news

Art that sheds light on schizophrenia
Using images from medical science, artist Susan Aldworth has used her work to raise questions about human identity, says Hilly Janes (Source: Telegraph Health)
Source: Telegraph Health - September 15, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

Art that sheds light on schizophrenia
Using images from medical science, artist Susan Aldworth has used her work to raise questions about human identity, says Hilly Janes (Source: The Telegraph : Health Advice)
Source: The Telegraph : Health Advice - September 15, 2014 Category: Consumer Health Advice Source Type: news

Angiotensin 1-7 Decreases Skeletal Muscle Atrophy induced by Angiotensin II through Mas Receptor Dependent Mechanism
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass, increase in myosin heavy chain (MHC) degradation, and the increase in the expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases: atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Angiotensin II (AngII) induces muscle atrophy. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang (1-7)), through its receptor Mas, produces the opposite effects than AngII. We assessed the effects of Ang (1-7) on the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by AngII. Our results shows that Ang (1-7), through Mas, prevents the effects induced by AngII in muscle gastrocnemius: the decrease in the fibre diamet...
Source: Clinical Science - September 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: F Cisternas, M Morales, C Meneses, F Simon, E Brandan, J Abrigo, Y Vazquez, C Cabello-Verrugio Source Type: research

Impaired Cav-1 expression in SSc mesenchymal cells upregulates VEGF signaling: a link between vascular involvement and fibrosis
Conclusions: During SSc, the lower levels of Cav-1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis via an upregulation of the VEGF signaling in perivascular cells which are shifted to a profibrotic phenotype. (Source: Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair)
Source: Fibrogenesis and Tissue Repair - September 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Paola CiprianiPaola Di BenedettoDaria CapeceFrancesca ZazzeroniVasiliki LiakouliPiero RuscittiIlenia PantanoOnorina BerardicurtiFrancesco CarubbiEdoardo AlesseRoberto Giacomelli Source Type: research

Potential importance of transition metals in the induction of DNA damage by sperm preparation media
This study comprised a series of experiments designed to: (i) confirm the induction of oxidative DNA damage in spermatozoa prepared on commercially available colloidal silicon gradients, (ii) compare the levels of damage observed with alterative sperm preparation techniques including an electrophoretic approach and (iii) determine the cause of the oxidative DNA damage and develop strategies for its prevention. The semen samples employed for this analysis involved a cohort of >50 unselected donors and at least three independent samples were used for each component of the analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 15, 2014 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Aitken, R. J., Finnie, J. M., Muscio, L., Whiting, S., Connaughton, H. S., Kuczera, L., Rothkirch, T. B., De Iuliis, G. N. Tags: Andrology Source Type: research

Comparison of Customized Spin-Column and Salt-Precipitation Finger-Prick Blood DNA Extraction.
Abstract Genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction from blood is a fundamental process in many diagnostic, identification, and research applications. Numerous extraction methods have been reported and are available commercially. However there is insufficient understanding of the impact of chemical buffers on DNA yield from either whole or nucleated blood. Moreover, these commercial kits are often costly, constraining less well-funded labs to traditional and more cost-effective salt-precipitation methods. Towards this, we compared a salt-precipitation and a customized cost-effective spin-column based method, studying the impact...
Source: Bioscience Reports - September 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Poh JJ, Gan SK Tags: Biosci Rep Source Type: research

Computational Simulations Predict a Key Role for Oscillatory Fluid Shear Stress in Valvular Tissue Formation
Previous efforts in heart valve tissue engineering demonstrated that the combined effect of cyclic flexure and steady flow on bone marrow derived stem cell-seeded scaffolds resulted in significant increases in engineered collagen formation [Engelmayr et al. Cyclic flexure and laminar flow synergistically accelerate mesenchymal stem cell-mediated engineered tissue formation: Implications for engineered heart valve tissues. Biomaterials 2006; 27(36): 6083–95]. Here, we provide a new interpretation for the underlying reason for this observed effect. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - September 15, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Manuel Salinas, Sharan Ramaswamy Source Type: research

Biaxial mechanical properties of swine uterosacral and cardinal ligaments.
In this study, the first biaxial elastic and viscoelastic properties were determined for uterosacral ligament (USL) and cardinal ligament (CL) complexes harvested from adult female swine. Biaxial stress-stretch data revealed that the ligaments undergo large strains. They are orthotropic, being typically stiffer along their main physiological loading direction (i.e., normal to the upper vaginal wall). Biaxial stress relaxation data showed that the ligaments relax equally in both loading directions and more when they are less stretched. In order to describe the experimental findings, a three-dimensional constitutive law base...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - September 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Becker WR, De Vita R Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

A simulation study on the significant nanomechanical heterogeneous properties of collagen.
Abstract Nanomechanics of individual collagen fibrils govern the mechanical behavior of the majority of connective tissues, yet the current models lack significant details. Majority of the current models assume a rod-shape molecule with homogenous mechanical properties. Recent X-ray crystallography revealed significantly different microstructures in the D-period of collagen microfibrils, markedly different from the conventionally assumed rod-shaped molecule. Motivated by this recent microstructure, the nanomechanics of hydrated collagen molecules are investigated through molecular dynamics simulations. The results ...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - September 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhou Z, Minary-Jolandan M, Qian D Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

Soldier-relevant loads impact lower limb biomechanics during anticipated and unanticipated single-leg cutting movements
This study quantified how body borne load impacts hip and knee biomechanics during anticipated and unanticipated single-leg cutting maneuvers. Fifteen male military personnel performed a series of single-leg cutting maneuvers with three different load configurations (light, ~6kg, medium, ~20kg, and heavy, ~40kg). Subject-based means of the specific lower limb biomechanical variables were submitted to repeated measures ANOVA to test the main and interaction effects of body borne load and movement type. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - September 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tyler N. Brown, Meghan O’Donovan, Leif Hasselquist, Brian Corner, Jeffrey M. Schiffman Source Type: research

Regional neuromuscular regulation within human rectus femoris muscle during gait
The spatial distribution pattern of neuromuscular activation within the human rectus femoris (RF) muscle was investigated during gait by multi-channel surface electromyography (surface EMG). Eleven healthy men walked on a treadmill with three gait speeds (4, 5, and 6km/h) and gradients (0°, 12.5°, and 25°). The spatial distribution of surface EMG was tested by central locus activation (CLA), which is calculated from 2-D multi-channel surface EMG with 46 surface electrodes. For all conditions, CLA was around the middle regions during the swing-to-stance transition and moved in a proximal direction during the stance phase...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - September 14, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kohei Watanabe, Motoki Kouzaki, Toshio Moritani Source Type: research

Endovenous radiofrequency ablation: no value in short-term duplex ultrasound follow-up
Conclusion RFA is a safe and effective treatment for varicose veins. There is no benefit in performing routine short term follow-up duplex scan due to the high occlusion rates. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - September 14, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Live cell imaging compatible immobilization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in microfluidic platform for biodiesel research
We present a simple surface immobilization method using gelatin coating as the “biological glue”. We take advantage of hydroxyproline (Hyp)‐based non‐covalent interaction between gelatin and the outer cell wall of microalgae to anchor the cells inside the microfluidic device. We have continuously monitored single microalgal cells for up to 6 days. The immobilized microalgae remain viable (viability was comparable to bulk suspension cultured controls). When exposed to wall shear stress, most of the cells remain attached upto 0.1 dyne/cm2. Surface immobilization allowed high‐resolution, live‐cell imaging of mitot...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 13, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jae Woo Park, Sang Cheol Na, Nquyen Thanh Qua, Sang‐Min Paik, Myeong Woo Kang, Daewha Hong, Insung S. Choi, Jae‐Hyeok Lee, Noo Li Jeon Tags: Article Source Type: research

Uterine peristalsis-induced stresses within the uterine wall may sprout adenomyosis.
Abstract Adenomyosis is a disease in which ectopic endometrial glands and stromal cells appear in the uterine myometrium. This pathology is common among women of reproductive age, and in addition to chronic pelvic pain and heavy periods it may also cause infertility. The 'tissue injury and repair' mechanism in response to increased intrauterine pressures was proposed as the etiology for migration of fragments of basal endometrium into the myometrial wall. In order to investigate this mechanism, a conceptual two-dimensional model of the uterine wall subjected to intrauterine pressures was implemented using ADINA com...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - September 13, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shaked S, Jaffa AJ, Grisaru D, Elad D Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

Raman spectroscopy for a rapid diagnosis of sickle cell disease in human blood samples: a preliminary study
Abstract Raman spectroscopy has been proposed as a tool for diagnosis of human blood diseases aiming a quick and accurate diagnosis. Sickle cell disease arises in infancy and causes a severe anemia; thus, an early diagnosis may avoid pathological complications such as vasoocclusion, hemolytic anemia, retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and infections. This work evaluated spectral differences between hemoglobin S (HbS) and hemoglobin A (HbA) to be used in a diagnostic model based on principal components analysis. Blood samples of patients with a previous diagnosis of sickle cell disease were hemolyzed with water, ...
Source: Lasers in Medical Science - September 13, 2014 Category: Laser Surgery Source Type: research

Sirtuins and the circadian clock: Bridging chromatin and metabolism.
Abstract The circadian clock is a finely tuned system of transcriptional and translational regulation that is required for daily synchrony of organismal physiological processes. Additional layers of complexity that contribute to efficient clock function involve posttranslational modifications and enzymatic feedback loops. SIRT1, the founding member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases, was the first sirtuin to be reported to modulate circadian function. SIRT1 affects the circadian clock by its actions in the nucleus. Moreover, recent data implicate SIRT3 and SIRT6 in controlling mitochondrial and nuclear c...
Source: Science Signaling - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Masri S, Sassone-Corsi P Tags: Sci Signal Source Type: research

The coordination of S-sulfhydration, S-nitrosylation, and phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by hydrogen sulfide.
Abstract The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is generated by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), signals by modifying proteins through S-sulfhydration and potentially other mechanisms. A target protein for H2S is endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that generates nitric oxide (NO), which causes vasodilation. We investigated whether H2S-induced S-sulfhydration affected the S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation of eNOS and the functional effects of changes in these posttranslational modifications on eNOS activity. In vitro, different NO donors induced the S-nitrosylation of eNOS without affectin...
Source: Science Signaling - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Altaany Z, Ju Y, Yang G, Wang R Tags: Sci Signal Source Type: research

Site- and kinase-specific phosphorylation-mediated activation of SLAC1, a guard cell anion channel stimulated by abscisic acid.
Abstract Under drought stress, abscisic acid (ABA) triggers closure of leaf cell pores called stomata, which are formed by two specialized cells called guard cells in plant epidermis. Two pathways downstream of ABA stimulate phosphorylation of the S-type anion channels SLAC1 (slow anion channel associated 1) and SLAH3 (SLAC1 homolog 3), which causes these channels to open, reducing guard cell volume and triggering stomatal closure. One branch involves OST1 (open stomata 1), a calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase, and the other branch involves calcium-dependent protein kinases of the CPK (calcium-dependent protein ...
Source: Science Signaling - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Maierhofer T, Diekmann M, Offenborn JN, Lind C, Bauer H, Hashimoto K, S Al-Rasheid KA, Luan S, Kudla J, Geiger D, Hedrich R Tags: Sci Signal Source Type: research

Bioproduction of highly charged designer peptide surfactants via a chemically cleavable coiled‐coil heteroconcatemer
ABSTRACT Designer peptides have recently attracted attention as self‐assembling fibrils, hydrogelators and green surfactants with the potential for sustainable bioproduction. Carboxylate‐rich peptides in particular have shown potential as salt‐resistant emulsifiers; however the expression of highly charged peptides of this kind remains a challenge. To achieve expression of a strongly anionic helical surfactant peptide, we paired the peptide with a cationic helical partner in a coiled‐coil miniprotein and optimized the polypeptide sequence for net charge, hydropathy and predicted protease resistance (via the Gurupra...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nicholas L. Fletcher, Nicolas Paquet, Ellyce L. Dickinson, Annette F. Dexter Tags: Article Source Type: research

Rapid directed evolution of stabilized proteins with Cellular High‐throughput Encapsulation Solubilization and Screening (CHESS)
Abstract Directed evolution is a powerful method for engineering proteins towards user‐defined goals and has been used to generate novel proteins for industrial processes, biological research and drug discovery. Typical directed evolution techniques include cellular display, phage display, ribosome display and water‐in‐oil compartmentalization, all of which physically link individual members of diverse gene libraries to their translated protein. This allows the screening or selection for a desired protein function and subsequent isolation of the encoding gene from diverse populations. For biotechnological and industr...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: KJ Yong, DJ Scott Tags: Article Source Type: research

On the model‐based optimization of secreting mammalian cell (GS‐NS0) cultures
Abstract The global bio‐manufacturing industry requires improved process efficiency to satisfy the increasing demands for biochemicals, biofuels and biologics. The use of model‐based techniques can facilitate the reduction of unnecessary experimentation and reduce labor and operating costs by identifying the most informative experiments and providing strategies to optimize the bioprocess at hand. Herein, we investigate the potential of a research methodology that combines model development, parameter estimation, global sensitivity analysis and selection of optimal feeding policies via dynamic optimization methods to im...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: A. Kiparissides, E.N. Pistikopoulos, A. Mantalaris Tags: Article Source Type: research

The evolution of down‐scale virus filtration equipment for virus clearance studies
Abstract The role of virus filtration in assuring the safety of biopharmaceutical products has gained importance in recent years. This is due to the fundamental advantages of virus filtration which conceptually can remove all pathogens as long as their size is larger than the biomolecule of commercial interest, while at the same time being neutral to the biological activity of biopharmaceutical compound(s). Major progress has been made in the development of adequate filtration membranes which can remove ever smaller viruses, or possibly even all.Establishing down‐scaled models for virus clearance studies which are fully ...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Andreas Wieser, Andreas Berting, Christian Medek, Gerhard Poelsler, Thomas R. Kreil Tags: Communication to the Editor Source Type: research

A novel fixed fibre biofilm membrane process for on‐site greywater reclamation requiring no fouling control
Abstract On‐site greywater treatment and reuse in urban areas bears the potential to reduce huge quantities of wastewater and lower freshwater shortages. Until now dissemination of small, single household applications has been rather limited as simple and high quality water producing, but also cost‐effective treatment units have not been developed so far. This paper proposes a new process, based on a concurrently working hollow‐fibre membrane as fixed biofilm support and filtration device. Bioreactor characteristics, influence of different aeration rates, membrane flux development, as well as structure and compositio...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Simon Jabornig, Sabine Marie Podmirseg Tags: Article Source Type: research

First use of the WAVETM disposable rocking bioreactor for enhanced bio‐product synthesis by N2‐fixing cyanobacteria
This study opens possibilities for upgrading the WAVETM systems to photobioreactors for bio‐product development from cyanobacteria, with opportunities and challenges critically evaluated herein. Biotechnol. Bioeng. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering)
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Samuel Cirés, Carlos Alvarez‐Roa, Kirsten Heimann Tags: Communication to the Editor Source Type: research

Characterization and expression of proprotein convertases in CHO cells: Efficient proteolytic maturation of human bone morphogenetic protein‐7
Abstract Bone morphogenetic protein‐7 (BMP‐7) is synthesized as a precursor that requires proteolytic cleavage of the propeptide by proprotein convertases (PCs) for its functional activity. A high‐level expression of BMP‐7 in CHO cells (CHO‐BMP‐7) resulted in secretion of a mixture of inactive precursor and active BMP‐7. In an effort to achieve efficient processing of BMP‐7 in CHO cells, PCs responsible for cleavage of the precursors in CHO cells were characterized. Analysis of the mRNA expression levels of four PCs (furin, PACE4, PC5/6, and PC7) revealed that only furin and PC7 genes are expressed in CHO...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Madhavi Sathyamurthy, Che Lin Kim, You Lim Bang, Young Sik Kim, Ju Woong Jang, Gyun Min Lee Tags: Article Source Type: research

Tumor‐activated prodrug (TAP) – conjugated nanoparticles with cleavable domains for safe doxorubicin delivery
ABSTRACT A major issue in chemotherapy is the lack of specificity of many antitumor drugs, which cause severe side effects and an impaired therapeutic response. Here we report on the design and characterization of model tumor activated prodrug – conjugated polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (TAP‐NPs) for the release of doxorubicin (Dox) triggered by matrix metalloprotease‐2 (MMP2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in the extracellular matrix of tumors. In particular, TAP NPs were produced by attaching Dox to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) through two MMP2–cleavable enzymes. The resulting adduct was then tethered to PS NPs. R...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Daniela Guarnieri, Marco Biondi, Hui Yu, Valentina Belli, Andrea P. Falanga, Marco Cantisani, Stefania Galdiero, Paolo A. Netti Tags: Article Source Type: research

Amino acid and glucose metabolism in fed‐batch CHO cell culture affects antibody production and glycosylation
Abstract Fed‐batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture is the most commonly used process for IgG production in the biopharmaceutical industry. Amino acid and glucose consumption, cell growth, metabolism, antibody titer and N‐glycosylation patterns are always the major concerns during upstream process optimization, especially media optimization. Gaining knowledge on their interrelations could provide insight for obtaining higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and better controlling glycosylation‐related product quality. In this work, different fed‐batch processes with two chemically defined proprietary media and ...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yuzhou Fan, Ioscani Jimenez Del Val, Christian Müller, Jette Wagtberg Sen, Søren Kofoed Rasmussen, Cleo Kontoravdi, Dietmar Weilguny, Mikael Rørdam Andersen Tags: Article Source Type: research

Phosphodiesterase DosP increases persistence by reducing cAMP which reduces the signal indole
ABSTRACT Persisters are bacteria that are highly tolerant to antibiotics due to their dormant state and are of clinical significance owing to their role in infections. Given that the population of persisters increases in biofilms and that cyclic diguanylate (c‐di‐GMP) is an intracellular signal that increases biofilm formation, we sought to determine whether c‐di‐GMP has a role in bacterial persistence. By examining the effect of 30 genes from Escherichia coli, including diguanylate cyclases that synthesize c‐di‐GMP and phosphodiesterases that breakdown c‐di‐GMP, we determined that DosP (direct oxygen sensi...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Brian W. Kwan, Devon O. Osbourne, Ying Hu, Michael J. Benedik, Thomas K. Wood Tags: Article Source Type: research

Simulating single cell experiments in mechanical testing of adipocytes.
This study introduces new three-dimensional finite element cell modeling for simulating the structural, large deformation behavior of maturing adipocytes, based on empirically acquired geometrical properties of cultured adipocyte cells. We created models of adipocyte differentiation and maturation, which represented four stages along that process. The modeling focused on two specific and commonly used experimental setups, one involving compression of individual adipocytes and the other stretching of adipocytes. Both are physiological loading regimes for fat tissues and cells in vivo, and both are often employed for testing...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Katzengold R, Shoham N, Benayahu D, Gefen A Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

Multiphase modelling of the effect of fluid shear stress on cell yield and distribution in a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor.
We present a simplified two-dimensional model of fluid flow, nutrient transport and cell distribution in a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor, with the aim of exploring how fluid flow can be used to control the distribution and yield of a cell population which is sensitive to both fluid shear stress and nutrient concentration. The cells are seeded in a scaffold in a layer on top of the hollow fibre, only partially occupying the extracapillary space. Above this layer is a region of free-flowing fluid which we refer to as the upper fluid layer. The flow in the lumen and upper fluid layer is described by the Stokes equations, w...
Source: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pearson NC, Waters SL, Oliver JM, Shipley RJ Tags: Biomech Model Mechanobiol Source Type: research

Wettability of dentin after Yb:KYW thin-disk femtosecond ablation
This study showed that various laser fluences, scanning speeds, and scanning line spacings can alter dentin wettability. Therefore, adequate parameters should be chosen to achieve proper therapeutic benefits. (Source: Lasers in Medical Science)
Source: Lasers in Medical Science - September 12, 2014 Category: Laser Surgery Source Type: research

The expression and function of gelatinolytic activity at the rat neuromuscular junction upon physical exercise
Abstract The gelatinases MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been implicated in skeletal muscle adaptation to training; however, their specific role(s) in the different muscle types are only beginning to be unraveled. Recently, we found that treadmill running increased the activity and/or expression of these enzymes in myonuclei and in activated satellite cells of the soleus (Sol), but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles on the fifth day of training of adult rats. Here, we asked whether the gelatinases can be involved in physical exercise-induced adaptation of the neuromuscular compartment. To determine the subcellular l...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect of altered innervation and thyroid hormones on myosin heavy chain expression and fiber type transitions: a mini-review
Abstract In this mini-review, we briefly present the data regarding the effect of extrinsic factors, i.e., innervation and thyroid hormones (TH) on myosin heavy chain genes and isoforms expression and consequently on muscle fiber type transitions. It has been well known that reduced neuromuscular activity, hyperthyroidism or mechanical unloading stimulate slow-to-fast fiber type transitions, while increased neuromuscular activity, hypothyroidism and higher mechanical loading result in fast to slow fiber type transitions. As there is a plethora of results on these topics, we focus mostly on data relevant to our exp...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Murine CLCA5 is uniquely expressed in distinct niches of airway epithelial cells
Abstract The murine mCLCA5 protein is a member of the chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated (CLCA) family and is suspected to play a role in airway mucus cell differentiation. Although mCLCA5 mRNA was previously found in total lung extracts, the expressing cells and functions in the naive murine respiratory tract are unknown. Therefore, mCLCA5 protein expression was identified by immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy using entire lung sections of naive mice. Moreover, we determined mRNA levels of functionally related genes (mClca3, mClca5, Muc5ac and Muc5b) and quantified mCLCA5-, mC...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Isolated human uterine telocytes: immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology of T-type calcium channels
In conclusion, our results show that T-type calcium channels are present in TCs from human myometrium and could participate in the generation of endogenous bioelectric signals responsible for the regulation of the surrounding cell behavior, during pregnancy and labor. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Deranged NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission underlies parkinsonian motor deficits
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most prevalent hypokinetic movement disorder, and symptomatic PD pathogenesis has been ascribed to imbalances between the direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia circuitry. Here, we applied glutamate receptor blockers to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of parkinsonian rats and evaluated locomotor behaviors via single-unit and local-field recordings. Using this model, we found that inhibition of NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission ameliorates parkinsonian motor deficits without eliciting any vivid turning behavior and abolishes electrophysiological abnormalities, including ex...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 11, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ming-Kai Pan, Chun-Hwei Tai, Wen-Chuan Liu, Ju-Chun Pei, Wen-Sung Lai, Chung-Chin Kuo Source Type: research

A lymphatic defect causes ocular hypertension and glaucoma in mice
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness, afflicting more than 60 million people worldwide. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) due to impaired aqueous humor drainage is a major risk factor for the development of glaucoma. Here, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of the angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANGPT/TIE2) signaling pathway results in high IOP, buphthalmos, and classic features of glaucoma, including retinal ganglion degeneration and vision loss. Eyes from mice with induced deletion of Angpt1 and Angpt2 (A1A2FloxWB mice) lacked drainage pathways in the corneal limbus, including Schlemm’s canal and lymphatic capillaries, ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 11, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Benjamin R. Thomson, Stefan Heinen, Marie Jeansson, Asish K. Ghosh, Anees Fatima, Hoon-Ki Sung, Tuncer Onay, Hui Chen, Shinji Yamaguchi, Aris N. Economides, Ann Flenniken, Nicholas W. Gale, Young-Kwon Hong, Amani Fawzi, Xiaorong Liu, Tsutomu Kume, Susan E Source Type: research

Transient vascularization of transplanted human adult–derived progenitors promotes self-organizing cartilage
Millions of patients worldwide are affected by craniofacial deformations caused by congenital defects or trauma. Current surgical interventions have limited therapeutic outcomes; therefore, methods that would allow cartilage restoration are of great interest. A number of studies on embryonic limb development have shown that chondrogenesis is initiated by cellular condensation, during which mesenchymal progenitors aggregate and form 3D structures. Here, we demonstrated efficient regeneration of avascular elastic cartilage from in vitro–grown mesenchymal condensation, which recapitulated the early stages of chondrogenesis,...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 11, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Takanori Takebe, Shinji Kobayashi, Hiromu Suzuki, Mitsuru Mizuno, Yu-Min Chang, Emi Yoshizawa, Masaki Kimura, Ayaka Hori, Jun Asano, Jiro Maegawa, Hideki Taniguchi Source Type: research

miR-33a promotes glioma-initiating cell self-renewal via PKA and NOTCH pathways
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal brain tumor in adults. Glioma-initiating cells (GICs) are stem-like cells that have been implicated in glioblastoma progression and recurrence; however, the distinct properties of GICs and non-GICs within GBM tumors are largely uncharacterized. Here, we evaluated stem cell–associated microRNA (miR) expression in GICs from GBM patients and GICs derived from xenografted human glioma cell lines and determined that miR-33a promotes GIC growth and self-renewal. Moreover, evaluation of a GBM tissue array revealed that higher miR-33a expression was associated with poor prognosis ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 11, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hui Wang, Tao Sun, Jing Hu, Rui Zhang, Yanhua Rao, Shuai Wang, Rui Chen, Roger E. McLendon, Allan H. Friedman, Stephen T. Keir, Darell D. Bigner, Qi-Jing Li, Huibo Wang, Xiao-Fan Wang Source Type: research

Mesothelial cells promote early ovarian cancer metastasis through fibronectin secretion
Ovarian cancer (OvCa) metastasizes to organs in the abdominal cavity, such as the omentum, which are covered by a single layer of mesothelial cells. Mesothelial cells are generally thought to be “bystanders” to the metastatic process and simply displaced by OvCa cells to access the submesothelial extracellular matrix. Here, using organotypic 3D cultures, we found that primary human mesothelial cells secrete fibronectin in the presence of OvCa cells. Moreover, we evaluated the tumor stroma of 108 human omental metastases and determined that fibronectin was consistently overexpressed in these patients. Blocking fibronect...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 11, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hilary A. Kenny, Chun-Yi Chiang, Erin A. White, Elizabeth M. Schryver, Mohammed Habis, Iris L. Romero, Andras Ladanyi, Carla V. Penicka, Joshy George, Karl Matlin, Anthony Montag, Kristen Wroblewski, S. Diane Yamada, Andrew P. Mazar, David Bowtell, Ernst Source Type: research

Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency accompanies neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible, detoxifying enzyme that is critical for limiting oxidative stress, inflammation, and cellular injury within the CNS and other tissues. Here, we demonstrate a deficiency of HO-1 expression in the brains of HIV-infected individuals. This HO-1 deficiency correlated with cognitive dysfunction, HIV replication in the CNS, and neuroimmune activation. In vitro analysis of HO-1 expression in HIV-infected macrophages, a primary CNS HIV reservoir along with microglia, demonstrated a decrease in HO-1 as HIV replication increased. HO-1 deficiency correlated with increased culture supernatant gl...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 11, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alexander J. Gill, Colleen E. Kovacsics, Stephanie A. Cross, Patricia J. Vance, Lorraine L. Kolson, Kelly L. Jordan-Sciutto, Benjamin B. Gelman, Dennis L. Kolson Source Type: research