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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.

Omega-3 eicosatetraenoic acid production by molecular breeding of the mutant strain S14 derived from Mortierella alpina 1S-4
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2015 Source:Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering Author(s): Tomoyo Okuda , Akinori Ando , Hiroaki Negoro , Hiroshi Kikukawa , Takaiku Sakamoto , Eiji Sakuradani , Sakayu Shimizu , Jun Ogawa We investigated the omega-3 eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) production by molecular breeding of the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina, which can slightly accumulate ETA only when cultivated at a low temperature. The endogenous ω3-desaturase gene or the heterologous Saprolegnia diclina Δ17 (sdd17m) desaturase gene were overexpressed in M. alpina S14, a Δ5-desaturation activity-defective...
Source: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering - April 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect of anticoagulant treatment in deep vein thrombosis: a patient–specific computational fluid dynamics study
A methodology that might help physicians to establish a diagnostic and treatment tailored for each specific patient with a pathological thrombus is presented. A realistic model for the geometry of a popliteal vein with a thrombus just above the knee was reconstructed from in vivo computed tomography images acquired from one specific patient and then it was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The wall shear stress (WSS) response to the administration of anticoagulant drugs and the influence of viscosity on the shape of the velocity distribution were investigated. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - April 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gerard Fortuny, Joan Herrero, Dolors Puigjaner, Carme Olivé, Francesc Marimon, Josep Garcia–Bennett, Daniel Rodríguez Source Type: research

Is a combination of magnetite and prions involved in the memory storage in the human brain?
Nanocrystalline magnetite, a magnetic iron oxide containing divalent iron (Fe3O4), has been found to be organized into linear chains present in the human brain [1]. It has been suggested to be involved in memory storage [2]. Such chains behave like a paramagnet which displays a response to incident signals. But its magnetism drops to zero after each signal. Therefore, magnetite is not likely to be the substance in which information is permanently stored. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - April 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fredrik C. Størmer, Erik M. Alfsen Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Functional Exposed Amino Acids of BauA as Potential Immunogen Against Acinetobacter baumannii.
In conclusion, amino acids 26-191 of cork domain and 321-635 of part of the barrel domain including L4-L9, were selected as vaccine candidates. These two regions contain functional exposed amino acids with higher score of B cell epitopes properties. Majority of amino acids are hydrophilic, flexible, accessible, and favorable for B cells from secondary structure point of view. PMID: 25840681 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Biotheoretica)
Source: Acta Biotheoretica - April 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sefid F, Rasooli I, Jahangiri A, Bazmara H Tags: Acta Biotheor Source Type: research

NMR studies of membrane proteins.
PMID: 25840906 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Bimolecular NMR)
Source: Journal of Bimolecular NMR - April 4, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kaptein R, Wagner G Tags: J Biomol NMR Source Type: research

T lymphocyte regulation by mevalonate metabolism.
Abstract Whereas resting T cells, which have low metabolic requirements, use oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to maximize their generation of ATP, activated T cells, similar to tumor cells, shift metabolic activity to aerobic glycolysis, which also fuels mevalonate metabolism. Both sterol and nonsterol derivatives of mevalonate affect T cell function. The intracellular availability of sterols, which is dynamically regulated by different classes of transcription factors, represents a metabolic checkpoint that modulates T cell responses. The electron carrier ubiquinone, which is modified with an isoprenoid membrane...
Source: Science Signaling - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Thurnher M, Gruenbacher G Tags: Sci Signal Source Type: research

Molecular recognition of ketamine by a subset of olfactory G protein-coupled receptors.
Abstract Ketamine elicits various neuropharmacological effects, including sedation, analgesia, general anesthesia, and antidepressant activity. Through an in vitro screen, we identified four mouse olfactory receptors (ORs) that responded to ketamine. In addition to their presence in the olfactory epithelium, these G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are distributed throughout the central nervous system. To better understand the molecular basis of the interactions between ketamine and ORs, we used sequence comparison and molecular modeling to design mutations that ...
Source: Science Signaling - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ho J, Perez-Aguilar JM, Gao L, Saven JG, Matsunami H, Eckenhoff RG Tags: Sci Signal Source Type: research

PTEN inhibits PREX2-catalyzed activation of RAC1 to restrain tumor cell invasion.
Abstract The tumor suppressor PTEN restrains cell migration and invasion by a mechanism that is independent of inhibition of the PI3K pathway and decreased activation of the kinase AKT. PREX2, a widely distributed GEF that activates the GTPase RAC1, binds to and inhibits PTEN. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts and breast cancer cell lines to show that PTEN suppresses cell migration and invasion by blocking PREX2 activity. In addition to metabolizing the phosphoinositide PIP3, PTEN inhibited PREX2-induced invasion by a mechanism that required the tail domain of PTEN, but not its lipid phosphatase activity. Fluores...
Source: Science Signaling - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mense SM, Barrows D, Hodakoski C, Steinbach N, Schoenfeld D, Su W, Hopkins BD, Su T, Fine B, Hibshoosh H, Parsons R Tags: Sci Signal Source Type: research

Does ketamine target olfactory receptors in the brain?
Abstract The findings of Ho et al. in this issue of Science Signaling suggest that the anesthetic ketamine binds to and activates select olfactory receptors in mouse brain, raising the possibility that ketamine targets a similar set of GPCRs in humans. PMID: 25829445 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Science Signaling)
Source: Science Signaling - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wolf S, Hatt H, Ernst OP Tags: Sci Signal Source Type: research

Application of image processing to assess emulsion stability and emulsification properties of Arabic gum
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 126 Author(s): Abdullah Hosseini , Seid Mahdi Jafari , Habibollah Mirzaei , Ali Asghari , Sahar Akhavan This paper focuses on the development of an effective methodology to determine the optimum levels of independent variables leading to maximize stability of O/W emulsions containing Arabic gum, as a natural emulsifier and stabilizer. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the effect of Arabic gum content (2%, 5%, and 8% (w/w)), homogenization time (5, 12.5, and 20min) and storage temperature (4, 22, and 40°C). Image processing wa...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cassava starch films containing acetylated starch nanoparticles as reinforcement: Physical and mechanical characterization
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 126 Author(s): Ana Paula Teodoro , Suzana Mali , Natália Romero , Gizilene Maria de Carvalho This paper reports the use of acetylated starch nanoparticles (NPAac) as reinforcement in thermoplastic starch films. NPAac with an average size of approximately 500nm were obtained by nanoprecipitation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that NPAac are more thermally stable and essentially amorphous when compared with acetylated starch. Thermoplastic starch films with different proportions of NPAac (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of polysaccharide purified from Rana chensinensis skin
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 126 Author(s): Zhanyong Wang , Yuanyuan Zhao , Tingting Su , Jing Zhang , Fei Wang Preliminary characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo investigation of the polysaccharide fraction named as RCSP II, which was extracted from Rana chensinensis skin, were performed. Results indicated that RCSP II comprised glucose, galactose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 87.82:2.77:1.54 with a molecular weight of 12.8kDa. Antioxidant activity assay in vitro showed that RCSP II exhibited 75.2% scavenging activity against 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Manipulation of cellulose nanocrystal surface sulfate groups toward biomimetic nanostructures in aqueous media
We report a facile aqueous procedure to create multivalent displays of sulfonated ligands on CNCs for future applications as viral inhibitors. CNCs were decorated with model compounds containing sulfonate groups via reactions of epoxides and isothiocyanates with amines under alkaline conditions. At first, surface sulfate groups of CNCs were hydrolytically cleaved by alkaline hydrolysis to increase the number of available surface hydroxyls. Success of desulfation was confirmed via dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). CNC surface hydroxyl groups were then activated...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In-situ glyoxalization during biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 126 Author(s): Cristina Castro , Nereida Cordeiro , Marisa Faria , Robin Zuluaga , Jean-Luc Putaux , Ilari Filpponen , Lina Velez , Orlando J. Rojas , Piedad Gañán A novel method to synthesize highly crosslinked bacterial cellulose (BC) is reported. The glyoxalization is started in-situ, in the culture medium during biosynthesis of cellulose by Gluconacetobacter medellensis bacteria. Strong crosslinked networks were formed in the contact areas between extruded cellulose ribbons by reaction with the glyoxal precursors. The crystalline structure of cell...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Optical and mechanical properties of nanofibrillated cellulose: Toward a robust platform for next-generation green technologies
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 126 Author(s): Claudia D. Simão , Juan S. Reparaz , Markus R. Wagner , Bartlomiej Graczykowski , Martin Kreuzer , Yasser B. Ruiz-Blanco , Yamila García , Jani-Markus Malho , Alejandro R. Goñi , Jouni Ahopelto , Clivia M. Sotomayor Torres Nanofibrillated cellulose, a polymer that can be obtained from one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature, is being increasingly explored due to its outstanding properties for packaging and device applications. Still, open challenges in engineering its intrinsic properties remain to address. To elucidate the opti...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dual production of biopolymers from bacteria
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 126 Author(s): Artun Sukan , Ipsita Roy , Tajalli Keshavarz Rapid depletion of natural resources with continued demands of an increasing population and high consumption rates of today's world will cause serious problems in the future. This, along with environmental concerns, has directed research towards finding alternatives in variety of sectors including sustainable and environmentally friendly consumer goods. Biopolymers of bacterial origin, with their vast range of applications, biodegradability and eco-friendly manufacturing processes, are one of t...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Collagen synthesis promoting pullulan–PEI–ascorbic acid conjugate as an efficient anti-cancer gene delivery vector
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 126 Author(s): Lizebona August Ambattu , M.R. Rekha Cationized pullulan (pullulan–PEI; PP) was synthesized and further modified with an anti-oxidant molecule, ascorbic acid (PPAA) at various ratios. The nanoplexes formed at an optimum ratio of 4:1 was within a size of 150nm and had a zeta potential of 9–14mV. The nanoplexes at this ratio was used for further investigations. The cell internalization and transfection efficiency of these nanoplexes were determined in presence of serum. The internalization and transfection efficiency were found to be un...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect of chitooligosaccharides with different degrees of acetylation on wheat seedlings under salt stress
In this study, chitooligosaccharides (COSs) with varying degrees of acetylation (DAs) were applied to wheat seedlings in order to investigate their effect on the plants’ defence response under salt stress. The results showed that treatment with exogenous COSs that had different DAs could promote the growth of plants, decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), improve the photosynthetic efficiency and enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The mRNA expression level examination of several salt stress response genes suggested that COS could protect plants from the damage of salt stress by adjusting intrace...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cationization of kappa- and iota-carrageenan – Characterization and properties of amphoteric polysaccharides
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 126 Author(s): Tamara Barahona , Héctor J. Prado , Pablo R. Bonelli , Ana L. Cukierman , Eliana L. Fissore , Lia N. Gerschenson , María C. Matulewicz Commercial kappa- and iota carrageenans were cationized with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. For kappa-carrageenan three derivatives with different degrees of substitution were obtained. Native and amphoteric kappa-carrageenans were characterized by NMR and infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy; methanolysis products ...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effect of interfibrillar PVA bridging on water stability and mechanical properties of TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibril films
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 126 Author(s): Minna Hakalahti , Arto Salminen , Jukka Seppälä , Tekla Tammelin , Tuomas Hänninen TEMPO/NaClO2 oxidized cellulosic nanofibrils (TCNF) were covalently bonded with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to render water stable films. Pure TCNF films and TCNF–PVA films in dry state showed similar humidity dependent behavior in the elastic region. However, in wet films PVA had a significant effect on stability and mechanical characteristics of the films. When soaked in water, pure TCNF films exhibited strong swelling behavior and poor wet strength, w...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Thermoplastic starch plasticized with alginate–glycerol mixtures: Melt-processing evaluation and film properties
In conclusion, obtained results demonstrated the well-plasticizing action of sodium alginate on starch matrix, turning this additive into a promissory alternative to replace water during melt-processing of thermoplastic corn-starch. (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Immune-enhancing activity of polysaccharides isolated from Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz
This study evaluated the immune-enhancing activity of polysaccharides from the rhizoma of Atractylodis macrocephalae Koidz (RAMPS) in vitro. Lymphocyte proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells were determined. Different concentrations of RAMPS were added to peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Results showed that RAMPStp and RAMPS60c could significantly enhance T lymphocyte proliferation individually or synergistically with phytohemagglutinin at most concentrations. The active sites of RAMPStp and RAMPS60c were then selected. Lymphocyte cell cycle distribution and percentages of CD4+ and CD...
Source: Carbohydrate Polymers - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Poor infant inhibitory control predicts food fussiness in childhood – a possible protective role of n-3 PUFAS for vulnerable children
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) children are more impulsive towards a sweet reward and have altered feeding behavior in adulthood. We hypothesized that early life inhibitory control predicts feeding behaviors later on in childhood, and the consumption of n-3 PUFAs during infancy may protect IUGR children from developing problematic feeding behaviors. 156 children had information on the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ) at 18 months, Food Frequency Questionnaire at 48 months and Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) at 72 months. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Roberta Sena Reis, Juliana Rombaldi Bernardi, Meir Steiner, Michael J. Meaney, Robert D. Levitan, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira, on behalf of the MAVAN Study Team Source Type: research

Erythrocyte fatty acid status in a convenience sample of Residents of the Guatemalan pacific coastal plain
We report the fatty acid composition, and in particular, the n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), in erythrocytes from a convenience sample of 158 women and 135 schoolchildren residing in the southern Pacific coast of Guatemala. Erythrocyte fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection and the profiles were expressed as a weight percent; the Omega-3 Index values were also determined. Schoolchildren had significantly higher mean ARA and total n-6 fatty acid levels than the women. (Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids)
Source: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Noel W. Solomons, Eileen Bailey, Maria-Jose Soto-Mendez, Raquel Campos, Klaus Kraemer, Norman Salem Source Type: research

Is riluzole a potential therapy for Rett Syndrome?
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with autistic features and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) in the majority of cases. Besides symptomatic treatment, no therapeutic trials have shown effectiveness for RTT. Some perspectives in the treatment of RTT have been provided by recent works showing a phenotypic reversal by increasing brain brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in a RTT mouse model. Glutamate may also play an important role in the primary pathogenesis in Rett syndrome through the excitotoxic neuronal injury in e...
Source: Medical Hypotheses - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shih-Jen Tsai Source Type: research

A Central Theory of Biology
The history of physiologic cellular-molecular interrelationships can be traced all the way back to the unicellular state by following the pathway formed by lipids ubiquitously accommodating calcium homeostasis (see definition in Table 1), and its consequent adaptive effects on oxygen uptake by cells, tissues and organs. As a result, a cohesive, mechanistically integrated view of physiology can be formulated by recognizing the continuum comprising conception, development, physiologic homeostasis and death mediated by soluble growth factor signaling. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - April 3, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: John S. Torday Source Type: research

Effects of Long-term Exercise on Spatial Learning, Memory Ability, and Cortical Capillaries in Aged Rats.
CONCLUSIONS These data demonstrate that exercise improved spatial learning, memory capacity and cortical capillaries in aged rats. PMID: 25828032 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - April 2, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Comparison of apical microleakage of dual-curing resin cements with fluid-filtration and dye extraction techniques.
Conclusions Light- and self-activation curing modes of Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfill SA perform similar to each other in a closed system. PMID: 25824712 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - April 2, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

miR-191 Modulates Malignant Transformation of Endometriosis Through Regulating TIMP3.
CONCLUSIONS miR-191 can directly regulate TIMP3 expression, thereby affecting cell proliferation rate and invasion ability. The miR-191-TIMP3 axis might be critical in the malignant transformation of endometriosis to EAOC. PMID: 25819812 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - April 2, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Efficacy of Linezolid, Teicoplanin, and Vancomycin in Prevention of an Experimental Polytetrafluoroethylene Graft Infection Model caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Conclusions Linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin are effective in prevention of prosthetic vascular graft infections. PMID: 25819685 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - April 2, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Epidural analgesia with amide local anesthetics, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine in combination with fentanyl for labor pain relief: a meta-analysis.
Conclusions In combination with fentanyl, bupivacaine and ropivacaine exhibit comparable efficacy and safety. However, BUP-FEN analgesia led to a shortened second-stage labor and ROPI-FEN resulted in a significantly lower incidence of motor block. PMID: 25816849 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - April 2, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Insulin use and risk of diabetic macular edema in diabetes mellitus: a systemic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis of observational studies demonstrate that insulin use is a risk factor for diabetic macular edema. However, available data are still sparse, and in-depth analyses of the assessed associations in the context of additional longitudinal studies are highly desirable to enable more precise estimates and a better understanding of the role of insulin use in incidence of diabetic macular edema. PMID: 25816765 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - April 2, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Paraoxonase-1 enzyme activity assay for clinical samples: validation and correlation studies.
Conclusions The current study provides new validation data on enzyme PON1 performance. While no appreciable change was seen with storage, samples type affects the enzyme performance. Our results should encourage additional clinical studies to investigate other aspects of factors known to affect PON1 enzyme function and performance. PMID: 25814092 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - April 2, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Intellectual property on pediatric cancer is dedicated to the public
Intellectual property resulting from the discovery of specific DNA mutations linked to a rare and often deadly type of adolescent liver cancer, fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, has been dedicated to the public by the institutions that made the discovery, The Rockefeller University and the New York Genome Center, in the hope of accelerating progress toward the delivery of diagnostics and therapies for the devastating disease. More » (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: pubaff Tags: Public Affairs Source Type: news

Asylum Doctor Extraordinaire: Dr. Thomas Drapes (1847–1919)
Abstract Dr. Thomas Drapes (1847–1919) was resident medical superintendent of Enniscorthy District Asylum in County Wexford, Ireland from 1883 to 1919, and one of the leading figures in Irish asylum medicine for several decades. Drapes’ career was as complex as it was remarkable. Drapes was elected president of the Medico-Psychological Association for the term 1911–12 but had to decline on health grounds. In 1912, however, he was unanimously elected as co-editor of the Journal of Mental Science, to which he devoted his considerable energies and intellect. Drapes published widely, opposing Emil Kraepelin’s ...
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - April 2, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Coulomb Gap and Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor (MIS) Transition in ZnO/n-Ag/ZnO Film in the Plasmonic Domain
Abstract Silver nanoparticles were incorporated in between zinc oxide layers to realize ZnO/n-Ag/ZnO sandwich structure. Particle size and volume fraction of nanocrystalline silver particles were optimized to obtain a layer exhibiting a strong plasmonic peak even when embedded in ZnO sandwich structure. Strong surface plasmon resonance peak in the optical absorbance spectra was observed at ∼480 nm. Electrical conductivity in the temperature range of 10–200 K in the dark and when illuminated at 480 nm was studied to understand the transport processes associated with this material. The effect of surface plasm...
Source: Plasmonics - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Profiling DNA methylome landscapes of mammalian cells with single-cell reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing
Nature Protocols 10, 645 (2015). doi:10.1038/nprot.2015.039 Authors: Hongshan Guo, Ping Zhu, Fan Guo, Xianlong Li, Xinglong Wu, Xiaoying Fan, Lu Wen & Fuchou Tang The heterogeneity of DNA methylation within a population of cells necessitates DNA methylome profiling at single-cell resolution. Recently, we developed a single-cell reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing (scRRBS) technique in which we modified the original RRBS method by integrating all the experimental steps before PCR amplification into (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hongshan GuoPing ZhuFan GuoXianlong LiXinglong WuXiaoying FanLu WenFuchou Tang Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

Dissecting protein reaction dynamics in living cells by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching
Nature Protocols 10, 660 (2015). doi:10.1038/nprot.2015.042 Authors: Marco Fritzsche & Guillaume Charras Proteins within most macromolecular complexes or organelles continuously turn over. This turnover results from association and dissociation reactions that are mediated by each of the protein's functional domains. Thus, studying organelle or macromolecular formation from the bottom up using theoretical and computational modeling approaches will (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Marco FritzscheGuillaume Charras Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

RNAi-based biosynthetic pathway screens to identify in vivo functions of non-nucleic acid–based metabolites such as lipids
Nature Protocols 10, 681 (2015). doi:10.1038/nprot.2015.031 Authors: Hongjie Zhang, Nessy Abraham, Liakot A Khan & Verena Gobel The field of metabolomics continues to catalog new compounds, but their functional analysis remains technically challenging, and roles beyond metabolism are largely unknown. Unbiased genetic/RNAi screens are powerful tools to identify the in vivo functions of protein-encoding genes, but not of nonproteinaceous compounds such (Source: Nature Protocols)
Source: Nature Protocols - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hongjie ZhangNessy AbrahamLiakot A KhanVerena Gobel Tags: Protocol Source Type: research

A patient-specific model of the biomechanics of hip reduction for neonatal developmental dysplasia of the hip: Investigation of strategies for low to severe grades of DDH
A physics-based computational model of neonatal Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) following treatment with the Pavlik Harness (PV) was developed to obtain muscle force contribution in order to elucidate biomechanical factors influencing the reduction of dislocated hips. Clinical observation suggests that reduction occurs in deep sleep involving passive muscle action. Consequently, a set of five (5) adductor muscles were identified as mediators of reduction using the PV. A Fung/Hill-type model was used to characterize muscle response. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Victor Huayamave, Christopher Rose, Sheila Serra, Brendan Jones, Eduardo Divo, Faissal Moslehy, Alain J. Kassab, Charles T. Price Source Type: research

In vitro flow Investigations in the aortic arch during cardiopulmonary bypass with stereo-PIV
The cardiopulmonary bypass is related to complications like stroke or hypoxia. The cannula jet is suspected to be one reason for these complications, due to the sandblast effect on the vessel wall. Several in silico and in vitro studies investigated the underlying mechanisms, but the applied experimental flow measurement techniques were not able to address the highly three-dimensional flow character with a satisfying resolution. In this work in vitro flow measurements in a cannulated and a non-cannulated aortic silicone model are presented. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Martin Büsen, Tim A.S. Kaufmann, Michael Neidlin, Ulrich Steinseifer, Simon J. Sonntag Source Type: research

Lubricin deficiency in the murine lumbar intervertebral disc Results in elevated torsional apparent modulus
The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical consequences of proteoglycan 4 (Prg4) deficiency on intervertebral disc mechanics using a Prg4 knockout mouse model. Prg4, also called lubricin, was first identified as the boundary lubricant in synovial fluid but has subsequently been localized within a number of musculoskeletal tissues in areas subjected to shear and tensile stresses, including the intervertebral disc. The function of lubricin in the intervertebral disc has not been determined. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Erin Teeple, Koosha Aslani, Matthew R. Shalvoy, Jade E. Medrano, Ling Zhang, Jason T. Machan, Braden C. Fleming, Gregory D. Jay Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Hemodynamic insight into overlapping bare-metal stents strategy in the treatment of aortic aneurysm
Clinical trials have shown overlapping bare-metal stents provoke effective thrombus clot within the aneurysm sac and shrinkage of the aneurysm by directly regulating the hemodynamics. To gain insight into the hemodynamic mechanism of the technique, three cases of simplified thoracic aortic aneurysm models (with no stent, a single stent and two overlapped stents deployed within the aneurysm sac) were studied and compared in terms of time-varying velocity and shear rate, time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), oscillating shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT). (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Peng Zhang, Xiao Liu, Anqiang Sun, Yubo Fan, Xiaoyan Deng Source Type: research

Expanded butterfly Plots: A New Method to Analyze Simultaneous Pressure and Shear on the Plantar Skin Surface During Gait
The current method of visualizing pressure and shear data under a subject's foot during gait is the Pedotti, or “butterfly” diagram. This method of force platform data visualization was introduced in the 1970's to display the projection of the ground reaction force vector in the sagittal plane. The purpose of the current study was to examine individual sub-components of the vectors displayed in Pedotti diagrams, in order to better understand the relationship between one foot region and another. For this, new instrumentation was used that allows multiple Pedotti diagrams to be constructed at any instant during the gait ...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Visar Berki, Melissa A. Boswell, Daniela Ciltea, Loredana M. Guseila, Larry Goss, Scott Barnes, Necip Berme, Grant R. McMillan, Brian L. Davis Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Can optimal marker weightings improve thoracohumeral kinematics accuracy?
The objective was to quantify the benefit of optimal weighting and determine if optimal marker weightings can improve humerus kinematics accuracy. A pin with five reflective markers was inserted into the humerus of four subjects. Seven markers were put on the skin of the arm. Subjects performed 38 different tasks including arm elevation, rotation, daily-living tasks, and sport activities. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mickaël Begon, Fabien Dal Maso, Anton Arndt, Tony Monnet Source Type: research

2D trajectory estimation during free walking using a tiptoe-mounted inertial sensor
An estimation method for a two-dimensional walking trajectory during free walking, such as forward walking, side stepping and backward walking, was investigated using a tiptoe-mounted inertial sensor. The horizontal trajectory of the toe-tip is obtained by double integration of toe-tip acceleration during the moving phase in which the sensor is rotated before foot-off or after foot-contact, in addition to the swing phase. Special functions that determine the optimum moving phase as the integral duration in every one step are developed statistically using the gait cycle and the resultant angular velocity of dorsi/planter fl...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Koichi Sagawa, Kensuke Ohkubo Source Type: research

Heterogeneous growth-induced prestrain in the heart
Even when entirely unloaded, biological structures are not stress-free, as shown by Y.C. Fung's seminal opening angle experiment on arteries and the left ventricle. As a result of this prestrain, subject-specific geometries extracted from medical imaging do not represent an unloaded reference configuration necessary for mechanical analysis, even if the structure is externally unloaded. Here we propose a new computational method to create physiological residual stress fields in subject-specific left ventricular geometries using the continuum theory of fictitious configurations combined with a fixed-point iteration. (Source:...
Source: Journal of Biomechanics - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M. Genet, M. Rausch, L.C. Lee, S. Choy, X. Zhao, G.S. Kassab, S. Kozerke, J.M. Guccione, E. Kuhl Source Type: research

Activation of NMDA receptor by elevated homocysteine in chronic liver disease contributes to encephalopathy
Liver diseases lead to a complex syndrome characterized by neurological, neuro-psychiatric and motor complications, called Hepatic Encephalopathy, which is prevalent in patients and animal models of acute, sub-chronic and chronic liver failure. Although alterations in GABAergic, glutamatergic, cholinergic and serotonergic neuronal functions have been implicated in HE, the molecular mechanisms that lead to HE in chronic liver disease (CLD) is least illustrated. Due to hepatocellular failure, levels of ammonia and homocysteine (Hcy), in addition to others, are found to increase in the brain as well as plasma. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sabanum Choudhury, Anupom Borah Source Type: research

Why do liver transplant patients so often become obese? The addiction transfer hypothesis
In patients who receive transplantation for alcohol liver disease, obesity and metabolic syndrome are highly prevalent after transplantation and both contribute to a significant proportion of cardiovascular complications, late morbidity and mortality in this population. Although immunosuppressive medications have been hypothesised to explain some of these post-liver-transplantation (LT) metabolic complications, they cannot be considered the sole cause of obesity and metabolic syndrome, and the high prevalence of these illnesses remains unexplained. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Source: Medical Hypotheses - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Paul Brunault, Ephrem Salamé, Nematollah Jaafari, Robert Courtois, Christian Réveillère, Christine Silvain, Amine Benyamina, Lisa Blecha, David Belin, Nicolas Ballon Source Type: research

Evidence for suppression of immunity as a driver for genomic introgressions and host range expansion in races of Albugo candida, a generalist parasite
How generalist parasites with wide host ranges can evolve is a central question in parasite evolution. Albugo candida is an obligate biotrophic parasite that consists of many physiological races that each specialize on distinct Brassicaceae host species. By analyzing genome sequence assemblies of five isolates, we show they represent three races that are genetically diverged by ~1%. Despite this divergence, their genomes are mosaic-like, with ~25% being introgressed from other races. Sequential infection experiments show that infection by adapted races enables subsequent infection of hosts by normally non-infecting races. ...
Source: eLife - April 2, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: McMullan, M., Gardiner, A., Bailey, K., Kemen, E., Ward, B. J., Cevik, V., Robert-Seilaniantz, A., Schultz-Larsen, T., Balmuth, A., Holub, E., van Oosterhout, C., Jones, J. D. Tags: Plant biology Source Type: research