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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 24.
Kinetic and Physiological Evaluation of Ammonium and Nitrite Oxidation Processes in Presence of 2-Chlorophenol.
Abstract The effect of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) on ammonium and nitrite-oxidizing processes was kinetically evaluated in batch cultures with nitrifying sludge at steady state. Assays with ammonium or nitrite as energy source and 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg 2-CP-C/l were conducted. Control assays without 2-CP were also performed. Ammonium-oxidizing activity was completely inhibited at the different 2-CP concentrations, whereas nitrite-oxidizing activity was present as nitrite was completely consumed and converted to nitrate irrespectively of 2-CP concentration. In the presence of 2.5 and 5.0 mg 2-CP-C/l, no significant effe...
Source: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology - January 8, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Pérez-Alfaro JE, Buitrón G, Gomez J, Texier AC, Cuervo-López FM Tags: Appl Biochem Biotechnol Source Type: research
A global resource to translational medicine: the International Park of Translational Medicine and BioMedicine (IPTBM)
Translational science consists of research and development that integrates multiple resources to expedite the successful treatment of disease. The International Park of Translational BioMedicine (IPTBM) is currently being developed within the interface between Zhejiang Province and Shanghai Municipality. IPTBM has been designed to pioneer comprehensive biomedical research that spans the continuum from the education of young scientists to providing the infrastructure necessary for clinical testing and direct observation to better understand human biology while promoting viable commercial results within a vibrant biotechnolo...
Source: Journal of Translational Medicine - January 8, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Xiaodan WuFrancesco MarincolaMichael LiebmanXiangdong Wang Source Type: research
Unlike we thought for 100 years: Molds are able to reproduce sexually
(Ruhr-University Bochum) For over 100 years, it was assumed that the penicillin-producing mold fungus Penicillium chrysogenum only reproduced asexually through spores. An international research team has now shown for the first time that the fungus also has a sexual cycle, i.e. two "genders". Through sexual reproduction of P. chrysogenum, the researchers generated fungal strains with new biotechnologically relevant properties - such as high penicillin production without the contaminating chrysogenin. The researchers report in PNAS.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - January 8, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
Gilead says on track with hepatitis C treatments
(Reuters) - Gilead Sciences Inc is on track to file for regulatory approval of sofosbuvir, its treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, starting in mid-2013, the biotech company said on Monday.
Source: Reuters: Health - January 7, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: healthNews Source Type: news
TVAX Biomedical names new CEO, raises $2M
Lenexa-based TVAX Biomedical Inc. has appointed a new CEO and raised $2 million in the first closing of a private round of financing. TVAX is a clinical-stage development company working on a targeted cell-based immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Philip Haworth is the new CEO. He succeeds Gary Wood, who now will be chief science officer. Haworth has 30 years of management experience in the biotechnology business. He most recently was CEO of Intradigm Corp., which later merged with Silence…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines - January 7, 2013 Category: Hospital Management Authors: James Dornbrook Source Type: research
Illumina to buy prenatal test developer Verinata Health for up to $450 million
Illumina Inc. will buy prenatal test company Verinata Health Inc. for $350 million and up to $100 million in milestone payments through 2015, the companies said Sunday. The deal signals another move by a manufacturer of laboratory-based gene-sequencing tools into diagnostics, one step away from consumers. Illumina (NASDAQ: ILMN) will gain control of Redwood City-based Verinata’s Verifi non-invasive prenatal test that identifies fetal chromosomal abnormalities, such as those found in Down syndrome. In…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - January 7, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ron Leuty Source Type: research
Evolution of covered stents in the Contemporary Era: Clinical application, materials and manufacturing strategies using nanotechnology.
Abstract Endovascular stents have revolutionised the field of interventional cardiology. Despite their excellent clinical outcome complications associated with percutaneous stent implantation following the procedure have remained a major drawback in their widespread use. To overcome such limitations, a number of novel endovascular stents have emerged including a covered stent wrapped in a thin membrane sleeve. As well as prevention of complications associated with stenting, covered stents owing to their physical barrier are used as the treatment option of choice for trauma devices during emergency situations and to...
Source: Biotechnology Advances - January 7, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Rafiei Y, Tan A, Motiwala A, Cousins BG, Seifalian AM Tags: Biotechnol Adv Source Type: research
Optimization of Cold-Active Lipase Production from Psychrophilic Bacterium Moritella sp. 2-5-10-1 by Statistical Experimental Methods.
Abstract Statistical experimental designs were applied to optimize cold-active lipase production by the psychrophilic bacterium Moritella sp. 2-5-10-1. First, a Plackett-Burmen design (PBD) was used to evaluate the significant effects of various fermentation parameters. The results indicated that soybean meal, temperature, and Tween-80 had significant influences on lipase production. The levels of these variables were optimized subsequently using central composite design (CCD). A quadratic regression model of cold-active lipase production was built, and verification experiments confirmed its validity. On subsequent...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Wang Q, Zhang C, Hou Y, Lin X, Shen J, Guan X Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Temperature Dependence of the Production of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A by Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract We incubated 11 strains of Staphylococcus aureus in a brain heart infusion broth at 10-37 °C with two inoculum sizes and examined their enterotoxin A (SEA) production by a Western blot analysis to clarify the effect of incubation temperature on SEA production. Although SEA was detected in the exponential phase at 15-37 °C, it was also detected in the stationary or death phase at 10 °C. The maximal SEA concentrations of most strains increased as the temperature was increased, although some strains produced as much at 15 °C and 20 °C as they did at 37 °C. The maximal SEA concentration was definitely lo...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tsutsuura S, Shimamura Y, Murata M Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Molecular Characterization of a Lipoxygenase from the Basidiomycete Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.
Abstract The full-length cDNA of the gene PoLOX1 encoding a lipoxygenase (LOX) and its corresponding genomic DNA were isolated from the basidiomycete mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus strain H1. The deduced amino acid sequence of PoLOX1 showed similarity to a valencene oxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus, putative LOX-like proteins from ascomycete, basidiomycete, and deuteromycete fungi, and known LOXs from plants, animals, and bacteria. PoLOX1 also contained the LOX iron-binding catalytic domain in the C-terminal region, but not the polycystin-1, lipoxygenase, alpha-toxin (PLAT) domain, which is usually found in the N-termi...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tasaki Y, Toyama S, Kuribayashi T, Joh T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
A Novel Synthesized Tyrosinase Inhibitor: (E)-2-((2,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)diazenyl)phenyl 4-Methylbenzenesulfonate as an Azo-Resveratrol Analog.
Abstract We synthesized a novel series of (E)-2-((substituted phenyl)diazenyl)phenyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate derivatives (2 and 3) and (E)-2-((substituted phenyl)diazenyl)phenol derivatives (4 and 5), and conducted an evaluation in order to determine their inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase, with the aim of discovering a tyrosinase inhibitor. Most of the compounds (3-5) exhibited higher inhibitory effects than kojic acid (IC(50) = 49.08 µM), a representative tyrosinase inhibitor. A novel synthesized compound, (E)-2-((2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)diazenyl)phenyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (3), showed the best results ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Bae SJ, Ha YM, Kim JA, Park JY, Ha TK, Park D, Chun P, Park NH, Chung HY, Moon HR Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Burdock Fermented by Aspergillus awamori Elevates Cecum Bifidobacterium, and Reduces Fecal Deoxycholic Acid and Adipose Tissue Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, aceta...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Okazaki Y, Sitanggang NV, Sato S, Ohnishi N, Inoue J, Iguchi T, Watanabe T, Tomotake H, Harada K, Kato N Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Potential Value of a Rice Protein Extract, Containing Proteinaceous Inhibitors against Cysteine Proteinases from Porphyromonas gingivalis, for Managing Periodontal Diseases.
Abstract Arg-specific gingipain (Rgp) is a major pathogenic determinant of Porphyromonas gingivalis which is a major pathogen in periodontal disease. We prepared protein extracts with Rgp-inhibitory activity from polished rice (Oryza sativa) and evaluated the effects of these extracts on the growth and pathogenicity of P. gingivalis. The extracts inhibited the proteolytic degradation of human proteins by P. gingivalis proteinases, and repressed the growth and homotypic biofilm formation of P. gingivalis. The disruption of adhesion of epithelial cells by P. gingivalis was also restricted by the rice protein extracts...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Taiyoji M, Yamanaka T, Tsuno T, Ohtsubo S Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Does Recovery in the Spectral Characteristics of GdnHCl-Denatured Bacillus licheniformis α-Amylase Due to Added Calcium Point towards Protein Stabilization?
Abstract Treatment of Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) with guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) produced both denatured and aggregated forms of the enzyme as studied by circular dichroism, fluorescence, UV difference spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and enzymatic activity. The presence of CaCl(2) in the incubation mixture produced significant recovery in spectral signals, being complete in presence of 10 mM CaCl(2), as well as in enzymatic activity, which is indicative of protein stabilization. However, the SEC results obtained with GdnHCl-denatured BLA both in the absence and the presence of ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Halim AA, Feroz SR, Tayyab S Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Characterization of an α-L-Rhamnosidase from Streptomyces avermitilis.
Abstract The putative α-L-rhamnosidase gene from Streptomyces avermitilis was cloned and expressed. The recombinant enzyme released L-rhamnose from p-nitrophenyl α-L-rhamnoside, Citrus flavonoids such as naringin, rutin, and hesperidin, and gum arabic which is an arabinogalactan-protein. Calcium ions increased L-rhamnose production by the enzyme from gum arabic, whereas enzyme activity was not affected by any metal ions. PMID: 23291751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ichinose H, Fujimoto Z, Kaneko S Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Molecular Cloning, Recombinant Expression, and Antimicrobial Activity of EC-hepcidin3, a New Four-Cysteine Hepcidin Isoform from Epinephelus coioides.
Abstract Hepcidin, a cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptide, is widespread in fish and shows multiple activities, including antimicrobial, antivirus, and antitumor. Here, a new four-cysteine hepcidin isoform gene, EC-hepcidin3, was cloned from the marine-cultured orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The complete cDNA sequence consisted of 603 bases with an open reading frame (ORF) of 270 bases. The genomic DNA sequence was composed of two introns and three exons, and its 312-bp upstream region had multiple putative transcription factor binding sites. Soluble recombinant protein EC-proHep3 containing a His-ta...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Qu H, Chen B, Peng H, Wang K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Transcriptome Response to Nitrosative Stress in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1.
Abstract The facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 has a nitric oxide-response transcriptional regulator, NnrR, and nitric oxide reductase (NOR), although it is incapable of denitrification. To investigate at the genomic level the physiological response to nitrosative stress of R. sphaeroides, the transcriptome profiles of strain 2.4.1 and its NnrR mutant were analyzed before and after exposure to nitrosating agents, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), under microaerobic conditions. GSNO and SNP affected the expression of different but overlapping sets of genes. ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Arai H, Roh JH, Eraso JM, Kaplan S Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Aglycone of Rh(4) Inhibits Melanin Synthesis in B16 Melanoma Cells: Possible Involvement of the Protein Kinase A Pathway.
Abstract To our knowledge, there is no report that directly shows an inhibitory effect of ginsenoside on melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells. Hence, we investigated whether the aglycone of Rh(4) (A-Rh4) inhibits melanin synthesis in B16 melanoma cells, and determined the mechanism of action of melanin inhibition. We isolated 12 ginsenoside compounds from leaves of Panax ginseng and tested them in B16 melanoma cells. It significantly reduced melanin content and tyrosinase activity under alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone- and forskolin-stimulated conditions. It significantly reduced the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Jeong YM, Oh WK, Tran TL, Kim WK, Sung SH, Bae K, Lee S, Sung JH Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Evaluation of Extraction Solutions for Biochemical Analyses of the Proteins in Rice Grains.
Abstract The influence of different extraction solutions on the proteins extracted from rice grains was investigated. The largest amounts of salt-soluble proteins were extracted with solutions supplemented with Tris-HCl at pH 8.0. Rice allergens were analyzed by multiplex immunodetection. Except for α-globulin extracted with the solutions at pH 8.0, which showed a low-molecular-weight band besides the main band, no significant solution-dependent difference among the allergens was found. Total proteins were extracted with four kinds of solution. The extraction of the basic subunit of glutelin was found to be SDS-de...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lang GH, Kagiya Y, Ohnishi-Kamayama M, Kitta K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Improved High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance by an Oral Administration of Phytosphingosine.
Abstract We have previously reported that phytoceramide and phytosphingosine (PHS) stimulated the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in cells. PPARγ is a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. We found in this study that an oral administration of PHS improved diet-induced glucose intolerance in mice. Since PHS is highly expressed in yeast, PHS in fermented foods may improve diabetes. PMID: 23291756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Murakami I, Mitsutake S, Kobayashi N, Matsuda J, Suzuki A, Shigyo T, Igarashi Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Role of Nitric Oxide-Detoxifying Enzymes in the Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against the Silkworm, Bombyx mori.
In this study, the NO reductase-deficient mutant showed decreased virulence against the silkworm Bombyx mori, but the flavohemoglobin-deficient mutant did not, indicating that NO-reduction is important to the full virulence of P. aeruginosa against B. mori. PMID: 23291757 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Arai H, Iiyama K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Bi-Phasic Effect of Equol on Adipocyte Differentiation of MC3T3-L1 Cells.
Abstract We investigated the effects of equol on adipogenesis by measuring lipid accumulation and analyzing the change in adipocyte-related gene expression in MC3T3-L1 cells. Treatment with 10 µM equol tended to increase adipocyte-related gene expression, whereas 100 µM equol reduced lipid accumulation and suppressed the expression of these genes and proteins. Our results suggest that equol regulated adipogenesis in a bi-phasic fashion. PMID: 23291758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nishide Y, Tousen Y, Inada M, Miyaura C, Ishimi Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Purification and Biochemical Characterization of a Highly Thermostable Bacteriocin Isolated from Brevibacillus brevis Strain GM100.
Abstract A bacteriocin-producing (11,000 AU mL(-1)) strain was isolated from the rhizosphere of healthy Algerian plants Ononis angustissima Lam., and identified as Brevibacillus brevis strain GM100. The bacteriocin, called Bac-GM100, was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant, and, based on MALDI-TOF/MS analysis, was a monomer protein with a molecular mass of 4375.66 Da. The 21 N-terminal residues of Bac-GM100 displayed 65% homology with thurincin H from Bacillus thuringiensis. Bac-GM100 was extremely heat-stable (20 min at 120 °C), and was stable within a pH range of 3-10. It proved sensitive to var...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ghadbane M, Harzallah D, Laribi AI, Jaouadi B, Belhadj H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Isolation and Characterization of an Anti-Insect β-Toxin from the Venom of the Scorpion Isometrus maculatus.
Abstract Im-3 was isolated from the venom of the scorpion Isometrus maculatus through several steps of HPLC fractionation based on the insect paralytic activity. Injecting Im-3 into crickets induced paralysis, but no toxicity was apparent in mice after an intracerebroventricular injection. Im-3 shares sequence similarity to scorpion β-toxins that specifically affect insect sodium channels. PMID: 23291760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kawachi T, Miyashita M, Nakagawa Y, Miyagawa H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Common Amino Acid Sequences Deduced from Coding Exons of the Porcine FGF4 Gene in Two Breeds and Production of the Encoded Protein in Escherichia coli.
Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) is considered a crucial gene in the development of mammalian embryos. Here we identified common amino acid sequences predicted from coding exons of the FGF4 gene in five pigs of two breeds, and HispFGF4, a 6× histidine-tagged porcine FGF4, was produced in Escherichia coli. HispFGF4 was purified efficiently from the supernatant of cell lysate by heparin column chromatography. In a porcine embryonic fibroblast cell line, HispFGF4 showed significant mitogenic activities at concentrations as low as 0.001 nM (p<0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report d...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sugawara S, Ito T, Suzuki H, Takahashi T, Konishi JI, Kobayashi M, Sato S, Mori Y, Kasuga K, Kojima I, Fukuda T, Kobayashi M Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha Using Regenerating Thalli.
Abstract The thallus, the gametophyte body of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, develops clonal progenies called gemmae that are useful in the isolation and propagation of isogenic plants. Developmental timing is critical to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and high transformation efficiency has been achieved only with sporelings. Here we report an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for M. polymorpha using regenerating thalli. Thallus regeneration was induced by cutting the mature thallus across the apical-basal axis and incubating the basal portion of the thallus for 3 d. Regenerating thalli wer...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kubota A, Ishizaki K, Hosaka M, Kohchi T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism for Molecular Variability Studies of Six Viroid Species.
Abstract Molecular diversity within six viroid species and different molecular variants, in each species infecting fruit trees was first estimated by the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique and then by direct sequencing analysis. The different variants studied are to three Australian grapevine viroids(AGVd), four citrus dwarfing viroids (CDVd), eleven grapevine yellow speckle viroids type-1 (GYSVd-1), four hop stunt viroids (HSVd), seven peach latent mosaic viroids (PLMVd), and eight pear blister canker viroids (PBCVd). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) conditions were compared and opti...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Elleuch A, Hamdi I, Bessaies N, Fakhfakh H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Identification and Characterization of Cellobiose 2-Epimerases from Various Aerobes.
In this study, we characterized CE-like proteins from various aerobes (Flavobacterium johnsoniae NBRC 14942, Pedobacter heparinus NBRC 12017, Dyadobacter fermentans ATCC 700827, Herpetosiphon aurantiacus ATCC 23779, Saccharophagus degradans ATCC 43961, Spirosoma linguale ATCC 33905, and Teredinibacter turnerae ATCC 39867), because aerobes, more easily cultured on a large scale than anaerobes, are applicable in industrial processes. The recombinant CE-like proteins produced in Escherichia coli catalyzed epimerization at the C2 position of cellobiose, lactose, epilactose, and β-1,4-mannobiose, whereas N-acetyl-D-glucosamine...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ojima T, Saburi W, Yamamoto T, Mori H, Matsui H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Characterization of Plant Functions Using Cultured Plant Cells, and Biotechnological Applications.
Abstract Plant cell cultures are widely used in the micro-propagation of clonal plants, especially virus-free plants, and in the production of useful metabolites such as paclitaxel. On the other hand, the use of plant cell cultures for the more basic characterization of plant functions is rather limited due to the difficulties associated with functional differentiation in cell cultures. In this review, I overview our experience with functionally differentiated cultured plant cells and their characteristics, especially with regard to photoautotrophism and secondary metabolism. I emphasize the high potential of funct...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sato F Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
From a Repressilator-Based Circadian Clock Mechanism to an External Coincidence Model Responsible for Photoperiod and Temperature Control of Plant Architecture in Arabodopsis thaliana.
Abstract Circadian clocks enable organisms to define subjective time, that is, to anticipate diurnal day and night cycles. Endogenous circadian rhythms regulate many aspects of an organism's physiological and morphological growth and development. These daily oscillations are synchronized to the environment by external cues such as light and temperature, resulting in enhanced fitness and growth vigor in plants. Recent findings concerning biochemical properties of central oscillators in Arabidopsis thaliana have advanced our understanding of circadian clock function. Central oscillators are composed of three classes ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yamashino T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Structural Characteristics and Evolution of the Protobothrops elegans Pancreatic Phospholipase A(2) Gene in Contrast with Those of Protobothrops Genus Venom Phospholipase A(2) Genes.
Abstract The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding Protobothrops elegans (Crotalinae) pancreatic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), abbreviated PePancPLA(2), was determined by means of inverted PCR techniques. Since its deduced amino acid sequence contains a pancreatic loop and shows high similarity to that of Laticauda semifasciata (Elapinae) group IB pancreatic PLA(2), PePancPLA(2) is classified into group IB PLA(2). The nucleotide sequences of the PePancPLA(2) gene, the L. semifasciata group IB pancreatic PLA(2) gene, and the L. semifasciata group IA venom PLA(2) gene are similar to one another but greatly dissimil...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chijiwa T, Nakasone H, Irie S, Ikeda N, Tomoda K, Oda-Ueda N, Hattori S, Ohno M Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Controlled Preparation of Cellulases with Xylanolytic Enzymes from Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) by Continuous-Feed Cultivation Using Soluble Sugars.
The objective of this study was to develop an efficient production system for cellulase preparation with a high level of xylanolytic enzymes using soluble carbon sources. When xylose and arabinose were simultaneously fed with glucose and cellobiose, a mutant of Trichoderma reesei, M3-1, showed sufficient levels of cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities, indicating that xylose and arabinose are good inducers for the production of xylanolytic enzymes. In a continuous feeding experiment using glucose/cellobiose and glucose/xylose/cellobiose, cellulase preparations with various levels of xylanolytic enzymes were obtained by a...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ike M, Park JY, Tabuse M, Tokuyasu K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Growth-Phase Dependent Variation in Photosynthetic Activity and Cellular Protein Expression Profile in the Harmful Raphidophyte Chattonella antiqua.
This study investigated temporal variations in the potential maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m) ratio) and growth-phase dependent cellular protein expressions of Chattonella antiqua under laboratory conditions. Despite the culture conditions, significant positive correlations between the F(v)/F(m) ratio and daily growth rate were observed. Threshold F(v)/F(m) ratios associated with positive cell growth were calculated to be >0.44, >0.44, and >0.37, and those associated with active cell growth (growth rate >0.5 div. d(-1)) were >0.58, >0.60, and >0.49 under control culture, low nutrient ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Qiu X, Shimasaki Y, Tsuyama M, Yamada T, Kuwahara R, Kawaguchi M, Honda M, Gunjikake H, Tasmin R, Shimizu M, Sato Y, Kato-Unoki Y, Nakashima T, Matsubara T, Yamasaki Y, Ichinose H, Wariishi H, Honjo T, Oshima Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Effects of Aliphatic Aldehydes on the Growth and Patulin Production of Penicillium expansum in Apple Juice.
Abstract The effects of 16 aliphatic aldehydes with 3-10 carbons on the growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansum were examined. When P. expansum spores were inoculated into apple juice broth, some alkenals, including 2-propenal, (E)-2-butenal, (E)-2-pentenal, and (E)-2-hexenal, inhibited fungal growth and patulin production. Their minimal inhibitory concentrations were 5, 50, 80, and 80 µg/mL respectively. Vital staining indicated that these alkenals killed mycelia within 4 h. Treatment of the spores with these aldehydes also resulted in rapid loss of germination ability, within 0.5-2 d. On the other ...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Taguchi T, Kozutsumi D, Nakamura R, Sato Y, Ishihara A, Nakajima H Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
A Synthetic Peptide-Based Assay System for Detecting Binding between CD36 and an Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein.
Abstract CD36 is an integral membrane protein that mediates the cellular uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) through recognition of the oxidized glycerophospholipids (oxPLs) formed during LDL oxidation. We aimed to devise an assay system to detect binding between CD36 and oxLDL/oxPL without using recombinant proteins. A peptide corresponding to amino-acid residues 149-168 of mouse CD36 with biotin at its N-terminus (named biotin-CD36(149-168)) and variants of it were synthesized and immobilized onto streptavidin-coated plates. oxLDL labeled with Alexa-Fluor-488 bound specifically and saturably to imm...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tsuzuki S, Takai M, Matsuno Y, Kozai Y, Fujioka M, Kamei K, Inagaki H, Eguchi A, Matsumura S, Inoue K, Fushiki T Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Separation of the Antioxidant Compound Quercitrin from Lindera obtusiloba Blume and Its Antimelanogenic Effect on B16F10 Melanoma Cells.
Abstract Considering the growing evidence of the presence of antioxidant compounds in plant extracts, the objectives of this study were to identify antioxidant compounds in Lindera obtusiloba Blume (Lauraceae) and to evaluate their antimelanogenic activities on B16F10 melanoma cells. Organic solvent fractions were separated from L. obtusiloba extracts (LOE). The ethyl acetate fraction (LOE-E) was significantly active against oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in primary rat hepatocytes. Two single purified compounds, quercitrin (quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside) and afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hong CO, Lee HA, Rhee CH, Choung SY, Lee KW Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Immunization of Rabbits with Nematode Ascaris lumbricoides Antigens Induces Antibodies Cross-Reactive to House Dust Mite Dermatophagoides farinae Antigens.
Abstract There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized wi...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Nakazawa T, Khan AF, Yasueda H, Saito A, Fukutomi Y, Takai T, Zaman K, Yunus M, Takeuchi H, Iwata T, Akiyama K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Enzymatic Improvement in the Polyphenol Extractability and Antioxidant Activity of Green Tea Extracts.
Abstract This paper describes increases in extraction efficiency and the bioconversion of catechins after treatment with several commercial enzymes. Tannase was also used to improve the anti-radical activities of green tea extracts. Enzymatic treatment with various commercial enzymes was introduced to improve the extraction efficiency of polyphenols. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and catechin contents and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the green tea extract treated with Viscozyme (VG) were significantly higher than those treated with other commercial enzymatic extractions...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hong YH, Jung EY, Park Y, Shin KS, Kim TY, Yu KW, Chang UJ, Suh HJ Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
Effects of Essence of Chicken on Cognitive Brain Function: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the essence of chicken on brain function by near-infrared spectroscopy. Twelve healthy elderly subjects took the essence of chicken or a placebo for 7 d in a double-blind cross-over design study. Changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentrations in the bilateral prefrontal areas of the brain were measured while the subjects performed the simple reaction task, the Groton Maze Learning Test, and the working memory task. In the latter case, there were significant interactions in the changes in oxy-hemoglobin concentrations between treatment and period of intake a...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Konagai C, Watanabe H, Abe K, Tsuruoka N, Koga Y Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
The Discoidin Domain of Bacillus circulans β-Galactosidase Plays an Essential Role in Repressing Galactooligosaccharide Production.
Abstract The recently cloned β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans ATCC 31382, designated BgaD, contains a multiple domain architecture including a F5/8 type C domain or a discoidin (DS) domain in the C-terminal peptide region. Here we report that the DS domain plays an essential role in repressing the production of galactooligosaccharides (GOSs). We prepared deletion mutants and point-mutated forms of rBgaD-A (deletion of the BgaD signal peptide) to compare their reaction behaviors. The yields of GOS for all of the point-mutated forms as well as the deletion mutants of rBgaD-As increased as compared to rBgaD-A....
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Song J, Imanaka H, Imamura K, Minoda M, Yamaguchi S, Nakanishi K Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
MicroRNAs as potential clinical biomarkers: emerging approaches for their detection.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as novel post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. These short non-coding RNAs are involved in diverse biological processes and their dysregulation is often observed under diseased conditions. Therefore, miRNAs hold great potential as clinical biomarkers of physiological and pathological states and extensive efforts are underway to develop efficient approaches for their detection. We review recent advances and discuss the promises and pitfalls of emerging methods of miRNA profiling and detection. PMID: 23293934 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biotechnic and Histochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Srivastava S, Bhardwaj A, Leavesley S, Grizzle W, Singh S, Singh A Tags: Biotech Histochem Source Type: research
The evolving role of HER2 evaluation for diagnosis and clinical decision making for breast and gastric adenocarcinoma.
Abstract Clinical laboratory testing for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) in patients with newly diagnosed breast and gastric cancer is critically important for therapeutic decisions about adjuvant treatment. The HER2 pathway is a major molecular driver of disease progression in a subset of these solid tumors and the results of HER2 testing determine which patients are likely to respond to an expanding variety of therapies that target this important biologic pathway. Given the significant clinical impact of these test results on patient management and adjuvant treatment decisions, standardization of ...
Source: Biotechnic and Histochemistry - January 7, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Hicks D, Whitney-Miller C Tags: Biotech Histochem Source Type: research
Market Shakeup in Developing Maternal Blood Prenatal Diagnostics
<p><a href="http://clk.about.com/?zi=1/1hc&zu=http://www.illumina.com/">Illumina</a>, the leading provider of <a href="http://clk.about.com/?zi=1/1hc&zu=http://biotech.about.com/od/researchlaboratory/a/The-Need-For-Cheaper-And-Faster-Dna-Sequencing.htm">high throughput gene sequencing</a> technology, announced <a href="http://clk.about.com/?zi=1/1hc&zu=http://investor.illumina.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=121127&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1771460&highlight=">Monday</a> that it has agreed to purchase <a href=&q...
Source: About.com Biotech Biomedical - January 7, 2013 Category: Biotechnology Source Type: news
Isolation and characterization of lignin‐degrading bacteria from rainforest soils
In this study, 140 bacterial strains isolated from soils of a biodiversity‐rich rainforest in Peru were screened based on their oxidative activity on ABTS, a laccase substrate. Strain C6 (Bacillus pumilus) and strain B7 (Bacillus atrophaeus) were selected for their high laccase activity and identified by 16S rDNA analysis. Strains B7 and C6 degraded fragments of Kraft lignin and the lignin model dimer guaiacylglycerol‐β‐guaiacyl ether, the most abundant linkage in lignin. Finally, LC‐MS analysis of incubations of strains B7 and C6 with poplar biomass in rich and minimal media revealed that a higher number of compo...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - January 7, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xing‐Feng Huang, Navaneetha Santhanam, Dayakar V. Badri, William J. Hunter, Daniel K. Manter, Stephen R. Decker, Jorge M. Vivanco, Kenneth F. Reardon Tags: Article Source Type: research
Improved recellularization of ex vivo vascular scaffolds using directed transport gradients to modulate ECM remodeling
Abstract The regeneration of functional, clinically viable, tissues from acellular ex‐vivo tissues has been problematic largely due to poor nutrient transport conditions that limit cell migration and integration. Compounding these issues are subcellular pore sizes that necessarily requires extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in order for cells to migrate and regenerate the tissue. The aim of the present work was to create a directed growth environment that allows cells to fully populate an ex vivo‐derived vascular scaffold and maintain viability over extended periods. Three different culture conditions using single (...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - January 7, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zehra Tosun, Peter S. McFetridge Tags: Article Source Type: research
Regeneration and control of human fibroblast cell density by intermittently delivered pulsed electric fields
Abstract Proliferative scarring is a human disease with neither available effective treatment nor relevant animal model. One of the hypotheses for scar formation involves deregulation of fibroblast signaling and delayed apoptosis. Here we introduce a new chemical‐free method for fibroblast density control in culture by intermittently delivered pulsed electric fields (IDPEF), which cause irreversible damage to cell membranes. Using 5‐100 pulses with electric field strength of 150 V mm−1, pulse duration 70 µs, and frequency of 1Hz, we investigated the effects of pulsed electric field application on growth, death, and ...
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - January 7, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alexander Golberg, Marianna Bei, Robert L. Sheridan, Martin L. Yarmush Tags: Article Source Type: research