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This page shows you the 20 most read items in the past 30 days within this specialty in the MedWorm directory.
Social and Moral Relationships with Robots: Genetic Epistemology in an Exponentially Increasing Technological World
Human Development 2013;56:1–4 (DOI:10.1159/000345544) (Source: Human Development)
Source: Human Development - February 3, 2013 Category: Child Development Source Type: research
A comparison of rural and urban Indian children's visual detection of threatening and nonthreatening animals
Abstract Recent studies indicate that young children preferentially attend to snakes, spiders, and lions compared with nondangerous species, but these results have yet to be replicated in populations that actually experience dangerous animals in nature. This multi‐site study investigated the visual‐detection biases of southern Indian children towards two potentially dangerous taxa, snakes and lions, that constituted major threats during human evolution. Three‐ to 8‐year‐old children from two distinct populations were presented with visual‐search tasks containing one target image embedded in matrices of eight di...
Source: Developmental Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Michael J. Penkunas, Richard G. Coss Tags: Paper Source Type: research
Auditory habituation in the fetus and neonate: an fMEG study
Abstract Habituation – the most basic form of learning – is used to evaluate central nervous system (CNS) maturation and to detect abnormalities in fetal brain development. In the current study, habituation, stimulus specificity and dishabituation of auditory evoked responses were measured in fetuses and newborns using fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). An auditory habituation paradigm consisting of 100 trains of five 500 Hz tones, one 750 Hz tone (dishabituator) and two more 500 Hz tones, respectively, were presented to 41 fetuses (gestational age 30–39 weeks) and 22 newborns or babies (age 6–89 days). A r...
Source: Developmental Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Jana Muenssinger, Tamara Matuz, Franziska Schleger, Isabelle Kiefer‐Schmidt, Rangmar Goelz, Annette Wacker‐Gussmann, Niels Birbaumer, Hubert Preissl Tags: Paper Source Type: research
NCT and developmental psychology: a welcome rapprochement
(Source: Developmental Science)
Source: Developmental Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Mary Gauvain Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Target Article with Commentaries: Developmental niche construction
Abstract Niche construction is the modification of components of the environment through an organism's activities. Humans modify their environments mainly through ontogenetic and cultural processes, and it is this reliance on learning, plasticity and culture that lends human niche construction a special potency. In this paper we aim to facilitate discussion between researchers interested in niche construction and those interested in human cognitive development by highlighting some of the related processes. We discuss the transmission of culturally relevant information, how the human mind is a symbol‐generating and artefa...
Source: Developmental Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Emma G. Flynn, Kevin N. Laland, Rachel L. Kendal, Jeremy R. Kendal Tags: Paper Source Type: research
Lifespan development of neuromodulation of adaptive control and motivation as an ontogenetic mechanism for developmental niche construction
(Source: Developmental Science)
Source: Developmental Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Shu‐Chen Li Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
Basilar artery strokes in children: good outcomes with conservative medical treatment
AimTo describe outcomes and outcome predictors in childhood basilar artery stroke (BAS). MethodWe prospectively enrolled children with BAS with or without basilar artery occlusion (BAO) in the Toronto Children's Stroke Registry from 1992 to 2009. We assessed presenting features and outcomes including Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure scores. ResultsAmong 578 children with acute arterial ischemic stroke, 27 had BAS (4.6% including neonates, 6% excluding neonates). Twenty‐four (14 males, 10 females) children met study criteria (mean age at stroke was 8y 10mo; range 0–17y). Eleven children had BAO. Aspirin or anticoagulati...
Source: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology - February 16, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Ana Marissa Lagman‐Bartolome, Ann‐Marie Pontigon, Mahendranath Moharir, Daune L. Macgregor, Rand Askalan, Ivanna Yau, Gabrielle Deveber Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Perception of the motion trajectory of objects from moving cast shadows in infant Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata)
In this study, we used a familiarity/novelty preferential looking procedure to assess the ability of infant macaques, aged 7–24 weeks, to discriminate between a ‘depth’ display containing a ball and cast shadow moving diagonally and an ‘up’ display containing a ball with a diagonal trajectory and a shadow with a horizontal trajectory. The infant macaques could discriminate the trajectories of the balls based on the moving shadows. These findings suggest that the ability to perceive the motion trajectory of an object from the moving shadow is common to both humans and macaques. The shadows cast by moving objects...
Source: Developmental Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Tomoko Imura, Ikuma Adachi, Yuko Hattori, Masaki Tomonaga Tags: Paper Source Type: research
The mentalistic basis of core social cognition: experiments in preverbal infants and a computational model
Abstract Evaluating individuals based on their pro‐ and anti‐social behaviors is fundamental to successful human interaction. Recent research suggests that even preverbal infants engage in social evaluation; however, it remains an open question whether infants’ judgments are driven uniquely by an analysis of the mental states that motivate others’ helpful and unhelpful actions, or whether non‐mentalistic inferences are at play. Here we present evidence from 10‐month‐olds, motivated and supported by a Bayesian computational model, for mentalistic social evaluation in the first year of life.A video abstract of ...
Source: Developmental Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: J. Kiley Hamlin, Tomer Ullman, Josh Tenenbaum, Noah Goodman, Chris Baker Tags: Paper Source Type: research
Speed isn't everything: complex processing speed measures mask individual differences and developmental changes in executive control
We report two new studies and a re‐analysis of a published study, testing predictions about how different processing speed measures influence conclusions about executive control across the lifespan. We find that the choice of processing speed measure affects the relationship observed between processing speed and executive control, in a manner that changes with age, and that choice of processing speed measure affects conclusions about development and the relationship among executive control measures. Implications for understanding processing speed, executive control, and their development are discussed. (Source: Developmental Science)
Source: Developmental Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Nicholas J. Cepeda, Katharine A. Blackwell, Yuko Munakata Tags: Paper Source Type: research
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Negative Life Events From Late Childhood to Adolescence
This multiwave longitudinal study tested two quantitative genetic developmental models to examine genetic and environmental influences on exposure to negative dependent and independent life events. Participants (N = 457 twin pairs) completed measures of life events annually from ages 9 to 16. The same genetic factors influenced exposure to dependent events across time and increased in magnitude during the transition to adolescence. Independent events were less genetically influenced than dependent events in boys, but not girls. Shared environmental influences decreased in magnitude as youth transitioned into adolescence....
Source: Child Development - February 4, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Daniel P. Johnson, Soo Hyun Rhee, Mark A. Whisman, Robin P. Corley, John K. Hewitt Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research
The relationship between multisensory integration and IQ in children.
It is well accepted that multisensory integration has a facilitative effect on perceptual and motor processes, evolutionarily enhancing the chance of survival of many species, including humans. Yet, there is limited understanding of the relationship between multisensory processes, environmental noise, and children's cognitive abilities. Thus, this study investigated the relationship between multisensory integration, auditory background noise, and the general intellectual abilities of school-age children (N = 88, mean age = 9 years, 7 months) using a simple audiovisual detection paradigm. We provide evidence that children w...
Source: Developmental Psychology - December 12, 2010 Category: Child Development Authors: Barutchu, Ayla; Crewther, Sheila G.; Fifer, Joanne; Shivdasani, Mohit N.; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Toohey, Sarah; Danaher, Jaclyn; Paolini, Antonio G. Source Type: research
Parent Praise to 1‐ to 3‐Year‐Olds Predicts Children's Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later
In laboratory studies, praising children's effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks—they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children's inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed‐ability frameworks. Does the praise parents spontaneously give children at home show the same effects? Although parents' early praise of inherent characteristics was not associated with children's later fixed‐ability frameworks, parents' praise of children's effort at 14–38 months (N = 53) did pred...
Source: Child Development - February 11, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Elizabeth A. Gunderson, Sarah J. Gripshover, Carissa Romero, Carol S. Dweck, Susan Goldin‐Meadow, Susan C. Levine Tags: Empirical Article Source Type: research
Local Redundancy Governs Infants' Spontaneous Orienting to Visual‐Temporal Sequences
Two experiments demonstrate that 5‐month‐olds are sensitive to local redundancy in visual‐temporal sequences. In Experiment 1, 20 infants saw 2 separate sequences of looming colored shapes that possessed the same elements but contrasting transitional probabilities. One sequence was random whereas the other was based on bigrams. Without any prior exposure, infants looked longer at the random sequence. In Experiment 2, 17 infants looked equally long at bigram‐ and trigram‐based sequences. However, an analysis of local redundancy revealed that in both experiments disengagement from the sequences was governed by loca...
Source: Child Development - February 22, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Caspar Addyman, Denis Mareschal Tags: Empirical Report Source Type: research
A systematic review of interventions to promote social support and parenting skills in parents with an intellectual disability
Abstract The family support needs of parents with an intellectual disability (ID) are relatively unknown. This paper reviewed two types of intervention for parents with ID: those designed to strengthen social relationships and those teaching parenting skills. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a limited number of evaluative studies were found. The evidence for interventions aimed at strengthening social relationships was inconclusive; although positive changes were observed, there were limitations in study design which restricted the generalizability of the results. The evidence for parental s...
Source: Child: Care, Health and Development - January 29, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: S. Wilson, K. McKenzie, E. Quayle, G. Murray Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
The impact of complementary and alternative medicine on hip development in children with cerebral palsy
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches on long‐term surgical requirements, and clinical and radiographic outcomes for children with cerebral palsy and hip displacement. MethodTwenty‐three children with cerebral palsy and early hip displacement who were offered preventive hip surgery and whose parents declined in favour of CAM approaches were followed (13 males, 10 females; mean age 13y 9mo [SD 3y 1mo]; mean length of follow‐up 10y 2mo [SD 2y 11mo]; 17 with spastic quadriplegia, two with spastic triplegia, and four with spastic diplegia; three with gross moto...
Source: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology - February 26, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Kate Willoughby, Kim Jachno, Soon Ghee Ang, Pam Thomason, H Kerr Graham Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
On the Nature and Development of Metacognition
(Source: Infant and Child Development)
Source: Infant and Child Development - February 18, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: R Peter Hobson Tags: Commentary Source Type: research