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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 5.
CREB, NF-κB, and NADPH oxidase coordinately upregulate indoxyl sulfate-induced angiotensinogen expression in proximal tubular cells.
Abstract In chronic kidney disease (CKD), indoxyl sulfate, a uremic toxin, accumulates in serum, and the expression of angiotensinogen (AGT) is upregulated in renal proximal tubular cells. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between indoxyl sulfate and the upregulation of AGT expression in proximal tubular cells. Indoxyl sulfate induced expression of AGT in rat renal cortex and in cultured human proximal tubular cells (HK-2). In proximal tubular cells, indoxyl sulfate induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) on Ser-133, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to C...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Shimizu H, Saito S, Higashiyama Y, Nishijima F, Niwa T Tags: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol Source Type: research
Parkinson's disease, insulin resistance and novel agents of neuroprotection
Multiple avenues of research including epidemiology, molecular genetics and cell biology have identified links between Parkinson's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Several recent discoveries have highlighted common cellular pathways that potentially relate neurodegenerative processes with abnormal mitochondrial function and abnormal glucose metabolism. This includes converging evidence identifying that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α, a key regulator of enzymes involved in mitochondrial respiration and insulin resistance, is potentially pivotal in the pathogenesis of neurodegener...
Source: Brain - February 13, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Aviles-Olmos, I., Limousin, P., Lees, A., Foltynie, T. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Human trophectoderm cells are not yet committed
STUDY QUESTION Are human trophectoderm (TE) cells committed or still able to develop into inner cell mass (ICM) cells? SUMMARY ANSWER Human full blastocyst TE cells still have the capacity to develop into ICM cells expressing the pluripotency marker NANOG, thus they are not yet committed. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Human Day 5 full blastocyst TE cells express the pluripotency markers POU5F1, SOX2 and SALL4 as well as the TE markers HLA-G and KRT18 but not yet CDX2, therefore their developmental direction may not yet be definite. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The potency of human blastocyst TE cells was investigated by determi...
Source: Human Reproduction - February 13, 2013 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: De Paepe, C., Cauffman, G., Verloes, A., Sterckx, J., Devroey, P., Tournaye, H., Liebaers, I., Van de Velde, H. Tags: Reproductive biology Source Type: research
Prediction of outcome in patients with low‐grade squamous intraepithelial lesions by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of human papillomavirus, TERC, and MYC
CONCLUSIONSThe detection of HPV by FISH analysis is feasible in liquid‐based cytology and is significantly correlated with HPV analysis by PCR. The analysis of TERC gene copy number may be useful for risk stratification in patients with LSIL. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
Source: Cancer Cytopathology - February 13, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Ellen C. Obermann, Spasenija Savic Prince, Audrey Barascud, Bruno Grilli, Michelle Herzog, Daniela Kaup, Gieri Cathomas, Brigitte Frey Tirri, Inti Zlobec, Edward Wight, Lukas Bubendorf Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Preparation of DNA from cytological material
CONCLUSIONSReliable clinical genotyping can be performed using all tested methods. However, in the cell line experiments, spray‐ or ethanol‐fixed, Papanicolaou‐stained slides provided the best results in terms of yield and fragment length. In LBC, the DNA recovery efficiency of the preserving medium may differ considerably, which should be taken into consideration when introducing LBC. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
Source: Cancer Cytopathology - February 13, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Annika Dejmek, Nooreldin Zendehrokh, Malgorzata Tomaszewska, Anders Edsjö Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Cytomorphologic and immunophenotypical features of acinar cell neoplasms of the pancreas
CONCLUSIONSAcinar cell carcinoma has a distinctive cytological appearance but is frequently misdiagnosed on cytology. Immunocytochemistry is useful for identifying acinar differentiation. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
Source: Cancer Cytopathology - February 13, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Carlie S. Sigel, David S. Klimstra Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Detection of EGFR mutations and EML4‐ALK rearrangements in lung adenocarcinomas using archived cytological slides
CONCLUSIONSArchived cytological slides appear to be well suited both for EGFR and ALK analysis. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013; © 2013 American Cancer Society.
Source: Cancer Cytopathology - February 13, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Natalia V. Mitiushkina, Aglaya G. Iyevleva, Artiom N. Poltoratskiy, Alexandr O. Ivantsov, Alexandr V. Togo, Igor S. Polyakov, Sergey V. Orlov, Dmitry E. Matsko, Viktor I. Novik, Evgeny N. Imyanitov Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Trends in Gastrectomy and ADH1B and ALDH2 Genotypes in Japanese Alcoholic Men and Their Gene-gastrectomy, Gene-gene and Gene-age Interactions for Risk of Alcoholism
Conclusions: The high frequency of history of gastrectomy suggested that gastrectomy is still a risk factor for alcoholism, although the percentage decreased during the period. The alcoholism-susceptibility genotype ADH1B*1/*1 was less frequent in the gastrectomy group, suggesting a competitive gene–gastrectomy interaction for alcoholism. A gene–gene interaction and gene–age interactions regarding the ADH1B genotype were observed.
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 13, 2013 Category: Addiction Authors: Yokoyama, A., Yokoyama, T., Matsui, T., Mizukami, T., Kimura, M., Matsushita, S., Higuchi, S., Maruyama, K. Tags: GENETICS AND CELL BIOLOGY Source Type: research
Direct Central Nervous System Effect of Alcohol Alters Synthesis and Degradation of Skeletal Muscle Protein
Conclusion: Selective elevation of alcohol within the CNS is capable of decreasing protein synthesis and increasing protein degradation in muscle in the absence of alcohol in the general circulation, thus revealing a previously unrecognized central neural mechanism, which may account for part of the inhibitory effect of ingested alcohol on muscle protein homeostasis.
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 13, 2013 Category: Addiction Authors: Pruznak, A. M., Nystrom, J., Lang, C. H. Tags: GENETICS AND CELL BIOLOGY Source Type: research
Cardiovascular Responses and Differential Changes in Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Following Repeated Episodes of Binge Drinking
Conclusion: Repeated episodes of binge drinking result in progressive and transient increases in BP, no change in myocardial structure and differential regulation of MAPK activation.
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 13, 2013 Category: Addiction Authors: Gu, L., Fink, A. M., Chowdhury, S. A. K., Geenen, D. L., Piano, M. R. Tags: GENETICS AND CELL BIOLOGY Source Type: research
Association Between Promoter Polymorphisms of the GRP78 Gene and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in a Chinese Han Population
DNA and Cell Biology , Vol. 0, No. 0.
Source: DNA and Cell Biology - February 12, 2013 Category: Cytology Tags: article Source Type: research
Dynamics of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine during germ cell reprogramming.
Abstract Previous studies have revealed that mouse primordial germ cells (PGCs) undergo genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming to reset the epigenome for totipotency. However, the precise 5-methylcytosine (5mC) dynamics and its relationship with the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are not clear. Here we analyzed the dynamics of 5mC and 5hmC during PGC reprograming and germ cell development. Unexpectedly, we found a specific period (E8.5-9.5) during which both 5mC and 5hmC levels are low. Subsequently, 5hmC levels increase reaching its peak at E11.5 and gradually decrease until E13.5 likely by replic...
Source: Cell Research - February 12, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Yamaguchi S, Hong K, Liu R, Inoue A, Shen L, Zhang K, Zhang Y Tags: Cell Res Source Type: research
Love and death: microglia, NLRP3 and the Alzheimer's brain.
Abstract Microglia were previously attributed to be vital brain guardians for neuronal survival and synaptic pruning during development as well as for the brain's fight against environmental pathogens. A new report in Nature by the Heneka, Latz and Golenbock groups, however, sheds new light on these distinct myeloid cells by revealing their deadly nature for mature neurons during neurodegeneration. PMID: 23399597 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cell Research - February 12, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Goldmann T, Tay TL, Prinz M Tags: Cell Res Source Type: research
A role for the RNA-binding protein MOS2 in microRNA maturation in Arabidopsis.
Abstract microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. In Arabidopsis, mature miRNAs are processed from primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) by nuclear HYL1/SE/DCL1 complexes that form Dicing bodies (D-bodies). Here we report that an RNA-binding protein MOS2 binds to pri-miRNAs and is involved in efficient processing of pri-miRNAs. MOS2 does not interact with HYL1, SE, and DCL1 and is not localized in D-bodies. Interestingly, in the absence of MOS2, the recruitment of pri-miRNAs by HYL1 is greatly reduced and the localization of HYL1 in D-bodies is compromised. These data suggest t...
Source: Cell Research - February 12, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Wu X, Shi Y, Li J, Xu L, Fang Y, Li X, Qi Y Tags: Cell Res Source Type: research
Self-assembled titanium phosphonate nanomaterial having a mesoscopic void space and its optoelectronic application.
Abstract Here we report the synthesis of a new crystalline titanium phosphonate material (HTiP-7) having a self-assembled nanostructure and a mesoscopic void space without the aid of any surfactant or templating agent. The material has been synthesized hydrothermally through the reaction between benzene-1,3,5-triphosphonic acid (BTPA) and titanium(iv) isopropoxide at neutral pH at 453 K for 24 h. This hybrid phosphonate material has been thoroughly characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N(2) sorption, HR TEM, FE SEM, TG-DTA, FT IR and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopic studies. Two very well-known softwar...
Source: Cell Research - February 12, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Pramanik M, Patra AK, Bhaumik A Tags: Dalton Trans Source Type: research
Anal squamous intraepithelial lesions are frequent among young HIV‐infected men who have sex with men followed at the Spanish AIDS Research Network Cohort (CoRIS‐HPV)
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the baseline prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and associated risk factors in HIV‐infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in a Spanish ongoing multicenter cohort. CoRIS‐HPV started in 2007, nested in the Spanish AIDS Research Network Cohort (CoRIS). Anal liquid cytology testing was performed. High risk (HR) HPV infection was determined and positive samples were genotyped. We analyzed all subjects up to April 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. 551 subjects with baseline anal liquid cytologies were analyzed; 37.0% negati...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - February 12, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Cristina González, Montserrat Torres, Amparo Benito, Jorge del Romero, Carmen Rodríguez, María Fontillón, Mónica Trastoy, Pompeyo Viciana, Julia del Amo, Marta Ortiz, Beatriz Hernández‐Novoa, Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Irradiance, but not fluence, plays a crucial role in UVB-induced immature pigment cell development: New insights for efficient UVB phototherapy.
Abstract Light exposure modulates development of living organisms. In the field of medicine, light has frequently been used for regenerative purposes. Excimer light (308nm) has demonstrated superior efficacy in treating vitiligo, a condition requiring development of melanoblasts and a model for studying nerve cell regeneration, as compared to narrow-band UVB (NBUVB; 311nm). Using mouse-derived melanoblast cells to examine the pro-differentiation effects of these two light sources, we demonstrated that at equivalent fluence, excimer light induces melanoblast differentiation while NBUVB failed to so. Mechanistically,...
Source: Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research - February 12, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Lan CC, Yu HS, Lu JH, Wu CS, Lai HC Tags: Pigment Cell Melanoma Res Source Type: research
Hyaluronan synthesis in cultured tobacco cells (BY‐2) expressing a chlorovirus enzyme: Cytological studies
In this study, we describe the novel production of HA in cultured tobacco cells (BY‐2). The tobacco cells were successfully transformed with the chloroviral hyaluronan synthase (cv‐has) gene with or without a vacuolar targeting signal. The results showed that the sporamin vacuolar targeting signal (vSPO) operated well in BY‐2 cells, targeting the cvHAS protein to the vacuolar membrane where HA was synthesized and transported into the storage vacuole.
Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering - February 12, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Numfon Rakkhumkaew, Shigeo Shibatani, Takeru Kawasaki, Makoto Fujie, Takashi Yamada Tags: Article Source Type: research
Growth factor regulation of Hippo pathway [Cell Biology]
The Hippo signaling pathway inhibits cell growth and regulates organ size through a kinase cascade that leads to the phosphorylation and nuclear exclusion of the growth-promoting transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP)/Yorkie. It mediates contact inhibition of cell growth downstream of cadherin adhesion molecules and other cell surface proteins. Contact inhibition...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 12, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Fan, R., Kim, N.-G., Gumbiner, B. M. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
WISP2 regulates adipogenesis [Cell Biology]
Inability to recruit new adipose cells following weight gain leads to inappropriate enlargement of existing cells (hypertrophic obesity) associated with inflammation and a dysfunctional adipose tissue. We found increased expression of WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP2) and other markers of WNT activation in human abdominal s.c. adipose tissue...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 12, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Hammarstedt, A., Hed&jnodot;azifar, S., Jenndahl, L., Gogg, S., Grunberg, J., Gustafson, B., Klimcakova, E., Stich, V., Langin, D., Laakso, M., Smith, U. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
FTO and amino acid sensing [Cell Biology]
SNPs in the first intron of FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) are strongly associated with human obesity. While it is not yet formally established that this effect is mediated through the actions of the FTO protein itself, loss of function mutations in FTO or its murine homologue Fto result...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 12, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Gulati, P., Cheung, M. K., Antrobus, R., Church, C. D., Harding, H. P., Tung, Y.–C. L., Rimmington, D., Ma, M., Ron, D., Lehner, P. J., Ashcroft, F. M., Cox, R. D., Coll, A. P., O'Rahilly, S., Yeo, G. S. H. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Diagnosis and management of differentiated thyroid cancer using molecular biology
Conclusions1) 20% to 30% of cytologically classified Follicular Neoplasms and Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance collectively are malignant on final pathology. Approximately 70% to 80% of thyroid lobectomies performed solely for diagnostic purposes are benign. Molecular alteration testing may reduce the number of unnecessary thyroid procedures, 2) may reduce the number of completion thyroidectomies, and 3) may lead to more individualized operative and postoperative management. Molecular testing for BRAF, RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPARγ for follicular lesion of undetermined significance and follicular neoplasm imp...
Source: The Laryngoscope - February 12, 2013 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Robert L. Witt, Robert L. Ferris, Edmund A. Pribitkin, Steven I. Sherman, David L. Steward, Yuri E. Nikiforov Tags: Thyroid/Parathyroid Source Type: research
Novel signatures of cancer‐associated fibroblasts
Increasing evidence indicates the importance of the tumor microenvironment, in particular cancer‐associated fibroblasts, in cancer development and progression. In our study, we developed a novel, visually based method to identify new immunohistochemical signatures of these fibroblasts. The method employed a protein list based on 759 protein products of genes identified by RNA profiling from our previous study, comparing fibroblasts with differential growth‐modulating effect on human cancers cells, and their first neighbors in the human protein interactome. These 2,654 proteins were analyzed in the Human Protein Atlas o...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - February 12, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Benedek Bozóky, Andrii Savchenko, Péter Csermely, Tamás Korcsmáros, Zoltán Dúl, Fredrik Pontén, László Székely, George Klein Tags: Cancer Cell Biology Source Type: research
RAS promotes tumorigenesis through genomic instability induced by imbalanced expression of Aurora‐A and BRCA2 in midbody during cytokinesis
The oncogene RAS is known to induce genomic instability, leading to cancer development; the underlying mechanism, however, remains poorly understood. To better understand how RAS functions, we measured the activity of the functionally related genes Aurora‐A and BRCA2 in ovarian cancer cell lines and tumor samples containing RAS mutations. We found that Aurora‐A and BRCA2 inversely controlled RAS‐associated genomic instability and ovarian tumorigenesis through regulation of cytokinesis and polyploidization. Overexpression of mutated RAS ablated BRCA2 expression but induced Aurora‐A accumulation at the midbody, leadi...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - February 12, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Gong Yang, Imelda Mercado‐Uribe, Asha S. Multani, Subrata Sen, Ie‐Ming Shih, Kwong‐Kwok Wong, David M. Gershenson, Jinsong Liu Tags: Cancer Cell Biology Source Type: research
Is the performance of urinary cytology as high as reported historically? A contemporary analysis in the detection and surveillance of bladder cancer.
CONCLUSION: Our institution's experience with regard to specificity of urine cytology is lower than reported historically. Whether this is a consequence of heterogeneous study designs and parameters is open to debate. As the anticipatory positive rate was high, close surveillance remains recommended in patients with positive urine cytology and negative workup. Other institutions are encouraged to evaluate whether there remains a significant advantage for urine cytology over other urinary marker assays within their own clinical setting. PMID: 23410943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Urologic Oncology - February 11, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Yafi FA, Brimo F, Auger M, Aprikian A, Tanguay S, Kassouf W Tags: Urol Oncol Source Type: research
Increased thymic development of regulatory T cells in NOD mice is functionally dissociated from type I diabetes-susceptibility.
In this report we identify a locus of < 7 Mbp that quantitatively controls Treg-cell development in the thymus of the NOD mouse. This 'Trd1' region is located centromeric to the H2 complex on chromosome 17 and does not include genes encoding classical MHC molecules. The genomic region identified here contains the Idd16 diabetes susceptibility locus and the use of congenic mouse strains allowed us to investigate the potential link between quantitatively altered thymic Treg cells and diabetes susceptibility. Hybrid mice present similar levels of thymic Treg cells as B6 animals but they developed diabetes with the same kin...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - February 11, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tellier J, Andrianjaka A, Vicente R, Thiault N, Enault G, Garchon HJ, van Meerwijk JP, Romagnoli P Tags: Eur J Immunol Source Type: research
Microscopy of the umbilical cord of rock cavies-Kerodon rupestris Wied, 1820 (Rodenta, Caviidae).
Abstract The rock cavies (Kerodon rupestris) are rodents belonging to family Caviidae, with habitat restricted to northeastern Brazil. Current studies have shown that blood cord has stem and hematopoietic cells both with a high regenerative potential, microscopic studies about the description in rodents and other mammals are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the structural components of the umbilical cord of rock cavies. Rock cavies embryos at different stages of pregnancy were used, three in the first third, five in middle third, and six in the final third of gestation. They were obtained at the Centre...
Source: Cell Research - February 11, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Rodrigues MN, De Oliveira GB, De Paula VV, Rodrigues Silva A, De Assis Neto AC, Miglino MA, De Oliveira MF Tags: Microsc Res Tech Source Type: research
Embryonic development of the alimentary canal of the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusa Cheng (Mecoptera: Panorpidae).
Abstract The embryonic origin of the alimentary canal, especially the midgut, is a controversial problem in insects, and it has not been satisfactorily resolved to date. The organogenesis of the digestive system in the embryonic development was observed in the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusa Cheng using light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. The embryonic development lasts about 150-160 h at 24°C. The stomodaeum is formed from an invagination in the medioposterior portion of the protocephalon mid-ventrally posterior to the labral segment at 76 h after oviposition. The proctodaeum arises as an invaginati...
Source: Cell Research - February 11, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Yue C, Hua B Tags: Microsc Res Tech Source Type: research
A Conversation across Generations: Soma-Germ Cell Crosstalk in Plants.
Abstract Plants undergo alternation of generation in which reproductive cells develop in the plant body ("sporophytic generation") and then differentiate into a multicellular gamete-forming "gametophytic generation." Different populations of helper cells assist in this transgenerational journey, with somatic tissues supporting early development and single nurse cells supporting gametogenesis. New data reveal a two-way relationship between early reproductive cells and their helpers involving complex epigenetic and signaling networks determining cell number and fate. Later, the egg cell plays a central role in specif...
Source: Developmental Cell - February 11, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Feng X, Zilberman D, Dickinson H Tags: Dev Cell Source Type: research
Adhesion disengagement uncouples intrinsic and extrinsic forces to drive cytokinesis in epithelial tissues.
Abstract Cytokinesis entails cell invagination by a contractile actomyosin ring. In epithelia, E-cadherin-mediated adhesion connects the cortices of contacting cells; thus, it is unclear how invagination occurs, how the new junction forms, and how tissue integrity is preserved. Investigations in Drosophila embryos first show that apicobasal cleavage is polarized: invagination is faster from the basal than from the apical side. Ring contraction but not its polarized constriction is controlled by septin filaments and Anillin. Polarized cleavage is due instead to mechanical anchorage of the ring to E-cadherin complexe...
Source: Developmental Cell - February 11, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Guillot C, Lecuit T Tags: Dev Cell Source Type: research
Septins Regulate the Contractility of the Actomyosin Ring to Enable Adherens Junction Remodeling during Cytokinesis of Epithelial Cells.
We report that in Drosophila, septins are specifically required for planar (but not orthogonal) cytokinesis. During planar division, cytokinetic furrowing initiates basally, resulting in a contractile ring displaced toward the adherens junction (AJ). The formation of new AJ between daughter cells requires the disengagement of E-Cadherin complexes between mitotic and neighboring cells at the cleavage furrow, followed by the assembly of E-Cadherin complexes on the daughter-daughter interface. The strength of adhesion with neighbors directly impacts both the kinetics of AJ disengagement and the length of the new AJ. Loss of ...
Source: Developmental Cell - February 11, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Founounou N, Loyer N, Le Borgne R Tags: Dev Cell Source Type: research
Interplay between the Dividing Cell and Its Neighbors Regulates Adherens Junction Formation during Cytokinesis in Epithelial Tissue.
Abstract How adherens junctions (AJs) are formed upon cell division is largely unexplored. Here, we found that AJ formation is coordinated with cytokinesis and relies on an interplay between the dividing cell and its neighbors. During contraction of the cytokinetic ring, the neighboring cells locally accumulate Myosin II and produce the cortical tension necessary to set the initial geometry of the daughter cell interface. However, the neighboring cell membranes impede AJ formation. Upon midbody formation and concomitantly to neighboring cell withdrawal, Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization oriented by the midbody ...
Source: Developmental Cell - February 11, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Herszterg S, Leibfried A, Bosveld F, Martin C, Bellaiche Y Tags: Dev Cell Source Type: research
MicroRNA-92a Upholds Bmp Signaling by Targeting noggin3 during Pharyngeal Cartilage Formation.
In this study, we report that mir92a is highly enriched in the chondrogenic progenitors and that its inactivation results in loss of pharyngeal cartilage elements due to poor proliferation, impaired differentiation, and unsustainable survival of chondrogenic progenitors. The Bmp antagonist gene noggin3 (nog3) is a direct target of mir92a. Inactivation of mir92a stabilizes nog3 mRNA, leading to repression of Bmp signaling and abnormal behaviors of chondrogenic progenitors. In contrast, ectopic expression of mir92a duplex decreases nog3 mRNA levels and, as a result, derepresses Bmp signaling and promotes cell apoptosis. Ther...
Source: Developmental Cell - February 11, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Ning G, Liu X, Dai M, Meng A, Wang Q Tags: Dev Cell Source Type: research
Transposable elements as genetic regulatory substrates in early development.
Abstract The abundance and ancient origins of transposable elements (TEs) in eukaryotic genomes has spawned research into the potential symbiotic relationship between these elements and their hosts. In this review, we introduce the diversity of TEs, discuss how distinct classes are uniquely regulated in development, and describe how they appear to have been coopted for the purposes of gene regulation and the orchestration of a number of processes during early embryonic development. Although young, active TEs play an important role in somatic tissues and evolution, we focus mostly on the contributions of the older, ...
Source: Trends in Cell Biology - February 11, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Gifford WD, Pfaff SL, Macfarlan TS Tags: Trends Cell Biol Source Type: research
Cross-talk between EGFR and T-cadherin: EGFR activation promotes T-cadherin localization to intercellular contacts.
Abstract Reciprocal cross-talk between receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and classical cadherins (e.g. EGFR/E-cadherin, VEGFR/VE-cadherin) has gained appreciation as a combinatorial molecular mechanism enabling diversification of the signalling environment and according differential cellular responses. Atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored T-cadherin (T-cad) was recently demonstrated to function as a negative auxiliary regulator of EGFR pathway activation in A431 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. Here we investigate the reciprocal impact of EGFR activation on T-cad. In resting A431 T-cad was distri...
Source: Cellular Signalling - February 11, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Kyriakakis E, Maslova K, Frachet A, Ferri N, Contini A, Pfaff D, Erne P, Resink TJ, Philippova M Tags: Cell Signal Source Type: research
Increased thymic development of regulatory T cells in NOD mice is functionally dissociated from type I diabetes‐susceptibility
In this report we identify a locus of < 7 Mbp that quantitatively controls Treg‐cell development in the thymus of the NOD mouse. This ‘Trd1’ region is located centromeric to the H2 complex on chromosome 17 and does not include genes encoding classical MHC molecules. The genomic region identified here contains the Idd16 diabetes susceptibility locus and the use of congenic mouse strains allowed us to investigate the potential link between quantitatively altered thymic Treg cells and diabetes susceptibility. Hybrid mice present similar levels of thymic Treg cells as B6 animals but they developed diabetes with the sa...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - February 11, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Julie Tellier, Andry Andrianjaka, Rita Vicente, Nicolas Thiault, Geneviève Enault, Henri‐Jean Garchon, Joost P. M. Meerwijk, Paola Romagnoli Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research
The value of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 pathway in diagnosing indeterminate pleural effusion
CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that the VEGFR-1/MMP-9 pathway is significantly increased in malignant—rather than in benign—pleural effusions; thus, the measurement of their levels in the pleural effusion could be useful, throughout the diagnostic work-up, to select which cases would warrant a pleural biopsy.
Source: Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery - February 11, 2013 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Fiorelli, A., Morgillo, F., Fasano, M., Vicidomini, G., Di Crescenzo, V. G., Di Domenico, M., Accardo, M., Santini, M. Tags: Thoracic Source Type: research
Cytopathology(Sheaff et al.)
An IntroductionCytopathology: An Introduction is a succinct book which guides the trainee through the hurdles of early cytology practice and can also be used throughout the career as an aide memoire by the more experienced. With numerous illustrations to enthuse the reader and make cytological practice a more enjoyable and educational experience, Cytopathology: An Introduction also highlights points of ...
Source: Springer Medicine titles - February 10, 2013 Category: Databases & Libraries Tags: Pathology Source Type: news
Butyric acid retention in gingival tissue induces oxidative stress in jugular blood mitochondria.
Abstract Butyric acid (BA) is a major extracellular metabolite produced by anaerobic periodontopathic bacteria and is commonly deposited in the gingival tissue. BA induces mitochondrial oxidative stress in vitro; however, its effects in vivo were never elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of butyric acid retention in the gingival tissues on oxidative stress induction in the jugular blood mitochondria. We established that BA injected in the rat gingival tissue has prolonged retention in gingival tissues. Blood taken at 0, 60, and 180 min after BA injection was used for further analysis. We isolated blood mit...
Source: Cell Stress and Chaperones - February 10, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Cueno ME, Imai K, Matsukawa N, Tsukahara T, Kurita-Ochiai T, Ochiai K Tags: Cell Stress Chaperones Source Type: research
Paneth cells: maestros of the small intestinal crypts.
Abstract Paneth cells are highly specialized epithelial cells of the small intestine, where they coordinate many physiological functions. First identified more than a century ago on the basis of their readily discernible secretory granules by routine histology, these cells are located at the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn, tiny invaginations that line the mucosal surface all along the small intestine. Investigations over the past several decades determined that these cells synthesize and secrete substantial quantities of antimicrobial peptides and proteins. More recent studies have determined that these antimicr...
Source: Annual Review of Physiology - February 10, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Clevers HC, Bevins CL Tags: Annu Rev Physiol Source Type: research
In MMTV-Her-2/neu transgenic mammary tumors the absence of caveolin-1(-/-) alters PTEN and NHERF1 but not β-catenin expression.
Abstract In a recent study, we have shown that in mammary tumors from mice lacking the Cav-1 gene, there are alterations in specific heat shock proteins as well as in tumor development. With this in mind, we have now investigated other proteins in the same mammary mouse tumor model (Her-2/neu expressing mammary tumors from Cav-1 wild type and Cav-1 null mice), to further comprehend the complex tumor-stroma mechanisms involved in regulating stress responses during tumor development. In this tumor model the cancer cells always lacked of Cav-1, so the KO influenced the Cav-1 in the stroma. By immunohistochemistry, we ...
Source: Cell Stress and Chaperones - February 9, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Cuello-Carrión FD, Cayado-Gutiérrez N, Natoli AL, Restall C, Anderson RL, Nadin S, Alvarez-Olmedo D, Castro GN, Gago FE, Fanelli MA, Ciocca DR Tags: Cell Stress Chaperones Source Type: research
Macrophage Recognition of Cells with Elevated Calcium is Mediated by Carbohydrate Chains of CD43.
Abstract Macrophages remove deteriorating cells (those undergoing apoptosis and oxidation) via poly-N-acetyllactosaminyl chains on CD43 caps, a major cell-surface glycoprotein. Unusually high intracellular calcium levels are also deteriorating for cells and tissue. Here we artificially elevated calcium levels in cells and examined the mechanism by which this elevation was resolved by macrophages. Results showed that treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 and ionomycin induces capping of CD43 on Jurkat cells, which are subsequently recognized and phagocytosed by macrophages, indicating that macrophages regard c...
Source: Cell Structure and Function - February 9, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Miki Y, Oguri E, Hirano K, Beppu M Tags: Cell Struct Funct Source Type: research
ZnT7 can Protect MC3T3-E1 Cells from Oxidative Stress-induced Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways.
This study was aimed to investigate the role of zinc transporters in cell survival, particularly in MC3T3-E1 cells, during oxidative stress,and the molecular mechanism involved. Our study found that hydrogen peroxide can induce zinc-overloaded in the cells. While high concentration of zinc play a important role in inducing apoptosis of the MC3T3-E1 cells .We demonstrated that ZnT7 can protect MC3T3-E1 cells and reduce the aggregation of intracellular free zinc ions as well as inhibit apoptosis induced by H(2)O(2). Moreover, ZnT7 overexpression enhanced the anti-apoptotic effects. Interestingly, suppression of ZnT7 by siRNA...
Source: Cellular Signalling - February 9, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Liang D, Xiang L, Yang M, Zhang X, Guo B, Chen Y, Yang L, Cao J Tags: Cell Signal Source Type: research
Identification of the general transcription factor Yin Yang 1 as a novel and specific binding partner for S6 Kinase 2.
In this study, we report for the first time, the identification of the general transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) as a novel and specific binding partner of S6K2, but not S6K1. The interaction between YY1 and S6K2 was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation of transiently overexpressed and endogenous proteins in a number of cell lines, including HEK293, MCF7 and U937. Furthermore, direct association between S6K2 and YY1 was demonstrated by GST pull-down assay using recombinant proteins. A panel of deletion mutants was used to show that the C-terminal regulatory region of S6K2 mediates the interaction with YY1. Interestin...
Source: Cellular Signalling - February 9, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Ismail HH, Myronova O, Tsuchiya Y, Niewiarowski A, Tsaneva I, Gout I Tags: Cell Signal Source Type: research
Role of NMDA receptors in adult neurogenesis: an ontogenetic (re)view on activity-dependent development.
Abstract It is now widely accepted that neurogenesis continues throughout life. Accumulating evidence suggests that neurotransmitters are essential signaling molecules that control the different steps of neurogenesis. Nevertheless, we are only beginning to understand the precise role of neurotransmitter receptors and in particular excitatory glutamatergic transmission in the differentiation of adult-born neurons. Recent technical advances allow single-cell gene deletion to study cell-autonomous effects during the maturation of adult-born neurons. Single-cell gene deletion overcomes some of the difficulties in inte...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 9, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Platel JC, Kelsch W Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
Developmental mechanisms directing early anterior forebrain specification in vertebrates.
Abstract Research from the last 15 years has provided a working model for how the anterior forebrain is induced and specified during the early stages of embryogenesis. This model relies on three basic processes: (1) induction of the neural plate from naive ectoderm requires the inhibition of BMP/TGFβ signaling; (2) induced neural tissue initially acquires an anterior identity (i.e., anterior forebrain); (3) maintenance and expansion of the anterior forebrain depends on the antagonism of posteriorizing signals that would otherwise transform this tissue into posterior neural fates. In this review, we present a hist...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS - February 9, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Andoniadou CL, Martinez-Barbera JP Tags: Cell Mol Life Sci Source Type: research
Novel E6 and E7 oncogenes variants of Human Papillomavirus Type 31 in Brazilian Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology.
We describe new HPV-31 variants in Brazil, contributing to better understand the genomic diversity of these viruses. PMID: 23403356 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - February 9, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chagas BS, de Aragão Batista MV, Crovella S, Gurgel AP, Neto JC, Serra IG, do Amaral CM, Balbino VQ, Muniz MT, de Freitas AC Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
The abrogation of the HOXB7/PBX2 complex induces apoptosis in melanoma through the miR‐221&222‐c‐FOS pathway
Abstract Cutaneous melanoma is the fastest increasing cancer worldwide. Although several molecular abnormalities have been associated with melanoma progression, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown and few targeted therapies are under evaluation. Here we show that the HOXB7/PBX2 dimer acts as a positive transcriptional regulator of the oncogenic microRNA‐221 and ‐222. In addition, demonstrating c‐FOS as a direct target of miR‐221&222, we identify a HOXB7/PBX2→miR‐221&222 →c‐FOS regulatory link, whereby the abrogation of functional HOXB7/PBX2 dimers leads to reduced miR‐221&222 t...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - February 8, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: M. Cristina Errico, Federica Felicetti, Lisabianca Bottero, Gianfranco Mattia, Alessandra Boe, Nadia Felli, Marina Petrini, Maria Bellenghi, Hardev S. Pandha, Marco Calvaruso, Claudio Tripodo, Mario P. Colombo, Richard Morgan, Alessandra Carè Tags: Cancer Cell Biology Source Type: research
How Chromosomes Keep Their Loose Ends Loose Has Implications For Cancer And The Aging Process
We take it for granted that our chromosomes won't stick together, yet this kind of cellular disaster would happen constantly were it not for a protein called TRF2. Now, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered key details of how TRF2 performs this crucial chromosome-protecting function. The finding represents a significant advance in cell biology and also has implications for our understanding of cancer and the aging process...
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - February 8, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Cancer / Oncology Source Type: news
Oncogenic cooperation between PI3K/Akt signaling and transcription factor Runx2 promotes the invasive properties of metastatic breast cancer cells
Abstract The serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB promotes cancer cell growth and invasion through several downstream targets. Identification of novel substrates may provide new avenues for therapeutic intervention. Our study shows that Akt phosphorylates the cancer related transcription factor Runx2 resulting in stimulated DNA binding of the purified recombinant protein in vitro. Pharmacological inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway in breast cancer cells reduces DNA binding activity of Runx2 with concomitant reduction in the expression of metastasis related Runx2 target genes. Akt phosphorylates Runx2 at three critical residues ...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - February 8, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Sandhya Pande, Gillian Browne, Srivatsan Padmanabhan, Sayyed K. Zaidi, Jane B. Lian, Andre J van Wijnen, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research