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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.

Checking advertising claims
Advertising in dental journals may inform readers about dental products being marketed directly to the public, represent dentists promoting their services to the public, or reflect commercial companies advertising to dental professionals. Journals whose primary audience is general dentists have a high volume of advertisements. Focusing specifically on those that offer products to general practitioners, the question arises as to whether the claims made for these products are actually true. The American Dental Association (ADA) states that advertisements can cite references from dental and other scientific literature if they...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Advertising Evidence Source Type: research

When the “bad guys” outweigh the “good”
Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. Evidence shows an imbalance between “good” and “bad” gut bacteria found in the mouth may promote colon cancer. Two studies identify Fusobacteria, and specifically F nucleatum, as a tumor trigger. One study found Fusobacteria in benign tumors that can become cancerous. In a mouse model of human colorectal cancer, these bacteria summoned myeloid cells to penetrate tumors and trigger inflammation that can lead to cancer. Wendy Garrett, senior author from the Harvard School of Public Health and the Dana-Barber Cancer Institute, sai...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Extracts Source Type: research

Losing our focus
Kodak was a household product name, but the company took their corporate eyes off the ball and was eventually forced to file for bankruptcy protection. Whether dentistry has followed a similar path or not is being debated, as is where this profession is headed next. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Future of Dentistry Source Type: research

Costs of odontogenic infections
Some odontogenic infections not only cause extensive morbidity but death. These severe infections must be treated in a hospital setting, usually with emergency admission and prolonged stays, which cause considerable suffering and financial burden. The costs and charges associated with the management of severe odontogenic infections in a university hospital were evaluated. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Health Care Costs Source Type: research

Oral healthcare system overhaul
Dental caries is the primary oral disease found in populations globally and affects an estimated 93% to 98% of the world's people. However, the improved understanding of epidemiology, etiology, and pathogenesis of dental caries that has been achieved is not reflected in changes to the dental organization or in the development of dental professionals who can more effectively maintain and improve oral health. New dental schools in the United States and Europe, but also in other areas, retain a focus on turning out traditional dentists who are competent in high-tech rehabilitation procedures and who intend to provide care pri...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Health Care Costs Source Type: research

Personalized health care in dentistry
Personalized medicine tailors care to the patient's unique genetic, environmental, and clinical profile. The human genome sequencing accomplished in 2003 combined with breakthroughs in regenerative medicine, imaging methods, and computer applications have produced the possibility of delivering clinical care that takes advantage of new molecular tools to fit treatment more exactly to the patient's genomic and molecular characteristics. Most oral, dental, and craniofacial diseases and disorders are the result of a complex interplay between genetic, biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. With increased understandi...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Health Care Costs Source Type: research

Implants and irradiation
About 40,000 people will be newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer in the United States and will have a 5-year survival of about 57%. Surgery with or without radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy, along with reconstruction of major surgical defects are chosen to manage most cases, then missing teeth and orofacial function are restored. Dental implants (DIs) are being used increasingly to achieve prosthetic reconstruction and seem to a viable option especially when conventional removable dentures are contraindicated because of RT's adverse effects. Radiation, however, produces negative effects, including an increased ris...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Dental Implants Source Type: research

Interactions with dental drugs
An estimated one third of all persons in the United States take dietary supplements, which are products intended to supplement the diet and include vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other botanical agents. These supplements come in many forms and can cause adverse drug events with prescription drugs, dietary agents, and other supplements. With people living longer, having more chronic conditions, and taking more medications, the chances of an adverse interaction are increasing. Clinicians, including dentists, must be proactive in asking patients about supplements, since many persons do not report their use. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Dietary Supplements Source Type: research

Predictive values
To develop an effective endodontic treatment plan requires knowing the status of the pulp tissues. The sensitivity of pulpal nerves is tested using thermal and electrical tests. Ideally, these tests should be easy to use, fast, inexpensive, noninvasive, painless, reproducible, and accurate. The accuracy of a test is measured by determining its sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. These values were determined, along with accuracy and reproducibility, for thermal and electrical tests to determine pulp sensitivity. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Endodontics Source Type: research

Single-file root canal technique
The single-file root canal preparation technique is becoming increasingly popular with the availability of commercial systems using this concept. A reciprocating motion is used to achieve the single-file technique, which is easier to apply and more cost-effective than multifile approaches. The quality of the debridement process, however, is not well characterized. Two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectioning imaging techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, radiographs, and optical microscopy, have been used to assess debris accumulation. A three-dimensional (3D) analytic approach was used to evaluate the inorganic tiss...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Endodontics Source Type: research

Posterior lithium disilicate crowns
Lithium disilicate ceramics (IPS Empress 2) offer reliable material properties for crown restorations. Survival rates for these crowns have been between 95% and 100% over 5 years. Newer material (IPS e-max low translucency [LT]) is also indicated for full contour crowns and comes as press material and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) material (IPS e-max CAD). This final incarnation has allowed chair-side application and the ability to make a single-visit tooth-colored restoration. No provisional phrase is then required. A prospective clinical trial was used to assess lithium disilicate ceramic f...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Fixed Prosthodontics Source Type: research

Digital impression systems
Most computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques are done in the dental laboratory and begin with the conventional impression technique and traditional gypsum cast. Often the results in clinical practice are unsatisfactory, although standardization of work sequences can help reduce the problems. Digital impression procedures may help to improve the accuracy of dental restorations by eliminating error-prone conventional impression and gypsum model casting and achieving a high degree of standardization. The digital impression devices gather information that can be directly entered into the CAD/CAM production...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Fixed Prosthodontics Source Type: research

Principles and implementation of MID
The management of caries has evolved past the repair of cavitations to an approach known as minimum intervention dentistry (MID). Dental caries is considered a chronic multifactorial lifestyle disease in which patient compliance with professional recommendations about diet, habits, and oral self-care procedures contributes significantly. The core principles of MID and its implementation were outlined. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Minimum Intervention Dentistry Source Type: research

Dental industry influences
The focus of minimum intervention dentistry (MID) is on diagnosis and disease management that is accomplished through individualized care plans that encourage patient accountability. The greatest emphasis is placed on identifying, diagnosing, analyzing risk, and motivating patients. Patient coaching techniques, communication skills, and a dental team approach to patient care are essential to managing disease. The move to MID patient care requires a revision of the business model for dental practices and the incorporation of new skills and approaches, as well as new equipment, instruments, and materials. The dental industry...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Minimum Intervention Dentistry Source Type: research

Needlestick and infection exposures
Avoiding needlestick injuries and infection requires constant vigilance in a dental practice. Injury from needles can be avoided most effectively by not recapping and resheathing. Instead, a rigid puncture-proof container should be kept close at hand to dispose of needles, and dental staff should wear protective clothing, including goggles, mouth masks, and gloves. All health care workers who are at risk should receive training in infection control as well as appropriate vaccinations. The principal blood-borne infections () were outlined and correct measures to take were explained. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Occupational Hazards Source Type: research

Oral leukoplakia
is a common precancerous lesion of the mouth. Estimates of global prevalence are 0.5% to 3.5%, and malignant transformation rate is between 0.13% and 17.5%. The prevalence increases with age, ranging from less than 1% in men under age 30 years to 8% in men and women over age 70 years. Causes include smoking, alcohol, human papillomavirus infection, candidiasis, and lower serum vitamin A and beta-carotene levels. The clinical diagnosis, management, and outcomes for patients with oral leukoplakia were documented. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Oral Medicine Source Type: research

Ibuprofen and acetaminophen
Combining two analgesic agents with different mechanisms or sites of action has been done for many years. Pairing peripherally acting analgesics with an opioid provides greater pain relief than giving either component separately, but the opioid addition increases the adverse effects the patient may experience, restricts the use of central nervous system depressants, and increases the risk of drug misuse and abuse. Combination analgesics that contain ibuprofen and N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP) offer advantages over the use of combinations with opioids. The use of ibuprofen plus APAP (acetaminophen) after third molar extract...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Pain Management Source Type: research

Managing fearful patients
Dental fear is one of the most common fears and phobias humans exhibit. Not only do fearful patients suffer distress during dental treatment, but the dental professional also experiences greater stress levels. Often fearful dental patients are viewed as problematic, unreliable, and excessively complaining. Anxiety-management techniques are designed to reduce dental fear and make treatment more predictable for dental caregivers. Among these anxiety-management techniques are psychological methods, pharmacological support, coping strategies, and behavioral management. Few studies have investigated dentists' competence in reco...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Patient Management Source Type: research

Excessive gingival display
Even among different cultures, a core human perception seems to exist regarding what constitutes beauty. The mouth is extremely important in the hierarchy of factors that determine whether an individual will be seen as attractive. Research indicates that a person's smile can influence whether or not a person is perceived as beautiful, but also indicates that the attractiveness of a person may influence personality development and social interaction. Attractive persons are judged more positively, and unattractive persons given more negative characteristics. Leadership status and core traits such as friendliness, sincerity, ...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Periodontal Therapy Source Type: research

Over 60 means fewer hangovers
Surveys of almost 52,000 people age 18 to 94 years in Denmark have revealed that hangovers fade with age. Symptoms are much less likely to develop in people age 60 years and older than in younger people. The questions asked about the consumption of food an drink and hangovers, along with other things. Those age 60 years or older drank the most (15 drinks per week for men, 10 for women), but younger people drank heavily more often and suffered hangover symptoms more often after heavy drinking. Exhaustion, nausea, dizziness, and stomachache were all reported less commonly among older men compared to younger (age 19 to 29 yea...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Extracts Source Type: research

Adolescent bruxism
Clenching and grinding of the teeth characterize bruxism. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism can occur, with grinding and clenching more common in sleep bruxism and clenching only in awake bruxism. It is suspected that the two disorders have different etiologies and pathophysiologies and are influenced by various factors, such as alcohol and nicotine use, gender, age, educational level, depressive mood, and stress. However, causative mechanisms have not yet been conclusively identified. Although adult studies of bruxism are common, the incidence of bruxism among adolescents is not yet well investigated. A questionnaire was di...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Bruxism Source Type: research

Caries after periodontal treatment
Both periodontitis and dental caries have a multifactorial pathogenesis caused by complex interactions between environmental, etiologic, and host factors combined with genetic predisposition. Bacterial colonization of tooth surfaces plays an essential role in the development of periodontal diseases, and acid production by bacteria in the oral biofilm is a direct causative factor for the demineralization of tooth surfaces in caries development. With prolonged acidic conditions, the amount of aciduric bacteria increases. Undergoing periodontal treatment, including subgingival debridement or periodontal surgery, shifts the co...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Bruxism Source Type: research

Vitamin D
is a fat-soluble vitamin obtained through the diet or endogenous production in skin exposed to sufficient sunlight. This vitamin is important in bone health, but has recently been recognized as having an important protective role in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. The suspected mechanism of action in some of these conditions is as a modulator of the inflammatory response. Recent studies indicate vitamin D may be important in periodontal health. Data was taken from a study of aging and oral health in men to determine if recommended daily intake of vitamin D has a relationship to better periodont...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Bruxism Source Type: research

Probiotics and periodontal disease
The two general stages of periodontal disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. The differences between the two are that gingivitis is gingival inflammation with no loss of connective tissue attachment and periodontitis is gingival inflammation with loss of connective tissue attachment and resorption of coronal parts of tooth supporting alveolar bone. Plaque bacteria are essential in the development of both conditions. Efforts to improve periodontal therapies using complementary treatments are being researched, among them the use of probiotics. Probiotics are living microorganisms that provide beneficial effects for the h...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Bruxism Source Type: research

Aggressive periodontitis and orthodontic treatment
Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a noncontributory medical history, rapid attachment loss, bone destruction, and family case aggregation. In localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP), the periodontal attachment breaks down early in life, with circumpubertal onset, rapid attachment loss in the first molar/incisor area, and interproximal attachment loss in at least two permanent teeth. In generalized aggressive periodontitis, the interproximal attachment loss involves at least three permanent teeth other than first molars and incisors, and the destruction of attachment and alveolar bone is decidedly episodic. Bot...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Bruxism Source Type: research

Cognitive decline
Cognitive ability declines with age and is predictive of adverse health outcomes. The specific effect of cognitive decline on oral health has included increased dental caries, fewer teeth, and poorer periodontal health compared to persons not suffering cognitive impairment. Even before dementia becomes apparent, cognitive decline may influence oral health, however, meaning that middle-aged adults whose cognitive impairment is in its early stages may be at risk for unfavorable dental health behaviors, plaque accumulation, or gingivitis. The possibility of this relationship was investigated. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Bruxism Source Type: research

Tooth brushing frequency
Plaque-induced gingivitis is the most common oral disease in dentate persons and the most common type of periodontal disease. Gingivitis is implicated as a precursor of periodontitis, so preventing gingivitis may indirectly prevent periodontitis and loss of tooth support. The principal method used to prevent gingivitis is the regular removal of plaque from all tooth surfaces via tooth brushing. The American Dental Association (ADA) recommends that brushing be performed twice a day. The relationship between the frequency of mechanical plaque removal and the gingival status of persons with a maximum of 5% of sites with ging...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Bruxism Source Type: research

Incomplete caries removal
For nearly a century the treatment of dental caries has included the complete removal of all bacteria and infected dental tissues followed by restoration of the resulting cavity. Growing evidence supports incomplete removal of carious tissue before the cavity is restored. Thus the focus moves from complete excavation to adequate restorations and reflects the view that caries represents the result of an ecologic shift in the dental biofilm to acidogenic and aciduric bacterial species, which are often created and maintained by the presence of abundant dietary fermentable carbohydrates. As the pH is altered, the balance betwe...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Dental Caries Source Type: research

Local anesthetic−related trigeminal nerve injuries
Although trigeminal nerve injuries (TNIs) are generally considered to be associated with high-risk procedures, the occurrence of local anesthetic (LA)−related TNIs should not be underestimated. Reports of the estimated injury incidence of LA-related TNIs range from 1:26,762 to 1/800,000. Currently no reparative treatment is available, so it is best to avoid the problem. These injuries usually occur during inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANBs) and affect the lingual nerve (LN). Recovery occurs in 8 weeks for 85% to 94% of the cases, but about 10% of patients have permanent damage. A number of factors contribute to nerve ...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Iatrogenic Nerve Injury Source Type: research

Face-bow transfer
The face-bow has been considered necessary to orient the maxillary cast to the articulator for prosthetic construction. Of the 43 US dental schools, 84% used the face-bow in 2001; of the 12 dental schools in Ireland and the United Kingdom, 10 required the use of the face-bow to mount a maxillary cast within the articulator. However, no scientific documentation supports the use of the face-bow rather than simpler approaches. A search was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials that compared dental prostheses and occlusal splints constructed with and without face-bow transfer. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Prosthodontics Source Type: research

Post-endodontic restorations and fractures
Endodontically treated teeth have varying survival rates, with reports citing rates between 86% and 93% over 2 to 10 years. With respect to apical healing, sufficient root canal treatments plus adequate post-endodontic coronal restorations have achieved success rates as high as 91.4%, compared to those whose root canal treatments were sufficient but post-endodontic restoration was not, leading to a success rate of just 44%. These data indicate that for apical healing, both a high-quality root canal filling and a bacteria-tight post-endodontic restoration are essential. Other factors contributing to poor survival include to...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Restorative Dentistry Source Type: research

Amalgam−composite resin restorations
Composite resin restorations can fail as stress generated in the tooth-restoration interface after polymerization shrinkage results in a disrupted margin, which is vulnerable to bacterial aggregation, microleakage, and secondary caries. Bonding on the cervical surface of Class II composite restorations can be compromised by altered etching patterns, which degrade the bond, especially in permanent teeth. Composite placement is a technique-sensitive procedure with the potential for marginal degradation and microleakage. Amalgam restorations rarely fail because of secondary caries and are dimensionally stable. The margina...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Restorative Dentistry Source Type: research

Emergency care of traumatic dental injuries
The hospital emergency department (ED) is responsible for triaging and managing medical and dental emergencies resulting from traumatic or nontraumatic events. In fact, up to 66% of all ED visits for dental problems involve traumatic dental injuries (TDIs). Especially during evenings or weekends, families may make ED visits because their dental practitioners do not have emergency coverage at those times. The literature suggests, however, that medical professionals may have inadequate knowledge concerning the management of TDIs, or may not be provided with the appropriate resources needed to triage or treat these problems. ...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Traumatology Source Type: research

Hypotonia and amelogenesis imperfecta
Hypodontia is the most common developmental dental anomaly. In this condition, one or more primary or permanent teeth are developmentally absent. Amelogenesis imperfect (AI) is the term for a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that primarily affect the enamel structure and clinical appearance of all or nearly all teeth. Morphological or biochemical changes elsewhere in the body may also be associated. Patients who have AI generally require an interdisciplinary approach to management, with concentrated efforts in the first two decades of life, but continuous maintenance throughout life. Pa...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Quality of Life Source Type: research

Healthier today than yesterday
Government data covering the past 3 decades indicate people today will live 2 years longer and have much healthier lives than those of the previous generation. People are reporting fewer disease symptoms and have less trouble with standing, walking, and other daily activities regardless of whether they are male or female, white or black. Susan Stewart, researcher at the National Bureau of Economic Research, explains, “What we're talking about in this study is not simply life expectancy, but quality-adjusted life expectancy. . . . Many studies have measured this in different ways, but this is really the first time we've ...
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Extracts Source Type: research

Duty beyond patients
What duty of care could a dentist owe to someone who is not a patient and how far does that duty extend? Suppose someone in your waiting room who is accompanying one of your patients has a heart attack on the premises. What responsibility do you have to care for that non-patient? As licensed health care professionals, we are trained in CPR and the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED), which is legally required in most offices. A case occurred in a fitness facility that can offer a few guidelines. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Litigation Source Type: research

First impressions
The first interaction with a new patient can be extremely important. It shouldn't be left to chance, but efforts should be made to ensure he or she feels comfortable and welcome, but is also educated and enthusiastic about the dental team, good oral care, and how having a great healthy smile can positively affect life. Several steps can be taken to ensure this exceptional interaction takes place. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Source: Dental Abstracts - March 1, 2014 Category: Dentistry Tags: Patient Management Source Type: research