Environmental Health Research This is an OPML file. It can be used to export all the MedWorm RSS feeds on this topic into your personal RSS reader (usually you have to save this file to your own computer before clicking on an Import OPML command in your own feed reader to upload the file which will then import all the feeds) or it can be used by webmasters to integrate MedWorm feeds with their own website. This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader, such as GoogleReader, or to display this data on your own website or blog. Subscribe to this data using MyMedWorm.Subscribe to this data using GoogleReader.Subscribe to this data using Bloglines.Subscribe to this data using MyYahoo.
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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 8.
Public health impacts of secondary particulate formation from aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline
Conclusions: These preliminary quantitative estimates indicate particulates from vehicular emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons demonstrate a sizeable public health burden. The results provide a baseline from which to evaluate potential public health impacts of changes in gasoline composition.
Source: Environmental Health - February 20, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Katherine von StackelbergJonathan BuonocorePrakash BhaveJoel Schwartz Source Type: research
Particulate matter concentrations during desert dust outbreaks and daily mortality in Nicosia, Cyprus
& Francine Laden
Source: Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology - February 20, 2013 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Andreas M NeophytouPanayiotis YiallourosBrent A CoullSavvas KleanthousPavlos PavlouStelios PashiardisDouglas W DockeryPetros KoutrakisFrancine Laden Tags: particulate matter desert dust cardiovascular mortality time series Source Type: research
Systematic analysis of palatal transcriptome to identify cleft palate genes within TGFbeta3-knockout mice alleles: RNA-Seq analysis of TGFbeta3 Mice
Conclusions: Our study represents the first analysis of the palatal transcriptome of the mouse, as well as TGFbeta3 knockout mice, using deep sequencing methods. In this study, we characterized the critical regulation of palatal transcripts that may play key regulatory roles through crucial stages of palatal development. We identified potential causative CP genes in a TGFbeta3 knockout model, which may lead to a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of palatogenesis and provide novel potential targets for gene therapy approaches to treat cleft palate.
Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles - February 20, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ferhat OzturkYou LiXiujuan ZhuChittibabu GudaAli Nawshad Source Type: research
SYMPHONY, an information-theoretic method for gene–gene and gene–environment interaction analysis of disease syndromes
SYMPHONY, an information-theoretic method for gene–gene and gene–environment interaction analysis of disease syndromes Heredity advance online publication, February 20 2013. doi:10.1038/hdy.2012.123 Authors: J Knights, J Yang, P Chanda, A Zhang & M Ramanathan
Source: Heredity - February 20, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: J KnightsJ YangP ChandaA ZhangM Ramanathan Tags: gene–environment interactions gene–gene interactions K-way interaction information syndromes complex diseases Source Type: research
Beyond Barriers in Studying Disparities in Women's Access to Health Services in Ontario, Canada: A Qualitative Metasynthesis
Women live within complex and differing social, economic, and environmental circumstances that influence options to seek health care. In this article we report on a metasynthesis of qualitative research concerning access disparities for women in the Canadian province of Ontario, where there is a publicly funded health care system. We took a metastudy approach to analysis of results from 35 relevant qualitative articles to understand the conditions and conceptualizations of women’s inequitable access to health care. The articles’ authors attributed access disparities to myriad barriers. We focused our analysis o...
Source: Qualitative Health Research - February 20, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Angus, J. E., Lombardo, A. P., Lowndes, R. H., Cechetto, N., Ahmad, F., Bierman, A. S. Tags: Articles Source Type: research
Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China
Nature advance online publication 20 February 2013. doi:10.1038/nature11917 Authors: Xuejun Liu, Ying Zhang, Wenxuan Han, Aohan Tang, Jianlin Shen, Zhenling Cui, Peter Vitousek, Jan Willem Erisman, Keith Goulding, Peter Christie, Andreas Fangmeier & Fusuo Zhang China is experiencing intense air pollution caused in large part by anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen. These emissions result in the deposition of atmospheric nitrogen (N) in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, with implications for human and ecosystem health, greenhouse gas balances and biological diversity. However, information on the magnitude and...
Source: Nature AOP - February 20, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Xuejun LiuYing ZhangWenxuan HanAohan TangJianlin ShenZhenling CuiPeter VitousekJan Willem ErismanKeith GouldingPeter ChristieAndreas FangmeierFusuo Zhang Tags: Letter Source Type: research
Environmental science: The shape of nitrogen to come
Nature advance online publication 20 February 2013. doi:10.1038/nature11954 Authors: Mark A. Sutton & Albert Bleeker An analysis reveals the huge impact of human activity on the nitrogen cycle in China. With global use of Earth's resources rising per head, the findings call for a re-evaluation of the consumption patterns of developed societies.
Source: Nature AOP - February 20, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Mark A. SuttonAlbert Bleeker Tags: News & Views Source Type: research
Molecular evolution: Genetic traces of selection
Nature 494, 7437 (2013). doi:10.1038/494284b The history of human evolution is written in the genome, and researchers have now pinpointed gene variants that may have helped humans to adapt to their environment.Sharon Grossman and Pardis Sabeti of the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and their colleagues used a computational
Source: Nature - February 20, 2013 Category: Research Tags: Research Highlights Source Type: research
Re-visiting the relationship between neighbourhood environment and BMI: an instrumental variables approach to correcting for residential selection bias
Conclusions: We find evidence that residential selection leads to an understatement of the causal effects of neighbourhood walkability features on BMI. Although caution should be used in generalizing from research done with one demographic group in a single locale, our findings support the contention that public policies designed to alter neighbourhood walkability may moderately affect the BMI of large numbers of individuals.
Source: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity - February 20, 2013 Category: Nutrition Authors: Cathleen ZickHeidi HansonJessie FanKen SmithLori Kowaleski-JonesBarbara BrownIkuho Yamada Source Type: research
Multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel diseases: what we know and what we would need to know!
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) but the causes have not been defined. The disease process appears to involve interplay between environmental factors and certain susceptibility genes. It is likely that the identification of the exact etiological mechanisms will permit the development of preventive and curative treatments. Evaluation of several diseases found to be more often associated than by chance alone may reveal clues to the etiology of those disorders. An association between MS and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) was suggested by the observation of an increased...
Source: Multiple Sclerosis - February 20, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Alkhawajah, M. M., Caminero, A. B., Freeman, H. J., Oger, J. J. Tags: Topical Review Source Type: research
Change of urinary fluoride and bone metabolism indicators in the endemic fluorosis areas of southern china after supplying low fluoride public water
Conclusions: Our results suggest that supplying low fluoride public water in Southern China is successful as measured by the reduction of fluoride in water and urine, and changes in various bone indicators to normal levels. A comparison of four bone indicators showed CT and BGP to be the most sensitive indicators.
Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles - February 20, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Shaoxian ChenBoling LiShao LinYixiang HuangXinhua ZhaoMin ZhangYuan XiaXiaoheng FangJunyi WangSyni-An HwangShouyi Yu Source Type: research
Building an ethical environment improves patient privacy and satisfaction in the crowded emergency department: a quasi-experimental study
Conclusions: Significant improvements were achieved with an intervention. Patients perceived significantly more privacy and satisfaction in ED care after the intervention. We believe that these improvements were the result of major philosophical, administrative, and operational changes aimed at respecting both patient privacy and satisfaction.
Source: BMC Medical Ethics - February 20, 2013 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Yen-Ko LinWei-Che LeeLiang-Chi KuoYuan-Chia ChengChia-Ju LinHsing-Lin LinChao-Wen ChenTsung-Ying Lin Source Type: research
Contribution to PM2.5 from domestic wood burning in a small community in Sweden
, 2013, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C3EM30864B, PaperPeter Molnar, Gerd SallstenBiomass burning for domestic heating has increased in many countries with cold climates in recent years. This paper presents and compares two ways of estimating the contribution of particulate matter...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - J. Environ. Monit. latest articles - February 19, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Peter Molnar Source Type: research
Long-term PAH monitoring results from the Anacostia River active capping demonstration using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibers
Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2013, Advance ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C3EM30826J, PaperDavid J. Lampert, Xiaoxia Lu, Danny D. ReibleLong-term monitoring of caps in the field has demonstrated the need to quantify in situ pore water concentrations for assessing both contaminant migration and bioavailability of contaminants in sediments.To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above.The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - J. Environ. Monit. latest articles - February 19, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: David J. Lampert Source Type: research
Help assess the health and abundance of the mid-Atlantic scallop fishery [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - February 19, 2013 Category: Science Tags: More Science,Environment,Ecology,Science Education,Biology,Science in Service Source Type: research
Apollo Moon Rocks Challenge Lunar Water Theory
The discovery of "significant amounts" of water in moon rock samples collected by NASA's Apollo astronauts is challenging a longstanding theory about how the moon formed, scientists say. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - February 19, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Space,Ecology,Environment,Physics,Space,Technology,More Science,Evolution,Astrophysics,Extraterrestrial Life,Galaxies,Space Exploration,Cosmology,Biology,Chemistry Source Type: research
Model and Tightening Methods
for Scheduling in General Chemical Production Environments
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry ResearchDOI: 10.1021/ie302741b
Source: Industrial and Engineering Chemical Research - February 19, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sara Velez and Christos T. Maravelias Source Type: research
United Nations Panel Calls Hormone Disruptors a "Global Threat"
An international team of experts reported today that evidence linking hormone-mimicking chemicals to human health problems has grown stronger over the past decade, becoming a "global threat" that should be addressed. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - February 19, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Energy & Sustainability,Environment,Health,Society Policy,Ecology,More Science,Energy Sustainability,Climate,Biology,Everyday Science Source Type: research
Should Recent Extreme Weather Be Tied to Climate Change?
BOSTON -- If droughts, floods and wildfires are the criminal, climate change is the accomplice. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - February 19, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Energy & Sustainability,Society Policy,Climate,Energy Sustainability,Environment,More Science Source Type: research
U.N. Offers Banquet of Blemished Food to Highlight Waste
OSLO (Reuters) - The United Nations treated government ministers and officials to a meal of blemished African fruit and vegetables on Tuesday to highlight how perfectly edible food is being rejected by European supermarkets.The five-course meal for 500 delegates at a week-long United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) event in the Kenyan capital included grilled sweet corn tamales, yellow lentil dal and mangomisu - a tropical version of the Italian dessert tiramisu.The food was all reject-grade by the standards of European buyers, who sometimes cancel orders after produce has been harvested. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - February 19, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Energy & Sustainability,Everyday Science,Environment,Society Policy Source Type: research
Determination of Mercury in Fish: A Low-Cost Implementation
of Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorbance for the Undergraduate Environmental
Journal of Chemical EducationDOI: 10.1021/ed300471w
Source: Journal of Chemical Education - February 19, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Brian K. Niece and James F. Hauri Source Type: research
Colloidal Properties of Nanoparticular Biogenic Selenium
Govern Environmental Fate and Bioremediation Effectiveness
Environmental Science & TechnologyDOI: 10.1021/es304940s
Source: Environmental Science and Technology - February 19, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Benjamin Buchs, Michael W. H. Evangelou, Lenny H. E. Winkel and Markus Lenz Source Type: research
Extending Applicability of Correlation Equations to
Predict Colloidal Retention in Porous Media at Low Fluid Velocity
Environmental Science & TechnologyDOI: 10.1021/es304753r
Source: Environmental Science and Technology - February 19, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Huilian Ma, Michal Hradisky and William P. Johnson Source Type: research
Is Chlorination One of the Major Pathways in the Formation
of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes (PCNs) in Municipal Solid Waste Combustion?
Environmental Science & TechnologyDOI: 10.1021/es304735n
Source: Environmental Science and Technology - February 19, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Jae-Yong Ryu, Do-Hyong Kim and Seong-Ho Jang Source Type: research
Changes in Gene Expression of Streptococcus mutans in Planktonic Environment Following CO2 Laser Irradiation
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery , Vol. 0, No. 0.
Source: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery - February 19, 2013 Category: Laser Surgery Tags: article Source Type: research
Single-cell microarray enables high-throughput evaluation of DNA double-strand breaks and DNA repair inhibitors.
Abstract A key modality of non-surgical cancer management is DNA damaging therapy that causes DNA double-strand breaks that are preferentially toxic to rapidly dividing cancer cells. Double-strand break repair capacity is recognized as an important mechanism in drug resistance and is therefore a potential target for adjuvant chemotherapy. Additionally, spontaneous and environmentally induced DSBs are known to promote cancer, making DSB evaluation important as a tool in epidemiology, clinical evaluation and in the development of novel pharmaceuticals. Currently available assays to detect double-strand breaks are lim...
Source: Cell Cycle - February 19, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Weingeist DM, Ge J, Wood DK, Mutamba JT, Huang Q, Rowland EA, Yaffe MB, Floyd S, Engelward BP Tags: Cell Cycle Source Type: research
Special Issue Oceans and Humans Health: The Ecology of Marine Opportunists.
Abstract Opportunistic marine pathogens, like opportunistic terrestrial pathogens, are ubiquitous in the environment (waters, sediments, and organisms) and only cause disease in immune-compromised or stressed hosts. In this review, we discuss four host-pathogen interactions within the marine environment that are typically considered opportunistic: sea fan coral-fungus, eelgrass-Labyrinthula zosterae, sea fan-Labyrinthulomycetes, and hard clam-Quahog Parasite Unknown with particular focus on disease ecology, parasite pathology, host response, and known associated environmental conditions. Disease is a natural part o...
Source: Microbial Ecology - February 19, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Burge CA, Kim CJ, Lyles JM, Harvell CD Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research
Monitoring Gas Sensors at Work: Operando Raman-FTIR Study of Ethanol Detection by Indium Oxide.
Abstract Gas sensors at work: The mode of operation of metal-oxide gas sensors can be studied by simultaneous measurement of the sensor response, adsorbates, changes in the metal-oxide material, and gas-phase composition by operando Raman-FTIR spectroscopy. Depending on the gas environment and temperature, for EtOH sensing by In(2) O(3) , a correlation has been found between the sensor signal, presence of adsorbates, oxidation state of the sensor material, and intensity of surface hydroxy groups. PMID: 23424057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Angewandte Chemie - February 19, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sänze S, Gurlo A, Hess C Tags: Angew Chem Int Ed Engl Source Type: research
Reprogramming EF-hands for design of catalytically amplified lanthanide sensors.
Abstract We recently reported that a computationally designed catalyst nicknamed AlleyCat facilitates C-H proton abstraction in Kemp elimination at neutral pH in a selective and calcium-dependent fashion by a factor of approximately 100,000 (Korendovych et al. in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:6823, 2011). Kemp elimination produced a colored product that can be easily read out, thus making AlleyCat a catalytically amplified metal sensor for calcium. Here we report that metal-binding EF-hand motifs in AlleyCat could be redesigned to incorporate trivalent metal ions without significant loss of catalytic activity. Mut...
Source: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : JBIC - February 19, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Mack KL, Moroz OV, Moroz YS, Olsen AB, McLaughlin JM, Korendovych IV Tags: J Biol Inorg Chem Source Type: research
Review: Nonpharmacologic caregiver interventions improve dementia symptoms and caregiver reactions.
CONCLUSION Nonpharmacologic interventions involving family caregivers reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling persons with dementia and caregivers' adverse reactions to neuropsychiatric symptoms.Nonpharmacologic caregiver interventions vs control in patients with dementia and their live-in family caregivers*OutcomesNumber of studies† (comparisons)Mean effect size‡ at 6 wk to 24 mo (95% CI)P valueBehavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia17 (25)0.34 (0.20 to 0.48)< 0.01Caregiver adverse reactions to behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia13 (16)0.15 (0.04 to 0.26)0.006*CI defined ...
Source: Annals of Internal Medicine - February 19, 2013 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Paolino N, O'Malley PG Tags: Ann Intern Med Source Type: research
Prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in US working populations: pooled analysis of six prospective studies.
CONCLUSIONS: Both prevalent and incident CTS were common in data pooled across multiple studies and sites. The large number of incident cases in this prospective study provides adequate power for future exposure-response analyses to identify work and non-work related risk factors for CTS. The prospective nature allows determination of the temporal relations necessary for causal inference. PMID: 23423472 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health - February 19, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Dale AM, Harris-Adamson C, Rempel D, Gerr F, Hegmann K, Silverstein B, Burt S, Garg A, Kapellusch J, Merlino L, Thiese MS, Eisen EA, Evanoff B Tags: Scand J Work Environ Health Source Type: research
Cancer Incidence in Patients With Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan, 1997-2009
Conclusions: Among schizophrenia patients, overall cancer risk varies inversely with age at diagnosis and disease duration. Besides, gender-specific cancer risks differ between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - February 19, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lin, G.-M., Chen, Y.-J., Kuo, D.-J., Jaiteh, L. E. S., Wu, Y.-C., Lo, T.-S., Li, Y.-H. Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research
Schizophrenia Candidate Gene ERBB4: Covert Routes of Vulnerability to Psychosis Detected at the Population Level
Prior genetic and functional evidence established ERBB4 as a probable schizophrenia susceptibility gene that may confer risk via modulating brain information processing dependent on the integrity of frontotemporal brain circuitry. Utilizing retrospective data drawn from the cross-sectional population-based Athens Study of Psychosis Proneness and Incidence of Schizophrenia (ASPIS) (n = 1127), we attempted to independently replicate and further extend previous findings by examining the effects of ERBB4 gene variants on 3 broad population–based psychosis-related phenotypes: verbal working memory (VWM), trait schizotypy,...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - February 19, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stefanis, N. C., Hatzimanolis, A., Smyrnis, N., Avramopoulos, D., Evdokimidis, I., van Os, J., Stefanis, C. N., Straub, R. E., Weinberger, D. R. Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research
Priming of Metabolic Dysfunctions by Prenatal Immune Activation in Mice: Relevance to Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is associated with increased risk for multiple metabolic abnormalities, including altered glucose homeostasis, type-2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Some of the metabolic alterations can already exist in psychosis-prone subjects prior to the onset of chronic schizophrenic disease and pharmacotherapy, indicating that they may have a developmental origin. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that metabolic alterations pertinent to schizophrenic disease can be primed by an environmental risk factor associated with the disorder, namely prenatal exposure to immune challenge. We used a wel...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - February 19, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Pacheco-Lopez, G., Giovanoli, S., Langhans, W., Meyer, U. Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research
Age at Initiation of Cannabis Use Predicts Age at Onset of Psychosis: The 7- to 8-Year Trend
We investigated the existence of a temporal association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illness in 997 participants from the 2010 Survey of High Impact Psychosis (SHIP) in Australia. We tested for group differences in age at onset of psychotic illness and in the duration of premorbid exposure to cannabis (DPEC). Analyses were repeated in subgroups of participants with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (SSD), a diagnosis of lifetime cannabis dependence (LCD), and a comorbid SSD/LCD diagnosis. The association between age at initiation of cannabis use and age at onset of psychotic illne...
Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin - February 19, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Stefanis, N. C., Dragovic, M., Power, B. D., Jablensky, A., Castle, D., Morgan, V. A. Tags: Environment and Schizophrenia Invited Source Type: research
Peyronie's Disease and Mechanotransduction: An In Vitro Analysis of the Cellular Changes to Peyronie's Disease in a Cell‐Culture Strain System
ConclusionsThis novel study of cells derived from diseased and normal human tunica albuginea cultured in a mechanical strained environment provides good scientific evidence for the use of penile traction device in Peyronie's plaque remodeling.
Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine - February 19, 2013 Category: Sexual Medicine Authors: Eric Chung, Ling Young, Matthew Solomon, Gerald B. Brock Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
Global transcriptional responses to the bacteriocin colicin M in Escherichia coli
Conclusion: At subinhibitory concentrations colicin M induces an adaptive response primarily to protect the bacterial cells against envelope stress provoked by peptidoglycan damage. Among the first induced were genes of the CreBC two-component system known to promote increased resistance against colicins M and E2, providing novel insight into the ecology of colicin M production in natural environments. While an adaptive response was induced nevertheless, colicin M application did not increase biofilm formation, nor induce SOS genes, adverse effects that can be provoked by a number of traditional antibiotics, providing supp...
Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles - February 19, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Simona Kamen¿ekDarja ¿gur-Bertok Source Type: research
Dealing with change: the different microenvironments faced by the malarial parasite
Summary In a new paper, Pillai et al. report that in vitro asexual blood‐stage Plasmodium falciparum parasite cultures are able to grow unhindered in media with surprisingly broad ranges of ionic constituents. In doing so, the authors demonstrate that long known changes in the cationic composition of the cytosol of host erythrocytes induced by developing intra‐erythrocytic parasites are not essential for growth. Moreover, their results also suggest that besides a low K+ environment, which has been shown to trigger key processes such as microneme secretion and merozoite egress, there must be alternative signals that can...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - February 19, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chetan E. Chitnis, Henry M. Staines Tags: MicroCommentary Source Type: research
Genotypic but not phenotypic historical contingency revealed by viral experimental evolution
Conclusions: The present experiment reinforces the idea that the answer to the question "How important is historical contingency in evolution?" strongly depends on the level of integration of the traits studied. A strong historical contingency was found for TEV genotype, whereas a weak effect of on phenotypic evolution was revealed. In an applied context, our results imply that viruses are not easily trapped into suboptimal phenotypes and that (re)emergence is not evolutionarily constrained.
Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology - Latest articles - February 19, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Stéphanie BedhommeGuillaume LafforgueSantiago Elena Source Type: research
Parallel Evolutionary Dynamics of Adaptive Diversification in Escherichia coli
by Matthew D. Herron, Michael Doebeli The causes and mechanisms of evolutionary diversification are central issues in biology. Geographic isolation is the traditional explanation for diversification, but recent theoretical and empirical studies have shown that frequency-dependent selection can drive diversification without isolation and that adaptive diversification occurring in sympatry may be an important source of biological diversity. However, there are no empirical examples in which sympatric lineage splits have been understood at the genetic level, and it is unknown how predictable this process is—that is, whe...
Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents - February 19, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Matthew D. Herron et al. Source Type: research
Farm intensification and biodiversity conservation [Sustainability Science]
Integrating the conservation of biodiversity by smallholder farmers with agricultural intensification is increasingly recognized as a leading priority of sustainability and food security amid global environmental and socioeconomic change. An international research project investigated the smallholder agrobiodiversity of maize (corn) in a global hotspot (Bolivia) undergoing significant intensification. Peach-based intensification...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 19, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Zimmerer, K. S. Tags: Sustainability Science Social Sciences Source Type: research
Rainfall maps from cellular communication networks [Environmental Sciences]
Accurate and timely surface precipitation measurements are crucial for water resources management, agriculture, weather prediction, climate research, as well as ground validation of satellite-based precipitation estimates. However, the majority of the land surface of the earth lacks such data, and in many parts of the world the density of surface...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 19, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Overeem, A., Leijnse, H., Uijlenhoet, R. Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research
DTH2 contributes to northward expansion of rice [Agricultural Sciences]
Flowering time (i.e., heading date in crops) is an important ecological trait that determines growing seasons and regional adaptability of plants to specific natural environments. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a short-day plant that originated in the tropics. Increasing evidence suggests that the northward expansion of cultivated rice was accompanied...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 19, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Wu, W., Zheng, X.-M., Lu, G., Zhong, Z., Gao, H., Chen, L., Wu, C., Wang, H.-J., Wang, Q., Zhou, K., Wang, J.-L., Wu, F., Zhang, X., Guo, X., Cheng, Z., Lei, C., Lin, Q., Jiang, L., Wang, H., Ge, S., Wan, J. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Toxicity of the Flame-Retardant BDE-49 on Brain Mitochondria and Neuronal Progenitor Striatal Cells Enhanced by a PTEN-Deficient Background
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) represent an important group of flame retardants extensively used, tonnage of which in the environment has been steadily increasing over the past 25 years. PBDEs or metabolites can induce neurotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) through a variety of mechanisms. Recently, PBDEs with < 5 Br substitutions (i.e., 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether [BDE-47] and 2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether [BDE-49]) have gained interest because of their high bioaccumulation. In particular, congeners such as BDE-49 arise as one of the most biologically active, with concentrations typically ...
Source: Toxicological Sciences - February 19, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Napoli, E., Hung, C., Wong, S., Giulivi, C. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
An Animal Model of Marginal Iodine Deficiency During Development: The Thyroid Axis and Neurodevelopmental Outcome
This study examined the dose-response characteristics of marginal iodine deficiency (ID) on parameters of thyroid function and neurodevelopment. Diets deficient in iodine were prepared by adding 975, 200, 125, 25, or 0 µg/kg potassium iodate to the base casein diet to produce five nominal iodine levels ranging from ample (Diet 1: 1000 μg iodine/kg chow, D1) to deficient (Diet 5: 25 µg iodine/kg chow, D5). Female Long Evans rats were maintained on these diets beginning 7 weeks prior to breeding until the end of lactation. Dams were sacrificed on gestational days 16 and 20, or when pups were weaned on postnata...
Source: Toxicological Sciences - February 19, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Gilbert, M. E., Hedge, J. M., Valentin-Blasini, L., Blount, B. C., Kannan, K., Tietge, J., Zoeller, R. T., Crofton, K. M., Jarrett, J. M., Fisher, J. W. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Exposure to Triclosan Augments the Allergic Response to Ovalbumin in a Mouse Model of Asthma
During the last decade, there has been a remarkable and unexplained increase in the prevalence of asthma. These studies were conducted to investigate the role of dermal exposure to triclosan, an endocrine-disrupting compound, on the hypersensitivity response to ovalbumin (OVA) in a murine model of asthma. Triclosan has had widespread use in the general population as an antibacterial and antifungal agent and is commonly found in consumer products such as soaps, deodorants, toothpastes, shaving creams, mouthwashes, and cleaning supplies. For these studies, BALB/c mice were exposed dermally to concentrations of triclosan rang...
Source: Toxicological Sciences - February 19, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Anderson, S. E., Franko, J., Kashon, M. L., Anderson, K. L., Hubbs, A. F., Lukomska, E., Meade, B. J. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Metabolomics-on-a-Chip of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Anticancer Drug Flutamide and Its Active Metabolite Hydroxyflutamide Using HepG2/C3a Microfluidic Biochips
We used the recently introduced "metabolomics-on-a-chip" approach to test secondary drug toxicity in bioartificial organs. Bioartificial organs cultivated in microfluidic culture conditions provide a beneficial environment, in which the cellular cytoprotective mechanisms are enhanced, compared with Petri dish culture conditions. We investigated the metabolic response of HepG2/C3a cells exposed to flutamide, an anticancer prodrug, and hydroxyflutamide (HF), its active metabolite, in a microfluidic biochip. The cellular response was analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify cell-specific molecule-res...
Source: Toxicological Sciences - February 19, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Choucha Snouber, L., Bunescu, A., Naudot, M., Legallais, C., Brochot, C., Dumas, M. E., Elena-Herrmann, B., Leclerc, E. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Sociocultural and individual determinants for motivation of sexual and reproductive health workers in Papua New Guinea and their implications for male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy
Conclusions: The potential contribution to the success of a MC programme that HWs may have means that taking into account the differing needs of communities as well as the motivational influences on HWs that exist within the sociocultural environment is important. These findings will assist not only in programme planning for MC, but also in the expansion of other existing sexual and reproductive health services.
Source: Human Resources for Health - February 19, 2013 Category: Health Management Authors: Anna TynanAndrew VallelyAngela KellyMartha KupulJames NeoRichard NaketrumbHerick AenoGreg LawJohn MilanPeter SibaJohn KaldorPeter Hill Source Type: research
Learning contextual gene set interaction networks
of cancer with condition specificity
Conclusions: The analysis on the contextual gene sets and characterization of networks of interactioncomposed of these sets discovered distinct functional differences underlying various types of cancer. The resultsshow that our method successfully reveals many subtype-specific regions in the identified maps of biologicalcontexts, which well represent biological functions that can be connected to specific subtypes.
Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles - February 19, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Sungwon JungMichael VerdicchioJeff KieferDaniel HoffMichael BerensMichael BittnerSeungchan Kim Source Type: research
Cross-species transcriptional network analysis reveals conservation and variation in response to metal stress in cyanobacteria
Conclusions: The WGCNA analysis demonstrated that the application of cross-species transcriptional network analysis will lead to novel insights to molecular response to environmental changes which will otherwise not be achieved by analyzing data from a single species.
Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles - February 19, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Jiangxin WangGang WuLei ChenWeiwen Zhang Source Type: research