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Although numerous books on forensic handwriting and document examination have been written, only a few have taken a scientific approach. Most forensic document examination books provide a general overview of the subject and contain information based on the results of a few case studies along with the personal experiences of the authors, which is a non-scientific approach. This appears to be particularly true with many of the books that pre-date the 1960s. Since then, numerous books related to forensic document and handwriting examination have been published but have done little to advance the standing of this field, instea...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Roy Fenoff Tags: Book Review Source Type: research
Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field
Abstract: The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60–90min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during da...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kelly A. George, Melanie S. Archer, Tes Toop Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Forensic profiling of sassafras oils based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Abstract: Safrole, the main compound in the essential oil of several plants of the Laurel family (Lauraceae), and its secondary product piperonylmethylketone are the predominantly used precursors for the illicit synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) which is, in turn, the most common active ingredient in Ecstasy tablets. Analytical methods with adequate capacity to identify links and origin of precursors, such as safrole, provide valuable information for drug-related police intelligence. Authentic sassafras oil samples from police seizures were subjected to comparative analysis based on their chemical profi...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: M. Schäffer, T. Gröger, M. Pütz, R. Zimmermann Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
An accurate method for microanalysis of carbon monoxide in putrid postmortem blood by head-space gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS/GC/MS)
Abstract: Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than half the fatal poisonings reported in many countries, with some of these cases under-reported or misdiagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, an accurate and reliable analytical method to measure blood carboxyhemoglobin level (COHb%), in the 1% to lethal range, is essential for correct diagnosis. Herein a method was established, i.e. head-space gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS/GC/MS) that has numerous advantages over other techniques, such as UV spectrometry, for determination of COHb%. There was a linear relationship (R2=0. 9995) between the peak ...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Hongxia Hao, Hong Zhou, Xiaopei Liu, Zhong Zhang, Zhongshan Yu Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Genetic analysis of sudden unexplained death: A multidisciplinary approach
This study demonstrates that molecular genetic screening needs to become an inherent part of the postmortem examination. This will enhance the ability of screening family members of SUD victims who may be at risk. The present data also illustrate that detection and follow up of familial cases of sudden death is challenging and requires a close multidisciplinary collaboration between different medical disciplines, with great responsibility for the forensic pathologist. (Source: Forensic Science International)
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Silke Kauferstein, Nadine Kiehne, Tina Jenewein, Stephanie Biel, Marnie Kopp, Rainer König, Damir Erkapic, Markus Rothschild, Thomas Neumann Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Can fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs distinguish between farm-raised versus wild white (Acipenser transmontanus) sturgeon origins in California? Preliminary report
The objective was to investigate the potential of using fatty acid and mineral compositions of sturgeon eggs to distinguish their source, either farm-raised or wild fish. Trafficking of illegally obtained wild white sturgeon eggs is a major concern to the California Department of Fish and Game, but there is no forensic method to separate wild and farm-raised white sturgeon eggs. The extension of these findings in future work will be to use the fatty acid and mineral compositions as forensic indicators of caviar produced legally from farm raised sturgeon compared with illegal caviar produced from sturgeon poached from the w...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Edward J. DePeters, Birgit Puschner, Scott J. Taylor, Jeff A. Rodzen Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Perspectives for Forensic Intelligence in anti-doping: Thinking outside of the box
Abstract: Today's approach to anti-doping is mostly centered on the judicial process, despite pursuing a further goal in the detection, reduction, solving and/or prevention of doping. Similarly to decision-making in the area of law enforcement feeding on Forensic Intelligence, anti-doping might significantly benefit from a more extensive gathering of knowledge. Forensic Intelligence might bring a broader logical dimension to the interpretation of data on doping activities for a more future-oriented and comprehensive approach instead of the traditional case-based and reactive process. Information coming from a variety of so...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: François Marclay, Patrice Mangin, Pierre Margot, Martial Saugy Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Cartridge case image matching using effective correlation area based method
Abstract: A firearm leaves a unique impression on fired cartridge cases. The cross-correlation function plays an important role in matching the characteristic features on the cartridge case found at the crime scene with a specific firearm, for accurate firearm identification. This paper proposes that the computational forensic techniques of alignment and effective correlation area-based approaches to image matching are essential to firearm identification. Specifically, the reference and the corresponding cartridge cases are aligned according to the phase-correlation criterion on the transform domain. The informative segmen...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: S. Yammen, P. Muneesawang Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Finite element analysis of pedestrian lower limb fractures by direct force: The result of being run over or impact?
Abstract: The elucidation and prediction of the biomechanics of lower limb fractures could serve as a useful tool in forensic practices. Finite element (FE) analysis could potentially help in the understanding of the fracture mechanisms of lower limb fractures frequently caused by car–pedestrian accidents. Our aim was (1) to develop and validate a FE model of the human lower limb, (2) to assess the biomechanics of specific injuries concerning run-over and impact loading conditions, and (3) to reconstruct one real car–pedestrian collision case using the model created in this study. We developed a novel lower limb FE mod...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Zhengdong Li, Donghua Zou, Ningguo Liu, Liangwei Zhong, Yu Shao, Lei Wan, Ping Huang, Yijiu Chen Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Oral intercourse or secondary transfer? A Bayesian approach of salivary amylase and foreign DNA findings
This study determined the background level of salivary-α-amylase and DNA on the inside front of male underwear which has potential implications on the interpretation of evidence in alleged oral intercourse. (Source: Forensic Science International)
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Michelle Breathnach, Elizabeth Moore Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Glucocorticosteroids as markers of death from hypothermia
The objective of the investigation was the assessment of validity of determinations of cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone as hypothermia markers in cases of fatal hypothermia combined with concomitant insobriety of the victims.The experimental group consisted of blood samples collected in the course of medico-legal autopsies of 23 hypothermia victims. The controls included blood samples originating from 34 victims of violent sudden deaths (deaths by hanging and traffic road accidents at the scene) and from ten individuals deceased after prolonged agony in consequence of post-traumatic subdural hematomas. In both groups...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Krzysztof Bańka, Grzegorz Teresiński, Grzegorz Buszewicz, Roman Mądro Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Experimental and theoretical studies of the spreading of bloodstains on painted surfaces
Abstract: The spreading of bloodstains on matt, vinyl silk and gloss painted surfaces, following both perpendicular and non-perpendicular impact, has been studied with a view to understanding whether surface-specific properties affect the size and shape of the final stain. In all cases the dimensions of the stains on the rougher, matt paint are up to 5% less than on the other painted surfaces though this difference decreases with impact velocity. Both the diameter of circular stains and the width of elliptical stains have been successfully modelled as a function of the perpendicular component of impact velocity vn using a ...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Craig D. Adam Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Evaluation of DFO/PVP and its application to latent fingermarks development on thermal paper
Abstract: A new method for improved development of latent fingermarks on thermal paper by 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) treatment is described. Compared with conventional DFO solution, the mixed solution of DFO/PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) described here reduces black background staining without removing the thermosensitive layer and develops fingermarks by the reaction of DFO with amino acid deposited on the thermal paper's surface.An advantage of this approach is that the developed fluorescent fingermarks have high contrast and can be observed and photographed when excited in the 515nm region and observed through an orange-...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Ya-Ping Luo, Ya-Bin Zhao, Sai Liu Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Survey on batch-to-batch variation in spray paints: A collaborative study
This study represents the most extensive analysis of batch-to-batch variations in spray paint samples to date. The survey was performed as a collaborative project of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) Paint and Glass Working Group (EPG) and involved 11 laboratories. Several studies have already shown that paint samples of similar color but from different manufacturers can usually be differentiated using an appropriate analytical sequence. The discrimination of paints from the same manufacturer and color (batch-to-batch variations) is of great interest and these data are seldom found in the literatu...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Cyril Muehlethaler, Geneviève Massonnet, Marie Deviterne, Maureen Bradley, Ana Herrero, Itxaso Diaz de Lezana, Sandrine Lauper, Damien Dubois, Jochen Geyer-Lippmann, Sonja Ketterer, Stéphane Milet, Magali Bertrand, Wolfgang Langer, Bernd Plage, Gabriele Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Temperature-dependent appearance of forensically useful beetles on carcasses
Abstract: Estimating the pre-appearance interval (PAI) of carrion insects from temperature is a new and promising improvement of entomological methods for post-mortem interval estimation. In order to use this approach in casework, a taxon should demonstrate a close relationship between PAI and temperature. In this article we test this relationship in selected species of beetles, namely Thanatophilus sinuatus Fabr., T. rugosus L., Necrodes littoralis L. (Silphidae), Necrobia rufipes De Geer, N. violacea L. (Cleridae), Dermestes frischii Kug. (Dermestidae), Creophilus maxillosus L., Philonthus politus L., Ontholestes murinus...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Szymon Matuszewski, Michał Szafałowicz Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of JWH-018 metabolites in urine samples with direct comparison to analytical standards
Abstract: JWH-018 (1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole) is one of numerous potential aminoalkylindoles contained in products marketed as ‘K2’ or ‘Spice’. Investigation of the urinary metabolites from consumption of these compounds is important because they are banned in the United States and many European countries. An efficient extraction procedure and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method were developed for detection of ‘K2’ metabolites in urine from individuals suspected of using these products. Analytical standards were used to elucidate the structure-specific mass spectral fragmentations and r...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Beth Emerson, Bill Durham, Jennifer Gidden, Jackson O. Lay Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Geographic diversity of Helicobacter pylori in cadavers: Forensic estimation of geographical origin
Abstract: A method for determining the geographical origin of unidentified cadavers by determining the genotype of Helicobacter pylori, which is latent in one-half of the world's population, was developed. In the first stage, DNA was extracted from samplings at 5 points in the gastric mucosa of 177 individuals randomly selected from cadavers undergoing medico-legal autopsy. 16S-rDNA of H. pylori DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 101 cadavers (57.0%); by sex, 74 of 123 (60.1%) males and 28 of 54 (46.4%) females were positive. There were no significant differences in H. pylori detection rate among the 5 ...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Sayaka Nagasawa, Hisako Motani-Saitoh, Hiroyuki Inoue, Hirotaro Iwase Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Profiling counterfeit Cialis, Viagra and analogs by UPLC–MS
Abstract: In this work, the chemical profile of 43 commercial samples of tablets for male erectile dysfunction (Viagra®, Cialis®, Lazar®, Libiden®, Maxfil®, Plenovit®, Potent 75®, Rigix®, Vimax®, Pramil® 75 and Pramil®) and 65 counterfeit samples (Viagra and Cialis) were obtained from UPLC–MS data. Methanol extracts of crushed tablets were investigated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) coupled with eletrospray ionization in the positive ion mode (ESI(+)) quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-Tof) mass spectrometry (MS). A validated method was employed for the simultaneou...
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Rafael S. Ortiz, Kristiane de Cássia Mariotti, Maribete H. Holzschuh, Wanderson Romão, Renata P. Limberger, Paulo Mayorga Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Trends in counterfeits amphetamine-type stimulants after its prohibition in Brazil
This study represents the first step in the elucidation of falsification of ATS in Brazil. Considering the forensic intelligence these information are valuable in order to develop and establish a database that enables correlate samples from different locations and/or suppliers and to map the profile and trends of trafficking. (Source: Forensic Science International)
Source: Forensic Science International - May 17, 2013 Category: Forensic Medicine Authors: Kristiane de Cássia Mariotti, Rafael S. Ortiz, Daniele Z. Souza, Thayse C. Mileski, Pedro E. Fröehlich, Renata P. Limberger Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Differentiating Microbial Forensic qPCR Target and Control Products by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science)
Source: Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science - May 15, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Tags: article Source Type: research
Scarlet macaw genome sequenced | @GrrlScientist
The newly-sequenced scarlet macaw genome will provide many important insights into avian and human biology, behaviours and genetics and will contribute to parrot conservationAfter many years of research into the behaviours, diseases, genetics and life history of scarlet macaws, a team of scientists have taken their studies to the next level. Christopher Seabury, an Assistant Professor of Genetics at Texas A&M University's college of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, and Ian Tizard, Director of the Schubot Exotic Bird Health Center and a Professor of Microbiology & Immunology at Texas A&M University's college of ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - May 15, 2013 Category: Science Authors: GrrlScientist Tags: Blogposts Genetics Biology guardian.co.uk Birds Zoology Environment Science Source Type: news
Medical apps for smartphones: lack of evidence undermines quality and safety
Increasing numbers of healthcare professionals are using smartphones and their associated applications (apps) in daily clinical care. While these medical apps hold great potential for improving clinical practice, little is known about the possible dangers associated with their use. Breaches of patient confidentiality, conflicts of interests and malfunctioning clinical decision-making apps could all negatively impact on patient care. We propose several strategies to enhance the development of evidence-based medical apps while retaining their open nature. The increasing use of medical apps calls for broader discussion across...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - May 15, 2013 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Buijink, A. W. G., Visser, B. J., Marshall, L. Tags: Patients, Ethics, Legal and forensic medicine Perspective Source Type: research
New forensic technique for estimating time of death by checking internal clock of the human brain
People with severe depression have a disrupted “biological clock” that makes it seem as if they are living in a different time zone to the rest of the healthy population living alongside them, a study has found. (Source: The Independent - Science)
Source: The Independent - Science - May 13, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Science Source Type: news
Questions on adolescent articles
Welcome to the first of this new feature. Epilogue will appear regularly in Education and Practice and is intended to serve as means by which practising paediatricians can assess their own knowledge and skills. Some articles, as this one, will be based on articles already published in the journal. Others will be based on clinical cases, images or current practice guidelines. By successfully answering the questions, readers will be able to demonstrate to their own satisfaction that they have fully grasped the article, and thereby contribute to their own continuing professional development. Annotated answers will always be a...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - May 13, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Scott-Jupp, R. Tags: Adolescent health, Child health, Confidentiality, Legal and forensic medicine, Medical humanities Epilogue Source Type: research
Answers to Epilogue questions
From questions on page 92. Answers to question 1 2004—Standard 4 in the National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services (Department of Health, 2004) 2006—Transition: Getting it Right for Young People (Department of Health, 2006) 2007—Aiming High for Disabled Children (AHDC): Better Support for Families (Department for Education, 2007) and A Transition Guide for All Services: Key Information for Professionals about the Transition Process for Disabled Children (Department of Health, 2007) 2007—You're Welcome quality criteria (Department of Health, 2007) 2008—Transiti...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - May 13, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Scott-Jupp, R. Tags: Health informatics, Journalology, Competing interests (ethics), Confidentiality, Legal and forensic medicine Epilogue Source Type: research
Mid-Staffordshire--the Francis Report
Preceded by several days of slightly fevered media coverage, the Francis Report was finally published in the first week of February.1 Its breadth is wide, its analysis is forensic in detail, its findings are embarrassing (to put it mildly) and its recommendations (all 290 of them) are game changing. If implemented, Francis will have a bigger impact on the NHS than Kennedy did after Bristol. It makes compelling reading. Here are a few snippets (from the section listing the inquiry's findings) that are of immediate interest to us:Hospital consultants at Stafford were not at the forefront of promoting change. Clinicians did n...
Source: Emergency Medicine Journal - May 13, 2013 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Hughes, G. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Highlights from the literature
Scoop and go Debate continues over a ‘scoop and go’ versus a ‘stay and stabilise’ approach to patient care in the prehospital trauma setting. Analysis of data from more than 19 000 patients presenting to a level 1 trauma centre in California revealed increased odds of mortality if the scene time was greater than 20 min in the case of penetrating trauma. Interestingly, this association was not demonstrated amongst patients who had sustained blunt trauma (Ann Emerg Med 2013;61:167–74). Ambulance crashes There is evidence to suggest that the risk of road traffic collisions is up to 13 t...
Source: Emergency Medicine Journal - May 13, 2013 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Maritz, D., Wyatt, J. Tags: Sophia Source Type: research
Forensic identification of 50 phalangeal fracture cases - Ji B, Li JQ.
OBJECTIVE: To study the characteristics of forensic identification of phalangeal fracture and to use a combination of medical records, imaging materials, and forensic examination data in identification. METHODS: Fifty cases of phalangeal fracture involved ... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated) - May 11, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Age: Adolescents Source Type: news
Retrospective forensic analysis of 483 solved homicide cases in Suzhou city - Gao D, Zhu JL.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the solved homicide cases taking place in Suzhou city and to find out the characteristics and commonness of them in order to analyze the key points of investigation at the scene. METHODS: The data of 483 solved homicide cases occurr... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated) - May 11, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Jurisprudence, Laws, Legislation, Policies, Rules Source Type: news