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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 29.
Unconsented HIV Testing in Cases of Occupational Exposure: Ethics, Law, and Policy.
Abstract ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2012; 19:000-000 © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine ABSTRACT: Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has substantially reduced the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after an occupational exposure; nevertheless, exposure to HIV remains a concern for emergency department providers. According to published guidelines, PEP should be taken only when source patients are HIV-positive or have risk factors for HIV. Initiating PEP when source patients are uninfected puts exposed persons at risk from taking toxic drugs with no compensating benefit. Forgoing PE...
Source: Accident and Emergency Nursing - September 20, 2012 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Cowan E, Macklin R Tags: Acad Emerg Med Source Type: research
The Ethics of End-of-Life Care for Patients with ESRD.
This article will provide a conceptual framework for renal palliative care and describe opportunities for enhancing palliative care for ESRD patients, including improved chronic pain management and advance care planning and a new model for delivering high-quality palliative care that includes appropriate consultation with specialist palliative care. PMID: 22997341 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN - September 20, 2012 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Davison SN Tags: Clin J Am Soc Nephrol Source Type: research
Expected Ethical Competencies of Public Health Professionals and Graduate Curricula in Accredited Schools of Public Health in North America.
Conclusions. Consistent ethics education and competency evaluation can be accomplished through a combination of a required course addressing the 3 domains, integration of ethics topics in other courses, and "booster" trainings. Enhancing ethics competence of public health professionals is important to address the ethical questions that arise in public health research, surveillance, practice, and policy. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 20, 2012: e1-e5. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300680). PMID: 22994177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Public Health - September 20, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Lee LM, Wright B, Semaan S Tags: Am J Public Health Source Type: research
Let's talk about sex: reflections on conversations about love and sexuality in Kumasi and Endwa, Ghana.
Abstract This paper recounts and reflects on conversations about love and sexuality conducted with young people in Kumasi and Endwa, Ghana. It examines the settings of these conversations - in a kinship-based household, secondary schools and Pentecostal churches - and explores young people's reticence to talk about such matters in the light of intergenerational respect. Analysing young people's strategies of silence and provocative speech, the paper shows that, paradoxically, schools and churches provide institutionalised spaces for young people's subversive outspokenness that contrasts with the ethical codex of de...
Source: Culture, Health and Sexuality - September 20, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Bochow A Tags: Cult Health Sex Source Type: research
Unconsented HIV Testing in Cases of Occupational Exposure: Ethics, Law, and PolicyLa Prueba del VIH Sin Consentimiento en los Casos de Exposición Ocupacional: Ética, Legalidad y Política
ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2012; 19:000–000 © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine AbstractPostexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has substantially reduced the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after an occupational exposure; nevertheless, exposure to HIV remains a concern for emergency department providers. According to published guidelines, PEP should be taken only when source patients are HIV‐positive or have risk factors for HIV. Initiating PEP when source patients are uninfected puts exposed persons at risk from taking toxic drugs with no compensating benefit. Forgoing PEP if the source...
Source: Academic Emergency Medicine - September 20, 2012 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Ethan Cowan, Ruth Macklin Source Type: research
Of people admitted within 2 h of mild/improving stroke, 31% do not receive rtPA, although many of these people have poor outcomes
Commentary on: Smith EE, Fonarow GC, Reeves MJ, et al.. Outcomes in mild or rapidly improving stroke not treated with intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator: findings from get with the guidelines-stroke. Stroke 2011;42:3110–15. Context Few patients with acute ischaemic stroke receive intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), with the main exclusion criterion being hospital arrival after 41/2 h.1 The second most common exclusion criterion from rtPA treatment, which is present in approximately 1/3 of all patients, is a mild or rapidly improving syndrome, termed ‘too good to t...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - September 20, 2012 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Willey, J. Z. Tags: Drugs: cardiovascular system, Stroke, Ethics Prognosis Source Type: research
Meta-analysis: vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fracture ineffective in improving pain and function
Commentary on: Staples MP, Kallmes DF, Comstock BA, et al.. Effectiveness of vertebroplasty using individual patient data from two randomised placebo controlled trials: meta-analysis. BMJ 2011;343:d3952. Context Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) are a significant public health concern worldwide. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation or vertebroplasty was introduced to alleviate the pain and reduce the disability associated with VCF in patients failing conservative therapy, but were at very high-risk for open surgery. Due to the apparent success and low morbidity of vertebroplasty, these indications were expa...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - September 20, 2012 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Frankel, B. M., Krishna, V. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Pain (neurology), Pain (palliative care), Radiology, Drugs: musculoskeletal and joint diseases, Musculoskeletal syndromes, Osteoporosis, Clinical diagnostic tests, Ethics, Injury Therapeutics Source Type: research
Patient health literacy and the practice of evidence-based medicine
The effective practice of evidence-based medicine requires the application of ‘current best evidence’ to individual patient care.1 While there is consensus that it is critical to include patients' individual preferences in medical decision-making,1–4 the best way to involve patients in the process is unclear. Patient preferences may be dictated by specific circumstances, such as age, as well as by past experiences and cultural values. Increasingly, evidence shows that both health outcomes and patient decision-making are strongly associated with health literacy,5–12 which is not routinely assessed du...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - September 20, 2012 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Kistin, C. J. Tags: Patients, Epidemiologic studies, Vaccination programs, Editor's choice, Immunology (including allergy), Influenza, Vaccination / immunisation, Asthma, Ethics Prespective Source Type: research
Ethical and deontological issues in Transfusion Medicine.
PMID: 23058865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Blood Transfusion - September 19, 2012 Category: Hematology Authors: Sacchini D, Liumbruno GM, Bruno G, Liumbruno C, Rafanelli D, Minacori R, Refolo P, Spagnolo AG Tags: Blood Transfus Source Type: research
Research Integrity in Greater China: Surveying Regulations, Perceptions and Knowledge of Research Integrity from a Hong Kong Perspective
Abstract In their 2010 article ‘Research Integrity in China: Problems and Prospects’, Zeng and Resnik challenge others to engage in empirical research on research integrity in China. Here we respond to that call in three ways: first, we provide updates to their analysis of regulations and allegations of scientific misconduct; second, we report on two surveys conducted in Hong Kong that provide empirical backing to describe ways in which problems and prospects that Zeng and Resnik identify are being explored; and third, we continue the discussion started by Zeng and Resnik, pointing to ways in which China's high‐profi...
Source: Developing World Bioethics - September 19, 2012 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Sara R. Jordan, Phillip W. Gray Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Ethics Education in Research Involving Human Beings in Undergraduate Medicine Curriculum in Brazil
ConclusionThe data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline‐based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical education, these findings are significant for curriculum change and modification plans in the future of Brazilian medical education.
Source: Developing World Bioethics - September 19, 2012 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: Maria Rita Garbi Novaes, Dirce Guilhem, Elena Barragan, Stewart Mennin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
MORAL PHILOSOPHERS ARE MORAL EXPERTS! A REPLY TO DAVID ARCHARD
ABSTRACT In his article ‘Why Moral Philosophers Are Not and Should Not Be Moral Experts’ David Archard attempts to show that his argument from common‐sense morality is more convincing than other competing arguments in the debate. I examine his main line of argumentation and eventually refute his main argument in my reply.
Source: Bioethics - September 19, 2012 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: JOHN‐STEWART GORDON Source Type: research
ETHICAL ISSUES RELATED TO SCREENING FOR PREECLAMPSIA
This study evaluates state‐of‐the‐art techniques for preeclampsia screening in an ethical framework, pointing out the central areas of moral relevance within the context of such screening activity. Furthermore, we propose ethical guidelines that a screening programme for PE should meet in order to become an uncontroversial addition to prenatal health care.
Source: Bioethics - September 19, 2012 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: JENNIFER M. JØRGENSEN, PAULA L. HEDLEY, MICKEY GJERRIS, MICHAEL CHRISTIANSEN Source Type: research
US Assessment of Medial Arterial Calcification: A Sensitive Marker of Diabetes-related Microvascular and Macrovascular Complications [Ultrasonography]
Conclusion: In type 2 diabetic Chinese patients, US was more sensitive than conventional radiography in the detection of MAC, particularly when the MAC was mild. The presence of severe MAC was associated with diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and macrovascular complications. US detection of MAC was a potential early marker to identify diabetes-related complications. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12112440/-/DC1
Source: Radiology - September 19, 2012 Category: Radiology Authors: Liu, K. H., Chu, W. C. W., Kong, A. P. S., Choi Ko, G. T., Ma, R. C. W., Chan, J. W. S., Chow, L. T. C., Rasalkar, D. D., So, W. Y., Tse, L. F., Corcoran, H. S., Ozaki, R., Ahuja, A. T., Chan, J. C. N. Tags: Ultrasound, Vascular Imaging Ultrasonography Source Type: research
Pulmonary Nodule Size Evaluation with Chest Tomosynthesis [Thoracic Imaging]
Conclusion: Measurements on chest tomosynthesis and CT images are comparable, because there is no evident bias between the modalities and the repeatability is similar. The LOA between measurements for the two modalities raise concern if measurements from chest tomosynthesis and CT were to be used interchangeably. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12111459/-/DC1
Source: Radiology - September 19, 2012 Category: Radiology Authors: Johnsson, A. A., Fagman, E., Vikgren, J., Fisichella, V. A., Boijsen, M., Flinck, A., Kheddache, S., Svalkvist, A., Bath, M. Tags: Chest Radiology Thoracic Imaging Source Type: research
Assessment of Median Nerve with MR Neurography by Using Diffusion-Tensor Imaging: Normative and Pathologic Diffusion Values [Musculoskeletal Imaging]
Conclusion: Normative diffusion values for MR neurography of the median nerve with DTI depend on the anatomic location and age but not on sex. Age-specific FA and ADC threshold values might be used to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome. © RSNA, 2012
Source: Radiology - September 19, 2012 Category: Radiology Authors: Guggenberger, R., Markovic, D., Eppenberger, P., Chhabra, A., Schiller, A., Nanz, D., Prussmann, K., Andreisek, G. Tags: Musculoskeletal Radiology Musculoskeletal Imaging Source Type: research
Radiation Dose and Cataract Surgery Incidence in Atomic Bomb Survivors, 1986-2005 [Medical Physics]
Conclusion: These data indicate a radiation effect for vision-impairing cataracts at doses less than 1 Gy. The evidence suggests that dose standards for protection of the eye from brief radiation exposures should be 0.5 Gy or less. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12111947/-/DC1
Source: Radiology - September 19, 2012 Category: Radiology Authors: Neriishi, K., Nakashima, E., Akahoshi, M., Hida, A., Grant, E. J., Masunari, N., Funamoto, S., Minamoto, A., Fujiwara, S., Shore, R. E. Tags: Other Medical Physics Source Type: research
Natural Course of Extrahepatic Nonmalignant Partial Portal Vein Thrombosis in Patients with Cirrhosis [Gastrointestinal Imaging]
Conclusion: Extrahepatic nonmalignant partial PVT improved spontaneously in 45% of patients with cirrhosis, and the progression of partial PVT was not associated with clinical outcome, which appeared to be dependent on the severity of cirrhosis. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12112236/-/DC1
Source: Radiology - September 19, 2012 Category: Radiology Authors: Luca, A., Caruso, S., Milazzo, M., Marrone, G., Mamone, G., Crino, F., Maruzzelli, L., Miraglia, R., Floridia, G., Vizzini, G. Tags: Gastrointestinal Radiology Gastrointestinal Imaging Source Type: research
Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted Imaging in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A 3.0-T MR Study [Gastrointestinal Imaging]
Conclusion: D is significantly decreased in steatosis. The reduction in D* reflects decreased liver parenchymal perfusion in steatosis. Therefore, steatosis can affect diffusion parameters obtained with IVIM. © RSNA, 2012
Source: Radiology - September 19, 2012 Category: Radiology Authors: Guiu, B., Petit, J.-M., Capitan, V., Aho, S., Masson, D., Lefevre, P.-H., Favelier, S., Loffroy, R., Verges, B., Hillon, P., Krause, D., Cercueil, J.-P. Tags: Gastrointestinal Radiology Gastrointestinal Imaging Source Type: research
Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot: Ratio of Right Ventricular Volume to Left Ventricular Volume as a Marker of Right Ventricular Dilatation [Cardiac Imaging]
Conclusion: The RV/LV ratio is more accurate than the RVEDVi in differentiation of significant from insignificant PR. After TOF repair, female and male patients have similar RV/LV ratios despite significant differences in RVEDVi between the sexes. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.12120051/-/DC1
Source: Radiology - September 19, 2012 Category: Radiology Authors: Spiewak, M., Malek, L. A., Petryka, J., Mazurkiewicz, L., Werys, K., Biernacka, E. K., Kowalski, M., Hoffman, P., Demkow, M., Misko, J., Ruzyllo, W. Tags: Cardiac Radiology Cardiac Imaging Source Type: research
Care of undocumented-uninsured immigrants in a large urban dialysis unit
Conclusions: Undocumented-uninsured dialysis patients presented initially in the advanced stages of CKD with lower levels of hemoglobin and worse nutritional status in comparison with age-matched insured patients. The type of vascular access for hemodialysis was less than optimal with regards to current guidelines. There is a need for the national and international nephrology communities to establish a policy concerning the treatment of undocumented-uninsured patients with CKD.
Source: BMC Nephrology - September 19, 2012 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gil CherninAmir Gal-OzIdit SchwartzMoshe ShasharDoron SchwartzTalia Weinstein Source Type: research
Medical misconduct in Hong Kong: implications for medical education around the world
Conclusions Various types of medical misconduct unquestionably caused suffering to the patients involved, their families and society. Hence, it is crucial for medical educators to teach students about the importance of medical ethics and the prevention of misconduct.
Source: Medical Education - September 19, 2012 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Zenobia C Y Chan Tags: professionalism Source Type: research
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial
This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral 900-mg EPA capsules thrice daily (total daily dose, 2.7 g per day), and those in the placebo group shall receive oral placebo capsules thrice daily. Af...
Source: BMC Cancer - September 19, 2012 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Takuma HigurashiKunihiro HosonoHiroki EndoHirokazu TakahashiHiroshi IidaTakashi UchiyamaAkiko EzukaShiori UchiyamaEiji YamadaHidenori OhkuboEiji SakaiShin MaedaSatoshi MoritaYutaka NatsumedaHajime NagaseAtsushi Nakajima Source Type: research
Chemical BPA Linked to Obesity in Children
White children exposed to high levels of bisphenol A are five times more likely to be obese than children with low levels, according to a study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - September 18, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Health,Chemistry,Environment,Ethics,Society & Policy,Biology,Health Source Type: research
Point-of-Care Echocardiography in the Accountable Care Organization Era [Advances in Cardiovascular Imaging]
Source: Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging - September 18, 2012 Category: Radiology Authors: Platz, E., Solomon, S. D. Tags: Other Ethics and Policy, Echocardiography Advances in Cardiovascular Imaging Source Type: research
Prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled trial of bladder filling prior to trial of void on the timing of discharge
ConclusionBladder filling prior to TOV showed a non‐statistically significant reduction in the time to discharge of 39.5 min. Despite the fact that bladder filling is a safe and cheap procedure, it cannot be recommended for use in an attempt to reduce time to discharge in an inpatient setting.
Source: ANZ Journal of Surgery - September 18, 2012 Category: Surgery Authors: Jason Du, Daniel Marshall, John Leyland, Leanne Shaw, Kim E. Broome, David F. C. Mason Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The systematic activation method as a nursing intervention in depressed elderly: a protocol for a multi -- centre cluster randomized trial
DiscussionTo our knowledge this is the first study to test the effect of Behavioral Activation as a nursing intervention in an inpatient elderly population. This research has been approved by the medical research ethics committee for health-care settings in the Netherlands (No. NL26878.029.09) and is listed in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR No.1809).
Source: BMC Psychiatry - Latest articles - September 18, 2012 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Frans ClignetBerno van MeijelAnnemiek van StratenPim Cuijpers Source Type: research
Malpractice claims in interventional radiology: frequency, characteristics and protective measures
Conclusions Litigation prevention largely depends on both reducing the rate of medical error and providing the patient with correct and coherent information. Adopting good radiological practices, scrupulous review of procedures and efficiency of the instruments used and audit of organisational and management processes are all factors that can help reduce the likelihood of error. Improving communication techniques while safeguarding the patient’s right to autonomy also implies adopting clear and rigorous processes for obtaining the patient’s informed consent to the medical procedure. Content Type...
Source: La Radiologia Medica - September 17, 2012 Category: Radiology Tags: La Radiologia Medica Source Type: research
STANDARD OF CARE, PROFESSIONAL OBLIGATIONS, AND DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE
ABSTRACT The problem of standard‐of‐care in clinical research concerns the level of care that investigators ought to provide to research subjects in the control arm of their clinical trials. Commentators differ sharply on whether subjects in trials conducted in lower income countries should be provided with the same level of care as subjects in trials conducted in higher income countries. I consider an argument that commentators have employed on both sides of this debate: professional role arguments. These arguments claim to justify a conclusion to the standard‐of‐care problem solely by appeal to the professional o...
Source: Bioethics - September 17, 2012 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: DOUGLAS MACKAY Source Type: research
Failure of plastic surgical clinical trials to document compliance with international ethical guidelines: A systematic review
Summary: Background: The Declaration of Helsinki (DOH) mandates that clinical trials must follow specific ethical standards including independent ethical review and registration in a public database to protect the rights and safety of human subjects and promote public trust. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to identify whether independent ethical review and trial registration had been documented in all prospective clinical studies published in the journals Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery and the Journal of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery from 7/2007 to ...
Source: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery - September 17, 2012 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: M. Felix Freshwater, D.E. Garcia-Zalisnak, N.E. González-Ortiz Tags: Review Source Type: research
The integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) into the practice of psychology: A vision for the future.
This article provides an overview of each of the 14 most widely used forms of CAM, discusses limitations in the current body of scientific evidence in support of CAM and makes recommendations for how psychologists should be integral in addressing them, highlights ethical issues that each psychologist will want to be cognizant of and address when integrating CAM into their practices, and makes recommendations for education, training, and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Source: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice - September 17, 2012 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Barnett, Jeffrey E.; Shale, Allison J. Source Type: research
Ethics for end-of-life treatments: Metastatic colorectal cancer is one example
Abstract: The number of biological agents (BAs) registered with an indication related to cancer treatment is flourishing and the cost of these treatments is rising dramatically, making the situation potentially unsustainable for healthcare systems. Here we focus on the examples of bevacizumab (BV) and cetuximab (CX), two BAs approved for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The first clinical trials show an increase in median overall survival of a few months, though these results could not always be repeated in subsequent studies.We reviewed full economic evaluations (FEEs) on BV or CX and despite frequently arguable estim...
Source: Health Policy - September 17, 2012 Category: Health Management Authors: Livio Garattini, Katelijne van de Vooren, Alberto Zaniboni Tags: Other Topics Source Type: research
Do-not-resuscitate order: a view throughout the world
Abstract: Resuscitation has the ability to reverse premature death. It can also prolong terminal illness, increase discomfort, and consume resources. The do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order and advance directives are still a debated issue in critical care. This review will focus on several aspects, regarding withholding and/or withdrawing therapies and advance directives in different continents. It is widely known that there is a great diversity of cultural and religious beliefs in society, and therefore, some critical ethical and legal issues have still to be solved. To achieve a consensus, we believe in the priority of contin...
Source: Journal of Critical Care - September 17, 2012 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Cristina Santonocito, Giuseppe Ristagno, Antonino Gullo, Max Harry Weil Tags: Consent/End of Life Source Type: research
The Use of Socially Assistive Robots for Dementia Care.
This article provides an overview of the use of socially assistive robots (SARs) to offer support as therapists, companions, and educators for people living with dementia. Social, ethical, and legal challenges associated with the use of robotic technology in patient care and implications for the use of SARs by nurses are discussed. These items considered, the authors conclude that SARs should be considered as a viable way to assist people living with dementia to maintain their highest possible level of independence, enhance their quality of life, and provide support to overburdened family caregivers. Further research is ne...
Source: Journal of Gerontological Nursing - September 17, 2012 Category: Nursing Authors: Huschilt J, Clune L Tags: J Gerontol Nurs Source Type: research
Submission of scientifically sound and ethical manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals - a reviewer's personal perspective on bioanalytical publications.
Abstract In the pharmaceutical industry, bioanalysis is very dynamic and is probably one of the few fields of research covering the entire drug discovery, development and post-marketing process. Important decisions on drug safety can partially rely on bioanalytical data, which therefore can be subject to regulatory scrutiny. Bioanalytical scientists have historically contributed significant numbers of scientific manuscripts in many peer-reviewed analytical journals. All of these journals provide some high-level instructions, but they also leave sufficient flexibility for reviewers to perform independent critique an...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - September 17, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Weng N Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research
A Case of Diogenes Syndrome: Clinical and Ethical Challenges
Source: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society - September 17, 2012 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Gregory Bonci, Elizabeth Varghese, Nahla Mahgoub Tags: Letters to the Editor Source Type: research
[Reaction on 'The ethical duty to treat children and adolescents with autism and catatonia'].
PMID: 22961283 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie - September 16, 2012 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Sizoo B, van der Reijden M Tags: Tijdschr Psychiatr Source Type: research
Seeking Connections, Creating Movement: The Power of Altruistic Action
Abstract Participation of older people in designing and improving the care and services provided in residential care settings is limited. Traditional forms of democratic representation, such as client councils, and consumer models are management-driven. An alternative way of involving older people in the decisions over their lives, grounded in notions of care ethics and deliberative democracy, was explored by action research. In line with this tradition older people engage in collective action to enhance the control over their lives and those of others. In this article the theoretical background of altruisti...
Source: Health Care Analysis - September 15, 2012 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Care Analysis Source Type: research
Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial
Conclusions: The STAMPEDE experience shows that recruitment to a MAMS trial and mid-flow changes its design are achievable with good planning. This benefits patients and the scientific community as research treatments are evaluated in a more efficient and cost-effective manner.Trial registrationISRCTN78818544, NCT00268476First patient into trial: 17 October 2005First patient into abiraterone comparison: 15 November 2011
Source: BioMed Central - September 15, 2012 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Matthew R SydesMahesh KB ParmarMalcolm D MasonNoel W ClarkeClaire AmosJohn AndersonJohann S de BonoDavid P DearnaleyJohn DwyerCharlene GreenGordana JovicAlastair WS RitchieJ Martin RussellKaren SandersGeorge ThalmannNicholas D James Source Type: research
Human-Rights Court to Rule on Fertility-Treatment Ban
By Michele Catanzaro of Nature magazine [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - September 14, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Health,Ethics,Biotechnology,Biotechnology,Health,Society & Policy Source Type: research
What is the solution for clinical nurse educators and the electronic medical record?
Abstract: Health care facilities are implementing the electronic medical record for a variety of reasons. The purpose of this article will summarize the challenges nurse educators and students face as a result of recent changes in documentation. A review of literature revealed impacting technology, curriculum considerations, ethical considerations, and economic influences evolving from these changes. The summarized data is presented along with possible solutions as increased technology enters the clinical setting.
Source: Teaching and Learning in Nursing - September 14, 2012 Category: Nursing Authors: Christine L. Brooks, Lynn K. Erickson Source Type: research
A Review of Medical Image Watermarking Requirements for Teleradiology
Abstract Teleradiology allows medical images to be transmitted over electronic networks for clinical interpretation and for improved healthcare access, delivery, and standards. Although such remote transmission of the images is raising various new and complex legal and ethical issues, including image retention and fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc., considerations of the security measures used in teleradiology remain unchanged. Addressing this problem naturally warrants investigations on the security measures for their relative functional limitations and for the scope of considering them further. In...
Source: Journal of Digital Imaging - September 14, 2012 Category: Radiology Tags: Journal of Digital Imaging Source Type: research
[Perspectives] Not my turn
Bioethics is often done along the remote frontiers of new medical technologies or in the context of complicated medical decisions that are riddled with doubt and uncertainty. However, sometimes the simplest, mundane cases create the most powerful ethical dilemmas as well as insights. Consider the real life case of an 88-year-old man I will refer to as Harold Brennan. Harold made a simple demand upon those caring for him: that no one turn him over in his hospital bed. This seemingly simple request created a difficult ethical conundrum.
Source: LANCET - September 14, 2012 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Arthur L Caplan Tags: Perspectives Source Type: research
Motivations for, and perceptions and experiences of participating in, a cluster randomised controlled trial of a HIV-behavioural intervention in rural South Africa.
Abstract Empirical research on ethical issues in HIV-prevention and gender-based violence research, critical for honing ethical and safety guidelines, is limited. In this paper we describe South African young people's motivations for participating in randomised controlled trial, the prevalence of negative occurrences, participation regrets and associated factors. This trial partly followed, but also deviated from, the WHO safety guidelines for research on violence against women. A total of 1085 women and 985 men provided information two years after the trial start. Most participated for HIV testing and to help thei...
Source: Culture, Health and Sexuality - September 14, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Jewkes R, Sikweyiya Y, Nduna M, Shai NJ, Dunkle K Tags: Cult Health Sex Source Type: research
Sperm and oocyte cryopreservation: comprehensive consent and the protection of patient autonomy
Sperm cryopreservation and increasingly oocyte cryopreservation are common forms of fertility preservation for oncology patients facing gonadotoxic therapy. Both procedures present challenging ethical issues with regard to informed consent, given that the context for these procedures is a disease that carries a significant risk of mortality. We argue that the current consent process does not allow for adequate collection of information about a patient's wishes for the custody of cryopreserved gametes in the case of premature death. After review of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the American S...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 14, 2012 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dillon, K. E., Fiester, A. M. Tags: DEBATE Source Type: research
Implications of oocyte cryostorage for the practice of oocyte donation
As the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation has increased rapidly in recent years, oocytes are currently being stored either in the course of IVF treatments or as a fertility preservation measure. These practices may have an impact on the number of available donor oocytes due to two different dynamics: first, a certain percentage of women for whom oocytes were cryopreserved will eventually not use their oocytes and may decide to donate them to others; secondly, especially in the practice of social freezing, women may opt to donate a portion of the retrieved oocytes in ‘freeze-and-share’ schemes in order to red...
Source: Human Reproduction - September 14, 2012 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mertes, H., Pennings, G., Dondorp, W., de Wert, G. Tags: OPINION Source Type: research
Enhancement Technology and Outcomes: What Professionals and Researchers Can Learn from Those Skeptical About Cochlear Implants
Abstract This text presents an overview of the bioethical debate on pediatric cochlear implants and pays particular attention to the analysis of the Deaf critique of implantation. It dismisses the idea that Deaf concerns are primarily about the upholding of Deaf culture and sign language. Instead it is argued that Deaf skepticism about child rehabilitation after cochlear surgery is well founded. Many Deaf people have lived experiences as subjects undergoing rehabilitation. It is not the cochlear technology in itself they view as problematic, but rather the subsequent rehabilitation process. Because they them...
Source: Health Care Analysis - September 13, 2012 Category: Health Management Tags: Health Care Analysis Source Type: research
EUROPE DEBATES CIRCUMCISION . . . AND WHAT ABOUT THE CHILD'S BEST INTEREST?
Source: Bioethics - September 13, 2012 Category: Medical Ethics Authors: UDO SCHÜKLENK Source Type: research
Answers to the following two quiz questions can be found on page ... Theme: upper limb For each of the following questions, select one option from the following:Osteomyelitis of the clavicle Congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle Acute fracture of the clavicle Cleidocranial dysostosis Healing fracture of the clavicle Ununited fracture of the clavicle Ewings sarcoma of the clavicle Question 1 This 2-week old baby boy presented to the emergency department with respiratory distress and fever, and chest radiograph (figure 1) was obtained in view of focal chest signs. A diagnosis of probable viral infection was made but an u...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 13, 2012 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Williams, H. Tags: Oncology, Journalology, Bone and joint infections, Pregnancy, Radiology, Rheumatology, Clinical diagnostic tests, Radiology (diagnostics), Competing interests (ethics), Trauma, Injury Illuminations Source Type: research
Aurora kinase B is a potential therapeutic target in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma
Abstract Pediatric high‐grade astrocytomas (HGAs) account for 15%–20% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. These neoplasms predominantly involve the supratentorial hemispheres or the pons ‐ diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG). Assumptions that pediatric HGAs are biologically similar to adult HGAs have recently been challenged and the development of effective therapeutic modalities for DIPG and supratentorial HGA hinges on a better understanding of their biological properties. Here 20 pediatric HGAs (9 DIPGs and 11 supratentorial HGAs) were subject to gene expression profiling following approval by the...
Source: Brain Pathology - September 13, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Pawel Buczkowicz, Maryam Zarghooni, Ute Bartels, Andrew Morrison, Katherine L. Misuraca, Tiffany Chan, Eric Bouffet, Annie Huang, Oren Becher, Cynthia Hawkins Tags: Research Article Source Type: research