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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 24.
Personality and Situational Correlates of Self‐reported Reasons for Intimate Partner Violence among Women versus Men Referred for Batterers' Intervention
This study examines personality and situational correlates of self‐reported reasons for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women and men court‐ordered to batterers' intervention as IPV offenders. Women endorsed self‐defense and men retaliation as their primary reasons for IPV. Both also endorsed emotion dysregulation as a reason for much of their violence. Women's partner violence was largely, but not exclusively, situationally motivated. Women's reasons for violence also related significantly to self‐reported borderline personality symptomology. Men's reasons for IPV related primarily to their self‐reported a...
Source: Behavioral Sciences and the Law - August 23, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Jody M. Ross Tags: Special Issue Paper Source Type: research
A twilight adventure
Many years ago, before the age of the internet, I picked up a collection of short stories called A Month of Mystery, edited by the film director Alfred Hitchcock. Most of the stories were humdrum, but one of them struck me as a masterpiece. It was by an American writer from the early 20th century named Melville Davisson Post. Although I never came across his writing again, his name stuck in my mind. Earlier this year, on a whim, I Googled him, and discovered that some of his works were still in print. I ordered a volume of his mystery stories, read them, and have been possessed by them ever since. More to the point, I have...
Source: Postgraduate Medical Journal - August 22, 2011 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Launer, J. Tags: On reflection Source Type: research
Pedagogy of individual choice and female inmate reentry in the U.S. Southwest.
Abstract Much of the mental health, substance use, and educational programming within a particular women's prison in the southwestern United States promotes individual choice and agency. Incarcerated women from rural areas are told that their ability to succeed outside of prison is primarily dependent upon their personal choices. Comparably little attention is given to preparing women for their upcoming release or to overcoming structural barriers that could undermine successful reentry within rural communities. As a result, these returning citizens, many of whom grapple with mental illness and alcohol or drug depe...
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - August 21, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Kellett NC, Willging CE Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
Medical injury, patients' claims and the effects of government responses in Anglo-American legal systems
Almost no one is happy with malpractice liability, the traditional Anglo–American system for dealing with complaints about medical injury. To its more trenchant critics it is inefficient, ineffective, inaccurate and, what matters most, it is structurally inconsistent with the fundaments of quality improvement and future patient safety.1 It is, in all, something only a trial lawyer could love.2 3 Efforts at reform are in place almost everywhere. New Zealand has effectively barred malpractice litigation entirely4; Australia has curbed it by offering parallel, commission-based procedures5; Canada and England have relati...
Source: Quality and Safety in Health Care - August 21, 2011 Category: Health Management Authors: Dauer, E. A. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research
Protecting scientific integrity: the commercial speech doctrine applied to industry publications.
PMID: 21847879 [PubMed - in process]
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Sax JK Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
Off-label drug use and promotion: balancing public health goals and commercial speech.
PMID: 21847880 [PubMed - in process]
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Kesselheim AS Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
Commercial speech and off-label drug uses: what role for wide acceptance, general recognition and research incentives?
This article provides an overview of how the constitutional protections for commercial speech affect the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) regulation of drugs, and the emerging issues about the scope of these protections. A federal district court has already found that commercial speech allows manufacturers to distribute reprints of medical articles about a new off-label use of a drug as long as it contains disclosures to prevent deception and to inform readers about the lack of FDA review. This paper summarizes the current agency guidance that accepts the manufacturer's distribution of reprints with disclosures. Allerg...
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Gilhooley M Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
The ban on "off-label" pharmaceutical promotion: constitutionally permissible prophylaxis against false or misleading commercial speech?
Abstract Critics of the Food & Drug Administration's ban on off-label promotion often claim that it violates the First Amendment because it suppresses pharmaceutical manufacturers' truthful speech about their legal--and beneficial--products. Characterizing the ban on off-label promotion in this way has more than rhetorical significance. Bans on truthful, non-misleading speech elicit special skepticism because of the belief that they "usually rest solely on the offensive assumption that the public will respond 'irrationally' to the truth." The legislative history of the provisions of the Food Drug and Cosmetic A...
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Greenwood K Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
The commercial speech doctrine in health regulation: the clash between the public interest in a robust First Amendment and the public interest in effective protection from harm.
PMID: 21847883 [PubMed - in process]
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Orentlicher D Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
Off-label prescription advertising, the FDA and the First Amendment: a study in the values of commercial speech protection.
PMID: 21847884 [PubMed - in process]
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Klasmeier C, Redish MH Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
The money blind: how to stop industry bias in biomedical science, without violating the First Amendment.
Abstract The pharmaceutical and medical device industries use billions of dollars to support the biomedical science that physicians, regulators, and patients use to make healthcare decisions--the decisions that drive an increasingly large portion of the American economy. Compelling evidence suggests that this industry money buys favorable results, biasing the outcomes of scientific research. Current efforts to manage the problem, including disclosure mandates and peer reviews, are ineffective. A blinding mechanism, operating through an intermediary such as the National Institutes of Health, could instead be develop...
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Robertson CT Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
Can speech by FDA-regulated firms ever be noncommercial?
PMID: 21847886 [PubMed - in process]
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Cortez N Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
No need for more regulation: payors and their role in balancing the cost and safety considerations of off-label prescriptions.
PMID: 21847887 [PubMed - in process]
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Todd AE Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
You can't say that on television: constitutional analysis of a direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising ban.
PMID: 21847888 [PubMed - in process]
Source: American Journal of Law and Medicine - August 20, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Mulligan L Tags: Am J Law Med Source Type: research
Adventist hearing delayed, again
If you ever want to build a new hospital in Maryland, one thing you can count on: delays, delays and more delays. Adventist HealthCare had planned on resting its case Friday for a new hospital in White Oak before the Maryland Health Care Commission, which decides whether or not to grant it permission. The commission's reviewer heard four days of testimony last week, and thought one last bit of testimony could be heard Friday. But, it's been pushed back again, for three more weeks to Sept. 8. This latest delay comes after the entire evidentiary hearings were pushed back from June to August, after one of the Rockville-bas...
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines - August 19, 2011 Category: American Health Authors: Ben Fischer Source Type: research
Population genetic analyses of the AmpFlSTR® NGM™ in Brazil
Abstract Population data of 15 short tandem repeat loci of the AmpFlSTR® next generation multiplex (NGM)™ were obtained from a sample of 835 individuals. The loci are the ten short tandem repeats (STRs) in the SGM Plus® Kit plus the EDNAP- and ENSFI-recommended STRs D10S1248, D22S1045, D2S441, D1S1656, and D12S391. Allele frequency and other forensically relevant statistics data were generated for the NGM loci into five current country macroregions of Brazil (North, Northeast, Central West, Southeast, and South). All the analyzed loci meet Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium expectations and no linkage disequil...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - August 18, 2011 Category: Medical Law Tags: International Journal of Legal Medicine Source Type: research
Validation of reference genes for estimating wound age in contused rat skeletal muscle by quantitative real-time PCR
This study examined the transcriptional stability of nine potential reference genes (β-actin, GAPDH, RPL32, PGK1, SDHA, RPL13, HPRT, Tbp, and Ywhaz) in contused rat skeletal muscle by RT-qPCR. The raw Ct values were determined for each candidate gene at different time points following contusion, and the data were analyzed by the NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper validation programs. The reference genes RPL13 and RPL32 were the most stably expressed genes in contused skeletal muscle, whereas PGK1 was the least stable. The commonly used reference genes β-actin and GAPDH appeared to be too unstable for normalization o...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - August 16, 2011 Category: Medical Law Tags: International Journal of Legal Medicine Source Type: research
Best of Biz Notes: Aug. 15
Best of Biz Notes features items from our Friday paper in the Biz Notes, Awards & Achievements and Charity sections of For the Record. Awards & Achievements All three partners of the Sacramento personal injury and class action law firm Kershaw, Cutter & Ratinoff LLP have been named to the California Super Lawyers list. William Kershaw, Brooks Cutter and Eric Ratinoff have all been named top attorneys in California for 2011. Super Lawyers is a Thomson Reuters business that rates lawyers who have attained high degrees of peer recognition and professional achievement...
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - August 15, 2011 Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research
Be careful if ending treatment agreement
As a physician, whether to treat a patient is up to you. And whether to discontinue treatment is up to you and your patient. The author discusses reasons why you may wish to discontinue treatment and the best way to handle each situation.
Source: Medical Economics - Malpractice - August 9, 2011 Category: Medical Law Source Type: research
Examining the impact of mental illness and substance use on recidivism in a county jail.
Abstract This paper describes the recidivism patterns over a 4year period for a cohort of people admitted to a large US urban jail system in 2003 and analyzes how these patterns vary based on presence of mental illness and substance abuse. Jail detention and behavioral health service records were merged for all admissions to a large urban jail system in 2003 (N=24,290). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the recidivism patterns for people admitted to jail in 2003 (N=20,112) over a four year period. Recidivism patterns of people without mental illness or substance use disorders were compared with people wit...
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - August 9, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Wilson AB, Draine J, Hadley T, Metraux S, Evans A Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
Lawyers Beware! The Scientific Process, Peer Review, and the Use of Papers in Evidence
Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene - August 8, 2011 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Ogden, T. Tags: EDITORIAL Source Type: research
The implementation of county residence restrictions in New York.
This study addresses this lack of research by examining the characteristics of counties implementing these policies in New York State over the course of 5 years using Logistic regression and linear probability models. In doing so, this study draws on the literatures relating to the implementation of crime policies and the diffusion of policy innovations. Results indicate that political competition is very influential in implementing a county residence restriction. Further, while geographic proximity to an existing residence restriction may have some influence, it appears to discourage rather than encourage the implementati...
Source: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law - August 8, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Socia, Kelly M. Source Type: research
Treating criminal behavior: Is the bang worth the buck?
Andrews and colleagues (see record 1996-98344-008) showed that the principles of Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) effectively reduced recidivism. The purpose of this study was to advance Andrews and colleagues' work by examining whether correctional services that adhered to RNR were more expensive than services that did not adhere to RNR. Articles included in the Andrews et al. (1990) meta-analysis of correctional services were gathered and reevaluated based upon a coding process which emphasized the maximum cost of service provision. Results indicated that appropriate correctional services (services that adhered to RNR) were...
Source: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law - August 8, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Romani, Christopher Jon;Morgan, Robert D.;Gross, Nicole R.;McDonald, Brendan R. Source Type: research
Public health and policy perspectives for psychiatry and law.
PMID: 21831440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - August 7, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Draine J, Hadley T Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
Investigation of the force associated with the formation of lacerations and skull fractures
This study investigates the pathophysiological nature of head injuries caused by blunt force trauma, specifically in relation to the incidence and formation of a laceration. An experimental model was devised to assess the force required to cause damage to the scalp and underlying skull of porcine specimens following a single fronto-parietal impact. This was achieved using a drop tower equipped with adapted instrumentation for data acquisition. The applied force and implement used could be correlated with resultant injuries and as such aid pathological investigation in the differentiation between falls and blows. Exper...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - August 6, 2011 Category: Medical Law Tags: International Journal of Legal Medicine Source Type: research
CIT in context: The impact of mental health resource availability and district saturation on call dispositions.
The goals of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) programs include improving safety during encounters between police and persons with mental illnesses, diverting persons with mental illnesses away from the criminal justice system, and increasing referral and access to mental health services. CIT is a systemic intervention, and as such, its implementation and effectiveness are influenced by existing practices and infrastructures. However, little research has considered the context in which CIT programs are implemented. In this paper, we present research on CIT in four Chicago police districts that vary in terms of two context...
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - August 3, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Watson AC, Ottati VC, Draine J, Morabito M Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
Clinical Syndromes, Personality Disorders, and Neurocognitive Differences in Male and Female Inmates
This study examined clinical syndromes, personality disorders, and neurocognitive problems in adult male (n = 523) and female inmates (n = 523) and a sample of unincarcerated adult women (n = 523). Inmates were administered the Coolidge Correctional Inventory (CCI), and the unincarcerated sample was given an identical test, the Coolidge Axis II Inventory. Although there were significant differences between the two inmate groups on a majority of the 32 CCI scales, only two scales achieved a medium effect size. The two inmate groups were found to be highly similar in a comparison of ranked personality disorder pr...
Source: Behavioral Sciences and the Law - August 2, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Frederick L. CoolidgePeter D. MarleStephanie A. Van HornDaniel L. Segal Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
High Psychopathic Trait Females Exhibit Reduced Startle Potentiation and Increased P3 Amplitude
This study examined both affective startle blink modulation and P3 amplitude in a sample of female undergraduates grouped by scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory‐Revised (PPI‐R). Those scoring high for psychopathic traits lacked startle blink potentiation and demonstrated larger P3 amplitudes during auditory and visual oddball tasks. These data support the generalizability of deficient startle potentiation to non‐incarcerated females with psychopathic traits, and add to a growing body of literature suggesting that psychopathic traits are associated with distinctive information‐processing characteristics...
Source: Behavioral Sciences and the Law - August 2, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Nathaniel E. AndersonMatthew S. StanfordLi WanKeith A. Young Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Matching consequences to behavior: Implications of failing to distinguish between noncompliance and nonresponsivity.
Neither punitive nor therapeutic approaches alone are effective at addressing the dual public health and public safety concerns associated with managing criminal behavior perpetrated by people who have psychiatric and substance use disorders. The optimal solution may instead require the integration of both criminal justice supervision and treatment. Using problem-solving courts (PSCs) as a model, we focus on one dimension of this integrated approach, distinguishing between behavior that stems from willful noncompliance with supervision and behavior that results from nonresponsivity to treatment. First, we discuss the p...
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - August 1, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Matejkowski J, Festinger DS, Benishek LA, Dugosh KL Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
GAME OVER: Empirical support for soccer bets regulation.
In many countries, betting in sports is highly regulated but both in the U.S. and in Europe there are current debates whether regulation should be loosened. We empirically investigate core arguments of these debates with a special focus on Germany. A crucial part of the argument in German Law is that sport bets could be qualified as 'games of skill' that are considered to be less dangerous than 'games of chance,' and are thus assumed to need less regulation. We explore this hypothesis in three incentivized online studies on soccer betting (N = 214) and provide evidence against two crucial parts of this argument. First, we ...
Source: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law - July 31, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Towfigh, Emanuel; Glöckner, Andreas Source Type: research
Federal standards for community registration of juvenile sex offenders: An evaluation of risk prediction and future implications.
This article addresses several key concerns relating to the application of these federal standards to adolescent offenders. In addition to a review of the extant literature, we present findings from an exploratory evaluation that examines the ability of the Adam Walsh Act's classification system to predict future offending among a sample of 112 adjudicated juvenile sex offenders over a 2-year outcome period. Results indicate that offenders who met criteria for registration did not reoffend (sexually or nonsexually) at a significantly higher rate than those who did not meet registration criteria. Implications regarding appr...
Source: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law - July 31, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Batastini, Ashley B.; Hunt, Elizabeth; Present-Koller, Julie; DeMatteo, David Source Type: research
Application of direct PCR in a forensic case of yew poisoning
Abstract Intoxications with yew (Taxus spp.) pose a challenge to forensic toxicology because a variety of Taxus ingredients have been associated with its toxic effects. To provide preliminary evidence in cases where plant material is available, we introduce a novel direct PCR assay for the detection of DNA traces from Taxus spp. This assay has been successfully applied to a forensic case of suicidal poisoning via ingestion of Taxus leaves. PCR primers were designed to target a sequence located in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of nuclear ribosomal DNA, which is well conserved among species of the gen...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 30, 2011 Category: Medical Law Tags: International Journal of Legal Medicine Source Type: research
The curious case of Housing First: The limits of evidence based policy.
Evidence Based Policy has been articulated and practiced in Europe, particularly under the 'New Labour' policies of the former Labour government in the United Kingdom. In the United States, the impact of research on policy has been inconsistent due to differing relationships between researchers and policy makers. This paper gives an overview of evidence based policy and presents critiques based on its reliance on positivist methods and technical approach to policy making. Using these critiques as a framework, the paper discusses the case of Housing First, a policy adopted by the Bush Administration in order to address ...
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - July 29, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Stanhope V, Dunn K Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
"From the prison door right to the sidewalk, everything went downhill," A qualitative study of the health experiences of recently released inmates.
The objective of this study was to understand the health-seeking experiences, perceptions of risk, and medical and mental health needs of former prisoners in the first two months after release from prison. Participants consisted of 29 former inmates within the first two months after their release from prison to the Denver, Colorado area. Using qualitative methods, trained interviewers conducted individual, in-person, semi-structured interviews exploring participants' experiences with health, mental health, and health care since release. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed utilizing a team-based approach to induct...
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - July 27, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Binswanger IA, Nowels C, Corsi KF, Long J, Booth RE, Kutner J, Steiner JF Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
Citizenship, mental illness, and the criminal justice system.
The concept of citizenship in regard to persons with mental illness has gained increasing attention in recent years, but little empirical research has been conducted on this topic. In addition, little research or conceptual writing has been done on the topic of criminal justice in regard to citizenship for people with mental illness, in spite of the high incidence of criminal charges and incarceration among this group. We review our work on an applied theoretical framework of citizenship, including its origins in mental health outreach work to people who are homeless and in a jail diversion program. We then suggest the...
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - July 26, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Rowe M, Baranoski M Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
HIV-1 mutational pathways under multidrug therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: The accuracy of therapy outcome prediction tools may be increased by including the number of previous treatments, and by considering locations in the HIV genome which increase the hazard of developing resistance mutations. PMID: 21794106 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - July 26, 2011 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lawyer G, Altmann A, Thielen A, Zazzi M, Sonnerborg A, Lengauer T Tags: AIDS Res Ther Source Type: research
HIV-1 mutational pathways under multidrug therapy
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - July 26, 2011 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Glenn LawyerAndre AltmannAlexander ThielenMaurizio ZazziAnders SonnerborgThomas Lengauer Source Type: research
Job Stress and Coping: Self‐Employed versus Organizationally Employed Professionals
AbstractIn order to examine job stress and coping among self‐employed and organizationally employed professionals, job‐related stressors and coping strategies were assessed among self‐employed (n = 149) and organizationally employed (n = 159) professionals working as accountants, lawyers, pharmacists and psychologists. Results indicate that although self‐employed workers complained about lack of security and organizationally employed workers complained about lack of autonomy, no differences were found in overall stress levels or overload. Examination of workers' coping strategies provided a partial explanat...
Source: Stress and Health - July 26, 2011 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lior Oren Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Education, empowerment and community based structural reinforcement: An HIV prevention response to mass incarceration and removal.
In the context of US urban jails, incarceration is often seen as an opportune intervention point for prevention interventions in public health. For the detained individual, it is an opportunity to reflect on individual choices and the potential for changes in one's life course. For population focused public health professionals, jail detention facilities represent a concentration of health risks, and an opportunity to have an impact on a significant portion of those at risk for HIV and other health concerns. This paper presents an innovative education and empowerment model that bridges across jail walls, beginning on t...
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - July 25, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Draine J, McTighe L, Bourgois P Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
Human dignity, self-worth, and humiliation: A comparative legal–psychological approach.
The concept of human dignity is a central concept in many legal systems. Yet the increasing and sometimes excessive use of this concept has generated a number of serious problems which have only recently become clear in empirical research and court rulings showing that the meanings of dignity have become contradictory and can no longer advance human rights protections. This paper offers a way out of the deadlock. We offer an approach which is anchored in the psychology of the self, specifically in the human need for maintaining positive self-worth. We elaborate on what this conceptualization means in terms of violations of...
Source: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law - July 25, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Shultziner, Doron;Rabinovici, Itai Source Type: research
Prescriptive approaches to communicating the risk of violence in actuarial risk assessment.
This article describes the substantive considerations before examining whether it is within the purview of expert witnesses to amalgamate the various components into a finalistic risk estimate. Based on existing commentary about the appropriate scope of mental health expert testimony, three approaches to communicating actuarial risk estimates are described and appraised. These approaches are as follows: describing risk factors and their relation to violence; describing the risk of an individual; and describing the risk of an individual in categorical terms. Ultimately, the most appropriate form to communicate actuarial est...
Source: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law - July 25, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Scurich, Nicholas;John, Richard S. Source Type: research
Dangerously misunderstood: Representative jurors' reactions to expert testimony on future dangerousness in a sexually violent predator trial.
This study advances this line of research by examining these effects using a more ecologically valid sample of 156 venire jurors who watched a simulated, videotaped SVP trial based on a case transcript. As predicted, jurors were more influenced by the less scientific, clinical expert testimony. The data provided only limited support for a theoretical explanation based on Cognitive-Experiential Self-Theory (CEST). The policy implications of these results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Source: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law - July 25, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Krauss, Daniel A.;McCabe, John G.;Lieberman, Joel D. Source Type: research
Predators and punishment.
Psychopathy is characterized as an emotional disorder tightly woven with persistent antisocial behavior. Prevailing legal doctrine and social norms hold psychopaths responsible for their conduct and punishment legitimately flows to psychopaths who violate the law. Recent scholarship, however, has challenged that view by claiming the emotional and cognitive deficits inherent in psychopathy should preclude culpability for some psychopaths. This view necessarily imposes a substantial modification on how the law conceptualizes culpability that is ultimately unwise. Legal responsibility entails the capacity for rationality and ...
Source: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law - July 25, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Erickson, Steven K.;Vitacco, Michael J. Source Type: research
Stereotype threat in criminal interrogations: Why innocent Black suspects are at risk for confessing falsely.
Little theoretical attention has been paid to evidence that Blacks are overrepresented in samples of false confessors compared to Whites. One possible explanation is that innocent Black suspects experience stereotype threat in interrogations and that this threat causes Black suspects to experience more arousal, self-regulatory efforts, and cognitive load compared to White suspects. These psychological mechanisms could lead innocent Black suspects to display more nonverbal behaviors associated with deception and, ironically, increase the likelihood that police investigators perceive them as guilty. In response, investigator...
Source: Psychology, Public Policy, and Law - July 25, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Najdowski, Cynthia J. Source Type: research
The public health implications of United Kingdom offender healthcare policy: A holistic approach to achieve individual and societal gains.
In 2009, two seminal documents were published by the United Kingdom (UK) government concerning healthcare services for offenders. The Bradley review into diversion for people with mental health problems and learning disabilities emphasised a need to improve offender health, not least because of the high economic costs to society as a whole resulting from unresolved mental illness, physical ill-health and substance abuse problems commonly experienced by offenders. The Bradley review made wide-reaching recommendations for change, requiring strong partnership between health and justice agencies at both central government ...
Source: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry - July 24, 2011 Category: Medical Law Authors: Senior J, Shaw J Tags: Int J Law Psychiatry Source Type: research
An efficient multiplex genotyping approach for detecting the major worldwide human Y-chromosome haplogroups
Abstract The Y chromosome is paternally inherited and therefore serves as an evolutionary marker of patrilineal descent. Worldwide DNA variation within the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome can be represented as a monophyletic phylogenetic tree in which the branches (haplogroups) are defined by at least one SNP. Previous human population genetics research has produced a wealth of knowledge about the worldwide distribution of Y-SNP haplogroups. Here, we apply previous and very recent knowledge on the Y-SNP phylogeny and Y-haplogroup distribution by introducing two multiplex genotyping assays that al...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 22, 2011 Category: Medical Law Tags: International Journal of Legal Medicine Source Type: research
Studies on the phase I metabolism of the new designer drug 3-fluoromethcathinone using rabbit liver slices
Abstract The metabolism of the novel designer drug 3-fluoromethcathinone (3-FMC), sold as “legal highs”, was investigated in vitro via cryopreserved rabbit liver slices. The pharmacological properties and toxicological effects of 3-FMC and its metabolites are not known yet. It can be assumed that 3-FMC will cause effects similar to 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) and methcathinone. For the metabolism studies, pretests were performed with rabbit liver slices incubated with kavain to evaluate optimal conditions. Finally, six known metabolites of kavain were revealed and therefore sufficient information ...
Source: International Journal of Legal Medicine - July 22, 2011 Category: Medical Law Tags: International Journal of Legal Medicine Source Type: research
Historical perspectives of The American Association for Thoracic Surgery: Frank B. Berry (1892–1976)
Frank Brown Berry (), the 31st president of The American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS), was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, on May 13, 1892. He was the third son of John King Berry, a lawyer, and Ellen Mary Brown. He attended Roxbury Latin School, a preparatory school for boys, where he was editor of the school newspaper, The Tripod, and learned Latin, the so-called universal language of medicine. After his graduation from Roxbury Latin, he spent 6 months working as a ranch hand in Bitterroot Valley, Montana, and then returned east to attend Harvard College. There he majored in government, history, and economi...
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - July 21, 2011 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Leora B. Balsam, Abe DeAnda Tags: Presidential Perspectives Source Type: research
When Is a Process for the Production of Plants “Essentially Biological”?; Decisions of the Enlarged Board of Appeal (G1/08 and G2/07)
Biotechnology Law Report Aug 2011, Vol. 30, No. 4: 459-464.
Source: Biotechnology Law Report - July 21, 2011 Category: Medical Law Tags: article Source Type: research
Assisting suicide remains illegal in England and Wales under the Suicide Act 1961, one of the few pieces of legislation where the protagonist is innocent, but the assistant is guilty. In May 2011, Switzerland undertook a referendum on this highly emotive subject and subsequently announced that the Swiss people were in favour of maintaining their laissez-faire approach to assisted suicide, and rejected a ban on assisted suicide and “Suicide tourism”. Such a stance is notoriously liberal compared with many countries across the globe, and has resulted in hundreds of suicide tourists travelling thousand of miles to avoid t...
Source: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine - July 21, 2011 Category: Forensic Medicine Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research