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Comparative Performance of Thin Layer Agar and Löwenstein‐Jensen Culture for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tullia Battaglioli, Ning Rintiswati, Anandi Martin, Ktut Rentyasti Palupi, Gertjan Bernaerts, Bintari Dwihardiani, Riris Andono Ahmad, Francine Matthys, Yodi Mahendradhata, Patrick Van der Stuyft Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Assessment of the environmental microbiological cross‐contamination following hand drying with paper hand towels or an air blade dryer
ConclusionsThe two drying methods led to different patterns of ballistic droplets and levels of microbial contamination under heavy use conditions. Whilst the increase in microbial levels in the environment is not significant if only non‐pathogenic microorganisms are spread, it may increase the risk of pathogen contamination of the environment when pathogens are occasionally present on people's hands. Significance and impact of studyThe study suggests that the risk of cross‐contamination from the washroom users to the environment and subsequent users should be considered when choosing a hand drying method. The data cou...
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: E. Margas, E. Maguire, C. R. Berland, F. Welander, J. T. Holah Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Genome‐wide sequencing of Phytophthora lateralis reveals genetic variation among isolates from Lawson cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) in Northern Ireland
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters)
Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lisa Quinn, Paul A. O'Neill, James Harrison, Konrad H. Paskiewicz, Alistair R. McCracken, Louise R. Cooke, Murray R. Grant, David J. Studholme Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research
Pour Some Sugar on It: The Expanding World of Bacterial Protein O‐linked Glycosylation
Summary Protein glycosylation was once considered as an eccentricity of a few bacteria. However in the recent years multiple O‐glycosylation mechanisms have been identified in bacterial species from the most diverse genera, including various important human pathogens. This review focuses on summarizing the structural diversity, the various pathways, and the physiological roles of this post‐translational protein modification. We propose a classification of O‐glycosylation based on the requirement of an oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase). OTase‐dependent glycosylation utilizes an oligosaccharide synthesized on a lipid...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jeremy A. Iwashkiw, Nicolas F. Vozza, Rachel L. Kinsella, Mario F. Feldman Tags: MicroReview Source Type: research
Transmitted drug‐resistance in HIV‐infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America
In conclusion, we report a TDR prevalence of 5.7% in El Salvador, lower than in other Central American studies. Periodical studies are essential to monitor and prevent TDR emergence in low‐ and middle‐income regions. Also, more efforts are needed to promote early diagnosis and prevention of infection in El Salvador. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: África Holguín, Gonzalo Yebra, Leticia Martín, Ana Thelma Pineda, Lisette Esmeralda Ruiz, Alma Yanira Quezada, Ana I. Nieto, Gustavo Escobar Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Susceptibility of species within the Sporothrix schenckii complex to a panel of killer yeasts
Abstract The Sporothrix schenckii complex is the etiologic agent of sporotrichosis, a subacute or chronic mycosis which can affect humans and animals. Killer yeasts have been used in the medical field for development of novel antimycotics and biotyping of pathogenic fungi. The action of 18 killer yeasts on the growth of 88 characterized S. schenckii, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and Sporothrix mexicana clinical and environmental isolates was evaluated. Killer studies were performed on Petri dishes containing cheese black starch agar. The yeasts Candida catenulata (QU26, QU31, QU127, LV102); Trichosporon fae...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cheila Denise Ottonelli Stopiglia, Daiane Heidrich, Julia Medeiros Sorrentino, Fabiane Jamono Vieira, Melissa Fontes Landell, Patrícia Valente, Maria Lúcia Scroferneker Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Characterization of CTX‐M‐type extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase in clinical clones of Escherichia coli in Southwest China
In conclusion, there seems to be great concern regarding the distribution and drug resistance of CTX‐M ESBL‐producing E. coli. (Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wei‐Dong Zhao, Ping Yan, Hai‐Ning Guan, Qun‐Zhi Zhang Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
An adenosine kinase in apoplastic location is involved in Magnaporthe oryzae cold acclimation
Abstract Cold acclimation is an important process to increase freezing tolerance for over‐winter survival in many organisms. The apoplastic area is very important in cold acclimation. Two‐dimensional electrophoresis was used to identify apoplastic proteins involved in the cold acclimation process of the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, and nine protein spots showed at least 1.5‐fold increase during cold treatment. These proteins were further analyzed by matrix‐assisted laser‐desorption/ionization time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry. One of these proteins was identified to be an adenosine kinase (MoAK), an ...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jian Li, Baolei Jia, Xilong Liang, Jinliang Liu, Yanli Wang, Xunna Liang, Hai Yan, Yuhan Wang, Shihong Zhang Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Fungal communities in the garden chamber soils of leaf‐cutting ants
Abstract Leaf‐cutting ants modify the properties of the soil adjacent to their nests. Here, we examined whether such an ant‐altered environment impacts the belowground fungal communities. Fungal diversity and community structure of soil from the fungus garden chambers of Atta sexdens rubropilosa and Atta bisphaerica, two widespread leaf‐cutting ants in Brazil, were determined and compared with non‐nest soils. Culture‐dependent methods revealed similar species richness but different community compositions between both types of soils. Penicillium janthinellum and Trichoderma spirale were the prevalent isolates in f...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andre Rodrigues, Michel R. Z. Passarini, Milene Ferro, Nilson S. Nagamoto, Luiz C. Forti, Maurício Bacci, Lara D. Sette, Fernando C. Pagnocca Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
A novel glucoamylase activated by manganese and calcium produced in submerged fermentation by Aspergillus phoenicis
This study investigates the production of glucoamylase from Aspergillus phoenicis in Machado Benassi (MB) medium using 1% maltose as carbon source. The maximum amylase activity was observed after four days of cultivation, on static conditions at 30 °C. Glucoamylase production was induced by maltose and inhibited by different glucose concentrations. The optimum of temperature and pH were 60–65 °C, and 4.5 or 5.0 to sodium acetate and Mcllvaine buffers, respectively. It was observed that the enzyme was totally stable at 30–65 °C for 1 h, and the pH range was 3.0–6.0. The enzyme was mainly activated by mangan...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vivian Machado Benassi, Thiago Machado Pasin, Fernanda Dell Antonio Facchini, João Atílio Jorge, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
ACC deaminase and IAA producing growth promoting bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of tropical rice plants
Abstract Beneficial plant‐associated bacteria play a key role in supporting and/or promoting plant growth and health. Plant growth promoting bacteria present in the rhizosphere of crop plants can directly affect plant metabolism or modulate phytohormone production or degradation. We isolated 355 bacteria from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in the farmers' fields in the coastal rice field soil from five different locations of the Ganjam district of Odisha, India. Six bacteria producing both ACC deaminase (ranging from 603.94 to 1350.02 nmol α‐ketobutyrate mg−1 h−1) and indole acetic acid (IAA; ranging fro...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Himadri Bhusan Bal, Subhasis Das, Tushar K. Dangar, Tapan K. Adhya Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera
Abstract Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co‐cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, ...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ram Prasad, Shwet Kamal, Pradeep K. Sharma, Ralf Oelmüller, Ajit Varma Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Mechanisms of plant growth promotion and disease suppression by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 2apa
Abstract A new Pseudomonas strain, designated as 2apa was isolated from tomato rhizosphere and identified as a member of species Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on its morphology, conventional, biochemical, cell wall fatty acid methyl ester analysis, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain 2apa was positive for root colonization, indole acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid and siderophore production and inhibited the growth of wide range of microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances produced by this strain with further purification and structure elucidation proved to be phenazine. Under laboratory and greenhouse conditions...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: P. Hariprasad, S. Chandrashekar, S. Brijesh Singh, S. R. Niranjana Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
A regulatory gene (ECO‐orf4) required for ECO‐0501 biosynthesis in Amycolatopsis orientalis
Abstract ECO‐0501 is a novel linear polyene antibiotic, which was discovered from Amycolatopsis orientalis. Recent study of ECO‐0501 biosynthesis pathway revealed the presence of regulatory gene: ECO‐orf4. The A. orientalis ECO‐orf4 gene from the ECO‐0501 biosynthesis cluster was analyzed, and its deduced protein (ECO‐orf4) was found to have amino acid sequence homology with large ATP‐binding regulators of the LuxR (LAL) family regulators. Database comparison revealed two hypothetical domains, a LuxR‐type helix‐turn‐helix (HTH) DNA binding motif near the C‐terminal and an N‐terminal nucleotide triph...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Yang Shen, He Huang, Li Zhu, Minyu Luo, Daijie Chen Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Genetic and functional characterization of culturable plant‐beneficial actinobacteria associated with yam rhizosphere
Abstract Actinobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of yam plants from agricultural fields from Yeoju, South Korea and analyzed for their genetic and plant‐beneficial functional diversity. A total of 29 highly occurring actinobacterial isolates from the yam rhizosphere were screened for various plant‐beneficial traits such as antimicrobial activity on fungi and bacteria; biocontrol traits such as production of siderophore, protease, chitinase, endo‐cellulase, and β‐glucanase. The isolates were also screened for plant growth‐promoting (PGP) traits such as auxin production, phosphate solubilization, 1‐ami...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sasikumar Arunachalam Palaniyandi, Seung Hwan Yang, Karthiyaini Damodharan, Joo‐Won Suh Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Genetic and functional diversity of fluorescent Pseudomonas from rhizospheric soils of wheat crop
Abstract Wheat rhizospheric soils were collected from different part of northern and eastern Indo‐Gangetic plains, which is being irrigated from water of Ganga River. Isolation of fluorescent Pseudomonas species was carried out from the soil samples collected. The percentage of isolates positive for indolic compound, P‐solubilisation, siderophore production and ACC deaminase activity were 64.0, 38.6, 63.5, and 19.7, respectively. A total of 543 isolates were randomly selected for studies based on the genus specific confirmation by the Pseudomonas specific primer. Among the 543 isolates, 26 different clusters were forme...
Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Subhash Yadav, Shivani Yadav, Rajeev Kaushik, Anil K. Saxena, Dilip K. Arora Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Endemic characteristics of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the People's Republic of China
This study shows the recently endemic characteristics of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in China, which has been ignored for some time and emerged as a severe threat to infants in endemic areas. Image: A courtyard in Kashgar, where unprotected infants were exposed in summer. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Source: Parasites and Vectors - May 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Qing FuShi-Zhu LiWei-Ping WuYan-Yan HouSong ZhangYu FengLi-Ping ZhangLin-Hua Tang Source Type: research
Diabetic Patients At Greater Risk From Superbug
Research by Anglia Ruskin microbiologist shows danger of antibiotic-resistant bacteria New research published this week in the Journal of Medical Microbiology highlights the danger posed to diabetic patients by the deadly superbug Acinetobacter baumannii. It was previously known that people with diabetes were at greater risk of contracting bacterial infections... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - May 16, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Diabetes Source Type: news
Membrane association and destabilization by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin requires changes in secondary structures
In this study, we tested this hypothesis by analysing lipid‐induced changes in leukotoxin conformation. Upon incubation of leukotoxin with lipids that favor leukotoxin‐membrane association, we observed an increase in leukotoxin α‐helical content that was not observed with lipids that favor membrane destabilization. The change in leukotoxin conformation after incubation with these lipids suggests that membrane binding and membrane destabilization have distinct secondary structural requirements, suggesting that they are independent events. These studies provide insight into the mechanism of cell damage that leads to d...
Source: Oral Microbiology and Immunology - May 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: M.J. Walters, A.C. Brown, T.C. Edrington, S. Baranwal, Y. Du, E.T. Lally, K. Boesze‐Battaglia Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Both human ferredoxins equally efficiently rescue ferredoxin deficiency in Trypanosoma brucei
Summary Ferredoxins are highly conserved proteins that function universally as electron transporters. They not only require Fe‐S clusters for their own activity, but are also involved in Fe‐S formation itself. We identified two homologues of ferredoxin in the genome of the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei and named them TbFdxA and TbFdxB. TbFdxA protein, which is homologous to other eukaryotic mitochondrial ferredoxins, is essential in both the procyclic (= insect‐transmitted) and bloodstream (mammalian) stage, but is more abundant in the active mitochondrion of the former stage. Depletion of TbFdxA caused disrup...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - May 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Piya Changmai, Eva Horáková, Shaojun Long, Eva Černotíková‐Stříbrná, Lindsay M. McDonald, Esteban J. Bontempi, Julius Lukeš Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Superoxide poisons mononuclear iron enzymes by causing mismetallation
Summary Superoxide (O2‐) is a primary agent of intracellular oxidative stress. Genetic studies in many organisms have confirmed that excess O2‐ disrupts metabolism, but to date only a small family of [4Fe‐4S] dehydratases have been identified as direct targets. This investigation reveals that in Escherichia coli O2‐ also poisons a broader cohort of non‐redox enzymes that employ ferrous iron atoms as catalytic cofactors. These enzymes were inactivated by O2‐ both in vitro and in vivo. Although the enzymes are known targets of hydrogen peroxide, the outcome with O2‐ differs substantially. When purified enzymes ...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - May 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mianzhi Gu, James A. Imlay Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
A Novel RNA Polymerase‐Binding Protein Controlling Genes Involved in Spore Germination in Bacillus subtilis
Summary A growing class of proteins regulates transcription through interaction with DNA‐dependent RNA polymerase. Here we report that a recently identified, highly conserved sporulation gene ylyA encodes a novel RNA polymerase‐binding protein that influences the expression of genes under the control of the late‐acting, sporulation sigma factor σG in Bacillus subtilis. Spores from a ylyA mutant exhibited defects in germination corresponding to changes in the levels of membrane receptors for spore germinants and a protein channel governing the release of dipicolinic acid and hydration of the spore core during germina...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - May 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bjorn A. Traag, Arturo Ramirez‐Peralta, Anna F. Wang Erickson, Peter Setlow, Richard Losick Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Production of the bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with deltamethrin increases toxicity towards mosquito larvae
This study is the first report of an increased efficacy of the mosquitocidal bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) when produced with a chemical insecticide. The results clearly demonstrate that deltamethrin is able to synergize the insecticidal activity of Bti through inclusion into spore membranes, reducing off‐target and nonspecific toxicity occurring when the chemical is used alone as sprays. This new composite chemical–biological insecticide can become an invaluable tool as an intermediate between single chemical usage and the widespread use of Bti, notably in developing countries with lim...
Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology - May 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: G. Tetreau, C.D. Patil, A. Chandor‐Proust, B.K. Salunke, S.V. Patil, L. Després Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Investigation into the prevalence, persistence and antibiotic resistance profiles of staphylococci isolated from euro currency
ConclusionWe advocate the expansion of antibiotic surveillance programs, with a view to tracking/monitoring antibiotic resistance dissemination among environmental contaminants. Additionally we propose that “cashless transactions” should be encouraged in high risk environments such as hospitals and health care settings, as well as stricter infection controls. Significance and impact of studyAlthough it is accepted that circulating currency has the potential to harbour disease‐causing pathogens, studies investigating prevalence and persistence of such pathogens on euro currency are virtually non‐existent. In an atte...
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - May 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Emma M. Gabriel, Aidan Coffey, Jim M. O'Mahony Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
In vitro antistaphylococcal effects of a novel 45S5 bioglass/agar‐gelatin biocomposite films
ConclusionsOverall, the coating of 45S5 BG on agar‐gelatin films promoted BCs with strong antistaphylococcal activity. The effect was efficient under bacterial concentration up or below 105 cfu mL‐1. Additionally, none of the strains were found on BCs surfaces. Significance and Impact of Study45S5 bioglass/agar‐gelatin biocomposite films are reported for the first time. The results suggest a potential application as wound dressing.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - May 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Josefina Rivadeneira, M. Carina Audisio, Aldo R. Boccaccini, Alejandro A. Gorustovich Tags: Original Article Source Type: research