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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 24.
Performance of two Aspergillus IgG EIA assays compared with the precipitin test in chronic and allergic aspergillosis
This study assessed the performance of two commercial EIAs compared with counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). This was a prospective cohort study of 175 adult patients with chronic or allergic pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus IgG antibodies were detected using CIE, Phadia ImmunoCap Aspergillus IgG and Bio‐Rad Platelia Aspergillus IgG. Inter‐assay reproducibility was determined for each method and 25 patients had two serum samples analysed within a 6‐month interval. When compared with CIE, both ImmunoCap and Platelia Aspergillus IgG had good sensitivity (97 and 93%, respectively) for detection of Aspergillus IgG an...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 18, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: C. G. Baxter, D. W. Denning, A. M. Jones, A. Todd, C. B. Moore, M. D. Richardson Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
A preliminary comparison of the effect of 0.3% versus 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse on de novo plaque formation: a monocentre randomized double‐blind crossover trial
ConclusionChlorhexidine is an effective oral antiseptic. The CHX 0.3% mouth rinse formulation used for 15 s resulted in superior clinical and microbiological outcomes compared to the CHX 0.2% formulation, used for 30 s.
Source: International Journal of Dental Hygiene - January 17, 2013 Category: Dentistry Authors: A Pilloni, B Zeza, C Mongardini, F Dominici, MA Cassini, A Polimeni Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Bacterial Inhibition of inflammatory responses via TLR‐independent mechanisms
Summary Identification of cellular processes modulated by microbial organisms that undermine and disarm mammalian host defenses against bacterial invaders has been the focus of significant biomedical research. In this microreview we will illustrate the role of bacterial N‐acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) as a strategy utilized by Gram‐negative bacterial pathogens to enable colonization of the host through AHL‐mediated inhibition of inflammation induced via innate immune receptor mechanisms. We will also highlight some of the signaling pathways in which the study of AHL‐mediated effects on mammalian cells might lead t...
Source: Cellular Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vladimir V. Kravchenko, Gunnar F. Kaufmann Tags: Microreview Source Type: research
Vibrios adhere to epithelial cells in the intestinal tract of red sea bream, Pagrus major, utilizing GM4 as an attachment site
Abstract Vibrios, distributed in marine and brackish environments, can cause vibriosis in fish and shellfish under appropriate conditions. Previously, we clarified by thin‐layer chromatography (TLC) overlay assay that 35S‐labeled Vibrio trachuri adhered to GM4 isolated from red sea bream intestine (Chisada et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333, 367‐373, 2005). However, whether GM4 actually functions on epithelial cells as an attachment site for vibrios still remains to be uncovered. We found that 6 isolates, classified as V. harveyi, V. campbellii, and V. splendidus, from intestinal microflora of red sea bream ad...
Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shin‐ichi Chisada, Kohei Shimizu, Haruna Kamada, Naoyuki Matsunaga, Nozomu Okino, Makoto Ito Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research
Hydrogen-Producing Microflora and Fe-Fe Hydrogenase Diversities in Seaweed Bed Associated with Marine Hot Springs of Kalianda, Indonesia.
Abstract Microbial fermentation is a promising technology for hydrogen (H(2)) production. H(2) producers in marine geothermal environments are thermophilic and halotolerant. However, no one has surveyed an environment specifically for thermophilic bacteria that produce H(2) through Fe-Fe hydrogenases (H(2)ase). Using heterotrophic medium, several microflora from a seaweed bed associated with marine hot springs were enriched and analyzed for H(2) production. A H(2)-producing microflora was obtained from Sargassum sp., 16S rRNA genes and Fe-Fe H(2)ase diversities of this enrichment were also analyzed. Based on 16S...
Source: Current Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xu SY, He PQ, Dewi SZ, Zhang XL, Ekowati C, Liu TJ, Huang XH Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research
Expression of CspE by a Psychrotrophic Bacterium Enterobacter ludwigii PAS1, Isolated from Indian Himalayan Soil and In silico Protein Modelling, Prediction of Conserved Residues and Active Sites.
Abstract Proteome analysis of Enterobacter ludwigii PAS1 provide a powerful set of tool to study the cold shock proteins along with that combination of bioinformatics is useful for interpretation of comparative results from many species. There is a considerable interest in the use of psychrotrophic bacteria for nitrogen fixation, especially at hilly regions, thus better understanding of cold adaptation mechanisms too. The psychrotrophic E. ludwigii PAS1 grown at 30 and 4 °C, isolated from Himalaya soil was undertaken for proteomic responses during optimal and cold shock conditions. Comparative proteomic analyses ...
Source: Current Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kandasamy P, Chaturvedi N, Sisodia BS, Shasany AK, Gahoi S, Marla SS, Goel R Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research
Triggers of Aggregation and Extracellular Polysaccharide Polymer Production in Acidovorax temperans.
Abstract Bacterial aggregation has important implications for the maintenance of bacteria in engineered environments. The triggers for aggregation, however, are poorly understood. A strain of Acidovorax temperans CB2Hn isolated from activated sludge was found to exhibit transient aggregation and was applied as a model to investigate factors that regulate biological aggregation. Growth kinetic studies indicate CB2Hn has exponential growth rates (μ (max)) ranging from 0.11 to 0.75 (log(CFU mL(-1))h(-1)) depending on nutrient conditions. CB2Hn exhibited variable aggregation in growth media that differed in th...
Source: Current Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Clark Ehlers GA, Turner SJ Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research
A2 expression and assembly regulates lysis in Qβ infections.
Abstract The capsid of single-strand RNA phages have a single copy of a ~45 kDa maturation protein that serves to recognize the conjugative pilus as receptor, to protect the ends of the viral RNA and also to escort the genomic RNA into the host cytoplasm. In the Alloleviviridae, represented by the canonical phage Qβ, the maturation protein A2 also causes lysis. This is achieved by inhibiting the activity of MurA, which catalyzes the first committed step of murein biosynthesis. Previously, it was shown that Qβ virions, with a single copy of A2, inhibit MurA activity. This led to a model for lysis timing in which, ...
Source: Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Reed CA, Langlais C, Wang IN, Young R Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
Multilocus sequence analysis of Pasteurella multocida demonstrates a type species under development.
Abstract The aims of the present study were to use multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of a diverse collection of Pasteurella multocida as to animal source, geography and time, including all available serovars of Carter, Heddleston, Little & Lyon, Namioka, Cornelius and Roberts, to further investigate the evolution of this species with a focus on two lineages, A (P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. gallicida) and B (P. multocida subsp. septica), previously reported. Isolates of P. multocida (n = 116) including reference strains of major serotyping systems were investigated by MLST based on parti...
Source: Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bisgaard M, Petersen A, Christensen H Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
Escherichia coli toxin hipA gene affects biofilm formation and DNA release.
In this study, we investigated the function of the hipBA TA system in the biofilm formation by Escherichia coli strain BW25113. First, the deletion of the HipBA TA system in E. coli BW25113 significantly reduced the biofilm biomass without antibiotic stress. Second, treatment of the BW25113 biofilm with DNase I caused a major reduction in biofilm formation; whereas, similar treatment of the hipA mutant biofilm had only a minor effect. Third, the inactivation of the HipA reduced the level of eDNA present in biofilm formation, and addition of BW25113 genomic DNA stimulated biofilm formation for both the wild type and hipA mu...
Source: Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhao J, Wang Q, Li M, Heijstra B, Wang S, Liang Q, Qi Q Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
Genetic and Chemical Characterization of Ibuprofen Degradation by Sphingomonas Ibu-2.
Abstract Sphingomonas Ibu-2 has the unusual ability to cleave the acid side chain from the pharmaceutical ibuprofen and related arylacetic acid derivatives to yield corresponding catechols under aerobic conditions via a previously uncharacterized mechanism. Screening a chromosomal library of Ibu-2 DNA in Escherichia coli EPI300 allowed us to identify one fosmid clone (pFOS3G7) that conferred the ability to metabolize ibuprofen to isobutylcatechol. Characterization of pFOS3G7 loss-of-function transposon mutants permitted identification of five open reading frames, ipfABDEF, whose predicted amino acid sequences bore ...
Source: Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Murdoch RW, Hay AG Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
Freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum transformed with ApGSMT-DMT exhibited enhanced salt tolerance and protection to nitrogenase activity, but changed its behavior to halophily.
Abstract Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmolyte synthesized in response to different abiotic stresses including salinity. The two known pathways of GB synthesis involve: 1) two step oxidation of choline (choline → betaine aldehyde → GB), generally found in plants, microbes and animals; and 2) three step methylation of glycine (glycine → sarcosine → dimethylglycine → GB), mainly in halophilic archaea, sulphur bacteria and cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica (Ap. halophytica). Here, we transformed a salt-sensitive freshwater diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum with N-methyltr...
Source: Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Singh M, Sharma NK, Prasad SB, Yadav SS, Narayan G, Rai AK Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
First indication for a functional CRISPR/Cas system in Francisella tularensis.
Abstract Francisella tularensis is a zoonotic agent and the subspecies novicida is proposed to be a water-associated bacterium. The intracellular pathogen F. tularensis causes tularemia in humans and is known for its potential to be used as a biological threat. We analyzed the genome sequence of F. tularensis subsp. novicida U112 in silico for the presence of a putative functional CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) system. CRISPR/Cas systems are known to encode an RNA-guided adaptive immunity-like system to protect bacteria against invading genetic elements like...
Source: International Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Schunder E, Rydzewski K, Grunow R, Heuner K Tags: Int J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Global spread of antibiotic resistance: the example of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM)-mediated carbapenem resistance.
Abstract The rapidity with which new types of antibiotic resistance can disseminate globally following their initial emergence or recognition is exemplified by the novel carbapenemase New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM). The first documented case of infection caused by bacteria producing NDM occurred in 2008, although retrospective analyses of stored cultures have identified the gene encoding this enzyme (blaNDM) in Enterobacteriaceae isolated in 2006. Since its first description NDM carbapenemase has been reported from 40 countries worldwide, encompassing all continents except South America and Antarctica. The sp...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Johnson AP, Woodford N Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
A comparison of capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing in UCS region analysis of Pneumocystis jirovecii strains.
In conclusion, quantifying the number of repeat units of UCS by capillary electrophoresis provides a potential new method for rapid typing P. jirovecii and detection of mixed infection. Direct sequencing relies primarily on the detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism for identification of repeat unit type. PMID: 23329318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jarboui MA, Mseddi F, Sellami H, Sellami A, Mahfoudh N, Makni F, Makni H, Ayadi A Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of iron chelators against Prevotella intermedia.
Abstract Prevotella intermedia, a major periodontopathogen, has been shown to be resistant to many antibiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of FDA-approved iron chelators deferoxamine (DFO) and deferasirox (DFRA) against planktonic and biofilm cells of P. intermedia in order to evaluate the possibility of the iron chelators as alternative controlling agents against P. intermedia. DFRA showed strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC values of 0.16 mg/ml) against planktonic P. intermedia. At sub-MICs, DFRA partially inhibited the bacterial growth and considerably prolonged the bacterial doubling ti...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moon JH, Kim C, Lee HS, Kim SW, Lee JY Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
A simple blood culture bacterial pellet preparation for faster accurate direct bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing with the VITEK 2 system.
Abstract An ammonium chloride procedure to prepare bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures was used for direct inoculation of VITEK. Correct identification reached 99% for Enterobacteriaceae and 74% for staphylococci. For susceptibility testing, very major and major errors were 0.1% and 0.3% for Enterobacteriaceae, and 0.7% and 0.1% for staphylococci. Bacterial pellets prepared with ammonium chloride allow direct inoculation of VITEK cards with excellent accuracy for Enterobacteriaceae and lower accuracy for staphylococci. PMID: 23329320 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Prod'hom G, Durussel C, Greub G Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Development of an ERIC sequence typing scheme for Laribacter hongkongensis, an emerging pathogen associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveller's diarrhoea.
In this study, we developed a rapid and reliable method using 22-mer primer specific for enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC). In addition, PFGE were also utilized to evaluate this method. A total of 81 isolates of L. hongkongensis were examined, including 79 isolates recovered from food of diverse origins and 2 strains derived from patients with L. hongkongensis-associated infection. Typing patterns and clustering analysis indicated that 81 L. hongkongensis isolates were grouped into 21 and 13 genotypes by ERIC-PCR and PFGE, respectively. ERIC-PCR was found as reproducible as PFGE. A high percen...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Feng JL, Lin JY, Jiang XB, Zhang O, Zhu JF, Hu J, Shi L, Chen Q Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Hand contamination during routine care in medical wards: The role of hand hygiene compliance.
Abstract Healthcare worker's (HCW) hands are the commonest vehicle for the transmission of microorganisms from patient to patient and within the healthcare environment. The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of a multimodal campaign over the type and amount of resident and transient flora and the presence of potential risk factors for hand contamination during routine care. A before-after interventional study was made in medical wards from a tertiary care hospital. Eighty nine samples were analyzed. Samples were cultured immediately before patient contact using a glove-juice method. Data collected inclu...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Monistrol O, Lopez L, Riera M, Font R, Nicolás C, Escobar MA, Freixas N, Garau J, Calbo E Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
In vitro characterization of aggregation and adhesion properties of viable and heat-killed forms of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains and interaction with foodborne zoonotic bacteria, especially Campylobacter jejuni.
In conclusion in vitro assays showed that Lb. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lb. farciminis CNCM-I-3699, as viable or heat-killed forms are adherent to different intestinal matrix models and are in vitro highly aggregative with pathogens especially Campylobacter spp., the most commonly reported zoonotic agent in the European Union. This study supports the need for further in vivo investigations to demonstrate the potential food safety benefits of Lb. rhamnosus CNCM-I-3698 and Lb. farciminis CNCM-I 3699, live or heat-killed, in the global feed/food chain. PMID: 23329323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tareb R, Bernardeau M, Gueguen M, Vernoux JP Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Genetic analysis of the VP4/VP2 coding region in human rhinovirus species C in patients with acute respiratory infection in Japan.
Abstract We performed detailed genetic analysis of the VP4/VP2 coding region in human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) strains detected in patients with acute respiratory infection in Japan. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by the neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. An NJ phylogenetic tree assigned 11 genotypes to the present strains. An ML tree showed that the strains diversified sometime in the early 1870s. Moreover, the pairwise distance among the present strains was relatively long, and the rate of molecular evolution of the coding region was rapid (3.07 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year). T...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kiyota N, Kushibuchi I, Kobayashi M, Tsukagoshi H, Ryo A, Nishimura K, Hirata-Saito A, Harada S, Arakawa M, Kozawa K, Noda M, Kimura H Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Changing Views of the Interconnections Between the Oceans and Human Health in Europe.
Abstract Early steps in the emergence of the discipline of "Oceans and Human Health" are charted in the USA and discussed in relation to past and present marine environment and human health research activities in Europe. Differences in terminology are considered, as well as differences in circumstances related to the various seas of Europe and the intensity of human coastal activity and impact. Opportunities to progress interdisciplinary research are described, and the value of horizon scanning for the early identification of emerging issues is highlighted. The challenges facing researchers and policymakers address...
Source: Microbial Ecology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Depledge MH, Harvey AJ, Brownlee C, Frost M, Moore MN, Fleming LE Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research
Choice of Pore Size Can Introduce Artefacts when Filtering Picoeukaryotes for Molecular Biodiversity Studies.
Abstract Published results of studies based on samples size fractionated by sequential filtration (e.g. 0.2-3 μm) indicate that many ciliate, dinoflagellate and rhizarian phylotypes are found among marine picoeukaryotes. This is somewhat surprising as these protists are typically known as being large organisms (often >10 μm) and no picoplanktonic species have so far been identified. Here, the abundances of ciliate and dinoflagellate phylotypes in published molecular studies of picoeukaryotes are shown to correlate negatively with the pore size chosen for the end filter in the sequential filtrations (i.e. the...
Source: Microbial Ecology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sørensen N, Daugbjerg N, Richardson K Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research
Erratum to: Vibrio vulnificus: Death on the Half Shell. A Personal Journey with the Pathogen and its Ecology.
PMID: 23325467 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Microbial Ecology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Oliver JD Tags: Microb Ecol Source Type: research
Covalently dimerized Camelidae antihuman TNFa single-domain antibodies expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris show superior neutralizing activity.
Abstract Antagonists of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) have revolutionized the treatment of selected inflammatory diseases. Recombination Camelidae variable heavy-chain domain-only TNFa antibodies (anti-TNF-V(H)H) have been developed to antagonize the action of human and murine TNFa. Here, we describe a strategy to obtain functional covalent dimer anti-TNF-V(H)H molecules with the C-terminal fusion of human IgG1 Fc domain named anti-TNF-V(H)H-Fc. The resulting fusion proteins were separately expressed by use of the pET28a vector in Escherichia coli ((Ec)) strain BL21 and the pPICZaA vector in Pichia past...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ji X, Lu W, Zhou H, Han D, Yang L, Wu H, Li J, Liu H, Zhang J, Cao P, Zhang S Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Recent discoveries and applications of Anoxybacillus.
Abstract The Bacillaceae family members are a good source of bacteria for bioprocessing and biotransformation involving whole cells or enzymes. In contrast to Bacillus and Geobacillus, Anoxybacillus is a relatively new genus that was proposed in the year 2000. Because these bacteria are alkali-tolerant thermophiles, they are suitable for many industrial applications. More than a decade after the first report of Anoxybacillus, knowledge accumulated from fundamental and applied studies suggests that this genus can serve as a good alternative in many applications related to starch and lignocellulosic biomasses, enviro...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Goh KM, Kahar UM, Chai YY, Chong CS, Chai KP, Ranjani V, Illias RM, Chan KG Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Three antimycobacterial metabolites identified from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. MS100061.
Abstract In the course of a screening program for bioactive compounds from a marine natural product library, a newly isolated Actinomycetes strain, designated as MS100061, exhibited strong anti-Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) activity. The strain belongs to the genus Streptomyces according to its morphological and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. Bioassay-guided isolation resulted in a new spirotetronate, lobophorin G (1), together with two known compounds, lobophorins A (2) and B (3). The structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison with literatures. Compounds 1-3...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen C, Wang J, Guo H, Hou W, Yang N, Ren B, Liu M, Dai H, Liu X, Song F, Zhang L Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Distinct genomic organization, mRNA expression and cellular localization of members of two amastin sub-families present in Trypanosoma cruzi
Conclusions: Here we showed that not only the number and diversity of T. cruzi amastin genes is larger than what has been predicted, but also their mode of expression during the parasite life cycle is more complex. Although most T. cruzi amastins have a similar surface localization, only delta-amastin genes have their expression up-regulated in amastigotes. The results showing that a sub-group of this family is up-regulated in epimastigotes, suggest that, in addition of their role in intracellular amastigotes, T. cruzi amastins may also serve important functions during the insect stage of the parasite life cycle. Most impo...
Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Monica Kangussu-MarcolinoRita de PaivaPatrícia AraújoRondon de Mendonça-NetoLaiane LemosDaniella BartholomeuRenato MortaraWanderson daRochaSantuza Teixeira Source Type: research
IncI1 plasmids associated with the spread of CMY‐2, CTX‐M‐1 and SHV‐12 in Escherichia coli of animal and human origin
Abstract Fourteen plasmids carrying blaCTX‐M‐1, blaSHV‐12 or blaCMY‐2 genes from Escherichia coli of both avian and human origin were analysed. IncI1 plasmids were largely predominant. Plasmid mutilocus sequence typing and comparative analysis revealed that the blaCMY‐2‐ST12‐IncI1 plasmids from avian E. coli were identical to those previously found in Salmonella from humans, but different to those associated with human E. coli. The IncI1‐ST3 plasmids carrying blaCTX‐M‐1 or blaSHV‐12 were related to those previously identified in avian E. coli, but different to those identified in human E. coli. Ov...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: M. Accogli, D. Fortini, M. Giufrè, C. Graziani, M. Dolejska, A. Carattoli, M. Cerquetti Tags: Research Note Source Type: research
A new pathogenicity island carrying an allelic variant of the Subtilase cytotoxin is common among Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli of human and ovine origin
Abstract Subtilase (SubAB) is a cytotoxin elaborated by some Shiga Toxin (Stx)‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains usually lacking the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Two variants of SubAB coding genes have been described: subAB1, located on the plasmid of the STEC O113 98NK2 strain, and subAB2, located on a pathogenicity island (PAI) together with the tia gene, encoding an invasion determinant described in enterotoxigenic E. coli. In the present study, we determined the entire nucleotide sequence of the PAI containing the subAB2 operon, termed Subtilase‐Encoding PAI (SE‐PAI), and identified its integrat...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: V. Michelacci, R. Tozzoli, A. Caprioli, R. Martínez, F. Scheutz, L. Grande, S. Sánchez, S. Morabito Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
High rates of transmitted drug resistance among newly‐diagnosed antiretroviral naïve HIV patients in Northern Greece, data from 2009–2011
Abstract We conducted a retrospective study on the prevalence and correlates of transmitted drug resistance among newly‐diagnosed antiretroviral naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Northern Greece, during the period 2009–11. Transmitted drug resistance was documented in 21.8% of patients enrolled, affecting approximately 40% of subtype A HIV‐1‐infected individuals. Overcoming challenges due to the ongoing financial crisis, effective preventive measures should be implemented to control further dissemination of resistant HIV strains.
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: L. Skoura, S. Metallidis, D. Pilalas, A. Kourelis, A. Margariti, E. Papadimitriou, Z. A. Antoniadou, T. Chrysanthidis, O. Tsachouridou, P. Kollaras, P. Nikolaidis, N. Malisiovas Tags: Research Note Source Type: research
Candidaemia in Sweden: a nationwide prospective observational survey
Abstract A prospective observational nationwide investigation was performed from September 2005 to August 2006 to study the epidemiology of candidaemia in Sweden. From 385 patients, 403 isolates were recovered, yielding an incidence of 4.2 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. Candida albicans was the most common species (61%), followed by Candida glabrata (20%) and Candida parapsilosis (9%). The rates of resistance to fluconazole were ≤1% in C. albicans and 6–29% in non‐albicans species other than C. glabrata and Candida krusei. Resistance to voriconazole was rare, except for C. glabrata and C. krusei. Only three isol...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: J. Ericsson, E. Chryssanthou, L. Klingspor, A. G. Johansson, P. Ljungman, E. Svensson, J. Sjölin Tags: Research Note Source Type: research
Discrimination between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis based on sorting of their MALDI mass spectra
Abstract Accurate species‐level identification of alpha‐hemolytic (viridans) streptococci (VGS) is very important for understanding their pathogenicity and virulence. However, an extremely high level of similarity between VGS within the mitis group (S. pneumoniae, S. mitis, S. oralis and S. pseudopneumoniae) often results in misidentification of these organisms. Earlier, matrix‐assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI‐TOF MS) has been suggested as a tool for the rapid identification of S. pneumoniae. However, by using Biotyper 3.0 (Bruker) or Vitek MS (bioMérieux) databas...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: L. N. Ikryannikova, A. V. Filimonova, M. V. Malakhova, T. Savinova, O. Filimonova, E. N. Ilina, V. A. Dubovickaya, S. V. Sidorenko, V. M. Govorun Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Predictive factors for mortality in patients with methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: impact on outcome of host, microorganism and therapy
Abstract Mortality related to methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection (BSI) remains high, despite changes in the epidemiology. To analyze the current predictive factors for mortality we conducted a prospective study in a large cohort of patients with MRSA‐BSI from 21 Spanish hospitals. Epidemiology, clinical data, therapy and outcome were recorded. All MRSA strains were analysed, including susceptibility to antibiotics and molecular characterization. Vancomycin MICs (V‐MIC) were tested by the E‐test and microdilution methods. Time until death was the dependent variable in a Cox regr...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: O. Gasch, M. Camoez, M. A. Dominguez, B. Padilla, V. Pintado, B. Almirante, J. Molina, F. Lopez‐Medrano, E. Ruiz, J. A. Martinez, E. Bereciartua, F. Rodriguez‐Lopez, C. Fernandez‐Mazarrasa, M. A. Goenaga, N. Benito, J. Rodriguez‐Baño, E. Espejo, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Rapid diagnostic tests for non‐malarial febrile illness in the tropics
Abstract The recent roll‐out of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for malaria has highlighted the decreasing proportion of malaria‐attributable illness in endemic areas. Unfortunately, once malaria is excluded, there are few accessible diagnostic tools to guide the management of severe febrile illnesses in low resource settings. This review summarizes the current state of RDT development for several key infections ‐ including dengue fever, enteric fever, leptospirosis, brucellosis, visceral leishmaniasis, and human African trypanosomiasis ‐ and highlights many remaining gaps. Most RDT for non‐malarial tropical infecti...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: François Chappuis, Emilie Alirol, Valérie d'Acremont, Emmanuel Bottieau, Cédric P Yansouni Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research
Evidence of transmission of Panton Valentine Leukocidin‐positive community‐acquired methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone: a family affair
Abstract Community acquired methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA‐MRSA) may represent a serious public health problem due to the spreading of toxins‐producer lineages. The presence of genes encoding for Panton‐Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) is an important virulence marker, since the clinical sequelae of PVL‐positive infections are described often as more severe than PVL‐negative Staphylococcus aureus. To date, the presence of PVL does not appear as a common event in Italy; we described an intra‐familial transmission of an epidemic PVL‐producer CA‐MRSA lineage, Southwest Pacific clone (SWP). Our dat...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Priscilla Cocchi, Giovanni Taccetti, Carlotta Montagnani, Silvia Campana, Luisa Galli, Cesare Braggion, Maurizio Martino Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Enterococcal bacteraemia: factors influencing mortality, length of stay and costs of hospitalisation
This study aimed to identify factors associated with mortality, LOS and hospitalisation costs in patients with enterococcal bacteraemia and the impact of vancomycin resistance and antibiotic therapy on these outcomes. Data from 116 patients with vancomycin‐resistant Enterococci (VRE), matched 1:1 with patients with vancomycin‐susceptible Enterococcus (VSE) from two Australian hospitals were reviewed for clinical and economic outcomes. Univariable and multivariable logistic and quantile regression analyses identified factors associated with mortality, LOS and costs. Intensive‐care unit admission (OR 8.57, 95% CI 3.99 ...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Agnes Loo Yee Cheah, Tim Spelman, Danny Liew, Trisha Peel, Benjamin P. Howden, Denis Spelman, M. Lindsay Grayson, Roger L. Nation, David C.M. Kong Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Distribution of phylogenetic groups, sequence type ST131, and virulence‐associated traits among Escherichia coli isolates from men with pyelonephritis or cystitis and healthy controls
Abstract Urinary tract infections (UTI), which are mostly caused by Escherichia coli, are an important public health problem, worldwide. Although men experience diverse UTI syndromes, there have been relatively few molecular‐epidemiological studies of UTI pathogenesis in men. We studied the distribution of 22 E. coli virulence factor (VF) genes, major phylogenetic groups, sequence type ST131, and UTI‐associated O antigens among 101 pyelonephritis, 153 cystitis, and 135 fecal healthy control E. coli isolates from men aged 30 to 70 years in a regional area of NSW, Australia. Overall, the studied traits exhibited a preval...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Timothy Kudinha, James R. Johnson, Scott D. Andrew, Fanrong Kong, Peter Anderson, Gwendolyn L Gilbert Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Diversity and taxonomy of endophytes from Leymus chinensis in the Inner Mongolia steppe of China
Abstract Epichloë species and their anamorphic relatives in genus Neotyphodium are fungal symbionts of grasses ubiquitously existing in temperate regions all over the world. To date, thirteen Epichloë species and twenty two Neotyphodium species have been formally described, based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses. Leymus chinensis (Poaceae) is a dominant grass native to the Inner Mongolia steppe of China. Previously it was reported to harbor endophytes, but little was known about these endophytes. To investigate their diversity and taxonomy, 96 fungal isolates were obtained from three field population...
Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Min‐Jie Zhu, An‐Zhi Ren, Wei Wen, Yu‐Bao Gao Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research
Specific and sensitive detection of Alcaligenes species from an agricultural environment
Abstract We developed a quantitative real‐time PCR assay to specificity detect and quantify the genus Alcaligenes in samples from the agricultural environment, such as vegetables and farming soils. The minimum detection sensitivity was 106 fg of pure culture DNA, corresponding to DNA extracted from two cells of A. faecalis. To evaluate the detection limit of A. faecalis, serially diluted genomic DNA from A. faecalis was mixed with DNA extracted from soil and vegetables, and then a standard curve was constructed. These results indicated that Alcaligenes species are present in the plant phytosphere at levels 102–104 time...
Source: Microbiology and Immunology - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Miyo Nakano, Masumi Niwa, Norihiro Nishimura Tags: Note Source Type: research
Effect of malaria on HIV/AIDS transmission and progression
Malaria and HIV are two of the most important infectious diseases, which affect millions of people across overlapping geographical distributions. Therefore, knowing of their interaction is very important. Image: Working to reduce the Incidence of malaria and HIV/AIDS co-infection among highly vulnerable groups.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 17, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abebe AlemuYitayal ShiferawZelalem AddisBiniam MathewosWubet Birhan Source Type: research
Percy White obituary
Scientist who helped develop Britain's first atomic bombPercy White, who has died aged 96, was one of a small group of highly talented scientists involved in the British nuclear weapons development programme in the late 1940s and 50s, whose achievements have not been widely recognised because of the secrecy and anonymity of their work.As chief chemical engineer at Aldermaston, the Berkshire headquarters of the atomic weapons programme, White made many contributions to the first British atomic bomb, which was successfully tested on 3 October 1952 off the north-west coast of Australia (in Operation Hurricane). A few years la...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - January 16, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Lorna Arnold Tags: Nuclear power Obituaries guardian.co.uk Engineering Weapons technology Chemistry Nuclear weapons Science Source Type: news
The NF‐κB inhibitor SC75741 efficiently blocks influenza virus propagation and confers a high barrier for development of viral resistance
Abstract Ongoing human infections with highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses and the emergence of the pandemic swine‐origin influenza viruses (IV) highlight the permanent threat elicited by these pathogens. Occurrence of resistant seasonal and pandemic strains against the currently licensed antiviral medications points to the urgent need for new and amply available anti‐influenza drugs. The recently identified virus‐supportive function of the cellular IKK/NF‐κB signaling pathway suggests this signaling module as a potential target for antiviral intervention. We characterised the NF‐κB inhibitor SC75741 as a broa...
Source: Cellular Microbiology - January 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Christina Ehrhardt, Andrea Rückle, Eike R. Hrincius, Emanuel Haasbach, Darisuren Anhlan, Katharina Ahmann, Carina Banning, Sarah J. Reiling, Joachim Kühn, Stefan Strobl, Daniel Vitt, Johann Leban, Oliver Planz, Stephan Ludwig Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Quantification of the extracellular matrix of the Listeria monocytogenes biofilms of different phylogenic lineages with optimization of culture conditions
ConclusionsThe results interpretation of biofilm quantification was depending on the conditions of growth conditions, the viability of the bacteria and the analysis method. The quantities of proteins, DNA and polysaccharides were different according to the strains and the medium© 2013 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for AppliedMicrobiology
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - January 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Typhaine Combrouse, Irina Sadovskaya, Christine Faille, Ossarath Kol, Yann Guérardel, Graziella Midelet‐Bourdin Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Armand-Frappier Outstanding Student Award — Role of ATP-dependent proteases in antibiotic resistance and virulence 1This article is based on a presentation by Dr. Elena Breidenstein at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Canadian Society of Microbiologists in Vancouver, British Columbia, on 23 June 2012. Dr. Breidenstein was the recipient of the 2012 Armand-Frappier Outstanding Student Award.
Canadian Journal of Microbiology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1-8, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Microbiology - January 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Tags: article Source Type: research
Bacteriophage Therapy in Implant-Related Infections: An Experimental Study.
CONCLUSIONS: The addition of bacteriophage treatment to an appropriate antibiotic regimen helped to dissolve the biofilm of both types of bacteria studied. This effect on MRSA was more pronounced than that on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The addition of bacteriophage therapy to a standard antibiotic regimen may represent a valuable adjunct for eradicating implant-related infections. PMID: 23324958 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume - January 16, 2013 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Yilmaz C, Colak M, Yilmaz BC, Ersoz G, Kutateladze M, Gozlugol M Tags: J Bone Joint Surg Am Source Type: research
Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Fuenlabrada, Madrid.
CONCLUSIONS: We have presented a large series of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed in the context of an outbreak. Multiple papules were the most common clinical presentation, with histology that showed non-necrotizing granulomatous dermatitis with no evidence of parasites. PCR of skin samples was the test that most frequently provided the diagnosis. PMID: 23332557 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas - January 16, 2013 Category: Dermatology Authors: Aguado M, Espinosa P, Romero-Maté A, Tardío JC, Córdoba S, Borbujo J Tags: Actas Dermosifiliogr Source Type: research
Sequence Analysis of Hypothetical Lysine Exporter Genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii from Calamine Old Waste Heaps and Their Evolutionary History.
Abstract The aim of this study was to identify heavy metal detoxification system in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii isolated from Trifolium repens inhabiting old (70-100 years) Zn-Pb waste heaps in Poland by PCR reaction with czcD1 and czcD2 primers. By sequence analysis, four different genotypes of obtained amplicons were identified among eight examined isolates. Their sequence similarity ranged 91-99 %. They indicated the highest sequence identity to the hypothetical lysine exporter gene of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii WSM1325 (91-97 %) and 76-81 % sequence similarity to hypothetical lysine exporter gen...
Source: Current Microbiology - January 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Oleńska E, Małek W Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research
The dynamic influence of commensal bacteria on the immune response to pathogens.
Abstract Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial communities are associated with enhanced susceptibility to multiple inflammatory, allergic, metabolic and infectious diseases in humans. In the context of infection, commensal bacteria-derived signals can influence the host immune response to invasive pathogens by acting as an adjuvant to boost the immune response to infection or by providing tonic stimulation to induce basal expression of factors required for host defense. Conversely, some pathogens have evolved mechanisms that can utilize commensal bacteria to establish a replicative advantage within ...
Source: Current Opinion in Microbiology - January 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Abt MC, Artis D Tags: Curr Opin Microbiol Source Type: research
Bioprospecting in potato fields in the Central Andean Highlands: Screening of rhizobacteria for plant growth-promoting properties.
Abstract The Central Andean Highlands are the center of origin of the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Ages of mutualism between potato plants and soil bacteria in this region support the hypothesis that Andean soils harbor interesting plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to isolate rhizobacteria from Andean ecosystems, and to identify those with PGP properties. A total of 585 bacterial isolates were obtained from eight potato fields in the Andes and they were screened for suppression of Phytophthora infestans and Rhizoctonia solani. Antagonistic mechanisms were determined an...
Source: Systematic and Applied Microbiology - January 16, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ghyselinck J, Velivelli SL, Heylen K, O'Herlihy E, Franco J, Rojas M, De Vos P, Prestwich BD Tags: Syst Appl Microbiol Source Type: research