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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 16.
Architecture of fluid intelligence and working memory revealed by lesion mapping.
Abstract Although cognitive neuroscience has made valuable progress in understanding the role of the prefrontal cortex in human intelligence, the functional networks that support adaptive behavior and novel problem solving remain to be well characterized. Here, we studied 158 human brain lesion patients to investigate the cognitive and neural foundations of key competencies for fluid intelligence and working memory. We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the N-Back task. Latent variable modeling was applied to obtain error-free scores of flu...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 8, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barbey AK, Colom R, Paul EJ, Grafman J Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research
Optical imaging of visually guided reaching in macaque posterior parietal cortex.
Abstract Sensorimotor transformation for reaching movements in primates requires a large network of visual, parietal, and frontal cortical areas. We performed intrinsic optical imaging over posterior parietal cortex including areas 7a and the dorsal perilunate in macaque monkeys during visually guided hand movements. Reaching was performed while foveating one of nine static reach targets; thus eye-position-varied concurrently with reach position. The hemodynamic reflectance signal was analyzed during specific phases of the task including pre-reach, reach, and touch epochs. The eye position maps changed substantiall...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - February 8, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Heider B, Siegel RM Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research
Expression and Dexamethasone-induced Nuclear Translocation of Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Guinea Pig Cochlear Cells.
Abstract Glucocorticoids (GC) are powerful anti-inflammatory agents frequently used to protect the auditory organ against damage associated with a variety of conditions, including noise exposure and ototoxic drugs as well as bacterial and viral infections. In addition to glucocorticoid receptors (GC-R), natural and synthetic GC are known to bind mineralocorticoid receptors (MC-R) with great affinity. We used light and laser scanning confocal microscopy to investigate the expression of GC-R and MC-R in different cell populations of the guinea pig cochlea, and their translocation to different cell compartments after ...
Source: Hearing Research - February 8, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Kil SH, Kalinec F Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research
2-Deoxyglucose treatment complements the cisplatin- or BH3-only mimetic-induced suppression of neuroblastoma cell growth.
In conclusion, the glycolytic inhibitor 2DG complemented the cisplatin- or ABT737-induced suppression of growth in NB cells, which are sensitive to glycolytic inhibition. PMID: 23395630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology - February 8, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Chuang JH, Chou MH, Tai MH, Lin TK, Liou CW, Chen T, Hsu WM, Wang PW Tags: Int J Biochem Cell Biol Source Type: research
Classification of diseases and the neurodevelopmental disorders: the challenge for DSM‐5 and ICD‐11
Source: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology - February 8, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Gillian Baird Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Diurnal cortisol rhythm and cognitive functioning in toddlers: The Generation R Study.
Abstract Little is known about the relationship between diurnal cortisol secretion patterns and cognitive function early in life. This population-based study examined whether diurnal cortisol rhythms and cognitive functioning in toddlers are related. Within the Generation R Study, parents of 364 infants (median age: 14.2 months) collected saliva samples at five moments during one day. We assessed the diurnal cortisol rhythm by calculating the area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and the diurnal slope. Verbal cognitive functioning and fine motor development was determined at age 18 mont...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - February 8, 2013 Category: Child Development Authors: Saridjan NS, Henrichs J, Schenk JJ, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Kirschbaum C, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research
Modulation of antioxidant and detoxifying capacity in fish Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) after treatment with nanocapsules containing lipoic acid.
Abstract Lipoic acid (LA) is a water- and lipid-soluble molecule with capacity to pass through cell membranes and with several antioxidant properties. Previous studies have shown that polymeric nanocapsules with LA favor the protection of this antioxidant, increasing their physical and chemical stability compared to formulations containing free LA. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of free LA and LA-nanocapsules on antioxidants enzymes, the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and a by-product of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), as well as the expression of genes coding for dif...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 8, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Longaray-Garcia M, Flores JA, Külkamp-Guerreiro IC, Guterres SS, Pereira TC, Bogo MR, Monserrat JM Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research
cDNA cloning and expression analysis of myostatin/GDF11 in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.
In this study, the cDNA that encodes a 422-amino-acid MSTN/GDF11protein (LvMSTN/GDF11) was characterized from a crustacean species, the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Sequence analysis revealed that the overall protein sequence and specific functional sites of LvMSTN/GDF11were highly conserved with those in other crustacean species. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique demonstrated its tissue-specific, larval developmental stage-specific, and molt stage-specific expression pattern, respectively. After in vivo injections of 20 hydroxyecdysone (...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 8, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Qian Z, Mi X, Wang X, He S, Liu Y, Hou F, Liu Q, Liu X Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research
Modulation of ethanol toxicity by Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) in Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis.
Abstract Alcohol consumption by women during pregnancy often induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in children who have serious central nervous system (CNS), cardiovascular, and craniofacial defects. Prevention of FASD, other than women abstaining from alcohol drinking during pregnancy, is not known. A limitation of the use of synthetic anti-alcoholic drugs during pregnancy led us to investigate herbal products. In particular, many plants including Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) have therapeutic potential for the treatment of alcoholism. We used Japanese ricefish (medaka) (Oryzias latipes), an animal model ...
Source: Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology and pharmacology : CBP - February 8, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Haron MH, Avula B, Khan IA, Mathur SK, Dasmahapatra AK Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol Source Type: research
Colonial seabird's paralytic perfume slows lice down: an opportunity for parasite-mediated selection?
Abstract Selection for chemical signals in birds could be influenced by parasitism as has been previously suggested for visual and acoustic displays. Crested auklets (Aethia cristatella), colonial seabirds from Alaska and Siberia, offer an example of how this might occur. Crested auklets secrete lipids in plumage, possibly as an indicator of status and attractiveness. Prominent among these secretions are aldehydes, which are noticeable as a pungent citrus-like odor. Octanal and hexanal, the most abundant aldehydes in the plumage of crested auklets, are potent invertebrate repellents, reported from the chemical defe...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 8, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Douglas HD Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Mutational biosynthesis of tacrolimus analogues by fkbO deletion mutant of Streptomyces sp. KCTC 11604BP.
Abstract Tacrolimus (FK506) is an important macrocyclic polyketide showing antifungal and immunosuppressive activities, as well as neuroregenerative properties. Tacrolimus biosynthetic machinery should incorporate the shikimate-derived 4,5-dihydroxycyclohex-1-enecarboxylic acid (DHCHC) as a biosynthetic starter unit into the biosynthetic line of tacrolimus. fkbO is a homologue of rapK encoding chorismatase related to the biosynthesis of starter unit DHCHC from chorismate in the rapamycin biosynthetic gene cluster. FkbO and RapK are good targets for mutational biosynthesis to produce novel analogues of tacrolimus, a...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 8, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kim DH, Ryu JH, Lee KS, Lee BM, Lee MO, Lim SK, Maeng PJ Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease.
Abstract Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized, and how their signals are transmitted. W...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - February 8, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Cotter DG, Schugar RC, Crawford PA Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research
Metabolic improvements in intrahepatic porto-systemic venous shunt presenting various metabolic abnormalities by 4-phenylacetate.
CONCLUSION: 4-PA improves galactosemia and imbalanced vasomediators, together with liver functions, in CPSVS, although such effects retract after the discontinuation. PMID: 23399721 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal of Clinical Chemistry - February 8, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Nagasaka H, Miida T, Yorifuji T, Hirano KI, Inui A, Fujisawa T, Tsukahara H, Hayashi H, Inomata Y Tags: Clin Chim Acta Source Type: research
[CEREBRAL PHAEOHYPHOMYCOSIS: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.]
Abstract Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare invasive fungal infection with very few cases referenced in the literature. There is no standardized treatment, and it is associated with poor outcomes. Cladophialophora bantiana, a fungus with special tropism for the central nervous system, is one of the causal agents of phaeohyphomycosis. The case is presented of a brain abscess by C. bantiana in an adult with Crohn's disease who was being treated with immunosuppressive drugs.. Despite the correct etiological diagnosis, surgical and pharmacological treatments, the patient died 32 days after surgery. A description of t...
Source: Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia - February 8, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Frasquet-Artés JS, Pemán J, Blanes M, Hernández-Porto M, Cano J, Jiménez-Herrero E, López-Hontangas JL Tags: Rev Iberoam Micol Source Type: research
Branched-chain amino acids influence the immune properties of microglial cells and their responsiveness to pro-inflammatory signals.
Abstract The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine are essential amino acids involved in several important brain functions. Although commonly used as nutritional supplements, excessive intake of BCAAs might favour the establishment of neurotoxic conditions as indicated by the severe neurological symptoms characterising inherited disorders of BCAA catabolism such as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Recent evidence indicates that BCAAs induce excitotoxicity through mechanisms that require the presence of astrocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of BCAAs on microglia, the...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - February 8, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: De Simone R, Vissicchio F, Mingarelli C, De Nuccio C, Visentin S, Ajmone-Cat MA, Minghetti L Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research
Age-dependent guanine oxidation in DNA of different brain regions of Wistar rats and prematurely aging OXYS rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Oxidation of guanine may play an important role in the development of age-associated decrease in memory and learning capability of OXYS rats. General Significance The findings are important for validation of the OXYS rat strain as a model of mammalian aging. PMID: 23403132 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - February 8, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Sattarova EA, Sinitsyna OI, Vasyunina EA, Duzhak AB, Kolosova NG, Zharkov DO, Nevinsky GA Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research
Is the heme pocket region modulated by disulfide-bridge formation in fish and amphibian neuroglobins as in humans?
In this study, neuroglobins from amphibian (Xenopus tropicalis) and fish (Chaenocephalus aceratus, Dissostichus mawsoni and Danio rerio) are investigated using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and optical absorption spectroscopy. All these neuroglobins differ from human neuroglobin in their Cys-positions. It is demonstrated that if disulfide bonds are formed in fish and amphibian neuroglobins, the reduction of these bonds does not result in alteration of the heme pocket in these globins (proteins). Furthermore, it is shown that mutagenesis of the Cys residues of Xenopus tropicalis neuroglobin influences the protein structur...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - February 8, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Leuven WV, Cuypers B, Desmet F, Giordano D, Verde C, Moens L, Doorslaer SV, Dewilde S Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research
Pesticides and Human Chronic Diseases; Evidences, Mechanisms, and Perspectives.
Abstract Along with the wide use of pesticides in the world, the concerns over their health impacts are rapidly growing. There is a huge body of evidence on the relation between exposure to pesticides and elevated rate of chronic diseases such as different types of cancers, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson, Alzheimer, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), birth defects, and reproductive disorders. There is also circumstantial evidence on the association of exposure to pesticides with some other chronic diseases like respiratory problems, particularly asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary d...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - February 8, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Mostafalou S, Abdollahi M Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research
Characterization of Anti-Crotalic Antibodies.
Abstract Crotalus durissus terrificus, C. d. collilineatus, C. d. cascavella and C. d. marajoensis are responsible minor but severe snake bites in Brazil. The venoms of these snakes share the presence of crotoxin, a neurotoxin comprising of two associated components, crotapotin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Treatment of the victims with specific antiserum is the unique effective therapeutic measure. The ability of anti-Crotalus antisera produced by the routine using crude venom to immunize horses or purified crotoxin and PLA2 as individual immunogens was compared. Antisera obtained from horses immunized with C. duri...
Source: Toxicon - February 8, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Guidolin FR, Tambourgi DV, Guidolin R, Marcelino JR, Okamoto CK, Magnoli FC, Queiroz GP, Dias da Silva W Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research
Hematologic and hepatic responses of the freshwater fish Hoplias malabaricus after saxitoxin exposure.
Abstract The bioaccumulation of saxitoxins (STX) in the trophic chain, mainly in freshwater, are not completely known. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of STX on Hoplias malabaricus through trophic bioassay. The fish were fed once every five days with Astyanax sp. before being subjected to an intraperitoneal inoculation with the lysate of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii culture containing 97% STX and 3% by neosaxitoxin and gonyautoxin during 20 days. The animal's liver was assessed using biomarkers as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and glutathione p...
Source: Toxicon - February 8, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Silva de Assis HC, da Silva CA, Oba ET, Pamplona JH, Mela M, Doria HB, Guiloski IC, Ramsdorf W, Cestari MM Tags: Toxicon Source Type: research
Notes from the field: botulism from drinking prison-made illicit alcohol - Arizona, 2012.
Abstract During November 24-27, 2012, the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) was notified that eight male inmates of prison A, a maximum security prison, had been hospitalized for treatment of an acute neurologic condition suspected to be botulism. Botulism is a serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. All eight patients reported drinking pruno, an illicitly brewed alcoholic beverage that has been associated with botulism outbreaks in prisons. This was the second outbreak of botulism in prison A during 2012; in August, four inmates were hospitalize...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - February 8, 2013 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
Temporal trends in characteristics and outcome of intensive care unit patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan: a national population-based study.
This study assessed temporal trends in characteristics and outcome of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed 2870 SLE patients (≥15 years) with first-time ICU admission between 1999 and 2008. Patient data were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Median age of the patients increased from 38.5 to 44.0 years during the study period. Most patients were women (overall 85.5%); the proportion varied insignificantly over time. Median duration from SLE diagnosis to ICU admission (disease duration) increased by four years. The proportion of pat...
Source: Lupus - February 8, 2013 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Shen HN, Yang HH, Lu CL Tags: Lupus Source Type: research
Incremental Validity of Neuropsychological Evaluations to Computed Tomography in Predicting Long-Term Outcomes after Traumatic Brain Injury.
This study evaluated the incremental utility of neuropsychological tests to computed tomography (CT) in predicting long-term outcomes of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants were 288 adults with mild complicated, moderate, and severe TBI. Longitudinal data were evaluated during inpatient status in an urban rehabilitation hospital with a TBI Model System, as well as 1 and 2 years post injury. Predictors including demographic characteristics, injury severity, CT characteristics, and neuropsychological evaluations were regressed to outcomes of disability, life satisfaction, and employment ...
Source: The Clinical Neuropsychologist - February 8, 2013 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Williams MW, Rapport LJ, Hanks RA, Millis SR, Greene HA Tags: Clin Neuropsychol Source Type: research
Temporal guidance of musicians' performance movement is an acquired skill.
Abstract The ancillary (non-sounding) body movements made by expert musicians during performance have been shown to indicate expressive, emotional, and structural features of the music to observers, even if the sound of the performance is absent. If such ancillary body movements are a component of skilled musical performance, then it should follow that acquiring the temporal control of such movements is a feature of musical skill acquisition. This proposition is tested using measures derived from a theory of temporal guidance of movement, "General Tau Theory" (Lee in Ecol Psychol 10:221-250, 1998; Lee et al. in Exp...
Source: Brain Research - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodger MW, O'Modhrain S, Craig CM Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Blood plasma inflammation markers during epileptogenesis in post–status epilepticus rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy
Summary PurposeBrain inflammation occurs during epileptogenesis and may contribute to the development and progression of temporal lobe epilepsy. Recently, several studies have indicated that seizures may also increase specific blood plasma cytokine levels in animal models as well as in human patients with epilepsy, suggesting that peripheral inflammation may serve as a biomarker for epilepsy. Moreover, studies in epilepsy animal models have shown that peripheral inflammation may play either a pathogenic or neuroprotective role. MethodsWe evaluated the inflammatory response in blood plasma after electrically induced status ...
Source: Epilepsia - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Linda Holtman, Erwin A. Vliet, Eleonora Aronica, Diana Wouters, Wytse J. Wadman, Jan A. Gorter Tags: Full‐Length Original Research Source Type: research
Acute cerebral microbleeds in refractory status epilepticus
This report demonstrates that multiple new CMBs may develop in patients with refractory status epilepticus (SE).
Source: Epilepsia - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Sang‐Beom Jeon, Gunjan Parikh, H. Alex Choi, Kiwon Lee, Jong Hwan Lee, J. Michael Schmidt, Neeraj Badjatia, Stephan A. Mayer, Jan Claassen Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research
FDG‐PET and magnetoencephalography in presurgical workup of children with localization‐related nonlesional epilepsy
Summary Purpose2‐[18F]Fluoro‐2‐deoxy‐d‐glucose positron emission tomography (FDG‐PET) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) may assist in identifying the epileptogenic zone in children with nonlesional localization‐related epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of FDG‐PET, MEG, FDG‐PET + MEG, and FDG‐PET/MEG in children with nonlesional localization‐related epilepsy. MethodsTwenty‐six children with localization‐related epilepsy and who had normal or subtle changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...
Source: Epilepsia - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Elysa Widjaja, Amer Shammas, Reza Vali, Hiroshi Otsubo, Ayako Ochi, O. Carter Snead, Cristina Go, Martin Charron Tags: Full‐Length Original Research Source Type: research
Sexual response in female rats with status epilepticus
Summary PurposeFemale sexual function is complex and may be disrupted by disease, in particular epilepsy. Chronic seizures in women can have adverse effects on reproductive function, but it has been difficult to dissociate the effects of epilepsy from those related to anticonvulsant medications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sexual behavior in female rats submitted to pilocarpine‐induced status epilepticus (SE). MethodsAdult female Wistar rats were given saline or pilocarpine (350 mg/kg, i.p.) to induce SE. The groups were distributed according to the treatment or response to pilocarpine: CTRL (control rats ...
Source: Epilepsia - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Tathiana A. Alvarenga, Gabriela Matos, Fulvio A. Scorza, Débora Amado, Esper A. Cavalheiro, Sergio Tufik, Monica L. Andersen Tags: Full‐Length Original Research Source Type: research
Variability of EEG‐fMRI findings in patients with SCN1A‐positive Dravet syndrome
Summary PurposeDravet syndrome (DS) or severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy is an intractable epileptic encephalopathy of early childhood that is caused by a mutation in the SCN1A gene in most patients. The aim of this study was to identify a syndrome‐specific epileptic network underlying interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in patients with DS. MethodsTen patients with the diagnosis of DS associated with mutations in the SCN1A gene were investigated using simultaneous recording of electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging ((EEG‐fMRI). Time series of IEDs were used as regressors for the stat...
Source: Epilepsia - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Jan Moehring, Sarah Spiczak, Friederike Moeller, Ingo Helbig, Stephan Wolff, Olav Jansen, Hiltrud Muhle, Rainer Boor, Ulrich Stephani, Michael Siniatchkin Tags: Full‐Length Original Research Source Type: research
Divergent effects of the T1174S SCN1A mutation associated with seizures and hemiplegic migraine
Summary PurposeTo report the identification of the T1174S SCN1A (NaV1.1) mutation in a three‐generation family with both epileptic and familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) phenotypes and clarify the pathomechanism. MethodsThe five affected individuals underwent detailed clinical analyses. Mutation analyses was performed by direct sequencing of SCN1A; functional studies by expression in tsA‐201 cells. A computational model was used to compare the effects of T1174S with those of a typical FHM mutation (Q1489K). Key FindingsThe proband had benign occipital epilepsy (BOE); two relatives had simple febrile seizures (FS) and l...
Source: Epilepsia - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Sandrine Cestèle, Angelo Labate, Raffaella Rusconi, Patrizia Tarantino, Laura Mumoli, Silvana Franceschetti, Grazia Annesi, Massimo Mantegazza, Antonio Gambardella Tags: Full‐Length Original Research Source Type: research
[Genetics of idiopathic epilepsies.]
Abstract Idiopathic epilepsies are genetically determined. They are characterized by the observed seizure types, an age-dependent onset, electroencephalographic criteria and concomitant symptoms, such as movement disorders or developmental delay. The main subtypes are the idiopathic (i) generalized, (ii) the focal epilepsies including the benign syndromes of early childhood and (iii) the epileptic encephalopathies as well as the fever-associated syndromes. In recent years, an increasing number of mutations have been identified in genes encoding ion channels, proteins associated to the vesical synaptic cycle or prot...
Source: Der Nervenarzt - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Weber YG, Lerche H Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research
[Neurological complications of inflammatory bowel diseases.]
Abstract Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autoantibody driven celiac disease and infectious Whipple's disease can all be associated with neurological symptoms. The neurological manifestation may occur even before the gastrointestinal symptoms or the enteropathic symptoms can even be absent as in celiac disease. These diseases can be caused by malresorption and lack of vitamins due to enteral inflammation as well as (auto-)immunological mechanisms and drug-associated side effects. Thus, inflammatory bowel diseases have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this r...
Source: Der Nervenarzt - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Cieplik N, Stangel M, Bachmann O Tags: Nervenarzt Source Type: research
Treatment of bipolar depression.
Abstract Depressive symptoms and episodes dominate the long-term course of bipolar disorder and are associated with high levels of disability and an increased risk of suicide. However, the treatment of bipolar depression has been poorly investigated in comparison with that of manic episodes and unipolar major depressive disorder. The goal of treatment in bipolar depression is not only to achieve full remission of acute symptoms, but also to avoid long-term mood destabilization and to prevent relapses. A depressive presentation of bipolar disorder may often delay the appropriate management and, thus, worsen the long...
Source: CNS Spectrums - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Musetti L, Del Grande C, Marazziti D, Dell'osso L Tags: CNS Spectr Source Type: research
TDP‐43 associates with stalled ribosomes and contributes to cell survival during cellular stress
Abstract TDP‐43 has emerged as an important contributor to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. To understand the physiological roles of TDP‐43 in the complex translational regulation mechanisms, we exposed cultured cells to oxidative stress induced by sodium arsenite (ARS) for different periods of time, leading to non‐lethal or sublethal injury. Polysome profile analysis revealed that ARS‐induced stress caused the association of TDP‐43 with stalled ribosomes via binding to mRNA, which was not found under the steady‐state condition. When the cells were exposed to short‐term/non...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Shinji Higashi, Tomohiro Kabuta, Yoshitaka Nagai, Yukihiro Tsuchiya, Haruhiko Akiyama, Keiji Wada Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Influence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease on the Neuropad® test performance in patients with diabetes
ConclusionsThe reliability of the Neuropad is not significantly different in the presence or absence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease.© 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK
Source: Diabetic Medicine - February 8, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: C. E. Aubert, J. Doeuff, J. Lajou, O. Barthelemy, A. Hartemann, O. Bourron Tags: Research: Complication Source Type: research
Expression of Neurogenin 1 in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Directs the Differentiation of Neuronal Precursors and Identifies Unique Patterns of Down‐stream Gene Expression
Conclusions: ESC expressing Neurogenin1 begin to withdraw from cycle and form precursors that differentiate exclusively into neurons. This work identifies unique patterns of gene expression following expression of Neurog1, including genes and signaling pathways involved in process outgrowth and cell migration, regional differentiation of the nervous system, and cell cycle. Developmental Dynamics, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Source: Developmental Dynamics - February 8, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: J. Matthew Velkey, K. Sue O'shea Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Neuroblastoma in a pediatric patient with a microduplication of 2p involving the MYCN locus
Abstract Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor of infancy, and mutations in several genes have been implicated as playing a role in tumor development. Here, we describe a pediatric patient with a constitutional microduplication of 2p24.3 who developed Stage 4 neuroblastoma at age 11 months. He represents the sixth patient described in the literature with partial trisomy 2p and neuroblastoma. All previous cases had duplication events spanning two genes implicated in neuroblastoma, MYCN and ALK. Our patient is unique because his duplicated region includes the MYCN gene only; the ALK gene is unaffected. These data, com...
Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A - February 8, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: David Van Mater, Erik H. Knelson, Kathleen A. Kaiser‐Rogers, Michael B. Armstrong Tags: Clinical Report Source Type: research
Virtual reality in neurologic rehabilitation of spatial disorientation
Conclusions: Verbally-guided passive navigation training in VR enhances general spatial cognition in neurologic patients with spatial disorientation as well as in healthy controls and can therefore be useful in the rehabilitation of spatial deficits associated with TD.
Source: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation - February 8, 2013 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Silvia KoberGuilherme WoodDaniela HoferWalter KreuzigManfred KieferChrista Neuper Source Type: research
EMG and kinematic analysis of sensorimotor control for patients after stroke using cyclic voluntary movement with visual feedback
The objective of this study is to investigate the parameters during voluntary arm tracking at different velocities for evaluating motor control performance after stroke Methods: Eight hemiplegic chronic stroke subjects were recruited to perform voluntary movements of elbow flexion and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories from 30 deg to 90 deg at six velocities in the horizontal plane by completing 3, 6, 8, 12, 15, 18 flexion and extension cycles in 36 seconds in a single trial, and the peak velocities ranged from 15.7 to 94.2 deg/s. The actual elbow angle and the target position were displayed as real-time visual...
Source: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation - February 8, 2013 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Rong SongKai Tong Source Type: research
Changes in the Circadian Rhythm of mRNA Expression for µ‐Opioid Receptors in the Periaqueductal Gray Under a Neuropathic Pain‐like State
In this study, we investigated the possible changes in the circadian rhythm of mRNA expression for µ‐opioid receptor (MOR), κ‐opioid receptor (KOR), and adrenaline α2a receptor (α2a) in the periaqueductal gray, frontal cortex, thalamus, and spinal cord following sciatic nerve ligation in mice. In sham‐operated mice, the latencies of hind paw‐withdrawal in response to thermal stimuli at 14:00 and 20:00 were significantly greater than that at 8:00 and the latency at 2:00 was significantly less than those at 14:00 and 20:00, indicating a “rest” period‐dominant circadian rhythm for thermal pain‐thresholds. ...
Source: Synapse - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Tomohiko Takada, Akira Yamashita, Akitoshi Date, Makoto Yanase, Yuki Suhara, Asami Hamada, Hiroyasu Sakai, Daigo Ikegami, Masako Iseki, Eiichi Inada, Minoru Narita Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Brain uptake and distribution of the dopamine d3/d2 receptor partial agonist [11c]cariprazine: an in vivo positron emission tomography study in nonhuman primates
We examined the brains of two cynomolgus monkeys at baseline condition as well as during a pharmacological blocking condition, using unlabeled cariprazine or raclopride as blockers before injection of [11C]cariprazine. Of the total injected radioactivity, ∼7% entered the brain and ∼3–4% remained in the brain after 90 min, indicating good blood brain barrier penetration and slow washout. It was possible to block cariprazine binding with unlabeled cariprazine and raclopride indicating that [11C]cariprazine binds to dopamine D3/D2 receptors. Nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND) measurements, using a simplified refer...
Source: Synapse - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Miklós Tóth, Andrea Varrone, Carsten Steiger, István Laszlovszky, Attila Horváth, Béla Kiss, István Gyertyán, Nika Adham, Christer Halldin, Balázs Gulyás Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Complement activation fragment C5a receptors, CD88 and C5L2, are associated with neurofibrillary pathology
Conclusions: The observed association of CD88 and C5L2with neurofibrillary pathology suggests a common altered pathway of degradation.
Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation - February 8, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Maria FonsecaSusan McGuireScott CountsAndrea Tenner Source Type: research
About the Benefits of Immunotherapy for High-Risk Neuroblastoma [CORRESPONDENCE]
Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 8, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Moreno, Barone, Park, Pearson Tags: CORRESPONDENCE Source Type: research
Ethical Issues for Control-Arm Patients After Revelation of Benefits of Experimental Therapy: A Framework Modeled in Neuroblastoma [SPECIAL ARTICLES]
In 2009, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) phase III randomized controlled trial, ANBL0032, found that adding immunotherapy (Ch14.18) to standard therapy significantly improved outcomes in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma when administered within 110 days after autologous stem-cell transplantation (SCT). After careful deliberation and consultation, the COG Neuroblastoma Committee decided to offer Ch14.18 to prior trial participants who had been randomly assigned to the control arm (no immunotherapy), regardless of the time that had elapsed since SCT. This decision occurred in the context of a limited supply of Ch14....
Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 8, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Unguru, Joffe, Fernandez, Yu Tags: Ethics SPECIAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
Primary Cerebral Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma [DIAGNOSIS IN ONCOLOGY]
Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology - February 8, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lachenal, Berger, Cimarelli, Formaglio, Ghesquieres Tags: Diagnosis & Staging, Brain Tumors DIAGNOSIS IN ONCOLOGY Source Type: research
Comparative performances of prognostic indexes for breast cancer patients presenting with brain metastases
Conclusions: RPA seems to be the most useful score and performs better than new PI for breast cancer BM.
Source: BMC Cancer - February 8, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Braccini LaurentAzria DavidThezenas SimonRomieu GillesFerrero Jean-MarcJacot William Source Type: research
The nature of relapse in schizophrenia
Conclusions: Given the difficulties in identifying those at risk of relapse, the ineffectiveness of rescue medications in preventing full-blown psychotic recurrence and the potentially serious consequences, adherence and other factors predisposing to relapse should be a major focus of attention in managing schizophrenia. The place of antipsychotic treatment discontinuation in clinical practice and in placebo-controlled clinical trials needs to be carefully reconsidered.
Source: BMC Psychiatry - Latest articles - February 8, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Robin EmsleyBonginkosi ChilizaLaila AsmalBrian Harvey Source Type: research
Old before their time: the ancient origins of the neural crest
Neural crest cells are a fundamental feature of vertebrates. This transient embryonic population emerges from within the neural plate border during early developmental stages and subsequently migrates from the dorsal neural tube throughout the body to form a diverse repertoire of cell types. The range of differentiated cells generated by the neural crest includes, of course, pigment cells of the body, but also many of the neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, as well as ectomesenchymal derivatives such as skeletogenic, odontogenic and connective tissue components of the head (Donoghue et al. 2008). © 2013 Joh...
Source: Pigment Cell Research - February 8, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Thomas Butts, Anthony Graham Tags: News & Views Source Type: research
Early and late prognostic implications of coronary artery bypass timing after myocardial infarction [ADULT CARDIAC]
CONCLUSIONS Early and late mortality risk for CABG declines with increasing interval from MI for reasons indirectly linked to the timing of surgery. Our findings emphasize the importance of preoperative organ system optimization and consistent left internal mammary artery use, regardless of the proximity of surgery to MI or the exigency of surgery.
Source: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery - February 8, 2013 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Ngaage, D. L., Sogliani, F., Tang, A. Tags: ADULT CARDIAC Source Type: research
Surgical treatment of left main disease and severe carotid stenosis: does the off-pump technique provide a better outcome? [ADULT CARDIAC]
CONCLUSIONS Off-pump coronary revascularization may offer risk reduction of neurological complications in patients with a significant carotid artery disease and a history of previous stroke, but a larger study population is needed to support this thesis. The growing discrepancy in long-term survival should draw attention to a more complete revascularization in OPCAB patients.
Source: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery - February 8, 2013 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Zembala, M. O., Filipiak, K., Ciesla, D., Pacholewicz, J., Hrapkowicz, T., Knapik, P., Przybylski, R., Zembala, M. Tags: ADULT CARDIAC Source Type: research