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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 30.
H1152 promotes the degradation of polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3 or ataxin-7 independently of its ROCK-inhibiting effect and ameliorates mutant ataxin-3-induced neurodegeneration in the SCA3 transgenic mouse.
Abstract Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) caused by polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-3 is the most prevalent subtype of spinocerebellar ataxias. A compound, which decreases protein level of mutant ataxin-3 in SCA3 affected CNS regions, should be a promising therapeutic agent for SCA3. SCA3 and Huntington's disease (HD) belong to a family of polyglutamine neurodegenerative diseases. Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 reduced brain level of polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin in HD transgenic mouse. Therefore, we tested the possibility that ROCK inhibitors, Y27632, H1152 and GSK429286, downregulate protein expression ...
Source: Neuropharmacology - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Wang HL, Hu SH, Chou AH, Wang SS, Weng YH, Yeh TH Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research
Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of bivalent ligands against A(1)-D(1) receptor heteromers.
Conclusion:This study demonstrates the existence of A(1)-D(1)R in situ and a simultaneous interaction of bivalent ligands with both the receptors. PMID: 23334237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Shen J, Zhang L, Song WL, Meng T, Wang X, Chen L, Feng LY, Xu YC, Shen JK Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research
Role of descending aminergic pathways in the development of locomotion.
Abstract The development of locomotor function in terrestrial higher vertebrates takes place during both the embryonic period and the first days (or weeks, depending on the species) of postnatal life. It relies on the maturation of different elements such as musculoskeletal system, sensory systems, network connectivity, and neuronal intrinsic properties. This maturation results from the interplay between genetic determinants and activity dependent processes. Numerous studies have shown that aminergic (serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine) projections to the spinal cord could contribute to the maturation of locomotor ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pearlstein E Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
The Control of Male Sexual Responses.
Abstract Male sexual responses are reflexes mediated by the spinal cord and modulated by neural circuitries involving both the peripheral and central nervous system. While the brain interact with the reflexes to allow perception of sexual sensations and to exert excitatory or inhibitory influences, penile reflexes can occur despite complete transections of the spinal cord, as demonstrated by the reviewed animal studies on spinalization and human studies on spinal cord injury. Neurophysiological and neuropharmacological substrates of the male sexual responses will be discussed in this review, starting with the spina...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Courtois F, Carrier S, Charvier K, Guertin PA, Journel NM Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Control and Role of Plateau Potential Properties in the Spinal Cord.
Abstract In this review we will first give a historical account of how the discovery of persistent inward currents "final common path", i.e. the motoneurons themselves. A major function of voltage-dependent PICs is to serve as an adjustable amplifier of classical synaptic inputs. The complex control of this, and other intrinsic properties, certainly adjusts the performance of the motoneurons to the needs of the behavioral settings. It has emerged that supraspinal facilitation, mainly by monoaminergic projections, is a prerequisite for the normal function of the PIC channels. When these pathways are interrupted foll...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hultborn H, Zhang M, Meehan CF Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Modulation of the intrinsic properties of motoneurons by serotonin.
Abstract Serotonin (5-HT) is one of the main transmitters in the nervous system. Serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei in the brainstem innervate most parts of the central nervous system including motoneurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. This review will focus on the modulatory role that 5-HT exerts on motoneurons and its physiological consequences. The somato-dendritic compartments of motoneurons are densely innervated by serotonergic synaptic boutons and several receptors are expressed in the membrane of motoneurons including 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT1D, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C and 5-HT5A. The activation of ser...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Perrier JF, Rasmussen HB, Christensen RK, Petersen AV Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
How do glial cells contribute to motor control?
Abstract For many years, glial cells from the central nervous system have been considered as support cells involved in the homeostasis of the brain. However, a series of key-findings obtained during the past two decades has put light on unexpected roles for glia and it is getting more and more admitted that glia play an active role in several physiological functions. The discovery that a bidirectional communication takes place between astrocytes (the star shaped glial cell of the brain) and neurons was a major breakthrough in the field of synaptic physiology. Astrocytes express receptors that get activated by neuro...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Christensen RK, Petersen AV, Perrier JF Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Rho as a target to promote repair: translation to clinical studies with Cethrin.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in permanent paralysis because there is little spontaneous repair. Neuronal injury in the central nervous system (CNS) causes breakage of axonal connections, release of myelin, inflammation and cell death at the lesion site. Many factors contribute to the failure of spontaneous repair after SCI, including the presence of growth inhibitory proteins in myelin, the inflammatory environment of the injured CNS, and the resulting signaling cascades that result in over-activation of Rho, a signaling switch in neurons and axons. In this review, we provide a general overview o...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: McKerracher L, Guertin P Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Neuropeptide/Receptor Expression and Plasticity in Micturition Pathways.
Abstract Several motor behaviors such as locomotion, respiration, sexual function, and micturition are generated by rhythmic and stereotyped motor patterns of activity. In most cases, these functions are primarily controlled by signals and neuronal commands that originate from the brainstem and spinal cord. Defined as the storage and periodic elimination of urine, micturition requires a complex neural control system that coordinates the activities of a variety of effector organs including the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder and the smooth and striated muscle of the urethral sphincters. The lower urinary...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Merrill L, Girard B, Arms L, Guertin P, Vizzard MA Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Pharmacological Approaches to Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.
This article provides a thorough overview of the main drug classes and products currently used or in development for chronic spinal cord injury. Special attention is paid to a novel class of drug treatment designed to provide a holistic solution for several chronic complications and diseases related with spinal cord injury. There is clear evidence showing that that new class can elicit 'on-demand' episodes of rhythmic and stereotyped walking activity in previously completely paraplegic animals and may consequently constitute a simple therapy against several physical inactivity-related comorbid problems. Understanding furth...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Steuer I, Rouleau P, Guertin PA Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
A Valuable Animal Model of Spinal Cord Injury to Study Motor Dysfunctions, Comorbid Conditions, and Aging Associated Diseases.
Abstract Most animal models of contused, compressed or transected spinal cord injury (SCI) require a laminectomy to be performed. However, despite advantages and disadvantages associated with each of these models, the laminectomy itself is generally associated with significant problems including longer surgery and anaesthesia (related post-operative complications), neuropathic pain, spinal instabilities, deformities, lordosis, and biomechanical problems, etc. This review provides an overview of findings obtained mainly from our laboratory that are associated with the development and characterization of a novel mu...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rouleau P, Guertin PA Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
The Multifunctional Mesencephalic Locomotor Region.
Abstract In 1966, Shik, Severin and Orlovskii discovered that electrical stimulation of a region at the junction between the midbrain and hindbrain elicited controlled walking and running in the cat. The region was named Mesencephalic Locomotor Region (MLR). Since then, this locomotor center was shown to control locomotion in various vertebrate species, including the lamprey, salamander, stingray, rat, guinea-pig, rabbit or monkey. In human subjects asked to imagine they are walking, there is an increased activity in brainstem nuclei corresponding to the MLR (i.e. pedunculopontine, cuneiform and subcuneiform nuclei...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ryczko D, Dubuc R Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Sex, Stress and Their Influence on Respiratory Regulation.
Abstract Much like locomotion or micturition, respiration is a rhythmic and stereotyped motor pattern controlled mainly by non-cortical structures including a complex circuit in the brainstem. Because tight regulation of lung ventilation is essential from the beginning of life, it has been presumed that the neural system regulating breathing is fixed, following a genetically predetermined developmental pattern. Here, we review evidence indicating that early life exposure to a non-systemic stress in the form of neonatal maternal separation (NMS) is sufficient to exert sex-specific consequences on the developmental t...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kinkead R, Guertin PA, Gulemetova R Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in the brainstem and spinal cord: structure and function.
Abstract γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays many of its key roles in embryonic development and functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) by acting on ligand gated chloride-permeable channels known as GABAA receptors (GABAAR). Classically, GABAAR-mediatedsynaptic communication is tailored to allow rapid and precise transmission of information to synchronize the activityof large populations of cells to generate and maintain neuronal networks oscillations. An alternative type of inhibition mediated by GABAA receptors, initially described about 25 years ago, is characterized by a tonic activation of receptors that...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Delgado-Lezama R, Loeza-Alcocer E, Andrés C, Aguilar J, Guertin PA, Felix R Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity and Metaplasticity in Spinal Motor Networks.
Abstract Throughout life, neuronal network properties are modulated according to both external and internal stimuli. These adaptive capabilities of the central nervous system (CNS) have been generically termed "plasticity". One prominent form of CNS plasticity is the capability of synapses to change their strength. Synaptic strength is not a constant value but depends at each moment on the synapse's past activity. These changes in transmission efficacyare called activity-dependent synaptic plasticity (ADSP) and result in an increase (potentiation) or a decrease (depression) in synaptic strength. The ability of syna...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bertrand SS, Cazalets JR Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Role of Neurotrophins in Spinal Plasticity and Locomotion.
Abstract Synaptic transmission through descending motor pathways to lumbar motoneurons and then to leg muscles is essential for walking in humans and rats. Spinal cord injury (SCI), even when incomplete, results in diminished transmission to motoneurons and very limited recovery of motor function. Neurotrophins have emerged as essential molecules known to promote cell survival and support anatomical reorganization in damaged spinal cord. This review will summarize the evidence implicating the role of neurotrophins in synaptic plasticity in both undamaged and damaged spinal cord, with special emphasis on the potenti...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - January 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Arvanian V Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Binocular Coordination of Saccades During Reading In Strabismic Children [Eye Movements, Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Neuro-Ophthalmology]
Conclusions. In strabismic children binocular saccade coordination is deficient and could be responsible for impaired reading capabilities. Binocular vision has an important role in improving binocular saccade yoking.
Source: Investigative Ophthalmology - January 21, 2013 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lions, C., Bui-Quoc, E., Seassau, M., Bucci, M. P. Tags: Eye Movements, Strabismus, Amblyopia, and Neuro-Ophthalmology Source Type: research
Postoperative Residual Neuromuscular Blockade Is Associated with Impaired Clinical Recovery.
CONCLUSION:The incidence and severity of symptoms of muscle weakness were increased in the PACU in patients with a TOF <0.9. PMID: 23337416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - January 21, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Murphy GS, Szokol JW, Avram MJ, Greenberg SB, Shear T, Vender JS, Gray J, Landry E Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research
The Antinociceptive and Antihyperalgesic Effects of Topical Propofol on Dorsal Horn Neurons in the Rat.
CONCLUSIONS:The results indicate that topical propofol inhibits responses of WDR neurons to noxious heat consistent with analgesia, and reduced AITC sensitization of WDR neurons consistent with an antihyperalgesic effect. These results are consistent with clinical studies demonstrating reduced postoperative pain in surgical patients anesthetized with propofol. The mechanism of analgesic action of topical propofol is not clear, but may involve desensitization of TRPV1 or TRPA1 receptors expressed in peripheral nociceptive nerve endings, engagement of endocannabinoids, or activation of peripheral γ-aminobutyric acid A recep...
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - January 21, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Takechi K, Carstens MI, Klein AH, Carstens E Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research
MRI Findings in a Cohort of Brain Injured Survivors of Pediatric Cerebral Malaria.
Abstract A prospective cohort study of retinopathy-confirmed cerebral malaria (CM) survivors identified 42 of 132 with neurologic sequelae. The 38 survivors with sequelae who were alive when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology became available underwent brain MRIs. Common MRI abnormalities included periventricular T2 signal changes (53%), atrophy (47%), subcortical T2 signal changes (18%), and focal cortical defects (16%). The χ(2) tests assessed the relationship between chronic MRI findings, acute clinical and demographic data, and outcomes. Children who were older at the time of CM infection (P = 0.01) a...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 21, 2013 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kampondeni SD, Potchen MJ, Beare NA, Seydel KB, Glover SJ, Taylor TE, Birbeck GL Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Lead roles for supporting actors: Critical functions of inner ear supporting cells.
Abstract Many studies that aim to investigate the underlying mechanisms of hearing loss or balance disorders focus on the hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons of the inner ear. Fewer studies have examined the supporting cells that contact both of these cell types in the cochlea and vestibular end organs. While the roles of supporting cells are still being elucidated, emerging evidence indicates that they serve many functions vital to maintaining healthy populations of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. Here we review recent studies that highlight the critical roles supporting cells play in the development, f...
Source: Hearing Research - January 21, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Monzack EL, Cunningham LL Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research
Prolyl oligopeptidase is a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-binding protein that regulates genotoxic stress-induced cell death.
Abstract Prolyl oligopeptidase is a serine protease that cleaves peptides shorter 30-mer at carboxyl side of an internal proline. This enzyme has been proposed to be involved in the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides. However, conclusive results have not yet been reported, and the primary physiological role remains to be elucidated. Here, we describe the identification of a novel protein that interacts with prolyl oligopeptidase in a human neuroblastoma cell line NB-1. Using an affinity column with immobilized recombinant human prolyl oligopeptidase as ligand, we identified glyceraldeh...
Source: The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology - January 21, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Matsuda T, Sakaguchi M, Tanaka S, Yoshimoto T, Takaoka M Tags: Int J Biochem Cell Biol Source Type: research
Increased activity of pre-motor network does not change the excitability of motoneurons during protracted scratch initiation.
Abstract Intrinsic response properties of neurons change during network activity. These changes may reinforce the initiation of particular forms of network activity. If so, the involvement of neurons in particular behaviors in multifunctional networks could be determined by up or down regulation of their intrinsic excitability. Here we employed an experimental paradigm of protracted scratch initiation in the integrated carapace-spinal cord preparation of adult turtles (Chrysemys scripta elegans). The protracted initiation of scratch network activity allows us to investigate the excitability of motoneurons and pre-m...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 21, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Guzulaitis R, Alaburda A, Hounsgaard J Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Functional role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in inhibitory motor innervation in the mouse internal anal sphincter.
In conclusion, this study identified an ultraslow component of inhibitory NMT in the IAS mediated by VIP. In vivo, this pathway may be activated with larger rectal distensions leading to a more prolonged period of anal relaxation. PMID: 23339175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 21, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Keef KD, Saxton SN, McDowall RA, Kaminski RE, Duffy AM, Cobine CA Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Construction of a Polarized Neuron.
Abstract Aside from rare counterexamples (e.g. the starburst amacrine cell in retina), neurons are polarized into two compartments, dendrites and axon, which are linked at the cell body. This structural polarization carries an underlying molecular definition and maps into a general functional polarization whereby inputs are collected by the dendrites and cell body and output is distributed via the axon. Explanations of how the polarized structure arises invariably coalesce around somatic polarity, defined by the roving location of the microtubule organizing center, or centrosome, the Golgi apparatus, associated end...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 21, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Holcomb PS, Deerinck T, Ellisman MH, Spirou GA Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Interactions between spinal interneurons and ventral spinocerebellar tract neurons.
Abstract Recent evidence indicates that ventral spinocerebellar tract (VSCT) neurons not merely receive information provided by spinal interneurons but may also modulate the activity of these interneurons. Hence, interactions between them may be mutual. However, while it is well established that spinal interneurons may provide both excitatory and inhibitory input to ascending tract neurons, the functional consequences of the almost exclusively inhibitory input from premotor interneurons to subpopulations of VSCT neurons were only recently addressed. These are discussed in the first part of this review. The second p...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 21, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Jankowska E, Hammar I Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Taste responses in mice lacking taste receptor subunit T1R1.
Abstract The T1R1 receptor subunit acts as umami taste receptor in combination with its partner T1R3. In addition, metabotropic glutamate receptors (brain- and taste- mGluR1 and mGluR4) are thought to function as umami taste receptors. To elucidate T1R1 function and the contribution of mGluRs to umami taste detection in vivo, we used newly developed knock-out (KO, T1R1-/-) mice, which lack the entire coding region of the Tas1r1 gene and express mCherry in T1R1-expressing cells. Gustatory nerve recordings demonstrated that T1R1-/- mice exhibited serious deficit in inosine monophosphate-elicited synergy but substanti...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 21, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Kusuhara Y, Yoshida R, Ohkuri T, Yasumatsu K, Voigt A, Hübner S, Maeda K, Boehm U, Meyerhof W, Ninomiya Y Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Biomimetic Polymer Brushes Containing Tethered Acetylcholine Analogs for Protein and Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Patterning.
Abstract This paper describes a method to control neuronal cell adhesion and differentiation with both chemical and topographic cues by using a spatially defined polymer brush pattern. First, biomimetic methacrylate polymer brushes containing tethered neurotransmitter acetylcholine functionalities in the form of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), or free hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) units were prepared using the "grown from" method through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) reactions. The surface properties of the resulting brushes were thoroughly characterize...
Source: Biomacromolecules - January 21, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhou Z, Yu P, Geller HM, Ober CK Tags: Biomacromolecules Source Type: research
Estrogen synthesis and signaling pathways during aging: from periphery to brain.
Abstract Estrogens are the primary female sex hormones and play important roles in both reproductive and non-reproductive systems. Estrogens can be synthesized in non-reproductive tissues such as liver, heart, muscle, bone and brain, and tissue-specific estrogen synthesis is consistent with a diversity of estrogen actions. In this article we review tissue and cell-specific estrogen synthesis and estrogen receptor signaling in three parts: (i) synthesis and metabolism, (ii) the distribution of estrogen receptors and signaling, and (iii) estrogen functions and related disorders, including cardiovascular diseases, ost...
Source: Trends in Molecular Medicine - January 21, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Cui J, Shen Y, Li R Tags: Trends Mol Med Source Type: research
Avellis syndrome as presenting manifestation of ulcerative colitis
We described a 41-year-old woman presenting with subacute onset of left hemihypesthesia, left facial palsy, dysphagia and dysgeusia. A cranial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral inhomogeneous medullary hyperintensities. The clinical manifestations conformed to Avellis syndrome, and were linked to the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis which was proved by serological findings and pathological evidence on rectosigmoid mucosa. She recovered favorably under conservative medical treatment with complete remission over one month of follow-up. Brainstem syndromes are rarely associated with neurological complica...
Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Bo-Lin Ho, Fang-Jung Yu, Chiou-Lian Lai, Hsin-Hsin Lin Tags: Short Communications Source Type: research
Neuroinflammation: Inflammatory brain drain
Nature Reviews Immunology 13, 69 (2013). doi:10.1038/nri3392 Author: Yvonne Bordon Loss of the dopamine D2 receptor or activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome can enhance CNS inflammation and contribute to neurodegenerative disease.
Source: Nature Reviews Immunology - January 21, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yvonne Bordon Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research
G‐Protein coupled receptor 64 promotes invasiveness and metastasis in Ewing sarcomas through PGF and MMP1
Abstract Metastatic spread in Ewing sarcomas (ES) is frequent and haematogenous. G‐protein coupled receptor 64 (GPR64), an orphan receptor with normal expression restricted to human epididymis is specifically over‐expressed in ES among sarcoma, but also up‐regulated in a number of carcinomas derived from prostate, kidney or lung. Inhibition of GPR64 expression in ES by RNA interference impaired colony formation in vitro and suppressed local tumour growth and metastasis in Rag2−/−γC−/− mice. Microarray analysis after GPR64 knock down revealed a GPR64‐mediated repression of genes involved in neuronal develop...
Source: The Journal of Pathology - January 21, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Günther HS Richter, Annette Fasan, Kristina Hauer, Thomas GP Grunewald, Colette Berns, Sabine Rössler, Ivonne Naumann, Martin S. Staege, Simone Fulda, Irene Esposito, Stefan Burdach Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Giant cell arteritis incidence: analysis by season and year in mid‐Atlantic United States
ConclusionThe incidence of biopsy‐proven GCA in the population studied did not have any significant cyclic pattern over the last 17 years. The highest incidence by month was noted in July with a trough in October. However, this was not a significant pattern by month or season to support infectious or periodic environmental factors inciting GCA.
Source: Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology - January 21, 2013 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Krystian Kisza, Ann P Murchison, Yang Dai, Jurij R Bilyk, Ralph C Eagle, Robert Sergott, Peter J Savino Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
Computer‐assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities – A Longitudinal Study
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow‐up was conducted 1 year after the first measurement. One hundred thirty children in Grade 2 participated in the study. Three groups of children with reading difficulties received computerized training programmes: one aimed at improving word decoding skills and phonological abilities, the seco...
Source: Dyslexia - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Linda Fälth, Stefan Gustafson, Tomas Tjus, Mikael Heimann, Idor Svensson Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Contributions of Syntactic Awareness to Reading in Chinese‐speaking Adolescent Readers with and without Dyslexia
This study investigated the relative contribution of syntactic awareness to Chinese reading among Chinese‐speaking adolescent readers with and without dyslexia. A total of 78 junior high school students in Hong Kong, 26 dyslexic adolescent readers, 26 average adolescent readers of the same age (chronological age control group) and 26 younger readers matched with the same reading level (reading‐level group) participated and were administered measures of IQ, syntactic awareness, morphological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, working memory, word reading, and reading comprehension. Results showed that dyslexic readers sco...
Source: Dyslexia - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Kevin K. H. Chung, Connie S‐H Ho, David W. Chan, Suk‐Man Tsang, Suk‐Han Lee Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
What helps can also hinder: A dissociation in the acute effect of levodopa treatment on motor and cognitive functions
Source: Movement Disorders - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Mariah J. Lelos, Emma L. Lane, Stephen B. Dunnett Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Prevalence and impact of restless legs syndrome in university students
Source: Movement Disorders - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Michal Minár, Patrícia Valková, Peter Valkovič Tags: Letters: New Observations Source Type: research
Caffeine consumption and risk of dyskinesia in CALM‐PD
ConclusionsThese results support the possibility that caffeine may reduce the likelihood of developing dyskinesia. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society
Source: Movement Disorders - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Anne‐Marie A. Wills, Shirley Eberly, Marsha Tennis, Anthony E. Lang, Susan Messing, Daniel Togasaki, Caroline M. Tanner, Cornelia Kamp, Jiang‐Fan Chen, David Oakes, Michael P. McDermott, Michael A. Schwarzschild, Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
Default-mode network dysfunction and cognitive impairment in progressive MS
In the article "Default-mode network dysfunction and cognitive impairment in progressive MS" by M.A. Rocca et al. (Neurology® 2010;74:1252–1259), there is an error in the title of table 3, which should read "Mean (SE) values of z scores of resting state activity within the clusters showing a significant difference among healthy controls, patients with SPMS, and patients with PPMS." The values within the table are correct. The authors regret the error.
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Tags: CORRECTIONS Source Type: research
Subjective cognitive impairment: Fickle but fateful
In the editorial "Subjective cognitive impairment: Fickle but fateful" by D.S. Knopman (Neurology® 2012;79:1308–1309), in lines 15–19 of the second column on page 1308, the text should read as follows: "The authors defined SMI using a single question ‘Do you feel like your memory is becoming worse?’ Participants who answered ‘Yes, this worries me’ were classified as having SMI." The author regrets the error.
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Tags: CORRECTIONS Source Type: research
Comorbidity of migraine in children presenting with epilepsy to a tertiary care center
Kelley et al. confirmed the higher prevalence of migraine in children with epilepsy.1 The authors expanded upon our hypothesis2 by assuming that migraine would be more prevalent in patients with intractable epilepsy. In our opinion, this was not shown. In patients with intractable seizures, the focus is primarily on seizures vs headache complaints. Children with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy are most prevalent in this study and because these types of epilepsy are relatively benign, these patients are more likely to complain of headache. Considering that headache occurs after epi...
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, D. G., Belcastro, V., Spalice, A., Kelley, S. A. Tags: WRITECLICK: EDITOR ' S CHOICE Source Type: research
Teaching NeuroImages: Differential diagnosis of scapular winging
I read with interest the Teaching NeuroImage regarding the differential diagnosis of scapular winging.1 Although neurology literature mentions that weakness of the rhomboids may cause winging,2,3 this is likely erroneous. The rhomboids originate from C7 to D5 spinous processes and insert into the medial border of the scapula.4 Since the fibers are inserted into the medial border and not on the anterior and posterior aspects of the medial border, they do not have a role in holding the scapula approximated to the rib cage. Weakness of the rhomboids may cause the scapula to deviate down and out, but it would not cause winging...
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: George, J., Amato, A. A., Greenberg, S. A., Tsivgoulis, G. Tags: WRITECLICK: EDITOR ' S CHOICE Source Type: research
Shadow sign in a T2* brain image in spontaneous middle cerebral artery dissection
A 29-year-old man presented with unilateral dull headache for 3 days, similar to previous headache, but with right hemiparesis; there was no antecedent infection or trauma. MRI showed left striatocapsular infarction without evidence of cardioembolism or vasculitis. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated stenosis of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) trunk Intramural hematoma suggests arterial dissection. The bulging intramural hematoma seen on T2* corresponded with an eccentric high signal rim on sagittal T1-weighted imaging, along the anterosuperior MCA wall at the arterial perforator origin The diagnosis was spo...
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Jung, J.-M., Lee, Y.-H., Park, M. H., Kwon, D.-Y. Tags: NEUROIMAGES Source Type: research
Ross syndrome: A lesson from a monozygotic twin pair
Ross syndrome is a rare autonomic disorder described by Ross in 19581 and characterized by tonic pupil, hyporeflexia, and segmental anhidrosis. A postganglionic cholinergic nerve degeneration of unknown cause underlies this condition2 although erratic association with Sjögren3 and antinuclear antibody4 positivity has led some authors to hypothesize immunologic causes. Familial cases have not been reported.
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Nolano, M., Provitera, V., Donadio, V., Stancanelli, A., Saltalamacchia, A., Caporaso, G., Santoro, L. Tags: Autonomic diseases, Pupils CLINICAL/SCIENTIFIC NOTES Source Type: research
Fatigue and fatigability in neurologic illnesses: Proposal for a unified taxonomy
Fatigue is commonly reported in many neurologic illnesses, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, myasthenia gravis, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Fatigue contributes substantially to decrements in quality of life and disability in these illnesses. Despite the clear impact of fatigue as a disabling symptom, our understanding of fatigue pathophysiology is limited and current treatment options rarely lead to meaningful improvements in fatigue. Progress continues to be hampered by issues related to terminology and assessment. In this article, we propose a unified taxonomy and a novel assessment approach to add...
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Kluger, B. M., Krupp, L. B., Enoka, R. M. Tags: All Clinical Neurology, Parkinson's disease/Parkinsonism, All Cerebrovascular disease/Stroke, Multiple sclerosis VIEWS & amp;amp; REVIEWS Source Type: research
Neurology in Canada: History of the Canadian Neurological Society
In the 19th and early 20th century, Canadian physicians interested in neurology focused on this area as part of their broader clinical practices. The most renowned was William Osler, often called Canada's first neurologist because one-third of his writing was devoted to neurology. Until the mid-20th century, most Canadian neurologists trained at the National Hospital, Queen Square, London, and in Paris. The majority returned to academic centers and after World War II every Canadian medical school and major center had consultant neurologists.
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Murray, T. J., Bray, G., Freedman, M., Stoessl, A. J. Tags: All Health Services Research, All Education, Methods of education GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research
Levetiracetam in pregnancy: Results from the UK and Ireland epilepsy and pregnancy registers
Conclusion: This study, in a meaningful number of exposed pregnancies, confirms a low risk for MCM with levetiracetam monotherapy use in pregnancy. MCM risk is higher when levetiracetam is taken as part of a polytherapy regimen, although further work is required to determine the risks of particular combinations. With respect to MCM, levetiracetam taken in monotherapy can be considered a safer alternative to valproate for women with epilepsy of childbearing age.
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Mawhinney, E., Craig, J., Morrow, J., Russell, A., Smithson, W. H., Parsons, L., Morrison, P. J., Liggan, B., Irwin, B., Delanty, N., Hunt, S. J. Tags: All epidemiology, All Epilepsy/Seizures, Antiepileptic drugs ARTICLE Source Type: research
A focal domain of extreme demethylation within D4Z4 in FSHD2
Conclusions: These data challenge the simple view that FSHD is caused by a broad "opening" of D4Z4 and lead us to postulate that the region of focal demethylation is the site of action of the key D4Z4 chromatin regulatory factors that go awry in FSHD.
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Hartweck, L. M., Anderson, L. J., Lemmers, R. J., Dandapat, A., Toso, E. A., Dalton, J. C., Tawil, R., Day, J. W., van der Maarel, S. M., Kyba, M. Tags: All Neuromuscular Disease, Muscle disease, All Genetics ARTICLE Source Type: research
Metabolic changes in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia
Conclusions: The findings are consistent with a subcortical myoclonus generator in DYT11-MD, likely involving the cerebellum. By contrast, subtle increases in the superior parietal cortex relate to the additional presence of dystonic symptoms. Although reduced penetrance in DYT11-MD has been attributed to the maternal imprinting epsilon-sarcoglycan mutations, NM-DYT11 carriers showed significant metabolic abnormalities that are not explained by this genetic model.
Source: Neurology - January 21, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Carbon, M., Raymond, D., Ozelius, L., Saunders-Pullman, R., Frucht, S., Dhawan, V., Bressman, S., Eidelberg, D. Tags: PET, Dystonia, Myoclonus, All Genetics ARTICLE Source Type: research