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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 11.
Gastrointestinal function development and microbiota
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of post-natal gastrointestinal functions of the host. Recent advances in our capability to identify microbes and their function offer exciting opportunities to evaluate the complex cross talk between microbiota, intestinal barrier, immune system and the gut-brain axis. This review summarizes these interactions in the early colonization of gastrointestinal tract with a major focus on the role of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of feeding intolerance in preterm newborn. The potential benefit of early probiotic supplementation opens new perspective...
Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics - February 24, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Antonio Di MauroJosef NeuGiuseppe RiezzoFrancesco RaimondiDomenico MartinelliRuggiero FrancavillaFlavia Indrio Source Type: research
Magnetic flimmers: 'light in the electromagnetic darkness'
Transcranial magnetic stimulation has become an important field for both research in neuroscience and for therapy since Barker in 1985 showed that it was possible to stimulate the human motor cortex with an electromagnet. Today for instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used to measure nerve conduction velocities and to create virtual lesions in the brain. The latter option creates the possibility to inactivate parts of the brain temporarily without permanent damage. In 2008, the American Food and Drugs Administration approved repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a therapy for major depression under ...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Martens, J. W., Koehler, P. J., Vijselaar, J. Tags: Occasional Paper Source Type: research
Myotonic dystrophy CTG expansion affects synaptic vesicle proteins, neurotransmission and mouse behaviour
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a complex multisystemic inherited disorder, which displays multiple debilitating neurological manifestations. Despite recent progress in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 in skeletal muscle and heart, the pathways affected in the central nervous system are largely unknown. To address this question, we studied the only transgenic mouse line expressing CTG trinucleotide repeats in the central nervous system. These mice recreate molecular features of RNA toxicity, such as RNA foci accumulation and missplicing. They exhibit relevant behavioural and cogniti...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Hernandez-Hernandez, O., Guiraud-Dogan, C., Sicot, G., Huguet, A., Luilier, S., Steidl, E., Saenger, S., Marciniak, E., Obriot, H., Chevarin, C., Nicole, A., Revillod, L., Charizanis, K., Lee, K.-Y., Suzuki, Y., Kimura, T., Matsuura, T., Cisneros, B., Swa Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Congenital myasthenic syndromes due to mutations in ALG2 and ALG14
Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders that arise from impaired signal transmission at the neuromuscular synapse. They are characterized by fatigable muscle weakness. We performed linkage analysis, whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing to determine the underlying defect in patients with an inherited limb-girdle pattern of myasthenic weakness. We identify ALG14 and ALG2 as novel genes in which mutations cause a congenital myasthenic syndrome. Through analogy with yeast, ALG14 is thought to form a multiglycosyltransferase complex with ALG13 and DPAGT1 that catalyses the first two c...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Cossins, J., Belaya, K., Hicks, D., Salih, M. A., Finlayson, S., Carboni, N., Liu, W. W., Maxwell, S., Zoltowska, K., Farsani, G. T., Laval, S., Seidhamed, M. Z., WGS500 consortium, Donnelly, P., Bentley, D., McGowan, S. J., Muller, J., Palace, J., Lochmu Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Co-induction of the heat shock response ameliorates disease progression in a mouse model of human spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: implications for therapy
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, also known as Kennedy’s disease, is an adult-onset hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion of the polyglutamine repeat in the first exon in the androgen receptor gene. Pathologically, the disease is defined by selective loss of spinal and bulbar motor neurons causing bulbar, facial and limb weakness. Although the precise disease pathophysiology is largely unknown, it appears to be related to abnormal accumulation of the pathogenic androgen receptor protein within the nucleus, leading to disruption of cellular processes. Using a mouse model of spinal and bulbar ...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Malik, B., Nirmalananthan, N., Gray, A. L., La Spada, A. R., Hanna, M. G., Greensmith, L. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
GABA deficit in the visual cortex of patients with neurofibromatosis type 1: genotype-phenotype correlations and functional impact
Alterations in the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurodevelopmental disorders. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is one of the most common monogenic disorders causing cognitive deficits for which studies on a mouse model (Nfl+/–) proposed increased -aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission as the neural mechanism underlying these deficits. To test whether a similar mechanism translates to the human disorder, we used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure -aminobutyric acid levels in the visual cortex of children and adolescents with neurofibromat...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Violante, I. R., Ribeiro, M. J., Edden, R. A. E., Guimaraes, P., Bernardino, I., Rebola, J., Cunha, G., Silva, E., Castelo-Branco, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Genotype-specific patterns of atrophy progression are more sensitive than clinical decline in SCA1, SCA3 and SCA6
Spinocerebellar ataxias are dominantly inherited disorders that are associated with progressive brain degeneration, mainly affecting the cerebellum and brainstem. As part of the multicentre European integrated project on spinocerebellar ataxias study, 37 patients with spinocerebellar ataxia-1, 19 with spinocerebellar ataxia-3 and seven with spinocerebellar ataxia-6 were clinically examined and underwent magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and after a 2-year follow-up. All patients were compared with age-matched and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis included three-dimensional vo...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Reetz, K., Costa, A. S., Mirzazade, S., Lehmann, A., Juzek, A., Rakowicz, M., Boguslawska, R., Schols, L., Linnemann, C., Mariotti, C., Grisoli, M., Durr, A., van de Warrenburg, B. P., Timmann, D., Pandolfo, M., Bauer, P., Jacobi, H., Hauser, T.-K., Klock Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Oxidative stress regulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system and immunoproteasome functioning in a mouse model of X-adrenoleukodystrophy
Oxidative damage is a pivotal aetiopathogenic factor in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. This is a neurometabolic disease characterized by the accumulation of very-long-chain fatty acids owing to the loss of function of the peroxisomal transporter Abcd1. Here, we used the X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy mouse model and patient’s fibroblasts to detect malfunctioning of the ubiquitin–proteasome system resulting from the accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins, some involved in bioenergetic metabolism. Furthermore, the immunoproteasome machinery appears upregulated in response to oxidative stress, in the absence...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Launay, N., Ruiz, M., Fourcade, S., Schluter, A., Guilera, C., Ferrer, I., Knecht, E., Pujol, A. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Exome sequencing reveals a novel Moroccan founder mutation in SLC19A3 as a new cause of early-childhood fatal Leigh syndrome
Leigh syndrome is an early onset, often fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the mitochondrial or nuclear DNA. Until now, mutations in more than 35 genes have been reported to cause Leigh syndrome, indicating an extreme genetic heterogeneity for this disorder, but still only explaining part of the cases. The possibility of whole exome sequencing enables not only mutation detection in known candidate genes, but also the identification of new genes associated with Leigh syndrome in small families and isolated cases. Exome sequencing was combined with homozygosity mapping to identify the genetic...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Gerards, M., Kamps, R., van Oevelen, J., Boesten, I., Jongen, E., de Koning, B., Scholte, H. R., de Angst, I., Schoonderwoerd, K., Sefiani, A., Ratbi, I., Coppieters, W., Karim, L., de Coo, R., van den Bosch, B., Smeets, H. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
MEDNIK syndrome: a novel defect of copper metabolism treatable by zinc acetate therapy
MEDNIK syndrome—acronym for mental retardation, enteropathy, deafness, neuropathy, ichthyosis, keratodermia—is caused by AP1S1 gene mutations, encoding 1A, the small subunit of the adaptor protein 1 complex, which plays a crucial role in clathrin coat assembly and mediates trafficking between trans-Golgi network, endosomes and the plasma membrane. MEDNIK syndrome was first reported in a few French-Canadian families sharing common ancestors, presenting a complex neurocutaneous phenotype, but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. A Sephardic-Jewish patient, carrying a new AP1S1 homozygous mutation, showe...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Martinelli, D., Travaglini, L., Drouin, C. A., Ceballos-Picot, I., Rizza, T., Bertini, E., Carrozzo, R., Petrini, S., de Lonlay, P., El Hachem, M., Hubert, L., Montpetit, A., Torre, G., Dionisi-Vici, C. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Motor cortex and gait in mild cognitive impairment: a magnetic resonance spectroscopy and volumetric imaging study
In conclusion, the neurochemistry and volume of the primary motor cortex were associated with gait performance while single and dual tasking. Stride time variability was mainly sensitive to neuronal function (N-acetyl aspartate to creatine), whereas gait velocity was more affected by inflammatory damage (choline to creatine) and volumetric changes. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the higher risks of mobility decline and falls in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Annweiler, C., Beauchet, O., Bartha, R., Wells, J. L., Borrie, M. J., Hachinski, V., Montero-Odasso, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Diverging patterns of amyloid deposition and hypometabolism in clinical variants of probable Alzheimer's disease
This study assessed the relationship between amyloid deposition, glucose metabolism and clinical phenotype in Alzheimer’s disease, and investigated how these relate to the involvement of functional networks. The study included 17 patients with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (age at onset <65 years), 12 patients with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia and 13 patients with posterior cortical atrophy [whole Alzheimer’s disease group: age = 61.5 years (standard deviation 6.5 years), 55% male]. Thirty healthy control subjects [age = 70.8 (3.3) years, 47% male] were also included. Subjects underw...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Lehmann, M., Ghosh, P. M., Madison, C., Laforce, R., Corbetta-Rastelli, C., Weiner, M. W., Greicius, M. D., Seeley, W. W., Gorno-Tempini, M. L., Rosen, H. J., Miller, B. L., Jagust, W. J., Rabinovici, G. D. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Epigenetic transcriptional activation of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 contributes to long-lasting neuropathic pain
A multiplex analysis for profiling the expression of candidate genes along with epigenetic modification may lead to a better understanding of the complex machinery of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we found that partial sciatic nerve ligation most remarkably increased the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 3 (MCP-3, known as CCL7) a total of 33 541 genes in the spinal cord, which lasted for 4 weeks. This increase in MCP-3 gene transcription was accompanied by the decreased trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys27 at the MCP-3 promoter. The increased MCP-3 expression associated with its epigenetic modification...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Imai, S., Ikegami, D., Yamashita, A., Shimizu, T., Narita, M., Niikura, K., Furuya, M., Kobayashi, Y., Miyashita, K., Okutsu, D., Kato, A., Nakamura, A., Araki, A., Omi, K., Nakamura, M., James Okano, H., Okano, H., Ando, T., Takeshima, H., Ushijima, T., Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
The stress model of chronic pain: evidence from basal cortisol and hippocampal structure and function in humans
Recent theories have suggested that chronic pain could be partly maintained by maladaptive physiological responses of the organism facing a recurrent stressor. The present study examined the associations between basal levels of cortisol collected over seven consecutive days, the hippocampal volumes and brain activation to thermal stimulations administered in 16 patients with chronic back pain and 18 healthy control subjects. Results showed that patients with chronic back pain have higher levels of cortisol than control subjects. In these patients, higher cortisol was associated with smaller hippocampal volume and stronger ...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Vachon-Presseau, E., Roy, M., Martel, M.-O., Caron, E., Marin, M.-F., Chen, J., Albouy, G., Plante, I., Sullivan, M. J., Lupien, S. J., Rainville, P. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Hippocampal CA1 deformity is related to symptom severity and antipsychotic dosage in schizophrenia
Abnormalities of the hippocampus are intricately involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Hippocampal volume decrease is present at disease onset and has mainly been observed in the anterior and posterior part of the hippocampus. Nevertheless, an association between regionally specific hippocampal shape deformities putatively affecting a pathophysiologically crucial region, i.e. cornu ammonis field 1 (CA1), and symptomatology as well as required maintenance medication has not been observed. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between CA1-specific hippocampal surface deformations and symptom ...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Zierhut, K. C., Grassmann, R., Kaufmann, J., Steiner, J., Bogerts, B., Schiltz, K. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Distinct illusory own-body perceptions caused by damage to posterior insula and extrastriate cortex
Recent research in cognitive neuroscience using virtual reality, robotic technology and brain imaging has linked self-consciousness to the processing and integration of multisensory bodily signals. This work on bodily self-consciousness has implicated the temporo-parietal, premotor and extrastriate cortex and partly originated in work on neurological patients with different disorders of bodily self-consciousness. One class of such disorders is autoscopic phenomena, which are defined as illusory own-body perceptions, during which patients experience the visual illusory reduplication of their own body in extrapersonal space....
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Heydrich, L., Blanke, O. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Aristotle's illusion reveals interdigit functional somatosensory alterations in focal hand dystonia
In focal hand dystonia, the cortical somatosensory representation of the fingers is abnormal, with overlapping receptive fields and reduced interdigit separation. These abnormalities are associated with deficits in sensory perception, as previously demonstrated by applying tactile stimuli to one finger at a time. What is still unknown is whether the sensory deficits can be observed when tactile perception involves more than one finger. To address this issue, we applied ‘Aristotle’s illusion’ to 15 patients with focal hand dystonia, 15 patients with dystonia not affecting the hand (blepharospasm and cervic...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Tinazzi, M., Marotta, A., Fasano, A., Bove, F., Bentivoglio, A. R., Squintani, G., Pozzer, L., Fiorio, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
The functional neuroimaging correlates of psychogenic versus organic dystonia
The neurobiological basis of psychogenic movement disorders remains poorly understood and the management of these conditions difficult. Functional neuroimaging studies have provided some insight into the pathophysiology of disorders implicating particularly the prefrontal cortex, but there are no studies on psychogenic dystonia, and comparisons with findings in organic counterparts are rare. To understand the pathophysiology of these disorders better, we compared the similarities and differences in functional neuroimaging of patients with psychogenic dystonia and genetically determined dystonia, and tested hypotheses on th...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Schrag, A. E., Mehta, A. R., Bhatia, K. P., Brown, R. J., Frackowiak, R. S. J., Trimble, M. R., Ward, N. S., Rowe, J. B. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Bilateral pallidal stimulation in cervical dystonia: blinded evidence of benefit beyond 5 years
The local injection of botulinum toxin is accepted as the first-line treatment of primary cervical dystonia. This approach provides adequate symptomatic relief for most patients, but up to one-third will have an unsatisfactory response. Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus has been increasingly used in dystonic syndromes that are refractory to best pharmacological approaches. Although cervical dystonia is the most common idiopathic focal dystonia, evidence for long-term responsiveness to pallidal stimulation is limited. The primary objective of this study was to prospectively collect outcome data from bas...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Walsh, R. A., Sidiropoulos, C., Lozano, A. M., Hodaie, M., Poon, Y.-Y., Fallis, M., Moro, E. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Parietal substrates for dimensional effects in visual search: evidence from lesion-symptom mapping
In visual search, the detection of pop-out targets is facilitated when the target-defining dimension remains the same compared with when it changes across trials. We tested the brain regions necessary for these dimensional carry-over effects using a voxel-based morphometry study with brain-lesioned patients. Participants had to search for targets defined by either their colour (red or blue) or orientation (right- or left-tilted), and the target dimension either stayed the same or changed on consecutive trials. Twenty-five patients were categorized according to whether they showed an effect of dimensional change on search o...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Utz, S., Humphreys, G. W., Chechlacz, M. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Visual exploration in Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia
This study examined the error rates and visual exploration strategies of subjects with Parkinson’s disease, with and without cognitive impairment, whilst performing a battery of visuo-cognitive tasks. Error rates were significantly higher in those Parkinson’s disease groups with either mild cognitive impairment (P = 0.001) or dementia (P < 0.001), than in cognitively normal subjects with Parkinson’s disease. When compared with cognitively normal subjects with Parkinson’s disease, exploration strategy, as measured by a number of eye tracking variables, was least efficient in the dementia group but...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Archibald, N. K., Hutton, S. B., Clarke, M. P., Mosimann, U. P., Burn, D. J. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Evidence for adaptive cortical changes in swallowing in Parkinson's disease
Dysphagia is a relevant symptom in Parkinson’s disease, whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. It is mainly attributed to degeneration of brainstem nuclei. However, alterations in the cortical contribution to deglutition control in the course of Parkinson’s disease have not been investigated. Here, we sought to determine the patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with Parkinson’s disease with and without dysphagia. Swallowing function in patients was objectively assessed with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation. Swallow-related cortical activation was measured using whole-head magnetoenc...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Suntrup, S., Teismann, I., Bejer, J., Suttrup, I., Winkels, M., Mehler, D., Pantev, C., Dziewas, R., Warnecke, T. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Rhythm-specific modulation of the sensorimotor network in drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease by levodopa
Brain activity during rest is characterized by slow (0.01–0.1 Hz) fluctuations of blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. These fluctuations are organized as functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks, anatomically corresponding to specific neuronal circuits. As Parkinson’s disease is mainly characterized by a dysfunction of the sensorimotor pathways, which can be influenced by levodopa administration, the present study investigated the functional connectivity changes within the sensorimotor resting-state network in drug-naïve patients with Parki...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Esposito, F., Tessitore, A., Giordano, A., De Micco, R., Paccone, A., Conforti, R., Pignataro, G., Annunziato, L., Tedeschi, G. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
The cerebellum in Parkinson's disease
Parkinson’s disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by resting tremor, slowness of movements, rigidity, gait disturbance and postural instability. Most investigations on Parkinson’s disease focused on the basal ganglia, whereas the cerebellum has often been overlooked. However, increasing evidence suggests that the cerebellum may have certain roles in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. Anatomical studies identified reciprocal connections between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. There are Parkinson’s disease–related pathological changes in the cerebel...
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu, T., Hallett, M. Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Dystonia: hopes for a better diagnosis and a treatment with long-lasting effect
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Pavese, N. Tags: Scientific Commentaries Source Type: research
Defective N-linked protein glycosylation pathway in congenital myasthenic syndromes
Source: Brain - February 24, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Houlden, H. Tags: Scientific Commentaries Source Type: research
The Octadecaneuropeptide Stimulates Somatolactin Release from Cultured Goldfish Pituitary Cells
The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of the octadecaneuropeptide (ODN) in the goldfish brain and to look for a possible effect of ODN on somatolactin (SL) release from pituitary cells. A discrete population of ODN‐immunoreactive neurones was localised in the lateral part of the nucleus lateralis tuberis. These neurones sent projections through the neurohypophyseal tract towards the neurohypophysis, and nerve fibres were seen in the close vicinity of SL‐producing cells in the pars intermedia. Incubation of cultured goldfish pituitary cells with graded concentrations of ODN (10−9–10−5 m) induced...
Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology - February 24, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: M. Azuma, K. Wada, J. Leprince, M.‐C. Tonon, M. Uchiyama, A. Takahashi, H. Vaudry, K. Matsuda Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Hypothalamic Brain‐Derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulates Glucagon Secretion Mediated by Pancreatic Efferent Nerves
Understanding the molecular mechanism of the regulation of glucagon secretion is critical for treating the dysfunction of α cells observed in diabetes. Glucagon‐like peptide (GLP)‐1 analogues reduce plasma glucagon and are assumed to contribute to their action to lower blood glucose. It has previously been demonstrated that the central administration of brain‐derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) improves glucose metabolism by a mechanism independent of feeding behaviour in obese subjects. Using male rats, we examined whether BDNF influences glucagon secretion from α cells via the the central nervous system. We invest...
Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology - February 24, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: K. Gotoh, T. Masaki, S. Chiba, H. Ando, K. Fujiwara, T. Shimasaki, K. Mitsutomi, I. Katsuragi, T. Kakuma, T. Sakata, H. Yoshimatsu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
A novel Transcript is Up‐Regulated by Fasting in the Hypothalamus and Enhances Insulin Signalling
A transcript of unknown function, regulated by fasting and feeding, was identified by microarray analysis. The transcript is up‐regulated in the fasting state. An 1168‐bp cDNA was cloned from rat hypothalamus and sequenced. This sequence is consistent with adipogenesis down‐regulating transcript 3 (AGD3) (also known as human OCC‐1) mRNA. A protein sequence identical to AGD3 was determined by mass spectrometry. In the rat brain, AGD3 mRNA is distributed in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, amygdaloid nuclei, hippocampus, and somatic cortex. Double in situ hybridisation showed that AGD3 mRNA is co‐loc...
Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology - February 24, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: B. Chai, J.‐Y. Li, D. Fritze, W. Zhang, Z. Xia, M. W. Mulholland Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The Role of Angiotensin II on Sodium Appetite After a Low‐Sodium Diet
In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that Ang II is involved in the increased sodium appetite after a low‐sodium diet.
Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology - February 24, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: A. S. Mecawi, T. Vilhena‐Franco, F. V. Fonseca, L. C. Reis, L. L. K. Elias, J. Antunes‐Rodrigues Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Immune‐Induced Expression of Lipocalin‐2 in Brain Endothelial Cells: Relationship with Interleukin‐6, Cyclooxygenase‐2 and the Febrile Response
Interleukin (IL)‐6 is critical for the febrile response to peripheral immune challenge. However, the mechanism by which IL‐6 enables fever is still unknown. To characterise the IL‐6‐dependent fever generating pathway, we used microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes in the brain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐treated IL‐6 wild‐type and knockout mice. Mice lacking IL‐6 displayed a two‐fold lower expression of the lipocalin‐2 gene (lcn2), and this difference was confirmed by real‐time reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction. Conversely, the induction of lipocalin‐2 protein...
Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology - February 24, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: N. Hamzic, A. Blomqvist, C. Nilsberth Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Different Critical Perinatal Periods and Hypothalamic Sites of Oestradiol Action in the Defeminisation of Luteinising Hormone Surge and Lordosis Capacity in the Rat
Female rats show a gonadotrophin‐releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinising hormone (LH) surge in the presence of a preovulatory level of oestrogen, whereas males do not because of brain defeminisation during the developmental period by perinatal oestrogen converted from androgen. The present study aimed to identify the site(s) of oestrogen action and the critical period for defeminising the mechanism regulating the GnRH/LH surge. Animals given perinatal treatments, such as steroidal manipulations, brain local implantation of oestradiol (E2) or administration of an NMDA antagonist, were examined for their ability to show an E2...
Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology - February 24, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: M. Sakakibara, C. Deura, S. Minabe, Y. Iwata, Y. Uenoyama, K.‐I. Maeda, H. Tsukamura Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Voxel‐Based Morphometric Analysis in Hypothyroidism Using Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration via an Exponentiated Lie Algebra Algorithm Approach
The present study aimed to investigate whether brain morphological differences exist between adult hypothyroid subjects and age‐matched controls using voxel‐based morphometry (VBM) with diffeomorphic anatomic registration via an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. High‐resolution structural magnetic resonance images were taken in ten healthy controls and ten hypothyroid subjects. The analysis was conducted using statistical parametric mapping. The VBM study revealed a reduction in grey matter volume in the left postcentral gyrus and cerebellum of hypothyroid subjects compared to controls. A signifi...
Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology - February 24, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: S. Singh, S. Modi, D. Bagga, P. Kaur, L. R. Shankar, S. Khushu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Combat‐training increases intestinal permeability, immune activation and gastrointestinal symptoms in soldiers
ConclusionsProlonged combat‐training not only induces the expected increases in stress, anxiety and depression, but also GI symptoms, pro‐inflammatory immune activation and increased intestinal permeability. Identification of subgroups of individuals at high‐risk of GI compromise and of long‐term deleterious effects of operational stress as well as the development of protective measures will be the focus of future studies.
Source: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - February 24, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: X. Li, E. M. Kan, J. Lu, Y. Cao, R. K. Wong, A. Keshavarzian, C. H. Wilder‐Smith Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Pain from the brain
(University of Cambridge) Psychogenic diseases, formerly known as "hysterical" illnesses, can have many severe symptoms such as painful cramps or paralysis, but without any physical explanation. However, new research from the University of Cambridge and University College London suggests that individuals with psychogenic disease, that is to say physical illness that stems from emotional or mental stresses, do have brains that function differently.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 24, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
Ability of brain to protect itself from damage revealed
(University of Oxford) The origin of an innate ability the brain has to protect itself from damage that occurs in stroke has been explained for the first time. The Oxford University researchers hope that harnessing this inbuilt biological mechanism, identified in rats, could help in treating stroke and preventing other neurodegenerative diseases in the future.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 24, 2013 Category: Biology Source Type: news
MBL scientists find genes linked to human neurological disorders in sea lamprey genome
(Marine Biological Laboratory) Scientists at the Marine Biological Laboratory have identified several genes linked to human neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and spinal cord injury, in the sea lamprey, a vertebrate fish whose whole-genome sequence is reported this week in the journal Nature Genetics.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 24, 2013 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Demographic characterization of Brazilian patients enrolled in the Fabry Registry.
Demographic characterization of Brazilian patients enrolled in the Fabry Registry. Genet Mol Res. 2013;12(1):136-42 Authors: Martins AM, Kyosen SO, Garrote J, Marques FM, Guilhem JG, Macedo E, Sobral Neto J, Ura S Abstract Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked inborn error of metabolism caused by alpha-galactosidase A deficiency. The Fabry Registry is an ongoing observational database that compiles clinical data on patients with FD. We analyzed the Fabry Registry data of patients enrolled in Brazil to characterize the demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of this patient population. As of October 20...
Source: Genetics and Molecular Research - February 23, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Martins AM, Kyosen SO, Garrote J, Marques FM, Guilhem JG, Macedo E, Sobral Neto J, Ura S Tags: Genet Mol Res Source Type: research
Anatomies by Hugh Aldersey-Williams; Extremes by Kevin Fong – review
Two contrasting books show the right and wrong ways to write about scienceI looked forward immensely to Hugh Aldersey-Williams's Anatomies. After all, I'm an anatomist, fascinated by the body. When the parcel arrived, containing, according to the blurb, something by "one of our finest science writers", promising to blend "science, art, literature, the everyday" – well, to me, that sounded like Christmas had arrived early. I was in for a disappointment.Aldersey-Williams is most interesting, although often rambling, when discussing the body and its parts in literature, architecture and art, and his own experiences in the d...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Alice Roberts Tags: Biology Culture Reviews Books Anatomy and physiology Education The Observer Science and nature Source Type: news
Uta Frith: 'The brain is not a pudding; it is an engine'
The neuroscientist who first recognised autism as a condition of the brain rather than the result of cold parentingUta Frith sits in her beautiful, book-lined sitting-room in Harrow, north London, looking out towards the Chilterns. She is emeritus professor in cognitive development at UCL – and last year was made a dame. She is warm, smiling, bespectacled, dressed in brown linen and a fine gold necklace.Towards the end of our meeting, she describes a conversation she once had with an autistic person who was obsessed with light fittings in railway carriages and was trying to interest her in the minute differences between ...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Kate Kellaway Tags: Autism Neuroscience Features The Observer Interviews Source Type: news
Salt, Sugar, Fat: How the Food Giants Hooked Us by Michael Moss – review
A damning investigation into the junk food industry is both chilling and contentiousNew York Times journalist Michael Moss spent three-and-a-half years working out how big food companies get away with churning out products that undermine the health of those who eat them. He interviewed hundreds of current and former food industry insiders – chemists, nutrition scientists, behavioural biologists, food technologists, marketing executives, package designers, chief executives and lobbyists. What he uncovered is chilling: a hard-working industry composed of well-paid, smart, personable professionals, all keenly focused on kee...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Joanna Blythman Tags: Food and drink Nutrition & drink industry Diets and dieting Culture Health Health, mind and body wellbeing Society Reviews Books Life and style The Observer Business Source Type: news
How to Quit Almost Anything
A fun 3-min video tackles the neuroscience of breaking bad habits and finding your motivation.read more
Source: Psychology Today Addiction Center - February 23, 2013 Category: Addiction Authors: Kelly McGonigal, Ph.D. Tags: Addiction Self-Help brain Epipheo exercise future self health humor innovative design nbsp neuroscience quit relationship saving money self control smoking surprise appearance t power video weight loss willpower Source Type: news
The fog of fatigue I live din for 16 years has lifted at last: How pop art legend Roy Lichtenstein's muse has conquered chronic ME
Erica Wexler, 43, has won the battle with debilitating neurological condition chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), once known as ME (myalgic encephalomyelitis).
Source: the Mail online | Health - February 23, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Virtual autopsy: does it spell the end of the scalpel?
Scientific advances have led experts to pioneer the 'virtopsy', a non-invasive imaging process which can reveal details conventional methods would have missedAnyone who has spent any time in a courtroom knows how easy it is for a skilled defence lawyer to plant doubt in the mind of a jury. Even in a relatively straightforward case, such as a hit and run, jurors are frequently presented with such a confusing array of photographic and forensic evidence that it is very difficult to know what has taken place and who may be at fault.But what if there was a kind of technology that could reconstruct the crime scene in 3D and...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - February 23, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Mark Honigsbaum Tags: Forensic science Law Features UK news Crime The Observer Source Type: news
Eat Your Egg Yolks
Recently in the American Journal of Psychiatry, a new paper was published tying nutrient supplementation in pregnant women to positive changes in the brains of their offspring and perhaps even reduced risk of schizophrenia. One of the nutrients that may be less predominant in our modern diets than in traditional diets is the phospholipid known as choline.read more
Source: Psychology Today Food and Diet Center - February 23, 2013 Category: Nutrition Authors: Emily Deans, M.D. Tags: Diet Psychiatry american journal of psychiatry brain development brain disorders important things Infancy inhibition institutes of medicine jackhammer neuron nutrient supplementation nutrients offspring phospholipid phospholi Source Type: news