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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 18.
[News Focus] Neuroscience: All Eyes on RNA
The list of RNA-binding proteins linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is growing; RNA may also explain why a common mutation causes this fatal motor neuron disease—and a dementia.Author: Ken Garber
Source: Science: Current Issue - December 10, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Ken Garber Source Type: research
Brain Cells Made from Urine
Some of the waste that humans flush away every day could become a powerful source of brain cells to study disease, and may even one day be used in therapies for neurodegenerative diseases. Scientists have found a relatively straightforward way to persuade the cells discarded in human urine to turn into valuable neurons. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - December 10, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Health,Health,Medical Technology,Biotechnology,Biotechnology,Biology,More Science Source Type: research
Direct and indirect antimicrobial activities of neuropeptides and their therapeutic potential.
Abstract As global resistance to conventional antibiotics rises we need to develop new strategies to develop future novel therapeutics. In our quest to design novel anti-infectives and antimicrobials it is of interest to investigate host-pathogen interactions and learn from the complexity of host defense strategies that have evolved over millennia. A myriad of host defense molecules are now known to play a role in protection against human infection. However, the interaction between host and pathogen is recognized to be a multifaceted one, involving countless host proteins, including several families of peptides. Th...
Source: Current Protein and Peptide Science - December 10, 2012 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Augustyniak D, Nowak J, Lundy FT Tags: Curr Protein Pept Sci Source Type: research
Antioxidant enzymes in cerebral cortex of immature rats following experimentally-induced seizures: upregulation of mitochondrial MnSOD (SOD2).
Abstract We have recently demonstrated the evidence of oxidative stress in brain of immature rats during seizures induced by dl-homocysteic acid (dl-HCA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant defense mechanisms under these conditions. Seizures were induced in immature 12-day-old rats by bilateral icv infusion of dl-HCA (600nmol/side), and the activities of the main antioxidant enzymes were examined in supernatants of the cerebral cortex during the acute phase of seizures and at several periods of survival, up to 5 weeks, following these seizures. In control animals individual antioxidant ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - December 10, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Folbergrová J, Ješina P, Nůsková H, Houštěk J Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
Diabetes, lower extremity amputation, loss of protective sensation, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase associated protein in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study
In conclusion, this is one of the first studies to show that NOS1AP gene variants are associated with DPN and LEA.
Source: Wound Repair and Regeneration - December 10, 2012 Category: Surgery Authors: David J. Margolis, Jayanta Gupta, Stephen R. Thom, Raymond R. Townsend, Peter A. Kanetsky, Ole Hoffstad, Maryte Papdopoulos, Michael Fischer, Jeffrey R. Schelling, Nandita Mitra Tags: Original Research‐Clinical Science Source Type: research
Long-Term treatment of a patient with severe restless legs syndrome using intrathecal morphine
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder.1 The symptoms have a strong circadian rhythmicity and are most severe at night and at rest. In the most severe cases, symptoms are accompanied by serious sleep disturbances and unbearable paresthesias. First-line treatments of RLS are dopamine agonists, but GABAergic anticonvulsants and opioids are also effective.2,3 Patients with the most severe RLS are often treated with oral opioids.4 The use of these may, however, be limited due to side effects. The intrathecal administration of opioids results in better pain relief and fewer side effects in severe chronic...
Source: Neurology - December 10, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Hornyak, M., Kaube, H. Tags: Restless legs syndrome, Class IV CLINICAL/SCIENTIFIC NOTES Source Type: research
Bupivacaine-induced apoptosis independently of WDR35 expression in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a cells
Conclusions: In summary, our results indicated that bupivacaine induced apoptosis in Neuro2a cells. Bupivacaine induced ROS generation and p38 MAPK activation, resulting in an increase in WDR35 expression, in these cells. However, the increase in WDR35 expression may not be essential for the bupivacaine-induced apoptosis in Neuro2a cells. These results may suggest the existence of another mechanism of bupivacaine-induced apoptosis independent from WDR35 expression in Neuro2a cells.
Source: BMC Neuroscience - Latest articles - December 10, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Misako HaratoLei HuangFumio KondoKoji TsunekawaGuo-Gang FengJun-Hua FanNaohisa IshikawaYoshihiro FujiwaraShoshiro Okada Source Type: research
Neonatal Morphine Administration Leads to Changes in Hippocampal BDNF Levels and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in the Adult Life of Rats.
Abstract It is know that repeated exposure to opiates impairs spatial learning and memory and that the hippocampus has important neuromodulatory effects after drug exposure and withdrawal symptoms. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to assess hippocampal levels of BDNF, oxidative stress markers associated with cell viability, and TNF-α in the short, medium and long term after repeated morphine treatment in early life. Newborn male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of morphine (morphine group) or saline (control group), 5 μg in the mid-scapular area, starting on postnatal day 8 (P8), once daily fo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 9, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rozisky JR, Laste G, de Macedo IC, Santos VS, Krolow R, Noschang C, Vanzella C, Bertoldi K, Lovatel GA, de Souza IC, Siqueira IR, Dalmaz C, Caumo W, Torres IL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Palmitoylcarnitine Affects Localization of Growth Associated Protein GAP-43 in Plasma Membrane Subdomains and its Interaction with Gα(o) in Neuroblastoma NB-2a Cells.
Abstract Palmitoylcarnitine was observed previously to promote differentiation of neuroblastoma NB-2a cells, and to affect protein kinase C (PKC). Palmitoylcarnitine was also observed to increase palmitoylation of several proteins, including a PKC substrate, whose expression augments during differentiation of neural cells-a growth associated protein GAP-43, known to bind phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)]. Since palmitoylated proteins are preferentially localized in sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich microdomains of plasma membrane, the present study has been focused on a possible effect of palmito...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 9, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tułodziecka K, Czeredys M, Nałęcz KA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Cerebral serotonin transporter asymmetry in females, males and male-to-female transsexuals measured by PET in vivo.
Abstract The serotonergic system modulates brain functions that are considered to underlie affective states, emotion and cognition. Several lines of evidence point towards a strong lateralization of these mental processes, which indicates similar asymmetries in associated neurotransmitter systems. Here, our aim was to investigate a potential asymmetry of the serotonin transporter distribution using positron emission tomography and the radioligand [(11)C]DASB in vivo. As brain asymmetries may differ between sexes, we further aimed to compare serotonin transporter asymmetry between females, males and male-to-female (...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 9, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kranz GS, Hahn A, Baldinger P, Haeusler D, Philippe C, Kaufmann U, Wadsak W, Savli M, Hoeflich A, Kraus C, Vanicek T, Mitterhauser M, Kasper S, Lanzenberger R Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research
Confidence in value-based choice
Nature Neuroscience 16, 105 (2013). doi:10.1038/nn.3279 Authors: Benedetto De Martino, Stephen M Fleming, Neil Garrett & Raymond J Dolan
Source: Nature Neuroscience - December 9, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Benedetto De MartinoStephen M FlemingNeil GarrettRaymond J Dolan Tags: Article Source Type: research
Neural signals of extinction in the inhibitory microcircuit of the ventral midbrain
Nature Neuroscience 16, 71 (2013). doi:10.1038/nn.3283 Authors: Wei-Xing Pan, Jennifer Brown & Joshua Tate Dudman
Source: Nature Neuroscience - December 9, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei-Xing PanJennifer BrownJoshua Tate Dudman Tags: Article Source Type: research
A role for Schwann cell–derived neuregulin-1 in remyelination
Nature Neuroscience 16, 48 (2013). doi:10.1038/nn.3281 Authors: Ruth M Stassart, Robert Fledrich, Viktorija Velanac, Bastian G Brinkmann, Markus H Schwab, Dies Meijer, Michael W Sereda & Klaus-Armin Nave
Source: Nature Neuroscience - December 9, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ruth M StassartRobert FledrichViktorija VelanacBastian G BrinkmannMarkus H SchwabDies MeijerMichael W SeredaKlaus-Armin Nave Tags: Article Source Type: research
Neurogliaform cells dynamically regulate somatosensory integration via synapse-specific modulation
Nature Neuroscience 16, 13 (2013). doi:10.1038/nn.3284 Authors: Ramesh Chittajallu, Kenneth A Pelkey & Chris J McBain Despite the prevailing idea that neurogliaform cells produce a spatially unrestricted widespread inhibition, we demonstrate here that their activity attenuates thalamic-evoked feed-forward inhibition in layer IV barrel cortex but has no effect on feed-forward excitation. The result of this circuit selectivity is a dynamic regulation in the temporal window for integration of excitatory thalamic input, thus revealing a new role for neurogliaform cells in shaping sensory processing.
Source: Nature Neuroscience - December 9, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ramesh ChittajalluKenneth A PelkeyChris J McBain Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research
Civilian Trauma May Contribute to Combat PTSD
War is hell. And for many soldiers, the experience leaves lasting scars. And not just physical ones. A subset of veterans develop posttraumatic stress disorder or PTSD. But it might not be only the horrors of battle that make them susceptible. According to a study in the journal Psychological Science [link to come] echoes of childhood abuse may contribute . [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - December 8, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain,Mind Brain,Society Policy,Psychology,More Science,Neurological Disorders,Psychiatry,Health,Everyday Science Source Type: research
Vocal emotions influence verbal memory: Neural correlates and interindividual differences.
Abstract Past research has identified an event-related potential (ERP) marker for vocal emotional encoding and has highlighted vocal-processing differences between male and female listeners. We further investigated this ERP vocal-encoding effect in order to determine whether it predicts voice-related changes in listeners' memory for verbal interaction content. Additionally, we explored whether sex differences in vocal processing would affect such changes. To these ends, we presented participants with a series of neutral words spoken with a neutral or a sad voice. The participants subsequently encountered these word...
Source: Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience - December 8, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schirmer A, Chen CB, Ching A, Tan L, Hong RY Tags: Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci Source Type: research
Later language development in narratives in children with perinatal stroke
Abstract Studies of young children with unilateral perinatal stroke (PS) have confirmed the plasticity of the developing brain for acquiring language. While recent studies of typically developing children have demonstrated the significant development of language well into adolescence, we know little regarding the course of language development in the PS group as they mature. Will children with PS continue to show the same remarkable plasticity that they exhibited at younger ages? In the present paper we investigate later language and discourse in children with perinatal stroke (ages 7–16) using spoken personal narrative ...
Source: Developmental Science - December 8, 2012 Category: Child Development Authors: Judy S. Reilly, Sophie Wasserman, Mark Appelbaum Tags: Paper Source Type: research
More Science in the Sunshine State
[caption id="attachment_10156" align="alignright" width="300" caption="The new Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience. Credit: Mariette DiChristina"] [/caption]In the Sunshine State, science is ready to bloom. On December 5, I attended the official grand opening of the new, $64 million, 100,000-square-foot Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience in Jupiter--and the first of the Max Planck Institutes outside of Europe. The institute will focus on the human brain, which scientific director and CEO David Fitzpatrick called "the most complex living structure in the known universe." Fitzpatrick cited a goal of und...
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - December 7, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain Source Type: research
Analysis Method Reveals New
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/cn300136y
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - December 7, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Allyson E. Sgro, Sandra M. Bajjalieh and Daniel T. Chiu Source Type: research
Synthesis and Evaluation
of Methylated Arylazepine
Compounds for PET Imaging of 5-HT2c Receptors
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/cn300223d
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - December 7, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Michael L. Granda, Stephen M. Carlin, Christian K. Moseley, Ramesh Neelamegam, Joseph B. Mandeville and Jacob M. Hooker Source Type: research
Key Binding Interactions
for Memantine in the NMDA
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/cn300180a
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - December 7, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Walrati Limapichat, Wesley Y. Yu, Emma Branigan, Henry A. Lester and Dennis A. Dougherty Source Type: research
Motor transfer from map ocular exploration to locomotion during spatial navigation from memory.
Abstract Spatial navigation from memory can rely on two different strategies: a mental simulation of a kinesthetic spatial navigation (egocentric route strategy) or visual-spatial memory using a mental map (allocentric survey strategy). We hypothesized that a previously performed "oculomotor navigation" on a map could be used by the brain to perform a locomotor memory task. Participants were instructed to (1) learn a path on a map through a sequence of vertical and horizontal eyes movements and (2) walk on the slabs of a "magic carpet" to recall this path. The main results showed that the anisotropy of ocula...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 7, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Demichelis A, Olivier G, Berthoz A Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Force control in the absence of visual and tactile feedback.
Abstract Motor control tasks like stance or object handling require sensory feedback from proprioception, vision and touch. The distinction between tactile and proprioceptive sensors is not frequently made in dynamic motor control tasks, and if so, mostly based on signal latency. We previously found that force control tasks entail more compliant behavior than a passive, relaxed condition and by neuromuscular modeling we were able to attribute this to adaptations in proprioceptive force feedback from Golgi tendon organs. This required the assumption that both tactile and visual feedback are too slow to explain the m...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 7, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mugge W, Abbink DA, Schouten AC, van der Helm FC, Arendzen JH, Meskers CG Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Virtual reality for assessment of patients suffering chronic pain: a case study.
Abstract The study of body representation and ownership has been a very active research area in recent years. Synchronous multisensory stimulation has been used for the induction of the illusion of ownership over virtual body parts and even full bodies, and it has provided experimental paradigms for the understanding of the brain processing of body representation. However, the illusion of ownership of a virtual body has rarely been used for patient evaluation and diagnosis. Here we propose a method that exploits ownership of a virtual body in combination with a simple brain computer interface (BCI) and basic physio...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 7, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Llobera J, González-Franco M, Perez-Marcos D, Valls-Solé J, Slater M, Sanchez-Vives MV Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Developmental, tract-tracing and immunohistochemical study of the peripheral olfactory system in a basal vertebrate: insights on Pax6 neurons migrating along the olfactory nerve.
We describe for the first time in a cartilaginous fish an early population of pioneer HuC/D-immunoreactive (ir) neurons that seemed to delaminate from the olfactory pit epithelium and migrate toward the telencephalon before the olfactory nerve was identifiable. A distinct, transient cell population, namely the migratory mass, courses later on in apposition to the developing olfactory nerve. It contains olfactory ensheathing glial (GFAP-ir) cells and HuC/D-ir neurons, some of which course toward an extrabulbar region. We also demonstrate that Pax6-ir cells coursing along the developing olfactory pathways in S. canicula are ...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 7, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Quintana-Urzainqui I, Rodríguez-Moldes I, Candal E Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research
Solvents and Parkinson disease: A systematic review of toxicological and epidemiological evidence.
Abstract Parkinson disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative motor disorder, with its motor symptoms largely attributable to loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The causes of PD remain poorly understood, although environmental toxicants may play etiologic roles. Solvents are widespread neurotoxicants present in the workplace and ambient environment. Case reports of parkinsonism, including PD, have been associated with exposures to various solvents, most notably trichloroethylene (TCE). Animal toxicology studies have been conducted on various organic solvents, with some, including TCE, demon...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - December 7, 2012 Category: Toxicology Authors: Lock EA, Zhang J, Checkoway H Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research
13‐Cis retinoic acid can enhance the antitumor activity of non‐replicating Sendai virus particle against neuroblastoma
In conclusion, HVJ‐E is a promising therapeutic modality for neuroblastoma and 13cRA can be used as an adjuvant to HVJ‐E.
Source: Cancer Science - December 7, 2012 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Motonari Nomura, Takashi Shimbo, Yasuhide Miyamoto, Masahiro Fukuzawa, Yasufumi Kaneda Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
We Listen with Our Hands, Too
Many of us talk with our hands. But some researchers suspect we may listen with our hands, too. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - December 6, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain,Everyday Science,More Science,Thought Cognition,Language Linguistics,Neuroscience,Psychology,Mind Brain,Language Source Type: research
Hippocampal theta wave activity during configural and non-configural tasks in rats.
This study examined hippocampal theta power during configural and non-configural tasks in rats. Experiment 1 compared hippocampal theta power during a negative patterning task (A+, B+, AB-) to a configural task and a simple discrimination task (A+, B-) as a non-configural task. The results showed that hippocampal theta power during the non-reinforcement trial (non-RFT) of the negative patterning task was higher than that during the simple discrimination task. However, this hippocampal power may reflect sensory processing for compound stimuli that have cross-modality features (the non-RFT of the negative patterning task was...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sakimoto Y, Hattori M, Takeda K, Okada K, Sakata S Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Skill-specific changes in somatosensory-evoked potentials and reaction times in baseball players.
Abstract Athletic training is known to induce neuroplastic alterations in specific somatosensory circuits, which are reflected by changes in short-latency somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs). The aim of this study is to clarify whether specific training in athletes affects the long-latency SEPs related to information processing of stimulation. The long-latency SEPs P100 and N140 were recorded at midline cortical electrode positions (Fz, Cz, and Pz) in response to stimulation of the index finger of the dominant hand in fifteen baseball players (baseball group) and in fifteen athletes in sports such as swimming, t...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamashiro K, Sato D, Onishi H, Yoshida T, Horiuchi Y, Nakazawa S, Maruyama A Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Affect of the unconscious: Visually suppressed angry faces modulate our decisions.
Abstract Emotional and affective processing imposes itself over cognitive processes and modulates our perception of the surrounding environment. In two experiments, we addressed the issue of whether nonconscious processing of affect can take place even under deep states of unawareness, such as those induced by interocular suppression techniques, and can elicit an affective response that can influence our understanding of the surrounding environment. In Experiment 1, participants judged the likeability of an unfamiliar item-a Chinese character-that was preceded by a face expressing a particular emotion (either happy...
Source: Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Almeida J, Pajtas PE, Mahon BZ, Nakayama K, Caramazza A Tags: Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci Source Type: research
Handling of Iron Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles by Astrocytes.
This article summarizes the current knowledge on the consequences of an exposure of astrocytes to NPs. Special focus will be given to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), since the biocompatibility of these NPs has been studied for astrocytes in detail. Cultured astrocytes efficiently accumulate IONPs and AgNPs in a time-, concentration- and temperature-dependent manner by endocytotic processes. Astrocytes are neither acutely damaged by the exposure to high concentrations of NPs nor by the prolonged intracellular presence of large amounts of accumulated NPs. Although metal ions are li...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hohnholt MC, Geppert M, Luther EM, Petters C, Bulcke F, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Neuroprotective Effects of Biochanin A Against Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells Via Apoptosis Inhibition.
In this study, we investigated the protective effects of biochanin A, a phytoestrogen compound found mainly in Trifolium pratense, against L-glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in a PC12 cell line. Exposure of the cells to 10 mM L-glutamate was found to significantly increase cell viability loss and apoptosis, whereas pretreatment with various concentrations of biochanin A attenuated the cytotoxic effects of L-glutamate. Specifically, the pretreatment led to not only decreases in the release of lactate dehydrogenase, the number of apoptotic cells, and the activity of caspase-3 but also an increase in the total glutathione lev...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tan JW, Tham CL, Israf DA, Lee SH, Kim MK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Multiple spine boutons are formed after long-lasting LTP in the awake rat.
Abstract The formation of multiple spine boutons (MSBs) has been associated with cognitive abilities including hippocampal-dependent associative learning and memory. Data obtained from cultured hippocampal slices suggest that the long-term maintenance of synaptic plasticity requires the formation of new synaptic contacts on pre-existing synapses. This postulate however, has never been tested in the awake, freely moving animals. In the current study, we induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of awake adult rats and performed 3-D reconstructions of electron micrographs from thin sections of bo...
Source: Brain Structure and Function - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Medvedev NI, Dallérac G, Popov VI, Rodriguez Arellano JJ, Davies HA, Kraev IV, Doyère V, Stewart MG Tags: Brain Struct Funct Source Type: research
Decision-Making Deficits Among Maltreated Children.
Abstract Although maltreated children involved with child welfare services are known to exhibit elevated levels of health-risking behaviors, little is known about their decision-making processes leading to such tendencies. Research findings suggest that maltreated children exhibit developmental delays in neurocognitive and emotional regulation systems that could adversely impact their abilities to make decisions under conditions of risk. Whereas prior researchers have examined risky decision making as a global construct, maltreated children's decision making was examined in two contexts in the present study: potent...
Source: Child Maltreatment - December 6, 2012 Category: Child Development Authors: Weller JA, Fisher PA Tags: Child Maltreat Source Type: research
Alterations in local thyroid hormone signaling in the hippocampus of the SAMP8 mouse at younger ages: Association with delayed myelination and behavioral abnormalities
Abstract The senescence‐accelerated mouse (SAM) strains were established through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain based on phenotypic variations of aging and consist of senescence‐prone (SAMP) and senescence‐resistant (SAMR) strains. Among them, SAMP8 is considered as a model of neurodegeneration displaying age‐associated learning and memory impairment and altered emotional status. Because adult hypothyroidism is one of the common causes of cognitive impairment and various psychiatric disorders, we examined the possible involvement of thyroid hormone (TH) signaling in the pathological aging of SAMP8 using t...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Erika Sawano, Takayuki Negishi, Tomoyuki Aoki, Masami Murakami, Tomoko Tashiro Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Structural bases for central nervous system malfunction in the quaking mouse: Dysmyelination in a potential model of schizophrenia
Abstract The dysmyelinating mouse mutant quaking (qk) is thought to be a model of schizophrenia based on diminution of CNS myelin (Andreone et al., 2007) and downregulation of the Qk gene (Haroutunian et al., 2006) in the brains of schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to identify specific structural defects in the qk mouse CNS that could compromise physiologic function and that in humans might account for some of the cognitive defects characteristic of schizophrenia. Ultrastructural analysis of qk mouse CNS myelinated fibers shows abnormalities in nodal, internodal, and paranodal regions, including marked ...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. Rosenbluth, N. Bobrowski‐Khoury Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
DNA methylation at the Igf2/H19 imprinting control region is associated with cerebellum mass in outbred mice
Conclusions: Given the important role of the cerebellum in motor control and cognition, and the link between structural cerebellar abnormalities and neuropsychiatric phenotypes, the identification of epigenetic factors associated with cerebellum growth and development may provide important insights about the etiology of psychiatric disorders.
Source: Molecular Brain - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ruth PidsleyCathy FernandesJoana VianaJose Paya-CanoLin LiuRebecca SmithLeonard SchalkwykJonathan Mill Source Type: research
Purinergic transmission and transglial signaling between neuron somata in the dorsal root ganglion
We reported that stimulation of one NS evokes a delayed, noisy and long‐duration inward current in both itself and its passive partner that was blocked by suramin, a general purinergic antagonist. Here we test the hypothesis that NGlN transmission involves purinergic activation of the SGC. Stimulation of the NS triggered a sustained current noise in the SGC. Block of transmission through the NGlN by reactive blue 2 or thapsigargin, a Ca2+ store‐depletion agent, implicated a Ca2+ store discharge‐linked P2Y receptor. P2Y2 was identified by simulation of the NGlN‐like transmission by puffing UTP onto the SGC and by im...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gabriela M. Rozanski, Qi Li, Hyunhee Kim, Elise F. Stanley Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
Lesion of medial prefrontal dopamine terminals abolishes habituation of accumbens shell dopamine responsiveness to taste stimuli
In this study we tested the hypothesis of an inhibitory influence of mPFC DA on NAc DA. We investigated by in vivo microdialysis the effect of mPFC 6‐OHDA lesions on the NAc DA response to taste stimuli. The main finding of the study is that 6‐OHDA lesions of the mPFC alter NAc DA responsiveness to gustatory stimuli. In particular, mPFC 6‐OHDA lesions abolished one trial habituation of NAc shell DA response to taste.
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zisis Bimpisidis, Maria Antonietta Luca, Augusta Pisanu, Gaetano Di Chiara Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
The dark side of the alpha rhythm: fMRI evidence for induced alpha modulation during complete darkness
Abstract The unique role of the EEG alpha rhythm in different states of cortical activity is still debated. The main theories regarding alpha function posit either sensory processing or attention allocation as the main processes governing its modulation. Closing and opening eyes, a well‐known manipulation of the alpha rhythm, could be regarded as attention allocation from inward to outward focus though during light is also accompanied by visual change. To disentangle the effects of attention allocation and sensory visual input on alpha modulation, 14 healthy subjects were asked to open and close their eyes during conditi...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Eti Ben‐Simon, Ilana Podlipsky, Hadas Okon‐Singer, Michal Gruberger, Dean Cvetkovic, Nathan Intrator, Talma Hendler Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
Type 2 K+–Cl− cotransporter is preferentially recruited to climbing fiber synapses during development and the stellate cell‐targeting dendritic zone at adulthood in cerebellar Purkinje cells
Abstract Postnatal expression of the type 2 K+–Cl− cotransporter (KCC2) in neurons lowers the Cl− equilibrium potential to values that are more negative than the resting potential, thereby converting the action of Cl−‐permeable GABAA and glycine receptors from excitatory to inhibitory. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of KCC2 in mouse cerebella, particularly focusing on Purkinje cells (PCs). First, we confirmed the fundamental expression profiles of KCC2 in the cerebellum, i.e. neuron‐specific expression, somatodendritic distribution, and postnatal upregulation. We also found...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Issei Kawakita, Motokazu Uchigashima, Kohtarou Konno, Taisuke Miyazaki, Miwako Yamasaki, Masahiko Watanabe Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
Changes in cortical oscillations linked to multisensory modulation of nociception
Abstract Pain can be modulated by several contextual factors. For example, simply viewing one's own body can reduce pain, suggesting that the visual context may influence the processing of nociceptive stimuli. We studied changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity related to visual modulation of nociception, comparing cortical oscillations during innocuous or noxious contact heat, while participants viewed either their own hand or a neutral object at the same location. Viewing the body compared with viewing the object reduced the intensity ratings of noxious stimuli, but not of innocuous heat. Time–freq...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - December 6, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Flavia Mancini, Matthew R. Longo, Elisa Canzoneri, Giuseppe Vallar, Patrick Haggard Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3
Inhibitors as Potent Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Parkinson
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/cn300182g
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - December 5, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: J. A. Morales-García, C. Susín, S. Alonso-Gil, D. I. Pérez, V. Palomo, C. Pérez, S. Conde, A. Santos, C. Gil, A. Martínez and A. Pérez-Castillo Source Type: research
Time-dependence between upper arm muscles activity during rapid movements: Observation of the proportional effects predicted by the kinematic theory.
Abstract Rapid human movements can be assimilated to the output of a neuromuscular system with an impulse response modeled by a Delta-Lognormal equation. In such a model, the main assumption concerns the cumulative time delays of the response as it propagates toward the effector following a command. To verify the validity of this assumption, delays between bursts in electromyographic (EMG) signals of agonist and antagonist muscles activated during a rapid hand movement were investigated. Delays were measured between the surface EMG signals of six muscles of the upper limb during single rapid handwriting strokes. Fr...
Source: Human Movement Science - December 5, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Plamondon R, Djioua M, Mathieu PA Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research
Improved spatial learning and memory by perilla diet is correlated with immunoreactivities to neurofilament and ¿-synuclein in hilus of dentate gyrus
Background: Perilla (Perilla frutescens) oil is very rich in α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid. As it is widely reported that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves cognitive function in children and adults, feeding rats with perilla diets followed by analysis of proteomic changes in the hippocampus can provide valuable information on the mechanism of learning and memory at the molecular level. To identify proteins playing roles in learning and memory, differentially expressed proteins in the hippocampus of the 5 week old rats fed perilla diets for 3 weeks or 3 months were identified by proteomic analysis and v...
Source: Proteome Science - December 5, 2012 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Jinwoo LeeSunmin ParkJu-Young LeeYeong Keun YeoJong Sang KimJinkyu Lim Source Type: research
Reproducibility of somatosensory spatial perceptual maps.
Abstract Various studies have shown subjects to mislocalize cutaneous stimuli in an idiosyncratic manner. Spatial properties of individual localization behavior can be represented in the form of perceptual maps. Individual differences in these maps may reflect properties of internal body representations, and perceptual maps may therefore be a useful method for studying these representations. For this to be the case, individual perceptual maps need to be reproducible, which has not yet been demonstrated. We assessed the reproducibility of localizations measured twice on subsequent days. Ten subjects participated in ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 5, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Steenbergen P, Buitenweg JR, Trojan J, Veltink PH Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Opioid receptors: distinct roles in mood disorders.
Abstract The roles of opioid receptors in pain and addiction have been extensively studied, but their function in mood disorders has received less attention. Accumulating evidence from animal research reveals that mu, delta and kappa opioid receptors (MORs, DORs and KORs, respectively) exert highly distinct controls over mood-related processes. DOR agonists and KOR antagonists have promising antidepressant potential, whereas the risk-benefit ratio of currently available MOR agonists as antidepressants remains difficult to evaluate, in addition to their inherent abuse liability. To date, both human and animal studie...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - December 5, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lutz PE, Kieffer BL Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research
First-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish brain are not self-renewing.
Abstract Adult-born neurons in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) are the progeny of 1st-generation precursor cells (functionally analogous to neuronal stem cells in vertebrates) that are located in a neurogenic niche on the ventral surface of the brain. The daughters of these precursor cells migrate along the processes of bipolar niche cells to proliferation zones in the cell clusters where the somata of the olfactory interneurons reside. Here they divide again, producing offspring that differentiate into olfactory local and projection neurons. The features of this neuronal assembly line, and the fact that it continue...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - December 5, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Benton JL, Chaves da Silva PG, Sandeman DC, Beltz BS Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
The effects of Kiaa0319 knockdown on cortical and subcortical anatomy in male rats.
Abstract Developmental dyslexia is a disorder characterized by a specific deficit in reading despite adequate overall intelligence and educational resources. The neurological substrate underlying these significant behavioral impairments is not known. Studies of post mortem brain tissue from male and female dyslexic individuals revealed focal disruptions of neuronal migration concentrated in the left hemisphere, along with aberrant symmetry of the right and left the planum temporale, and changes in cell size distribution within the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (Galaburda et al., 1985; Humphreys et al., ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - December 5, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szalkowski CE, Fiondella CF, Truong DT, Rosen GD, Loturco JJ, Fitch RH Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research