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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 23.
Neural embedding of stress reactivity
Nature Neuroscience 15, 1605 (2012). doi:10.1038/nn.3270 Authors: Ryan Bogdan & Ahmad R Hariri A report in this issue of Nature Neuroscience demonstrates that stress in infancy leading to altered cortisol levels in childhood culminates in vulnerability to dysregulated affect in adolescent girls by biasing the functional dynamics of core neural regions mediating the generation and regulation of emotional responsiveness.
Source: Nature Neuroscience - November 27, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ryan BogdanAhmad R Hariri Tags: News and Views Source Type: research
Pentoxifylline and propentofylline prevent proliferation and activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin and mitogen activated protein kinase in cultured spinal astrocytes
Abstract Astrocyte activation is an important feature in many disorders of the central nervous system, including chronic pain conditions. Activation of astrocytes is characterized by a change in morphology, including hypertrophy and increased size of processes, proliferation, and an increased production of proinflammatory mediators. The xanthine derivatives pentoxifylline and propentofylline are commonly used experimentally as glial inhibitors. These compounds are generally believed to attenuate glial activity by raising cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels and inhibiting glial tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production. In the present st...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - November 27, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ebba Norsted Gregory, Ada Delaney, Sally AbdelMoaty, Duygu B. Bas, Simone Codeluppi, Gustaf Wigerblad, Camilla I. Svensson Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Lipidome and proteome map of myelin membranes
This study establishes the first comprehensive map of myelin membrane components in human and mice. Although this study demonstrates many similarities between human and murine myelin, several components have been identified exclusively in each species. Future quantitative validation studies focused on interspecies differences will authenticate the myelin membrane anatomy. The combined lipidome and proteome map presented here can nevertheless be used as a reference library for myelin health and disease. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - November 27, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gopakumar Gopalakrishnan, Anshul Awasthi, Wiam Belkaid, Omar De Faria, Dalinda Liazoghli, David R. Colman, Ajit S. Dhaunchak Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Neuroprotective effects of umbelliferone and esculetin in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease
In this study, the neuroprotective effects of two coumarins, umbelliferone and esculetin, against MPTP‐induced neurotoxicity were examined in C57BL/6J mice. The results show that dietary administration of umbelliferone and esculetin significantly attenuated MPTP‐induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra pars compacta but not striatum, as measured by tyrosine hydroxylase staining. Both coumarins also prevented an MPTP‐induced increase in nitrosative stress as measured by 3‐nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity and also maintained glutathione levels in MPTP‐exposed mice as well as in cell lines exposed to the metaboli...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - November 27, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sudhakar R. Subramaniam, Elizabeth M. Ellis Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Environmental enrichment upregulates micro‐RNA‐183 and alters acetylcholinesterase splice variants to reduce anxiety‐like behavior in the little Indian field mouse (Mus booduga)
In this study, we demonstrate the effect of different housing condition on regulation of micro‐RNA‐183‐SC35‐mediated splicing of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Adult male M. booduga were captured from an agricultural field and housed under nonenriched standard conditions (SC) for 7 days and considered as directly from the wild (DW). On day 8, individuals were randomly assigned to three groups; DW, SC, and EE. The DW group's anxiety‐like behavior was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT). The SC and EE groups were transferred to their respective conditions and housed for another 30 days....
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - November 27, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Durairaj Ragu Varman, Ganapathy Marimuthu, Koilmani Emmanuvel Rajan Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Brain Chemistry May Explain Bizarre Perpetual Sleepiness
A new treatment may help people with a bizarre medical condition that makes them perpetually sleepy. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - November 26, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain,Medical Technology,Neurological Disorders Source Type: research
Olfactory Overload Causes White Smell
Your morning coffee. A baking pie. That turkey in the oven. There are some smells you just can’t get enough of. But mix them and other scents all together and you get, well, nothing much. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - November 26, 2012 Category: Science Tags: More Science,Chemistry,Mind & Brain,Neuroscience,More Science,Biology,Everyday Science Source Type: research
VP22 and cytosine deaminase fusion gene modified tissue-engineered neural stem cells for glioma therapy
Conclusions Our results reveal that VP22 increases the transduction efficiency of lentivirus into NSCs and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of CD-engineered rat NSCs in the treatment for C6 glioma, demonstrating that VP22 might be a useful tool for the gene therapy of engineered NSCs and providing a potential novel strategy for enhancing the effectiveness of gene therapy in other diseases. Content Type Journal ArticleCategory Original PaperPages 1-9DOI 10.1007/s00432-012-1347-3Authors Guishan Jin, Brain Tumor Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tian...
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - November 26, 2012 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology Source Type: research
Mast Cell Activation Syndrome: A Review
Abstract Mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is a condition with signs and symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurologic systems. It can be classified into primary, secondary, and idiopathic. Earlier proposed criteria for the diagnosis of MCAS included episodic symptoms consistent with mast cell mediator release affecting two or more organ systems with urticaria, angioedema, flushing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, hypotensive syncope or near syncope, tachycardia, wheezing, conjunctival injection, pruritus, and nasal stuffiness. Other criteria in...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - November 26, 2012 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports Source Type: research
The serotonin 1A receptor gene in mood disorders: a tale of missed opportunities
Abstract The role of the C-1019G variant in conferring susceptibility to mood disorders is an object of ongoing debate. In their recent meta-analysis of case–control investigations, Kishi and coworkers have sought to clarify the issue by pooling earlier results. Whether a claimed effect of this variant can be upheld, however, is questionable in view of numerous artefacts. Content Type Journal ArticleCategory Letter to the EditorPages 1-3DOI 10.1007/s00406-012-0381-0Authors Philipp G. Sand, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 84, 93053 Regensburg, ...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 26, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Tags: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience Source Type: research
Expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor in hippocampus is associated with cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease
We examined the VEGF expression in the hippocampus of patients with AD at different stages of progression by Western blot analysis, and found that the VEGF189 isoform (VEGF189) was barely detectable in normal hippocampus, but significantly increased at the early stage of patients with AD. VEGF189 was decreased with advancing stages of AD. Immunostaining shows that VEGF was significantly increased in the cells in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus regions of hippocampus and layers III and V of entorhinal cortex of patients with AD, compared with normal brain. Confocal images show that VEGF was predominantly expressed in neuron...
Source: Neurobiology of Aging - November 26, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huidong Tang, XiaoOu Mao, Lin Xie, David A. Greenberg, Kunlin Jin Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research
Alzheimer brain-derived amyloid β-protein impairs synaptic remodeling and memory consolidation
Abstract: Aggregation of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) is believed to play a central role in initiating the molecular cascade that culminates in Alzheimer-type dementia (AD), a disease which in its early stage is characterized by synaptic loss and impairment of episodic memory. Here we show that intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ-containing water-soluble extracts of AD brain inhibits consolidation of the memory of avoidance learning in the rat and that this effect is highly dependent on the interval between learning and administration. When injected at 1 hour post training extracts from 2 different AD brains significa...
Source: Neurobiology of Aging - November 26, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gilyana G. Borlikova, Margarita Trejo, Alexandra J. Mably, Jessica M. Mc Donald, Carlo Sala Frigerio, Ciaran M. Regan, Keith J. Murphy, Eliezer Masliah, Dominic M. Walsh Tags: Regular Articles Source Type: research
Propranolol's effects on the consolidation and reconsolidation of long-term emotional memory in healthy participants: a meta-analysis.
Conclusion: Propranolol shows promise in reducing subsequent memory for new or recalled emotional material in healthy adults. However, future studies will need to investigate whether more powerful idiosyncratic emotional memories can also be weakened and whether this weakening can bring about long-lasting symptomatic relief in clinical populations, such as patients with posttraumatic stress or other event-related disorders. PMID: 23182304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: J Psychiatry Neurosc... - November 26, 2012 Category: Psychiatry Authors: Lonergan MH, Olivera-Figueroa LA, Pitman RK, Brunet A Tags: J Psychiatry Neurosci Source Type: research
Pathophysiology of Migraine.
Abstract Migraine is a collection of perplexing neurological conditions in which the brain and its associated tissues have been implicated as major players during an attack. Once considered exclusively a disorder of blood vessels, compelling evidence has led to the realization that migraine represents a highly choreographed interaction between major inputs from both the peripheral and central nervous systems, with the trigeminovascular system and the cerebral cortex among the main players. Advances in in vivo and in vitro technologies have informed us about the significance to migraine of events such as cortical sp...
Source: Annual Review of Physiology - November 26, 2012 Category: Physiology Authors: Pietrobon D, Moskowitz MA Tags: Annu Rev Physiol Source Type: research
In Vivo Imaging of Neurovascular Remodeling After Stroke [Basic Science Advances for Clinicians]
Source: Stroke - November 26, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Yanev, P., Dijkhuizen, R. M. Tags: Angiogenesis, Animal models of human disease, Computerized tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, PET and SPECT, Other imaging Basic Science Advances for Clinicians Source Type: research
Antithrombotic Therapy and Bleeding Risk in a Prospective Cohort Study of Patients With Cerebral Cavernous Malformations [Original Contributions]
Conclusions— Our observational data suggest that long-term antithrombotic treatment by antiplatelet drugs or warfarin does not increase the frequency of CCM-related hemorrhage. Patients harboring single or multiple CCMs suffering ischemic stroke or heart disease should not be withheld antithrombotic therapy.
Source: Stroke - November 26, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Schneble, H.-M., Soumare, A., Herve, D., Bresson, D., Guichard, J.-P., Riant, F., Tournier-Lasserve, E., Tzourio, C., Chabriat, H., Stapf, C. Tags: Secondary prevention, Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage, Cerebral Aneurysm, AVM, & Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets Original Contributions Source Type: research
Prior stress interferes with the anxiolytic effect of exercise in c57bl/6j mice.
Recent reports demonstrate that the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise may be sensitive to stress prior to and during the wheel access period. Here, a variate stress procedure is used with socially isolated mice for 7 days prior to the introduction of running wheels to assess the impact of prior and concurrent stress on the anxiolytic effect of exercise. Following stress exposure, functioning or nonfunctioning running wheels were introduced into stressed and unstressed group-housed control cages. Following 3 weeks of wheel access, the anxiolytic effect of exercise was assessed using acoustic startle, stress-induced h...
Source: Behavioral Neuroscience - November 26, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hare, Brendan D.; D'Onfro, Katherine C.; Hammack, Sayamwong E.; Falls, William A. Source Type: research
Novelty, but not operant aversive learning, enhances Fos and Egr-1 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampal areas of rats.
This study examined whether a previous experience with shocks changes the pattern of Fos and Egr-1 expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 (CA1), and dentate gyrus (DG) of adult male Wistar rats that learned to escape in an operant aversive test. Subjects previously exposed to inescapable footshocks that learned to escape from shocks were assigned to the treated group (EXP). Subjects from Group Novelty (NOV) rested undisturbed during treatment and also learned to escape in the test. The nonshock group (NSH) rested undisturbed in both sessions. Standard immunohistochemistry proced...
Source: Behavioral Neuroscience - November 26, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yochiy, Angélica; Britto, Luiz R. G.; Hunziker, Maria H. L. Source Type: research
Predictors of susceptibility and resilience in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are based on fear conditioning where innocuous cues elicit reactions that originally occur to traumatic events—a core feature of PTSD. Another core feature is hyperarousal—exaggerated reactions to stressful events. One limitation of animal models of PTSD is that group effects do not model the sporadic incidence of PTSD. We developed an animal model of PTSD in which rabbit nictitating membrane responses become exaggerated as a function of classical conditioning to a tone conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with a shock unconditioned stimulus (US). Exaggerated responses ...
Source: Behavioral Neuroscience - November 26, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smith-Bell, Carrie A.; Burhans, Lauren B.; Schreurs, Bernard G. Source Type: research
Lethal multiple sclerosis relapse after natalizumab withdrawal
We report the case of a 50-year-old patient with MS who developed a fulminating relapse 3 months after stopping natalizumab, leading to death despite intensive care and immunosuppressive therapy. Radiologic and neuropathologic findings provide interesting data regarding the nature of the rebound.
Source: Neurology - November 26, 2012 Category: Neurology Authors: Rigau, V., Mania, A., Befort, P., Carlander, B., Jonquet, O., Lassmann, H., Camu, W., Thouvenot, E. Tags: Multiple sclerosis CLINICAL/SCIENTIFIC NOTES Source Type: research
Alterations in Purkinje cell GABAA receptor pharmacology following oxygen and glucose deprivation and cerebral ischemia reveal novel contribution of β1‐subunit‐containing receptors
Abstract Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are particularly sensitive to cerebral ischemia, and decreased GABAA receptor function following injury is thought to contribute to PC sensitivity to ischemia‐induced excitotoxicity. Here we examined the functional properties of the GABAA receptors that are spared following ischemia in cultured Purkinje cells from rat and in vivo ischemia in mouse. Using subunit‐specific positive modulators of GABAA receptors, we observed that oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and cardiac arrest‐induced cerebral ischemia cause a decrease in sensitivity to the β2/3‐subunit‐preferring co...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - November 26, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Melissa H. Kelley, Justin Ortiz, Kaori Shimizu, Himmat Grewal, Nidia Quillinan, Paco S. Herson Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
Acute stroke with Opalski’s syndrome and concomitant Bruns nystagmus
Content Type Journal ArticleCategory Letter to the EditorPages 1-3DOI 10.1007/s10072-012-1237-0Authors Jiann-Jy Chen, Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University and Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei, Taiwan, ROCTzu-Pu Chang, Department of Neurology, Neuro-Medical Scientific Center, Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital, Taichung Branch, Taichung, Taiwan, ROCDem-Lion Chen, G-Home Clinic, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROCYung-Chu Hsu, Department of Neurology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, No. 539, Chung-Shao Road, Chiayi, 600 Taiwan, ROC Journal Neurological SciencesOnline ISSN 1590-3478Print ISSN 1590-1874
Source: Neurological Sciences - November 25, 2012 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurological Sciences Source Type: research
Brain Endogenous Estrogen Levels Determine Responses to Estrogen Replacement Therapy via Regulation of BACE1 and NEP in Female Alzheimer’s Transgenic Mice
Abstract Estrogens have been found to improve memory and reduce risk of dementia, although conflicting results such as failure of estrogen replacement therapy for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) also has been reported. Only recently, our published human brain studies showed a depletion of brain estrogen in women with AD, while other studies have demonstrated cognitive impairment believed to be caused by inhibition of endogenous estrogen synthesis in females. To investigate whether the shortage of brain estrogen alters the sensitivity of response to estrogen replacement therapy, we have used genetic and...
Source: Molecular Neurobiology - November 25, 2012 Category: Neurology Tags: Molecular Neurobiology Source Type: research
Measurement of height velocity is an useful marker for monitoring pituitary function in patients who had traumatic brain injury
Abstract To assess the incidence of abnormal neuroendocrine function post-traumatic brain injuriy (TBI) in a large group of paediatric patients and its correlations with clinical parameters (Glasgow coma scale—GCS, Glasgow outcome scale—GOS, TC marshall scale, height velocity). We evaluated 70 patients [58 M, 12 F; age at the time of TBI (mean ± SEM) 8.12 ± 4.23 years] previously hospitalized for TBI at the “Regina Margherita” Hospital, in Turin and “Maggiore della Carità Hospital” in Novara, Italy, between 1998 and 2008. All patients included underwent: auxologic...
Source: Pituitary - November 25, 2012 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Pituitary Source Type: research
Neuroprotective effect of (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in rats when administered pre- or post-traumatic brain injury
Abstract Our previous study indicated that consuming (–)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) before or after traumatic brain injury (TBI) eliminated free radical generation in rats, resulting in inhibition of neuronal degeneration and apoptotic death, and improvement of cognitive impairment. Here we investigated the effects of administering EGCG at various times pre- and post-TBI on cerebral function and morphology. Wistar rats were divided into five groups and were allowed access to (1) normal drinking water, (2) EGCG pre-TBI, (3) EGCG pre- and post-TBI, (4) EGCG post-TBI, and (5) sham-operated group with acc...
Source: Journal of Neural Transmission - November 25, 2012 Category: Neurology Tags: Journal of Neural Transmission Source Type: research
When Old Habits Die Easy
Some say it’s tough to break a habit--a behavior so ingrained in our mental infrastructure that it’s automatic. But new research says maybe it’s not so tough when you shine some light on an alternative. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - November 25, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain,Neurological Disorders,Thought Cognition,Psychiatry,Psychology,Addiction Recovery,Neuroscience Source Type: research
Implications of Olfactory Lamina Propria Transplantation on Hyperreflexia and Myelinated Fiber Regeneration in Rats with Complete Spinal Cord Transection.
Abstract Transplantation with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) has been adopted after several models of spinal cord injury (SCI) with the purpose of creating a favorable environment for the re-growth of injured axons. However, a consensus on the efficacy of this cellular transplantation has yet to be reached. In order to explore alternative parameters that could demonstrate the possible restorative properties of such grafts, the present study investigated the effects of olfactory lamina propria (OLP) transplantation on hyperreflexia and myelinated fiber regeneration in adult rats with complete spinal cord transec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 25, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Centenaro LA, da Cunha Jaeger M, Ilha J, de Souza MA, Balbinot LF, do Nascimento PS, Marcuzzo S, Achaval M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Neuroprotective Strategies in Hippocampal Neurodegeneration Induced by the Neurotoxicant Trimethyltin.
Abstract The selective vulnerability of specific neuronal subpopulations to trimethyltin (TMT), an organotin compound with neurotoxicant effects selectively involving the limbic system and especially marked in the hippocampus, makes it useful to obtain in vivo models of neurodegeneration associated with behavioural alterations, such as hyperactivity and aggression, cognitive impairment as well as temporal lobe epilepsy. TMT has been widely used to study neuronal and glial factors involved in selective neuronal death, as well as the molecular mechanisms leading to hippocampal neurodegeneration (including neuroinflam...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 25, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Corvino V, Marchese E, Michetti F, Geloso MC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Choice-related activity and correlated noise in subcortical vestibular neurons
Nature Neuroscience 16, 89 (2013). doi:10.1038/nn.3267 Authors: Sheng Liu, Yong Gu, Gregory C DeAngelis & Dora E Angelaki
Source: Nature Neuroscience - November 25, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sheng LiuYong GuGregory C DeAngelisDora E Angelaki Tags: Article Source Type: research
Long-term modification of cortical synapses improves sensory perception
Nature Neuroscience 16, 79 (2013). doi:10.1038/nn.3274 Authors: Robert C Froemke, Ioana Carcea, Alison J Barker, Kexin Yuan, Bryan A Seybold, Ana Raquel O Martins, Natalya Zaika, Hannah Bernstein, Megan Wachs, Philip A Levis, Daniel B Polley, Michael M Merzenich & Christoph E Schreiner
Source: Nature Neuroscience - November 25, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Robert C FroemkeIoana CarceaAlison J BarkerKexin YuanBryan A SeyboldAna Raquel O MartinsNatalya ZaikaHannah BernsteinMegan WachsPhilip A LevisDaniel B PolleyMichael M MerzenichChristoph E Schreiner Tags: Article Source Type: research
Platelet-Derived Growth Factors-BB and Fibroblast Growth Factors-Base Induced Proliferation of Schwann Cells in a 3D Environment.
Abstract The proliferation of neonatal Schwann cells (SCs) in response to mitogenic agents has been well analyzed in vitro (mono-layer-culture method, 2D environment), but not in vivo (3D environment). To assess the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factors-BB (PDGF-BB), Fibroblast Growth Factors-base (bFGF), and their combinations for SCs in collagen gel (three-dimensional, 3D environment), we have developed an integrated microfluidic device on which can reproducibly measure the proliferation from small number of cells (1-100). The rat SCs were cultured for 4 week at the different concentrations of grow...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiang H, Qu W, Li Y, Zhong W, Zhang W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Rapid Elevation of Calcium Concentration in Cultured Dorsal Spinal Cord Astrocytes by Corticosterone.
Abstract In addition to the classic genomic effects, increasing evidence suggests that GC can generate multiple rapid effects on many tissues and cells through nongenomic pathway. In the present study, the effects of corticosterone (CORT) on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultured dorsal spinal cord astrocytes were detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-4/AM as a calcium fluorescent indicator that could monitor real-time alterations of [Ca(2+)]i. CORT (0.01-10 μM) caused a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)]i with a dose-dependent manner in cultured dorsal spinal cord astrocyte...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 24, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zeng J, Li M, Xiao Z, Chen Y, Chang Q, Tian H, Jin H, Liu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research
Principal Component and Cluster Analysis of Morphological Variables Reveals Multiple Discrete Sub-phenotypes in Weaver Mouse Mutants.
Abstract The present study evaluates the usefulness of the principal component analysis-based cluster analysis in the categorization of several sub-phenotypes in the weaver mutant by using several morphological parameters from the cerebellar cortex of control, heterozygous (+/wv) and homozygous (wv/wv) weaver mice. The quantified parameters were length of the cerebellar cortex, area of the external granular layer, area of the molecular layer, number of the external granular layer cells (EGL), and number of Purkinje cells (PCs). The analysis indicated that at postnatal day 8, the genotype +/wv presented three sub-ph...
Source: Cerebellum - November 24, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Martí J, Santa-Cruz MC, Serra R, Valero O, Molina V, Hervás JP, Villegas S Tags: Cerebellum Source Type: research
Alpha-band oscillations, attention, and controlled access to stored information.
Abstract Alpha-band oscillations are the dominant oscillations in the human brain and recent evidence suggests that they have an inhibitory function. Nonetheless, there is little doubt that alpha-band oscillations also play an active role in information processing. In this article, I suggest that alpha-band oscillations have two roles (inhibition and timing) that are closely linked to two fundamental functions of attention (suppression and selection), which enable controlled knowledge access and semantic orientation (the ability to be consciously oriented in time, space, and context). As such, alpha-band oscillatio...
Source: Trends Cogn Sci - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Klimesch W Tags: Trends Cogn Sci Source Type: research
Memory-guided attention: control from multiple memory systems.
Abstract Attention is strongly influenced by both external stimuli and internal goals. However, this useful dichotomy does not readily capture the ubiquitous and often automatic contribution of past experience stored in memory. We review recent evidence about how multiple memory systems control attention, consider how such interactions are manifested in the brain, and highlight how this framework for 'memory-guided attention' might help systematize previous findings and guide future research. PMID: 23141429 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Trends Cogn Sci - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hutchinson JB, Turk-Browne NB Tags: Trends Cogn Sci Source Type: research
Response to Brock: noise and autism.
PMID: 23141773 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Trends Cogn Sci - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pellicano E, Burr D Tags: Trends Cogn Sci Source Type: research
The role of default network deactivation in cognition and disease.
Abstract A considerable body of evidence has accumulated over recent years on the functions of the default-mode network (DMN) - a set of brain regions whose activity is high when the mind is not engaged in specific behavioral tasks and low during focused attention on the external environment. In this review, we focus on DMN suppression and its functional role in health and disease, summarizing evidence that spans several disciplines, including cognitive neuroscience, pharmacological neuroimaging, clinical neuroscience, and theoretical neuroscience. Collectively, this research highlights the functional relevance of ...
Source: Trends Cogn Sci - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Anticevic A, Cole MW, Murray JD, Corlett PR, Wang XJ, Krystal JH Tags: Trends Cogn Sci Source Type: research
MIND Reviews: The Ravenous Brain
The Ravenous Brain: How the New Science of Consciousness Explains Our Insatiable Search for Meaning by Daniel Bor . Basic Books, 2012 ($27.99)Memorize this string of letters: CSB ICR AAI CTA. Now try this one: ABC CIA IRS TSA. Both contain the same 12 letters, but most people find the second far easier to remember because the letters form known acronyms. This process--known as chunking--lies at the root of conscious thought and enables us to “build pyramids of knowledge” in our minds, says neuroscientist Bor.In his new book, The Ravenous Brain , Bor takes on the biggest mystery of modern neuroscience: ...
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - November 23, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain Source Type: research
Synchronous Brain Activity
Synchronization of neuronal activity across different brain areas varies according to working memory load or the locus of attention. It is thought that synchronization serves as a general mechanism for … [Read more]
Source: This Week in Science - November 23, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Stewart Wills (mailto:swills at aaas.org) Source Type: research
Cancer Stem Cells: A Moving Target?
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive human brain tumor. The prevailing “cancer stem cell hypothesis” posits that GBMs arise primarily from neuronal stem cells. Now, Friedmann-Morvinski et al. (p. … [Read more]
Source: This Week in Science - November 23, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Stewart Wills (mailto:swills at aaas.org) Source Type: research
[Report] Dedifferentiation of Neurons and Astrocytes by Oncogenes Can Induce Gliomas in Mice
Murine brain tumors do not necessarily originate from neural stem cells but can arise from mature neurons and astrocytes.Authors: Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski, Eric A. Bushong, Eugene Ke, Yasushi Soda, Tomotoshi Marumoto, Oded Singer, Mark H. Ellisman, Inder M. Verma
Source: Science: Current Issue - November 23, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Dinorah Friedmann-Morvinski Source Type: research
Higher iron in the red nucleus marks Parkinson's dyskinesia
Abstract: Dopamine cell loss and increased iron in the substantia nigra (SN) characterize Parkinson's disease (PD), with cerebellar involvement increasingly recognized, particularly in motor compensation and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) development. Because the red nucleus (RN) mediates cerebellar circuitry, we hypothesized that RN iron changes might reflect cerebellum-related compensation, and/or the intrinsic capacity for LID development. We acquired high resolution magnetic resonance images from 23 control and 38 PD subjects (12 with PD and history of LID [PD+DYS]) and 26 with PD and no history of LID (PD−DYS). I...
Source: Neurobiology of Aging - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mechelle M. Lewis, Guangwei Du, Michal Kidacki, Nisargkumar Patel, Michele L. Shaffer, Richard B. Mailman, Xuemei Huang Tags: Regular Articles Source Type: research
Age-associated changes in gene expression in human brain and isolated neurons
Abstract: Previous studies have suggested that there are genes whose expression levels are associated with chronological age. However, which genes show consistent age association across studies, and which are specific to a given organism or tissue remains unresolved. Here, we reassessed this question using 2 independently ascertained series of human brain samples from 2 anatomic regions, the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. Using microarrays to estimate gene expression, we found 60 associations between expression and chronological age that were statistically significant and were replicated in both series...
Source: Neurobiology of Aging - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Azad Kumar, J. Raphael Gibbs, Alexandra Beilina, Allissa Dillman, Ravindran Kumaran, Daniah Trabzuni, Mina Ryten, Robert Walker, Colin Smith, Bryan J. Traynor, John Hardy, Andrew B. Singleton, Mark R. Cookson Tags: Regular Articles Source Type: research
Patient-centered interviewing is associated with decreased responses to painful stimuli: An initial fMRI study
Conclusion: This study identifies an association between a PCI that produced a positive PPR and reduced pain-related neural responses in the anterior insula. This is an initial step in understanding the neural underpinnings of a PCI.Practice implications: If confirmed, our results indicate one neurobiological underpinning of an effective PCI, providing an additional scientific rationale for its use clinically.
Source: Patient Education and Counseling - November 23, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Issidoros Sarinopoulos, Ashley M. Hesson, Chelsea Gordon, Seungcheol A. Lee, Lu Wang, Francesca Dwamena, Robert C. Smith Tags: Cerebral Imaging Source Type: research
Running-induced epigenetic and gene expression changes in the adolescent brain.
Abstract Physical exercise is associated with positive neural functioning. Here we examined the gene expression consequences of 1 week of voluntary wheel running in adolescent male mice. We assayed expression levels of genes associated with synaptic plasticity, signaling pathways, and epigenetic modifying enzymes. Two regions were examined: the hippocampus, which is typically examined in exercise studies, and the cerebellum, an area directly involved in motor control and learning. After 1 week of exercise, global acetylation of histone 3 was increased in both brain regions. Interestingly this was correlated with in...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Abel JL, Rissman EF Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
Neuronal cell-type specific DNA methylation patterns of the Cacna1c gene.
Abstract Gene expression of the alpha-1 subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel, CACNA1C, is known to be complexly regulated. Because CACNA1C is not only a crucial gene in normal brain function but also a promising candidate risk gene for psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, elucidating the molecular basis of transcriptional regulatory mechanism will be critically important. Here we examined DNA methylation status of CpG islands and a CpG island shore on mouse Cacna1c in neuronal and non-neuronal nuclei, which were separated with a fluorescent activated cell sorting techniqu...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nishioka M, Shimada T, Bundo M, Ukai W, Hashimoto E, Saito T, Kano Y, Sasaki T, Kasai K, Kato T, Iwamoto K Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
Gestational doxorubicin alters fetal thyroid-brain axis.
Abstract Administration of chemotherapy during pregnancy may represent a big risk factor for the developing brain, therefore we studied whether the transplacental transport of doxorubicin (DOX) may affect the development of neuroendocrine system. DOX (25mg/kg; 3 times interaperitoneally/week) was given to pregnant rats during whole gestation period. The disturbances in neuroendocrine functions were investigated at gestation day (GD) 15 and 20 by following the maternal and fetal thyroid hormone levels, fetal nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) levels and adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ahmed RG, Incerpi S Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
How the Glycine and GABA Receptors Were Purified [Signal Transduction]
In 1982, two papers appeared in the Journal of Biological Chemistry that laid the foundation for our current understanding of certain molecular aspects of neurotransmission. Eric A. Barnard of the Imperial College of Science and Technology in the United Kingdom led a team to purify the first receptor for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; which later became known as the GABAA receptor) from bovine brain samples (1). In Germany, Heinrich Betz at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry and his team purified the glycine receptor from rat spinal cord (2). The biochemical purification of these proteins eventually led to the cloning of ...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - November 23, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Stephenson, F. A., Mukhopadhyay, R. Tags: Classics Source Type: research
Wnt3a induces exosome secretion from primary cultured rat microglia
Conclusion: These findings reveal a novel mechanism through which Wnt3a signals in microglia resulting in the release of exosomes loaded with proteinaceous cargo.
Source: BMC Neuroscience - Latest articles - November 23, 2012 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Claudie HooperRicardo Sainz-FuertesSteven LynhamAbdul HyeRichard KillickAlice WarleyCecilia BolondiJennifer PocockSimon Lovestone Source Type: research
An antibody microarray analysis of serum cytokines in neurodegenerative Parkinsonian syndromes
Conclusions: In our unbiased cytokine array based screening approach and validation by a different immunoassay only two of 174 cytokines were significantly altered between patients and controls.
Source: Proteome Science - November 23, 2012 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Philipp MahlknechtSylvia StembergerFabienne SprengerJohannes RainerEva HametnerRudolf KirchmairChristoph GrabmerChristoph ScherflerGregor WenningKlaus SeppiWerner PoeweMarkus Reindl Source Type: research