Neuroscience Research This is an OPML file. It can be used to export all the MedWorm RSS feeds on this topic into your personal RSS reader (usually you have to save this file to your own computer before clicking on an Import OPML command in your own feed reader to upload the file which will then import all the feeds) or it can be used by webmasters to integrate MedWorm feeds with their own website. This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader, such as GoogleReader, or to display this data on your own website or blog. Subscribe to this data using MyMedWorm.Subscribe to this data using GoogleReader.Subscribe to this data using Bloglines.Subscribe to this data using MyYahoo.
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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 7.
The contribution of postural control and bilateral coordination to the impact of dual tasking on gait.
Abstract The simultaneous performance of a cognitive task while walking typically alters the gait pattern. In some populations, these alterations have been associated with an increased risk of falls, motivating study of this response from the clinical perspective. The mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood. The concurrent requirement to control upright posture and stepping, a bilaterally coordinated rhythmic task, may be the cause of this so-called dual-tasking effect. To evaluate this possibility, the present study was designed to isolate the individual contribution of these two demands ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yogev-Seligmann G, Giladi N, Gruendlinger L, Hausdorff JM Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Intra-hippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide inhibits kindled seizures and retards kindling rate in adult rats.
In this study, effect of acute and chronic intra-CA1 infusion of LPS on amygdala-kindled seizures and epileptogenesis was examined in mature rats. LPS (5 μg/rat) inhibited evoked amygdala afterdischarges and behavioral seizures. Anticonvulsant effect of LPS was observed 0.5 h after administration and continued up to 24 h. This effect was accompanied by intra-hippocampal elevation of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin1-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α and was prevented by microglia inhibitor, naloxone, NO synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, and interleukin1-β receptor...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ahmadi A, Sayyah M, Khoshkholgh-Sima B, Choopani S, Kazemi J, Sadegh M, Moradpour F, Nahrevanian H Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Modulating lexical and semantic processing by transcranial direct current stimulation.
Abstract Here we aim to evaluate the ability of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which is applied over Wernicke's area and its right homologue, to influence lexical decisions and semantic priming and establish an involvement for temporo-parietal areas in lexical and semantic processing. Thirty-two subjects (17 women) completed a lexical decision task and a semantic priming task while receiving 20 min of bilateral tDCS stimulation (right anodal/left cathodal or left anodal/right cathodal stimulation) or sham stimulation. We hypothesized that right anodal/left cathodal stimulation over temporo-parieta...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Weltman K, Lavidor M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Arm-eye coordination test to objectively quantify motor performance and muscles activation in persons after stroke undergoing robot-aided rehabilitation training: a pilot study.
This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the param...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Song R, Tong KY, Hu X, Li L, Sun R Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Cue integration and the perception of action in intentional binding.
Abstract 'Intentional binding' describes the perceived temporal attraction between a voluntary action and its sensory consequence. Binding has been used in health and disease as an indirect measure of awareness of action or agency, that is, the sense that one controls one's own actions. It has been proposed that binding results from cue integration, in which a voluntary action provides information about the timing of its consequences or vice versa. The perception of the timing of either event is then a weighted average, determined according to the reliability of each of these two cues. Here we tested the contributi...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wolpe N, Haggard P, Siebner HR, Rowe JB Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
TiNS special issue: neural control of appetite.
PMID: 23380285 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jurd R Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research
Neuronal plasticity and antidepressant actions.
Abstract Antidepressant treatments enhance plasticity and increase neurogenesis in the adult brain, but it has been unclear how these effects influence mood. We propose that, like environmental enrichment and exercise, antidepressant treatments enhance adaptability by increasing structural variability within the nervous system at many levels, from proliferating precursors to immature synaptic contacts. Conversely, sensory deprivation and chronic stress reduce this structural variability. Activity-dependent competition within the mood-related circuits, guided by rehabilitation, then selects for the survival and stab...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Castrén E, Hen R Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research
Molecular genetics of low-grade gliomas: genomic alterations guiding diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. 11th Annual Frye-Halloran Brain Tumor Symposium.
Conclusions The recent discovery of recurrent gene mutations in low-grade glioma has increased the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in a host of biological activities related to low-grade gliomas. Understanding the role these genetic alterations play in brain cancer initiation and progression will help lead to the development of novel treatment modalities than can be personalized to each patient, thereby helping transform this now often-fatal malignancy into a chronic or even curable disease. PMID: 23373454 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - February 1, 2013 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Jones PS, Dunn GP, Barker FG, Curry WT, Hochberg FH, Cahill DP Tags: Neurosurg Focus Source Type: research
Plasticity and metaplasticity of adult rat hippocampal mossy fibers induced by neurotrophin‐3
Abstract Changes in synaptic efficacy and morphology are considered as the downstream mechanisms of consolidation of memories and other adaptive behaviors. In the last decade, neurotrophin‐3 (NT‐3) has emerged as one potent mediator of synaptic plasticity. In the adult brain, expression of NT‐3 is largely confined to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Our previous studies show that application of high‐frequency stimulation (HFS) sufficient to elicit long‐term potentiation (LTP) at the DG‐CA3 pathway as well as acute intrahippocampal microinfusion of brain‐derived neurotrophin factor produce mossy fiber (MF) ...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: L. E. Ramos Languren, M. L. Escobar Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
Write to read: the brain's universal reading and writing network.
Abstract Do differences in writing systems translate into differences in the brain's reading network? Or is this network universal, relatively impervious to variation in writing systems? A new study adds intriguing evidence to these questions by showing that reading handwritten words activates a pre-motor area across writing systems. PMID: 23357712 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Trends Cogn Sci - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Perfetti CA, Tan LH Tags: Trends Cogn Sci Source Type: research
Introduction: Recent Advances in the Genetics, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumors
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) represent an extremely heterogeneous group of tumors, which share expression of neuroendocrine markers and the ability to secrete bioactive amines/peptides. Historically, the rarity of these cancers, coupled with their variable clinical manifestations and natural history (eg, related to site of origin, hormone production, proliferative index) was perceived as a major barrier to clinical investigation. Progress was slow, with few advances over a 30-year period, except for the development of streptozocin-based chemotherapy for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) and somatostatin analogs fo...
Source: Seminars in Oncology - February 1, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Emily K. Bergsland Tags: Emily K. Bergsland, MD, Guest Editor Source Type: research
Role of a novel nociceptor autocrine mechanism in chronic pain
In this study we tested the hypothesis that the delayed onset, PKCε‐mediated, component of PGE2 hyperalgesia is generated by the active release of a nucleotide from the peripheral terminal of the primed nociceptor and this nucleotide is then metabolized to produce adenosine, which acts on a Gi‐coupled A1 adenosine receptor on the nociceptor to generate PKCε‐dependent hyperalgesia. We report that inhibitors of ATP‐binding cassette transporters, of ecto‐5′‐phosphodiesterase and ecto‐5′nucleotidase (enzymes involved in the metabolism of cyclic nucleotides to adenosine) and of A1 adenosine receptors each el...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luiz F. Ferrari, Emma Levine, Jon D. Levine Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
The brain's specialized systems for aesthetic and perceptual judgment
Abstract We recorded brain activity when 21 subjects judged the beauty (aesthetic or affective judgment) and brightness (perceptual or cognitive judgment) of simultaneously presented paintings. Aesthetic judgments engaged medial and lateral subdivisions of the orbitofrontal cortex as well as subcortical stations associated with affective motor planning (globus pallidus, putamen–claustrum, amygdala, and cerebellar vermis), whereas the motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas, as well as the anterior insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, were engaged by both kinds of judgment. The results lead us to conclude:...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: T. Ishizu, S. Zeki Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
Net increase of lactate and glutamate concentration in activated human visual cortex detected with magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 tesla
Abstract After the landmark studies reporting changes in the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc) in excess of those in oxygen (CMRO2) during physiological stimulation, several studies have examined the fate of the extra carbon taken up by the brain, reporting a wide range of changes in brain lactate from 20% to 250%. The present study reports functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements at 7 Tesla using the enhanced sensitivity to study a small cohort (n = 6). Small increases in lactate (19% ± 4%, P < 0.05) and glutamate (4% ± 1%, P < 0.001) were seen within the first 2 min of activation. With th...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Benoît Schaller, Ralf Mekle, Lijing Xin, Nicolas Kunz, Rolf Gruetter Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
The Science of Early Life Toxic Stress for Pediatric Practice and Advocacy
In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children’s environments can improve outcomes. Pediatric...
Source: PEDIATRICS - February 1, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Johnson, S. B., Riley, A. W., Granger, D. A., Riis, J. Tags: Developmental/Behavior State-of-the-Art Review Article Source Type: research
Dopaminergic and GABA‐ergic markers of impulsivity in rats: evidence for anatomical localisation in ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex
Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that impulsivity, in its multiple forms, involves cortical and subcortical mechanisms and abnormal dopamine (DA) transmission. Although decreased DA D2/D3 receptor availability in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) predicts trait‐like impulsivity in rats it is unclear whether this neurochemical marker extends to both the NAcb core (NAcbC) and shell (NAcbS) and whether markers for other neurotransmitter systems implicated in impulsivity such as serotonin (5‐HT), endogenous opioids and γ‐amino‐butyric acid (GABA) are likewise altered in impulsive rats. We therefore used autoradiogr...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bianca Jupp, Daniele Caprioli, Niel Saigal, Ingrid Reverte, Saurav Shrestha, Paul Cumming, Barry J. Everitt, Trevor W. Robbins, Jeffrey W. Dalley Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
Enkephalin knockdown in the central amygdala nucleus reduces unconditioned fear and anxiety
In this study, we aimed to assess the role of CeA ENK using local injections of a lentiviral vector expressing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting ENK in Sprague–Dawley rats. We injected this vector in the CeA and a 56% downregulation of ENK mRNA was observed in animals when compared with scrambled shRNA animals. Anxiety‐like behaviors were also assessed using the elevated plus maze and social interaction test. There was an increase in exploration of open arms of the elevated plus maze in ENK knockdown animals compared with controls, but no change in social interaction. In addition, we used the contextual fear condit...
Source: European Journal of Neuroscience - February 1, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jean‐François Poulin, Patrick Bérubé, Sylvie Laforest, Guy Drolet Tags: Research Report Source Type: research
[News & Analysis] Neuroscience: Brain Studies Stymied by Statistics
Researchers' quest to determine patient awareness leads to vigorous debate.Author: Emily Underwood
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 31, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Emily Underwood Source Type: research
[News & Analysis] Research Funding: Graphene and Brain Projects Win European Jackpot
Winners in Flagship project may get up to €1 billion each, hope to unite neuroscience field and explore graphene applications.Author: Kai Kupferschmidt
Source: Science: Current Issue - January 31, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Kai Kupferschmidt Source Type: research
The Selective Rho-kinase Inhibitor Azaindole-1 Has Long-lasting Erectile Activity in the Rat
Conclusion: The present studies indicate that azaindole-1 has long-lasting erectile activity that is independent of NO release, muscarinic receptor, or sGC activation or the integrity of the cavernosal nerves.
Source: Urology - January 31, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: George F. Lasker, Edward A. Pankey, Alexander V. Allain, Subramanyam N. Murthy, Johannes-Peter Stasch, Philip J. Kadowitz Tags: Basic and Translational Science Source Type: research
Auris Nasus Larynx, the official English-language journal of the Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Society of Japan, Inc. was first published in 1972, and has provided the opportunity for rapid, carefully reviewed publications concerning the basic and clinical aspects of otorhinolaryngology and related fields including otology, neurotology, bronchoesophagology, laryngology, rhinology, allergology, head and neck medicine and oncologic surgery, maxillofacial and plastic surgery, audiology, and speech science. Original contributions including “Original papers”, “Short communications” and “Case reports”, remain the main com...
Source: Auris, Nasus, Larynx - January 31, 2013 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ken-ichi Nibu Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Stimulating the Brain with Microscopic Magnets
Imagine if your biggest health problem could be solved with the flip of a switch. Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) offers such a dramatic recovery for a range of neurological illnesses, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy and major depression. Yet the metal electrodes implanted in the brain are too bulky to tap into intricate neural circuitry with precision and corrode in contact with tissue, so their performance degrades over time. Now neurophysiologists have developed a method of DBS that avoids these problems by using microscopic magnets to stimulate neurons. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - January 31, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain,Mind Brain,Medical Technology,More Science,Neurological Disorders,Neuroscience,Health,Everyday Science Source Type: research
Cognition with few neurons: higher-order learning in insects.
Abstract Insects possess miniature brains but exhibit a sophisticated behavioral repertoire. Recent studies have reported the existence of unsuspected cognitive capabilities in various insect species that go beyond the traditionally studied framework of simple associative learning. Here, I focus on capabilities such as attentional modulation and concept learning and discuss their mechanistic bases. I analyze whether these behaviors, which appear particularly complex, can be explained on the basis of elemental associative learning and specific neural circuitries or, by contrast, require an explanatory level that goe...
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 31, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Giurfa M Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research
PROTEIN PHOSPHATASES REGULATE THE GROWTH OF DEVELOPING NEURITES.
Abstract The mechanisms underlying morphogenesis of axons and dendrites are critical for understanding both the structure and function of the nervous system. Since a number of kinases have a well-known effect on neurite outgrowth, we tested the hypothesis that specific phosphatases can also play a role in neurite extension and branching. Both protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) are present in growing processes and can regulate neuronal outgrowth. Loss-, gain- and recovery-of-function analyses in cultured hippocampal neurons tested the role of PP1 and PP2A in neurite growth. siRNA partially knocked down specif...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - January 31, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Monroe JD, Heathcote RD Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
Inference and Explanation in Counterfactual Reasoning.
This article reports results from two studies of how people answer counterfactual questions about simple machines. Participants learned about devices that have a specific configuration of components, and they answered questions of the form "If component X had not operated [failed], would component Y have operated?" The data from these studies indicate that participants were sensitive to the way in which the antecedent state is described-whether component X "had not operated" or "had failed." Answers also depended on whether the device is deterministic or probabilistic-whether X's causal parents "always" or only "usually" c...
Source: Cognitive Science - January 31, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rips LJ, Edwards BJ Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research
The Probabilities of Conditionals Revisited.
This study challenges the correctness of that assessment by presenting data that cast doubt on an assumption underlying all triviality arguments. PMID: 23368519 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Cognitive Science - January 31, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Douven I, Verbrugge S Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research
Gender Differences in Preattentive Processing of Facial Expressions: An ERP Study.
Abstract To investigate gender differences in pre-attentive processing of facial expressions we recorded the expression mismatch negativity (EMMN) in the deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm. For female participants, sad faces elicited larger EMMN than happy faces, but this difference disappeared in the left hemisphere. For male participants, EMMN was not modulated by facial expressions, regardless of in the left or right hemispheres. While the source analysis indicated that for both genders prefrontal activations were observed for sad EMMN, more sources were involved for male than female participants. For hap...
Source: Brain Topography - January 31, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu Q, Yang Y, Wang P, Sun G, Zhao L Tags: Brain Topogr Source Type: research
The Implications of Genomics on the Nursing Care of Adults With Neuropsychiatric Conditions
Conclusions: Further research is needed to expand knowledge beyond genomic risk for the presence of disease to knowledge about the genomic risk for symptoms, symptom burden, and tailored symptom management interventions. Clinical Relevance: Knowledge about the genomic influences on neuropsychiatric conditions suggests important implications for practicing nurses in the identification of persons at risk, provision of follow‐up support, and in the administration of medications.
Source: Journal of Nursing Scholarship - January 31, 2013 Category: Nursing Authors: Debra L. Schutte, Marilyn A. Davies, Emilie D Goris Source Type: research
Lack of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 (Nmnat2): Consequences for mouse bladder development and function
ConclusionsComplete loss of Nmnat2 leads to a mature but distended bladder in utero and is not compatible with survival. Moderate loss of Nmnat2 has no effect on bladder development, survival, and has only modest effects on bladder function later in life. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Source: Neurourology and Urodynamics - January 31, 2013 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Amy N. Hicks, Lysanne Campeau, David Burmeister, Colin E. Bishop, Karl‐Erik Andersson Tags: Original Basic Science Article Source Type: research
RNA Fragments May Yield Rapid, Accurate Cancer Diagnosis
Fragments of RNA that cells eject in fatty droplets may point the way to a new era of cancer diagnosis, potentially eliminating the need for invasive tests in certain cases. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - January 30, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Health,Health,Mind & Brain,Technology,Medical Technology,Neurological Disorders,Neuroscience,Biotechnology,Biotechnology,Biology,More Science Source Type: research
Mice Have "Massage Neurons"
Picture the expression on your cat’s face when you stroke it. What makes it so happy? The answer lies in a particular type of sensory neuron that responds to pleasant stroking, say scientists at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. The neurons, identified in mice, are similar to certain human neurons, which could explain why we enjoy a massage too. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - January 30, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain,Mind Brain,Neuroscience,More Science,Biology Source Type: research
Structures and Free Energy
Landscapes of the Wild-Type and A30P Mutant-Type α-Synuclein
Proteins with Dynamics
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/cn300198q
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Olivia Wise-Scira, Ahmet Kemal Aloglu, Aquila Dunn, Isin Tuna Sakallioglu and Orkid Coskuner Source Type: research
Structures of the E46K
Mutant-Type α-Synuclein Protein and Impact of E46K Mutation
on the Structures of the Wild-Type α-Synuclein Protein
ACS Chemical NeuroscienceDOI: 10.1021/cn3002027
Source: ACS Chemical Neuroscience - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Olivia Wise-Scira, Aquila Dunn, Ahmet K. Aloglu, Isin T. Sakallioglu and Orkid Coskuner Source Type: research
LOL Cats Like Stroking Too
Why do hairy mammals like being stroked? Scientists think that the answer lies in a particular group of neurons which respond to gentle stroking in mice. Nature Video learns more with a little help from some furry friends: LOL cats.
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - January 30, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Neuroscience,Biology Source Type: research
Is Scientific Materialism "Almost Certainly False"?
When it comes to science, ours is a paradoxical era. On the one hand, prominent physicists proclaim that they are solving the riddle of reality and hence finally displacing religious myths of creation. That is the chest-thumping message of books such as The Grand Design by physicists Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow and A Universe from Nothing by Lawrence Krauss. A corollary of this triumphal view is that science will inevitably solve all other mysteries as well. On the other hand, science's limits have never been more glaringly apparent. In their desperation for a "theory of everything"--which unifies quantum mecha...
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - January 30, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Evolution,Mind & Brain,More Science Source Type: research
Coffee Boosts Recognition of Positive Words
A lot of people just don’t feel quite human without that morning cup of coffee. Now a study finds that the enhanced sense of well-being that caffeine can cause is reflected in our perception of words. Specifically, caffeine increases the ability to recognize words associated with positive thoughts, but doesn’t provide the same boost for words with negative or even neutral associations. The research is in the journal PLoS One . [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - January 30, 2013 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain,Thought Cognition,Neuroscience,Psychology,Language Linguistics,Language Source Type: research
Emotions: form follows function.
Abstract Emotion research has been divided by debate as to whether emotions are universal in form or cognitively constructed. We review an emerging approach that focuses on function rather than form. Functional affective science suggests that the particular origin of an emotion is relatively unimportant; instead, emotions can be understood in terms of a rapidly deployed set of mechanisms that structure perception, cognition and behavior to facilitate goal fulfillment. Evidence from this approach suggests at least three major functions of emotion: sensory gating, embodying affect, and integrating knowledge toward go...
Source: Current Opinion in Neurobiology - January 30, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Farb NA, Chapman HA, Anderson AK Tags: Curr Opin Neurobiol Source Type: research
Higher-order action planning for individual and joint object manipulations.
Abstract Many actions involve multiple action steps, which raises the question how far ahead people plan when they perform such actions. Here, we examined higher-order planning for action sequences and whether people planned similarly or differently when acting individually or together with an action partner. For individual performances, participants picked up an object with one hand and passed it to their other hand before placing it onto a target location. For joint performances, they picked up the object and handed it to their action partner, who placed it onto the target location. Each object could be grasped a...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Meyer M, van der Wel RP, Hunnius S Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research
Interview with Bruce S. McEwen.
Authors: PMID: 23375784 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Trends in Neurosciences - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Trends Neurosci Source Type: research
The effects of prenatal exposure to valproic acid on the initial development of serotonergic neurons.
Abstract In utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA) may cause symptoms related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An abnormal serotonergic (5-HT) system has been implicated in the etiology of ASD. In the present study, we have examined the expression and distribution of two early inducers of 5-HT neurons in rat embryos, to elucidate the prenatal development of 5-HT neurons after VPA exposure at embryonic day (E) 9.5. Whole-embryo in situ hybridization at E11.5 showed that the expression of sonic hedgehog, one of the early inducers of 5-HT neurons, was reduced around the isthmus in the VPA-exposed group. Furthermore, ...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Oyabu A, Narita M, Tashiro Y Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
Independent Component Analysis and Multiresolution Asymmetry Ratio for Brain-Computer Interface.
This study proposes a brain-computer interface (BCI) system for the recognition of single-trial electroencephalogram (EEG) data. With the combination of independent component analysis (ICA) and multiresolution asymmetry ratio, a support vector machine (SVM) is used to classify left and right finger lifting or motor imagery. First, ICA and similarity measures are proposed to eliminate the electrooculography (EOG) artifacts automatically. The features are then extracted from the wavelet data by means of an asymmetry ratio. Finally, the SVM classifier is used to discriminate between the features. Compared to the EEG data with...
Source: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hsu WY Tags: Clin EEG Neurosci Source Type: research
Effects of low-intensity atrial ganglionated plexi stimulation on ventricular electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Low-intensity GPS induces no increase in the risk of ventricular arrhythmias in the normal heart as well as protects against ventricular arrhythmogenesis during AMI. PMID: 23375649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: He B, Lu Z, He W, Wu L, Huang B, Yu L, Cui B, Hu X, Jiang H Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Bidirectional neuro-glial signaling modalities in the hypothalamus: Role in neurohumoral regulation.
Abstract Maintenance of bodily homeostasis requires concerted interactions between the neuroendocrine and the autonomic nervous systems, which generate adaptive neurohumoral outflows in response to a variety of sensory inputs. Moreover, an exacerbated neurohumoral activation is recognized to be a critical component in numerous disease conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, stress, and the metabolic syndrome. Thus, the study of neurohumoral regulation in the brain is of critical physiological and pathological relevance. Most of the work in the field over the last decades has been centered on elucidating ...
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Stern JE, Filosa JA Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research
Purkinje Cell Simple Spike Discharge Encodes Error Signals Consistent with a Forward Internal Model.
Abstract Processing motor errors is essential for online control of goal-directed movements and motor learning. Evidence from psychophysical and imaging studies supports the long-standing view that error processing is central to cerebellar function. The dominant view is that error-related signals are encoded in the complex spike discharge of Purkinje cells. However, the findings are inconsistent on whether complex spike activity correlates with motor errors. Recently, we examined if simple spike firing carries error signals in monkeys trained to manually track a randomly moving target. The task requires continuous ...
Source: Cerebellum - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Popa LS, Hewitt AL, Ebner TJ Tags: Cerebellum Source Type: research
Direct Evidence of Memory Retrieval as a Source of Difficulty in Non-Local Dependencies in Language.
Abstract Linguistic dependencies between non-adjacent words have been shown to cause comprehension difficulty, compared with local dependencies. According to one class of sentence comprehension accounts, non-local dependencies are difficult because they require the retrieval of the first dependent from memory when the second dependent is encountered. According to these memory-based accounts, making the first dependent accessible at the time when the second dependent is encountered should help alleviate the difficulty associated with the processing of non-local dependencies. In a dual-task paradigm, participants rea...
Source: Cognitive Science - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fedorenko E, Woodbury R, Gibson E Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research
Evidence for Implicit Learning in Syntactic Comprehension.
This study provides evidence for implicit learning in syntactic comprehension. By reanalyzing data from a syntactic priming experiment (Thothathiri & Snedeker, 2008), we find that the error signal associated with a syntactic prime influences comprehenders' subsequent syntactic expectations. This follows directly from error-based implicit learning accounts of syntactic priming, but it is unexpected under accounts that consider syntactic priming a consequence of temporary increases in base-level activation. More generally, the results raise questions about the principles underlying the maintenance of implicit statistical...
Source: Cognitive Science - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fine AB, Florian Jaeger T Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research
Essentialist Beliefs About Bodily Transplants in the United States and India.
Abstract Psychological essentialism is the belief that some internal, unseen essence or force determines the common outward appearances and behaviors of category members. We investigated whether reasoning about transplants of bodily elements showed evidence of essentialist thinking. Both Americans and Indians endorsed the possibility of transplants conferring donors' personality, behavior, and luck on recipients, consistent with essentialism. Respondents also endorsed essentialist effects even when denying that transplants would change a recipient's category membership (e.g., predicting that a recipient of a pig's ...
Source: Cognitive Science - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Meyer M, Leslie SJ, Gelman SA, Stilwell SM Tags: Cogn Sci Source Type: research
CX3CL1/CX3CR1 regulates nerve injury‐induced pain hypersensitivity through the ERK5 signaling pathway
Abstract Peripheral nerve injury induces the cleavage of CX3CL1 from the membrane of neurons, where the soluble CX3CL1 subsequently plays an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signals between neurons and microglia. Here we investigated whether CX3CL1 regulates microglia activation through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal‐regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) in the spinal cord of rats with spinal nerve ligation (SNL). ERK5 and microglia were activated in the spinal cord after SNL. The knockdown of ERK5 by intrathecal injection of antisense oligonucleotides suppressed the hyperalgesia and nuclear imp...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jian‐Liang Sun, Chun Xiao, Bo Lu, Juan Zhang, Xiao‐zong Yuan, Wei Chen, Li‐Na Yu, Feng‐Jiang Zhang, Gang Chen, Min Yan Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Effects of chronic caffeine intake in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Abstract Caffeine is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist; chronic consumption has proved protective toward neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. The present study was designed to determine whether caffeine intake affected survival and/or motor performance in a transgenic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). SOD1G93A mice received caffeine through drinking water from 70 days of age until death. Body weight, motor performance and survival were evaluated. Furthermore, the expression of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs), glial glutamate transporter (GLT1), and glial fibrillar ...
Source: Journal of Neuroscience Research - January 30, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rosa Luisa Potenza, Monica Armida, Antonella Ferrante, Antonella Pèzzola, Alessandra Matteucci, Maria Puopolo, Patrizia Popoli Tags: Research Article Source Type: research