Parasitology Research This is an OPML file. It can be used to export all the MedWorm RSS feeds on this topic into your personal RSS reader (usually you have to save this file to your own computer before clicking on an Import OPML command in your own feed reader to upload the file which will then import all the feeds) or it can be used by webmasters to integrate MedWorm feeds with their own website. This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader, such as GoogleReader, or to display this data on your own website or blog. Subscribe to this data using MyMedWorm.Subscribe to this data using GoogleReader.Subscribe to this data using Bloglines.Subscribe to this data using MyYahoo.
Find the best Christmas presents and January Sales in the UK with this simple shopping directory.
This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 26.
Characterization of malaria transmission by vector populations for improved interventions during the dry season in the Kpone-on-Sea area of coastal Ghana
We have conducted an entomological study on malaria vectors and transmission indices during the dry season at Kpone-on-Sea, a coastal village of southern Ghana, earmarked for testing of improved control strategies including possible vaccine trials. Image:Map of Ghana showing Kpone-on-Sea, a coastal village of southern Ghana
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 26, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: David TchouassiIsabella QuakyiEbenezer AddisonKwabena BosompemMichael WilsonMaxwell AppawuCharles BrownDaniel Boakye Source Type: research
PCR identification of culicoid biting midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) of the Obsoletus complex including putative vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses
A robust multiplex PCR assay is presented that allows the unambiguous identification of central European culicoid biting midge species of the Obsoletus complex that are considered to include the vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. Image: Blood-feeding female of an Obsoletus complex biting midge.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 26, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kathrin LehmannDoreen WernerBernd HoffmannHelge Kampen Source Type: research
Bioluminescent imaging of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Rhodnius prolixus
We standardized the bioluminescent imaging to follow the progression of infection in real time, in vivo, and in dissected guts of Rhodnius prolixus infected with Trypanosoma cruzi expressing firefly luciferase. The infection could be track accurately through the crop, intestine and rectum for a month. Image: Evaluation of Trypanosoma cruzi life cycle in Rhodnius prolixus infected with Dm28c-luc strain by bioluminescent imaging.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 26, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Cristina HenriquesDaniele CastroLeonardo GomesEloi GarciaWanderley de Souza Source Type: research
Toxoplasmosis and neuropsychiatric diseases: can serological studies establish a clear relationship?
Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a widespread infection, with clinical spectrum ranging from a completely asymptomatic infection to multi-organ involvement. After entering the body, the parasite forms tissue cysts and establishes a chronic infection, involving also the central nervous system (CNS). During the last years, a lot of research has focused on the possible link between exposure to T. gondii and development of neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease (PD). If a firm association between Toxoplasma infection and neuropsychiatric disorders will be established, this would lead...
Source: Neurological Sciences - September 25, 2012 Category: Neurology Tags: Neurological Sciences Source Type: research
Diversity in the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones
Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is well known for its epidemicity, with the emergence of new clones on a daily basis. Diversity in the clonal types of MRSA challenges the success of treatment, as different clones respond to different sets of antibiotics. However, the antibiotic susceptibility among the isolates within the same clones is largely unexplored. In a previous study on MRSA epidemiology in Malaysia, we identified six major clonal complexes (ST-239-CC8, ST-1-CC1, ST-188-CC1, ST-22-CC22, ST-7-CC7 and ST-1283-CC8). In the present study, we investigated the antibiotic suscep...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2012 Category: Microbiology Tags: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Bird Malaria Moves North
Malaria is a tropical disease, right? Actually, malaria parasites can be found as far north as Alaska--at least in birds. And a warming climate may push avian malaria even farther north by the end of the century, according to a study in the journal PLoS ONE . [Claire Loiseau et al., First Evidence and Predictions of Plasmodium Transmission in Alaska Bird Populations ] [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - September 25, 2012 Category: Science Tags: More Science,Environment,Infectious Diseases,More Science,Climate,Biology Source Type: research
PfCRT and its role in antimalarial drug resistance.
Abstract Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine, the former gold standard antimalarial drug, is mediated primarily by mutant forms of the chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT). These mutations impart upon PfCRT the ability to efflux chloroquine from the intracellular digestive vacuole, the site of drug action. Recent studies reveal that PfCRT variants can also affect parasite fitness, protect immature gametocytes against chloroquine action, and alter P. falciparum susceptibility to current first-line therapies. These results highlight the need to be vigilant in screening for the appearance of novel pf...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 25, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Ecker A, Lehane AM, Clain J, Fidock DA Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
Cholinesterase as inflammatory markers in a experimental infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits.
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of cholinesterases as an inflammatory marker in acute and chronic infection by Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits experimentally infected. Twelve adult female New Zealand rabbits were used and divided into two groups with 6 animals each: control group (rabbits 1-6) and infected group (rabbits 7-12). Infected group received intraperitoneally 0.5 mL of blood from a rat containing 108 parasites per animal. Blood samples used for cholinesterases evaluation were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 12, 27, 42, 57, 87, 102 and 118 days post-inoculation (PI). Increased activity (P&l...
Source: An Acad Bras Cienc - September 25, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Costa MM, Silva AS, Paim FC, França R, Dornelles GL, Thomé GR, Serres JD, Schmatz R, Spanevello RM, Gonçalves JF, Schetinger MR, Mazzanti CM, Lopes ST, Monteiro SG Tags: An Acad Bras Cienc Source Type: research
Antibody levels correlate with detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by sensitive polymerase chain reaction assays in seropositive blood donors and possible resolution of infection over time.
CONCLUSION: For all three countries, persistent DNA positivity correlated with higher ELISA S/CO values, suggesting that high-level seroreactivity reflects chronic parasitemia. Significant S/CO declines in 10% of the PCR-negative Brazilian donors may indicate seroreversion after parasite clearance in the absence of treatment. PMID: 23002996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Transfusion - September 25, 2012 Category: Hematology Authors: Sabino EC, Lee TH, Montalvo L, Nguyen ML, Leiby DA, Carrick DM, Otani MM, Vinelli E, Wright D, Stramer SL, Busch M, NHLBI Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II) International Program Tags: Transfusion Source Type: research
The antiapoptotic activity of Heligmosomoides polygyrus antigen fractions
This study may provide new clues for recognition of factors that regulate the immune response during infection and which engage the TNF‐α receptor‐mediated and the mitochondria‐mediated death pathway.
Source: Parasite Immunology - September 25, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Maria Doligalska, Klaudia Brodaczewska, Katarzyna Donskow‐Łysoniewska Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Splenocyte apoptosis in Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection: Possible Role of TNF‐ α and TGF‐ β
SummaryCerebral malaria is associated with the circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α) and transforming growth factor β (TGF‐β), but association between these two cytokines and implications in splenocyte apoptosis remains largely obscured. We have evaluated the outcome of TGF‐β and TNF‐α production in context of splenocyte apoptosis during Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection. Blood‐stage PbA infection confirmed blood brain barrier disruption, disarray of white pulp, increase in percentage of sub G0/G1 and splenocyte apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis reveals upregulation of Fas‐L fol...
Source: Parasite Immunology - September 25, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tarun Keswani, Arindam Bhattacharyya Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Tissue damage and immunity in cutaneous leishmaniasis
Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by parasitic infection of dermal macrophages resulting in intense immune mediated tissue inflammation and skin ulceration. The severity of the disease is dependent on parasite species as well as theimmune responses evoked by the host. Most cases of CL heal spontaneously. In rare cases the ulcer/s become chronic and some Leishmania species may induce mucosal leishmaniasis (MCL) leading to severe tissue damage. Due to difficulties in obtaining skin tissue most human studies of CL have been limited to the analysis of peripheral blood. While systemic responses may be good correla...
Source: Parasite Immunology - September 25, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Susanne Nylén, Liv Eidsmo Tags: Review Source Type: research
Cardiac damage induced by immunization with heat‐killed Trypanosoma cruzi is not antibody‐mediated
Summary Cardiac inflammation that develops during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi may result in part from autoimmunity, which may occur after bystander activation after parasite‐induced cardiomyocyte damage or molecular mimicry. A/J mice infected with T. cruzi or immunized with heat‐killed T. cruzi develop strong autoimmunity accompanied by cardiac damage. To determine whether this cardiac damage occurs via an antibody‐dependent mechanism, we analyzed T. cruzi‐infected and heat‐killed T. cruzi‐immunized mice for the presence of autoantibodies, cardiac antibody deposition, and serum cardiac troponin I as a meas...
Source: Parasite Immunology - September 25, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: K. M. Bonney, K. M. Gifford, J. M. Taylor, C. ‐I Chen, D. M. Engman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Antigenic differences between the EG95‐related proteins from Echinococcus granulosus G1 and G6 genotypes: implications for vaccination
Summary Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus remains an important and neglected issue in public health. The study of the likely efficacy of the currently available EG95 vaccine against other genotypes of the parasite is important in order to improve the vaccine as a potential tool to be used in control programs. The recombinant vaccine EG95‐1G1 was developed based on the G1 genotype of E. granulosus. Characterization of the eg95 gene family in the G6 genotype by genomic DNA cloning previously produced the first unequivocal information about the composition of the gene family in a different genotype. Th...
Source: Parasite Immunology - September 25, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cristian A. Alvarez Rojas, Charles G. Gauci, Marshall W. Lightowlers Tags: Brief Definitive Report Source Type: research
Attraction of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) to host odour components in a wind tunnel
This study examined host-odour seeking behaviour of field-collected female sandflies, Nyssomyia neivai, using a wind tunnel olfactometer. The attractiveness of octenol, lactic acid and BGLure was evaluated. Image: Phlebotomine sandfly (Nyssomyia neivai).
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 25, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mara PintoDaniel BrayAlvaro EirasHenrique CarvalheiraCamila Puertas Source Type: research
Species diversity and biting activity of Anopheles dirus and Anopheles baimaii (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria prone area of western Thailand
We surveyed species diversity of adult anopheline mosquitoes and biting activity of Anopheles dirus and Anopheles baimaii, important malaria vectors in a malaria endemic area of western Thailand. This provides updated vector ecological information in relation to malaria transmission. Image: Products of multiplex PCR for the identification of An. dirus species complex.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 25, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chatchai TananchaiRungarun TisgratogWaraporn JuntarajumnongJohn GriecoSylvie ManguinAtchariya PrabaripaiTheeraphap Chareonviriyaphap Source Type: research
Common Parasite Linked to Personality Changes
Feeling sociable or reckless? You might have toxoplasmosis, an infection caused by the microscopic parasite Toxoplasma gondii , which the CDC estimates has infected about 22.5 percent of Americans older than 12 years old. Researchers tested participants for T. gondii infection and had them complete a personality questionnaire. They found that both men and women infected with T. gondii were more extroverted and less conscientious than the infection-free participants. These changes are thought to result from the parasite's influence on brain chemicals, the scientists write in the May/June issue of the European Journal of...
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - September 24, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Mind & Brain,Health,Mind Brain,Thought Cognition,Everyday Science,Neuroscience,Biology Source Type: research
Evaluation of anti-lived and anti-fixed Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigote IgG antibodies detected by flow cytometry for diagnosis and post-therapeutic cure assessment in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis
This study aims to investigate a flow cytometry performance–based methodology to detect anti-live (FC-ALPA-IgG) and anti-fixed (FC-AFPA-IgG) Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigote IgG as a means to monitor post-therapeutic cure of patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). Serum samples from 30 LCL patients infected with L. (V.) braziliensis were assayed, comparing the IgG reactivity before and after specific treatment with pentavalent antimonial. Reactivities were reported as the percentage of positive fluorescent parasites (PPFP), using a PPFP of 60% as a cut-off value. In the serum dilution of 1:10...
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - September 24, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira, Luiza de Campos Reis, Marina de Assis Souza, Andresa Pereira de Oliveira, Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Patrícia S. Lage, Mariléia Chaves Andrade, Roberta Dias Rodrigues Rocha, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho Tags: Parasitology Source Type: research
African Plasmodium vivax: Distribution and origins.
Abstract There is increasing evidence that the malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, is endemic in west and central Africa, a region from which it was previously thought to be almost completely absent due to the very high prevalence of the Duffy negative phenotype in the local human populations. Furthermore, P. vivax, or very closely related parasites, has been identified in both chimpanzees and gorillas from this region. In this review, we discuss the implications of these findings for the current understanding of the origins of P. vivax as a human parasite. With the support of new evidence from mitochondrial genome...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 24, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Culleton R, Carter R Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
A hemocyte-derived Kunitz-BPTI-type chymotrypsin inhibitor, HlChI, from the ixodid tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, plays regulatory functions in tick blood-feeding processes.
Abstract Inhibitors of proteases play key roles in the biological processes of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, including arthropod parasites. Here, we describe a cDNA that encodes a functionally active chymotrypsin inhibitor of the BPTI/Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors from the hemocytes of the ixodid tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, herein called HlChI. HlChI sequence is evolutionarily conserved and contains six cysteine residues and three disulfide bonds with a calculated molecular weight of 9.1 kDa. HlChI-specific mRNA was expressed in all developmental stages of ticks and the expression was up-...
Source: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - September 24, 2012 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Alim MA, Islam MK, Anisuzzaman, Miyoshi T, Hatta T, Yamaji K, Matsubayashi M, Fujisaki K, Tsuji N Tags: Insect Biochem Mol Biol Source Type: research
Identification of resistant carboxylesterase alleles in Culex pipiens complex via PCR-RFLP
In this study a PCR-RFLP based approach was developed to differentiate these carboxylesterase alleles in field populations. Image: DraI-RFLP profiles of esterase B from various standard mosquito strains.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 24, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hanying ZhangFengxia MengChuanling QiaoFeng Cui Source Type: research
Cysticercosis among parasitic infections targeted by CDC [NEWS AND FEATURES]
Source: AAP News - September 24, 2012 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Krilov, L. R., Cantey, P. T., Burke, A. P. Tags: NEWS AND FEATURES Source Type: research
Plasmodium falciparum—Malaria in Pregnant African Immigrants Often Goes Unrecognized
We report four cases of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant African women. They had immigrated to Finland 3 to 13 months earlier. The disease was revealed only by anemia. The diagnosis relied on blood smear which showed a parasitemia <0.2% in three cases. Medical personnel should be informed about the possibility of afebrile forms of malaria in pregnant women even months after immigration. Very low levels of parasitemia may call for a more sensitive diagnostic approach such as polymerase chain reaction.
Source: Journal of Travel Medicine - September 24, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Anu Kantele, Heli Siikamäki, Tuula Hannila‐Handelberg, Kalevi Laitinen, Lars Rombo Tags: BRIEF COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
Diminazene Diaceturate for Treatment of Chronic Cytauxzoon felis Parasitemia in Naturally Infected Cats
Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceDiminazene diaceturate was unable to eliminate the pathogen or decrease parasite burden in healthy, chronically infected cats.
Source: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine - September 24, 2012 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: K.M. Lewis, L.A. Cohn, H.S. Marr, A.J. Birkenheuer Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research
Emerging myxosporean parasites of Australian frogs take a ride with fresh fruit transport
We demonstrate that accidental translocation of frog parasites with their hosts in fresh produce is the possible mechanism for the emergence of myxozoan Cystodiscus-parasites of frogs in south-eastern Australia. Image: Dainty green tree frog (Litoria gracilenta) , "Banana box" frog from a Sydney market shedding Cystodiscus parasites.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 24, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ashlie HartiganLee PeacockAlex RosenwaxDavid PhalenJan Slapeta Source Type: research
Beware of proteins bearing gifts: Protein antibiotics that use iron as Trojan horse
Abstract Multicellular organisms limit the availability of free iron to prevent the utilisation of this essential nutrient by microbial pathogens. As such, bacterial pathogens possess a variety of mechanisms for obtaining iron from their hosts, including a number of examples of vertebrate pathogens that obtain iron directly from host proteins. Recently two novel members of the colicin M bacteriocin family were discovered in Pectobacterium that suggest that this phytopathogen possesses such a system. These bacteriocins (pectocin M1 and M2) consist of a cytotoxic domain homologous to that of colicin M fused to a horizontally...
Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters - September 23, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rhys Grinter, Joel Milner, Daniel Walker Tags: MiniReview Source Type: research
High-resolution genotyping and mapping of recombination and gene conversion in the protozoan Theileria parva using whole genome sequencing
Conclusions: Using whole genome sequencing of two recombinant clones and their parents, we generated maps of COs, NCOs, and CO-associated gene conversion events for T. parva. The data comprises one of the highest-resolution genome-wide analyses of the multiple outcomes of meiotic recombination for this pathogen. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of high throughput sequencing typing for detailed analysis of recombination in organisms in which conventional genetic analysis is technically difficult.
Source: BioMed Central - September 23, 2012 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sonal HensonRichard P BishopSubhash MorzariaPaul R SpoonerRoger PelleLucy PovedaMartin EbelingErich KüngUlrich CertaClaudia A DaubenbergerWeihong Qi Source Type: research
In vitro efficacy of oil from the seed of Carapa guianensis (andiroba) in the control of Felicola subrostratus
This study was perfomed to assess the in vitro effect of oil from the seed of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) on Felicola subrostratus (Burmeister, 1838) (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae). Six hundred specimens of F. subrostratus from neighborhood of Jordão, Recife-PE, Brazil, were collected by hand directly from the fur of cats infested naturally. The lice were transported in plastic recipients to the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals of the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Brazil) for the immersion test. Four dilutions of andiroba oil (100, 50, 25 an...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - September 22, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Evaluation of antifungal activity of essential oils against potentially mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus
The antifungal activity of essential oils of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae), mint (Mentha piperita L., Lamiaceae) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae) was evaluated against mycotoxin producers Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. High Resolution Gas Chromatography was applied to analyze chemical constituents of essential oils. The effect of different concentrations of essential oils was determined by solid medium diffusion assay. Mycelial growth and sporulation were determined for each essential oil at the concentrations established by solid medium dif...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia - September 22, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Regulation of cnidarian-dinoflagellate mutualisms: Evidence that activation of a host TGFβ innate immune pathway promotes tolerance of the symbiont.
This study takes a two-part approach to examining an immune function for TGFβ in cnidarians. First bioinformatic analyses of the model anemone Aiptasia pallida were used to identify TGFβ pathway components and explore the hypothesis that an immune function for TGFβ s existed prior to the evolution of vertebrates. A TGFβ ligand from A. pallida was identified as one that groups closely with vertebrate TGFβ s that have an immune function. Second, cellular analyses of A. pallida were used to examine a role for a TGFβ pathway in the regulation of cnidarian-dinoflagellate mutualisms. These interactions are stable under amb...
Source: Developmental and Comparative Immunology - September 22, 2012 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Detournay O, Schnitzler CE, Poole A, Weis VM Tags: Dev Comp Immunol Source Type: research
Getting stuck in: protein palmitoylation in Plasmodium.
Abstract Palmitoylation is the reversible post-translational addition of a lipid moiety to cysteine residues on targeted proteins. The recent use of proteomic-scale techniques to study protein palmitoylation in multiple organisms has radically changed our understanding of the diversity of proteins and signaling pathways that are affected by palmitoylation. These experiments have made clear that, similarly to phosphorylation, palmitoylation is a regulatory tool that has an impact upon a wide range of essential eukaryotic processes. A recent proteome-level analysis of protein palmitoylation in Plasmodium has revealed...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 22, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jones ML, Tay CL, Rayner JC Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
Evaluation of an Indirect ELISA Using a Tachyzoite Surface Antigen SAG1 for Diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Cats.
Abstract Toxoplasma gondii infection is very common in cats throughout the world. Most cats are subclinically infected and potentially fatal clinical disease occurs in some of them. The aim of this study is to develop an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test using an affinity purified tachyzoite surface antigen (SAG1) to detect T. gondii infection in cats. Six sero-negative kittens were used in this study; four kittens received 10(4)T. gondii tachyzoites of NED strain (type III) and the remaining two were used as uninfected controls. Serum samples were collected within 41 days and were evaluated f...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 22, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hosseininejad M Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Anti-Acanthamoebic properties of resveratrol and demethoxycurcumin.
Abstract Acanthamoeba is an opportunist protist pathogen that is known to infect the cornea to produce eye keratitis and the central nervous system to produce fatal granulomatous encephalitis. Early diagnosis, followed by aggressive treatment using a combination of drugs is a prerequisite in successful treatment but even then, prognosis remains poor due to lack of effective drugs. The overall aim of the present study was to determine the anti-Acanthamoebic potential of natural compounds, resveratrol and curcuminoids. Adhesion and cytotoxicity assays were performed using primary human brain microvascular endothelial...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 22, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Aqeel Y, Iqbal J, Siddiqui R, Gilani AH, Khan NA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Oxidative stress resistance genes contribute to the pathogenic potential of the anaerobic protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica.
Abstract The protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, invades the host colon causing significant tissue destruction and inflammation. Upon host infection, the parasite is confronted with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that cause large-scale changes in gene expression profiles, which likely support the parasite's adaptation to the host environment. We have previously identified oxidative and nitrosative stress responsive genes using whole-genome expression profiling. Functional studies on two such genes are now reported and demonstrate that they have roles in parasite virulence. EHI_056680 encodes ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - September 22, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rastew E, Vicente JB, Singh U Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates identified in a Sydney population and pathogenic potential of Blastocystis
This study also aimed to show the relationship between subtype and symptoms. Five-hundred and thirteen stool samples were submitted to five different diagnostic techniques for the detection of Blastocystis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive samples were then sequenced and the small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences were aligned and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. Ninety-eight samples were positive by any of the diagnostic methods for Blastocystis and 96 were positive by PCR. There were seven different subtypes (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8) identified by PCR and sequencing. This is the first large-scale study to examine...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2012 Category: Microbiology Tags: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CHLOROMYXUM CLAVATUM N. SP. (MYXOZOA: MYXOSPOREA), INFECTING THE GALL BLADDER OF RAJA CLAVATA (CHONDRICHTHYES), FROM THE PORTUGUESE ATLANTIC COAST.
Abstract Abstract Microscopic and molecular procedures are used to describe a new myxosporean species, Chloromyxum clavatum n. sp., infecting the cartilaginous fish Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae), collected from the northwest Atlantic coast of Portugal. Young plasmodia and mature spores were found floating free in the gall bladder of Raja clavata. Spores were spherical to subspherical with a pointed anterior end, measuring14.4 ± 0.5 μm (n = 25) in length, 11.9 ± 0.5 μm (n = 25) in width and 9.4 ± 0.5 μm (n = 15) in thickness. The spores wall was composed of 2 equally sized valves, each...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - September 21, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rocha S, Casal G, Al-Quraishy S, Azevedo C Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
Characterizing Pneumocystis in the lungs of bats: understanding Pneumocystis Evolution and Spread of Pneumocystis organisms in mammal populations.
This study suggests that Pneumocystis-host association may yield much information on Pneumocystis transmission, phylogeny and biology in mammals. Moreover, the link between genetic variability of Pneumocystis isolated from populations of the same bat species and their geographic area could be exploited in terms of phylogeography. PMID: 23001662 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - September 21, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Akbar H, Pinçon C, Aliouat CM, Derouiche S, Taylor ML, Pottier M, Carreto-Binaghi LH, González-González AE, Courpon A, Barriel V, Guillot J, Chabé M, Suarez-Alvarez RO, Aliouat EM, Dei-Cas E, Demanche C Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Biotin-binding proteins in the defense of mushrooms against predators and parasites.
Abstract Tamavidins are fungal biotin binding proteins (BBPs) displaying antifungal activity against phytopathogens. Here we show high toxicity of tamavidins towards nematodes, insects and amoebae. As these organisms represent important phyla of fungal predators and parasites, we propose that BBPs are part of the chemical defense system of fungi. PMID: 23001676 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - September 21, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bleuler-Martinez S, Schmieder S, Aebi M, Künzler M Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
A versatile proline-alanine transporter in the unicellular pathogen Leishmania donovani regulates amino acid homeostasis and osmotic stress responses.
Abstract Unlike all other organisms, parasitic protozoa of the family Trypanosomatidae maintain a large cellular pool of proline that, together with the alanine pool, serve as alternative carbon sources as well as reservoirs of organic osmolytes. These reflect adaptation to their insect vectors whose hemolymphs are exceptionally rich with the two amino acids. Here we identify and characterize a new neutral amino acid transporter, LdAAP24 that translocates proline and alanine across the Leishmania donovani plasma membrane. This transporter fulfills multiple functions: it is the sole supplier for the intracellular po...
Source: The Biochemical Journal - September 21, 2012 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Inbar E, Schlisselberg D, Suter Grotemeyer M, Rentsch D, Zilberstein D Tags: Biochem J Source Type: research
The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys
The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22. There is no resident anopheline population and the country is malaria free. The complex natural history of mosquitoes in the Seychelles provides superb examples for theoretical and applied island biology. Image: Adult mosquitoes collected by light trap in the Seychelles.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 21, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Gilbert Le GoffPhilippe BoussesSimon JulienneCecile BrenguesNil RaholaGerard RocamoraVincent Robert Source Type: research
Strong specificity in the interaction between parasitoids and symbiont‐protected hosts
Abstract Coevolution between hosts and parasites may promote the maintenance of genetic variation in both antagonists by negative frequency‐dependence if the host–parasite interaction is genotype‐specific. Here we tested for specificity in the interaction between parasitoids (Lysiphlebus fabarum) and aphid hosts (Aphis fabae) that are protected by a heritable defensive endosymbiont, the γ‐proteobacterium Hamiltonella defensa. Previous studies reported a lack of genotype specificity between unprotected aphids and parasitoids, but suggested that symbiont‐conferred resistance might exhibit a higher degree of specif...
Source: Journal of Evolutionary Biology - September 21, 2012 Category: Biology Authors: R. Rouchet, C. Vorburger Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
A versatile proline-alanine transporter in the unicellular pathogen Leishmania donovani regulates amino acid homeostasis and osmotic stress responses
Unlike all other organisms, parasitic protozoa of the family Trypanosomatidae maintain a large cellular pool of proline that, together with the alanine pool, serve as alternative carbon sources as well as reservoirs of organic osmolytes. These reflect adaptation to their insect vectors whose hemolymphs are exceptionally rich with the two amino acids. Here we identify and characterize a new neutral amino acid transporter, LdAAP24 that translocates proline and alanine across the Leishmania donovani plasma membrane. This transporter fulfills multiple functions: it is the sole supplier for the intracellular pool of proline and...
Source: BJ Disease - September 21, 2012 Category: Biochemistry Authors: E Inbar, D Schlisselberg, M Suter Grotemeyer, D Rentsch, D Zilberstein Tags: BJ Metabolism Source Type: research
Structure and Function of DBL Domains [Microbiology]
Invasion of human red blood cells by Plasmodium falciparum involves interaction of the merozoite form through proteins on the surface coat. The erythrocyte binding-like protein family functions after initial merozoite interaction by binding via the Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain to receptors on the host red blood cell. The merozoite surface proteins DBL1 and -2 (PfMSPDBL1 and PfMSPDBL2) (PF10_0348 and PF10_0355) are extrinsically associated with the merozoite, and both have a DBL domain in each protein. We expressed and refolded recombinant DBL domains for PfMSPDBL1 and -2 and show they are functional. The red cell bindin...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - September 21, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hodder, A. N., Czabotar, P. E., Uboldi, A. D., Clarke, O. B., Lin, C. S., Healer, J., Smith, B. J., Cowman, A. F. Tags: Protein Structure and Folding Source Type: research
Clinical Pharmacology for the Primary Care Physician
Pharmacology can be defined as the study of drug action on a living organism through chemical processes. It involves the analysis of normal and abnormal interactions between the substance and the living organism. These substances may be administered to achieve either therapeutic or toxic effects to the patient's metabolic processes or hosted parasites, respectively. To achieve an effect, the substance binds, or attaches, to specific targets within the body, which then causes a specific activation or inhibition of chemical processes.
Source: Disease a Month - September 20, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: James J. O'Donnell, James T. O'Donnell, Vanessa M. Juettner Source Type: research
Gastrointestinal nematode burden in working equids from humid tropical areas of central Veracruz, Mexico, and its relationship with body condition and haematological values
This study provides information which might help in designing future strategies to control nematode infections in working equids in the Mexican tropics; more emphasis should be placed on other inputs (nutrition perhaps), with individual anthelminthic treatment to those animals with the highest EPG or when signs present themselves. Content Type Journal ArticleCategory Regular ArticlesPages 1-5DOI 10.1007/s11250-012-0265-3Authors Maura Pilar Valdéz-Cruz, Programa Donkey Sanctuary (DS)-International League for the Protection of Horses (ILPH)-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Facultad de Medicina Vete...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - September 20, 2012 Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Tropical Animal Health and Production Source Type: research
Contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with geohelmints eggs on organic farms in Poland.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with zoonotic parasite eggs on organic and conventional farms in south-eastern Poland. To evaluate the contamination with eggs of zoonotic parasites, examinations were conducted on 8 conventional and 11 organic farms in south-eastern Poland from May - October in 2008 and 2009. The following fruit and vegetables were selected for the experiment: strawberry, leek, onion, carrot, zucchini, beetroot, parsley, potatoes, celery, rhubarb, lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, pumpkin, young beetroot leaves, cauliflower, French beans, turnip, fennel...
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - September 20, 2012 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kłapeć T, Borecka A Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research
Human dirofilariosis in Poland: the first cases of autochthonous infections with [i]Dirofilaria repens[/i].
Abstract Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens Railliet et Henry, 1911 (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is a subcutaneous parasite of dogs and other carnivorous animals, with human acting as incidental hosts. D. repens occurs endemically in warm climates on various continents, in Europe mainly in Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to summarize information on human dirofilariosis in Poland, taking into consideration parasitological and epidemiological data. Between April 2009 - December 2011, in the parasitological laboratories of Medical University in Warsaw and the National Institute of Public Health/National I...
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - September 20, 2012 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Cielecka D, Zarnowska-Prymek H, Masny A, Salamatin R, Wesołowska M, Gołąb E Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research
Suppression of scavenger receptors transcription by parasitoid factors.
In conclusion, it appears that the two members of the SR family play important roles in innate immune responses in P. xylostella and that each member of this group may play different roles in the host-parasitoid interaction. PMID: 23000265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Developmental and Comparative Immunology - September 20, 2012 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Etebari K, Hussain M, Asgari S Tags: Dev Comp Immunol Source Type: research
Plasmodium falciparum: The potential of the cancer chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin and its analogues as anti-malarials.
Abstract The anti-malarial activity of the cancer chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin and cisplatin analogues was determined in Plasmodium falciparum. The cisplatin analogues included DNA-targeted acridine-tethered platinum compounds, carboplatin and transplatin. A [(3)H]-hypoxanthine incorporation assay was utilised to determine the IC(50) of cisplatin and related analogues. The DNA-targeted Pt compounds and cisplatin were shown to have IC(50) values that were less than 1 μM in P. falciparum, with the acridine-tethered compounds having the greatest cytoxicity. Carboplatin and transplatin had IC(50) values of 12 and ...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 20, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Murray V, Campbell HM, Gero AM Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small GTPase gene cdc-42 from Ancylostoma caninum.
Abstract CDC-42 is a member of the Rho GTPase subfamily that is involved in many signaling pathways, including mitosis, cell polarity, cell migration and cytoskeleton remodeling. Here, we present the first characterization of a full-length cDNA encoding the small GTPase cdc-42, designated as Accdc-42, isolated from the parasitic nematode Ancylostoma caninum. The encoded protein contains 191 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 21 kDa and displays a high level of identity with the Rho-family GTPase protein CDC-42. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Accdc-42 was most closely related to Caenorhabd...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 20, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Yang Y, Zheng J, Chen J Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research