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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 31.
Malaria and human red blood cells
Abstract Invasion by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, brings about extensive changes in the host red cells. These include loss of the normal discoid shape, increased rigidity of the membrane, elevated permeability to a wide variety of ionic and other species and increased adhesiveness, most notably to endothelial surfaces. These effects facilitate survival of the parasite within the host cell and tend to increase the virulence of disease that includes cerebral malaria and anemia. Numerous proteins secreted by the internalized parasite and interacting with red cell membrane proteins are responsibl...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - September 11, 2012 Category: Microbiology Tags: Medical Microbiology and Immunology Source Type: research
Maternal antibody parameters of cattle and calves receiving EG95 vaccine to protect against Echinococcus granulosus.
Abstract Cattle may act as hosts for the transmission of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus and play a role in transmission of the parasite leading to human cystic echinococcosis (CE). The recombinant EG95 vaccine has been shown to be able to protect cattle and other intermediate host species against CE. Ideally the immunisation of bovines against E. granulosus, using EG95 vaccine, should occur early in life so as to provide maximum protection against the establishment of hydatid cysts. Maternally derived antibody from vaccinated cows may provide some protection for the neonate, but may also interfere wit...
Source: Vaccine - September 11, 2012 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Heath DD, Robinson C, Lightowlers MW Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Host actin remodeling and protection from malaria by hemoglobinopathies.
Abstract Many intracellular pathogens remodel the actin of their host cells, and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is no exception to this rule. The surprising finding is that several hemoglobinopathies that protect carriers from severe malaria may do so by interfering with host actin reorganization. Here we discuss our current understanding of actin remodeling in P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, how hemoglobinopathies interfere with this process, and how impaired host actin remodeling affects the virulence of P. falciparum. PMID: 22980758 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 11, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cyrklaff M, Sanchez CP, Frischknecht F, Lanzer M Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
The design and interpretation of laboratory assays measuring mosquito transmission of Plasmodium.
Abstract Since 2010 two global reviews of malaria research have recognized that local elimination and eradication of Plasmodium parasites are key drivers for further experimentation. To achieve these ambitious objectives it is universally recognized we must reduce malaria transmission through the mosquito vectors. A plethora of new laboratory assays are being developed to interrogate malaria transmission from the gametocyte to the sporozoite stage: assays that augment well-established field protocols to determine the entomological inoculation rate. However, the diverse readouts of these assays are not directly comp...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - September 11, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sinden RE, Blagborough AM, Churcher T, Ramakrishnan C, Biswas S, Delves MJ Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
Cryptosporidium parvum antigens induce mouse and human dendritic cells to generate Th1‐enhancing cytokines
Summary Cryptosporidium parvum is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that causes mild to severe diarrhoea, which can be life‐threatening in an immunocompromised host. To increase our understanding of the mechanisms that play a role in host immune responses, we investigated the effects of C. parvum antigens on the phenotype of mouse and human dendritic cells (DCs). Cryptosporidium parvum antigens induced DC activation as indicated by upregulation of the maturation marker CD209, as well as by the production of the cytokines interleukin‐12 p70, IL‐2, IL‐1beta, IL‐6. In particular, significant increases in the ...
Source: Parasite Immunology - September 11, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: B. BEDI, J. R. MEAD Source Type: research
Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) enhances immunity against L. tropica by stimulating human macrophage functions
In conclusion, hCG enhances different macrophage functions involved in immunity against L. tropica.
Source: Parasite Immunology - September 11, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: E. ABU ALSHAMAT, S. AL‐OKLA, C. H. SOUKKARIEH, M. KWEIDER Source Type: research
Infectious Diseases in Iran: A Bird’s Eye View
ABSTRACT: Thanks to improved health standards in Iran over the past three decades, we have witnessed a shift in the causes of death in Iran from infectious causes to non‐communicable diseases—mainly cardiovascular disorders, cancers, and road traffic injuries. The incidence and prevalence of many infectious diseases like many parasitic infections fell significantly over past decades; there have been no reported cases of dracunculiasis in Iran since the mid‐1970′s. Great strides have also been made towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Iran. However, we still have some problems with cutaneous leishmaniasis, hepa...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - September 11, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Mehrdad Askarian, Roxana Mansour Ghanaie, Abdollah Karimi, Farrokh Habibzadeh Source Type: research
Dietary vegetable oils do not alter the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), but modulate the transcriptomic response to infection with Enteromyxum leei
Conclusions: The high replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in practical fish feeds did not modify the intestine transcriptome of gilthead sea bream, but important changes were apparent when fish were exposed to the myxosporean E. leei. The detected changes were mostly a consequence rather than a cause of the different disease progression in the two diet groups. Hence, the developed microarray constitutes an excellent diagnostic tool to address changes associated with the action of intestinal pathogens, but lacks a prognostic value to predict in advance the different susceptibility of growing fish to the current pathogen.
Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles - September 11, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Josep Calduch-GinerAriadna Sitjà-BobadillaGrace DaveyMichael CairnsSadasivam KaushikJaume Pérez-Sánchez Source Type: research
Status of potential PfATP6 molecular markers for
artemisinin resistance in Suriname
The authors studied three key codonsof pfatp6 associated with artemisinin resistance in 28 Surinamese isolates. None of the isolates, including recrudescent parasites, carried mutant codons.
Source: Malaria Journal - September 11, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Malti AdhinMergiory Labadie-BrachoStephen Vreden Source Type: research
Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the intestine of Salmo trutta trutta naturally infected with an acanthocephalan
An infection of the acanthocephalan Dentitruncus truttae within the intestinal tract of Salmo t. trutta effected a significant increase in the number of PCNA positive cells (mast cells and fibroblasts) at the site of parasite attachment when compared with the number of positive cells found in uninfected conspecifics and in tissue zones away from the point of parasite attachment. Image: D.truttae in the intestine of trout.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 11, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bahram DezfuliLuisa GiariAlice LuiSamantha SquerzantiGiuseppe CastaldelliAndrew ShinnMaurizio ManeraMassimo Lorenzoni Source Type: research
Effects of larval rearing temperature on immature development and West Nile virus vector competence of Culex tarsalis
Variable larval rearing temperature affected developmental parameters of the vector mosquito Culex tarsalis but did not reproducibly affect estimates of infection, dissemination or transmission of West Nile virus. Image: Adult female Culex tarsalis mosquito, a vector of West Nile virus.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 11, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Brittany DodsonLaura KramerJason Rasgon Source Type: research
Does invasive Chondrostoma nasus shift the parasite community structure of endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma in sympatric zones?
This study shows the effect of invasive Chondrostoma nasus on the composition of parasite communities of native and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma, both cyprinid fish living in sympatry. Lower parasite infection in P. toxostoma and C. nasus x P. toxostoma hybrids was found compared with C. nasus. Image: The distribution of P. toxostoma and C. nasus.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 11, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andrea SimkovaPetra NavratilovaMartina DavidovaMarketa OndrackovaMelthide SinamaRémi ChappazAndre GillesCaroline Costedoat Source Type: research
Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: quantification of parasite burden in mothers and their children by parasite DNA amplification
Abstract: The relationship between parasite burden and vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi was studied in pairs of chronically infected women and their children in a non-endemic area. Parasitemia was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in the peripheral blood amplifying a nuclear T. cruzi DNA and expressed as equivalent amounts of CL Brener parasites DNA per ml (eP/ml). Similar levels of parasitemia were found in non-transmitting pregnant women and in non-pregnant women: 1.8±0.5 and 1.5±0.7 eP/ml, respectively. In women pregnant with infected children parasitemia was 11.0±2.7 eP/ml (n=20)....
Source: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 10, 2012 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Jacqueline Bua, Bibiana J. Volta, Elsa B. Velazquez, Andrés M. Ruiz, Ana María De Rissio, Rita L. Cardoni Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Meglumine antimonate treatment enhances phagocytosis and TNF-α production by monocytes in human cutaneous leishmaniasis
Abstract: This work evaluated phagocytic function, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), TNF-α and IL-10 production by monocytes and serum INF-γ levels in New World human cutaneous leishmaniasis and the influence of meglumine antimonate treatment on these immune functions. The phagocytic capacity of monocytes in untreated Leishmania-infected individuals was significantly (2.5 times) lower than that of healthy controls, and antimonial treatment increased the phagocytosis by monocytes by about five times at the end of therapy. The leishmaniasis patients showed 3.9 times higher H2O2 production than controls and treatment with meglumine...
Source: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 10, 2012 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Rosana Regina de Saldanha, Marianna Carminatti Martins-Papa, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro Sampaio, Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Complete Plasmodium falciparum liver stage development in liver-chimeric mice
Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the most lethal form of human malaria, replicates in the host liver during the initial stage of infection. However, in vivo malaria liver-stage (LS) studies in humans are virtually impossible, and in vitro models of LS development do not reconstitute relevant parasite growth conditions. To overcome these obstacles, we have adopted a robust mouse model for the study of P. falciparum LS in vivo: the immunocompromised and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase–deficient mouse (Fah–/–, Rag2–/–, Il2rg–/–, termed the FRG mouse) engrafted with huma...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 10, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ashley M. Vaughan, Sebastian A. Mikolajczak, Elizabeth M. Wilson, Markus Grompe, Alexis Kaushansky, Nelly Camargo, John Bial, Alexander Ploss, Stefan H.I. Kappe Source Type: research
The biological activity of auranofin: implications for novel treatment of diseases
Abstract More than 30 years ago, auranofin was developed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as a substitution for the injectable gold compounds aurothiomalate and aurothioglucose. Both the ease of oral administration over intramuscular injections and more potent anti-inflammatory effects in vitro made auranofin seem like an excellent substitute for the traditional injectable gold compounds. Despite efficacy in the treatment of both rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, currently, auranofin is seldom used as a treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis as more novel anti-rheumatic medications ...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 10, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Inflammopharmacology Source Type: research
Interstitial Lung Diseases
Interstitial lung diseases represent a diverse group of diseases that encompass inflammatory to fibrotic processes. Inflammatory processes frequently occur in response to exogenous instigators, such drugs, microbial and parasitic organisms, chemicals, and environmental and occupational agents. While the purpose of lung inflammation occurring in response to inhaled agents (microbial and nonmicrobial) is understood, the same is not true for drug-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Why the immune response against a noninhaled medication takes place in the lung is not immediately clear. Possible mechanisms include a relative...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - September 10, 2012 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rafeul Alam Source Type: research
The prevalence of Acarapis woodi in Spanish honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies.
Abstract Acarapis woodi is an internal obligate parasite of the respiratory system of honey bees which provokes significant economic losses in many geographical areas. The main aim of this study was assess the A. woodi role in the "higher honey bee colony losses phenomenon" in Spain. Therefore, a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) and so the actual prevalence of A. woodi in Spanish honey bee colonies in 2006 and 2007 was determined as part of a wider survey. The results revealed a greater prevalence than expected in most of the geographical...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 10, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Garrido-Bailón E, Bartolomé C, Prieto L, Botías C, Martínez-Salvador A, Meana A, Martín-Hernández R, Higes M Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Blastocystosis in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms: a case--control study
Conclusions: Blastocystosis was more frequent in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially those with ulcerative colitis. Although symptomatic irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn's disease patients had higher rates of Blastocystis spp. infection, the differences were not significant when compared to controls.
Source: BMC Gastroenterology - September 10, 2012 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ayhan CekinYesim CekinYesim AdakanEzel TasdemirFatma KoclarBasak Yolcular Source Type: research
Seasonal prevalence of malaria vectors and entomological inoculation rates in the rubber cultivated area of Niete, South Region of Cameroon
We have characterized the Anopheles fauna and their role in malaria transmission during the rainy and dry seasons in the rubber growing area of Niete in the southern forested region of Cameroon. Image:Map of Cameroon showing the Location of Niete in southern forested Cameroon.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 10, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jude BigogaFerdinand NanfackParfait Awono-AmbeneSalomon PatchokeJean AtanganaVitalis OtiaEtienne FondjoRoger MoyouRose Leke Source Type: research
Widespread and persistent invasions of terrestrial
habitats coincident with larval feeding behavior
transitions during snail-killing fly evolution
Conclusions: The preponderance of aquatic to terrestrial transitions in sciomyzids goes against the trendgenerally observed across eukaryotes. Damp shoreline habitats are likely transitional wherelarvae can change habitat but still have similar prey available. Transitioning from aquatic toterrestrial habitats is likely easier than the reverse for sciomyzids because morphologicalcharacters associated with air-breathing while under the water's surface are lost rather thangained, and sciomyzids originated and diversified during a general drying period in Earth'shistory. Our results imply that any animal lineage having aquatic...
Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology - Latest articles - September 10, 2012 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Eric ChapmanAndrey PrzhiboroJames HarwoodBenjamin FooteWalter Hoeh Source Type: research
Variation in exposure to Anopheles gambiae salivary
gland peptide (gSG6-P1) across different malaria
transmission settings in the western Kenya
Serological tools based on antibody responses to parasite and vector antigens are potential tools for transmission measurements. The current study evaluates antibody responses to Anopheles gambiae salivary gland peptide (gSG6- P1), as a biomarker of human exposure to Anopheles bites, in different transmission settings and seasons.
Source: Malaria Journal - September 10, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kingsley BaduJoram SianglaJohn LarbiBernard LawsonYaw AfraneMichael Ong'echaFranck RemoueGuofa ZhouAndrew GithekoGuiyun Yan Source Type: research
Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in the first half
of pregnancy, uterine and umbilical artery blood
flow, and foetal growth: a longitudinal Doppler
This study tests the hypothesis that P. falciparum infections during the first half of pregnancy disrupt trophoblast invasion causing reduced uteroplacental blood flow resulting in intrauterine growth restriction.
Source: Malaria Journal - September 10, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jennifer GriffinVictor LokombaSarah LandisJohn ThorpAmy HerringAntoinette TshefuStephen RogersonSteven Meshnick Source Type: research
Analysis of immunogenicity of different protein groups from malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
Abstract It was observed that pressure of host immune system leads to diversifying selection (which can be measured in terms of pN/pS ratio). In this research we checked whether Plasmodium falciparum proteins containing experimentally evident epitopes from the IEDB database are subject to diversifying selection. We also investigated which life stage of this parasite and which proteins are subject to the strongest immune pressure. To answer these questions we used information about experimentally evident epitopes from P. falciparum, that interact with human immune system and sequences of different isolates of P. fal...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - September 8, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Krzyczmonik K, Switnicki M, Kaczanowski S Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Pathogenesis of malaria revisited
Abstract Plasmodium falciparum malaria claims 1 million lives around the globe every year. Parasitemia can reach remarkably high levels. The developing parasite digests hemoglobin and converts the waste product to hemozoin alias malaria pigment. These processes occur in a vesicular compartment named the digestive vacuole (DV). Each parasitized cell releases one DV upon rupture. Myriads of DVs thus gain entry into the blood, but whether they trigger pathobiological events has never been investigated. We recently discovered that the DV membrane simultaneously activates the two major enzyme cascades in blood,...
Source: Medical Microbiology and Immunology - September 7, 2012 Category: Microbiology Tags: Medical Microbiology and Immunology Source Type: research
Enhanced expression of IL-10 in contrast to IL-12B mRNA in poultry with experimental coccidiosis.
Abstract Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-10 are immunoregulatory cytokines with an antagonistic effect on the T-helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine balance and they provide a functional link between innate resistance and the adaptive immune response. This investigation was conducted to determine the expression of IL-10 and IL-12B mRNA levels in chickens' gut mucosa infected with Eimeria tenella and in sulfachlorpyrazine-sodium treated animals after infection. Broiler chickens were randomly allocated in three groups: healthy untreated control; infected untreated animals and infected, treated with sulfachlorpyrazine sodium chickens...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - September 7, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Haritova AM, Stanilova SA Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Anti-disease Therapy for Malaria - 'Resistance Proof'?
Abstract Antimalarial drugs have in the past fallen prey to resistance and this problem is likely to continue in the future. One approach to developing drugs that might be less prone to resistance might be to target the disease rather than the parasite itself. The rationale for this idea, which has been somewhat developed in antibacterial chemotherapy, is that drugs that can alleviate disease pathogenesis while not compromising the survival, growth or transmission of the pathogen should not exert selective pressure that would encourage the emergence and spread of resistance. This review considers (concentrating on ...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - September 7, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bell A, Boehm D Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Antimalarial Drug Resistance and Early Drug Discovery.
Abstract The malaria parasite has been allowed to get perilously close to winning the upper hand in the race between new drugs and resistance development. Today, just one class of drugs is left to avoid a public health disaster of global proportions, the artemisinins, and even they are showing signs of a possible impending failure. Rational approaches to overcoming antimalarial drug resistance are difficult for several reasons. Resistance mechanisms are varied and imperfectly known across Plasmodium species and often there is not a good correlation between in vitro drug susceptibility, molecular markers of resistan...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - September 7, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Garcia-Bustos JF, Gamo FJ Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Targeting host factors to circumvent anti-malarial drug resistance.
Abstract The most common treatments for infectious diseases target the invading pathogen. The efficacy of such an approach may, however, be countered by the possibility of the development of resistance to a pharmacophore, through mutation(s) in pathogen molecules required for activity. Given the fact that pathogens exploit host factors in order to grow in an otherwise hostile environment, one possible way to circumvent the emergence of resistance is to develop drugs that target non-essential host factors hijacked by the pathogen, rather than the pathogen's own molecules. Such solutions are already being developed f...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - September 7, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Prudêncio M, Mota MM Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Plasmodium Drug Targets outside the Genetic Control of the Parasite.
Abstract Drug development often seeks to find "magic bullets" which target microbiologic proteins while not affecting host proteins. Paul Ehrlich tested methylene blue as an antimalarial but this dye was not superior to quinine. Many successful antimalarial therapies are "magic shotguns" which target many Plasmodium pathways with little interference in host metabolism. Two malaria drug classes, the 8-aminoquinolines and the artemisinins interact with cytochrome P450s and host iron protoporphyrin IX or iron, respectively, to generate toxic metabolites and/or radicals, which kill the parasite by interference with man...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - September 7, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sullivan DJ Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
mRNA splicing in trypanosomes.
Abstract The parasitic unicellular trypanosomatids are responsible for several fatal diseases in humans and livestock. Regarding their biochemistry and molecular biology, they possess a multitude of special features such as polycistronic transcription of protein-coding genes. The resulting long primary transcripts need to be processed by coupled trans-splicing and polyadenylation reactions, thereby generating mature mRNAs. Catalyzed by a large ribonucleoprotein complex termed the spliceosome, trans-splicing attaches a 39-nucleotide leader sequence, which is derived from the Spliced Leader (SL) RNA, to each protein-...
Source: International Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 7, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Preußer C, Jaé N, Bindereif A Tags: Int J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Cryptosporidiosis surveillance - United States, 2009-2010.
Abstract Problem/Condition: Cryptosporidiosis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by extremely chlorine-tolerant protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium. Reporting Period: 2009-2010. System Description: Fifty state and two metropolitan public health agencies voluntarily report cases of cryptosporidiosis through CDC's National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Results: For 2009, 7,656 confirmed and probable cases of cryptosporidiosis (2.5 per 100,000 population) were reported; for 2010, 8,951 confirmed and probable cases (2.9 per 100,000 population) were reported. All jurisdictions ...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - September 7, 2012 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yoder JS, Wallace RM, Collier SA, Beach MJ, Hlavsa MC, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research
Giardiasis surveillance - United States, 2009-2010.
Abstract Problem/Condition: Giardiasis is a nationally notifiable gastrointestinal illness caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. Reporting Period: 2009-2010. System Description: State, commonwealth, territorial, and two metropolitan health departments voluntarily report cases of giardiasis through CDC's National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Results: During 2009-2010, the total number of reported cases of giardiasis increased slightly from 19,403 for 2009 to 19,888 for 2010. During this period, 50 jurisdictions reported giardiasis cases. A larger number of case reports were receive...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - September 7, 2012 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Yoder JS, Gargano JW, Wallace RM, Beach MJ, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research
The parasite–host interface in the zonetail butterfly ray, Gymnura zonura (Bleeker), infected with Hexacanalis folifer (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea)
Abstract A wild‐caught specimen of the zonetail butterfly ray, Gymnura zonura (Bleeker), harboured numerous specimens of Hexacanalis folifer Cielocha & Jensen, 2011 (Systematic Parasitology, 79, 1–16; Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) within its spiral intestine. The cestodes were primarily attached in single rows along the base of mucosal folds, each associated with a nodular mucosal thickening. Microscopically, the scolex was embedded within the submucosa and muscularis; the attachment sites were marked by ulceration and necro‐proliferative inflammation demarcating the parasite from normal host tissues. Physical attac...
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases - September 7, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: J D Borucinska, J J Cielocha, K Jensen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Evaluation of the efficacy of topically administered imidacloprid + pyriproxyfen and orally administered spinosad against cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis): Impact of treated dogs on flea life stages in a simulated home environment
This study examined the impact of topical (adulticide + IGR) and oral (adulticide only ) canine flea control products on the immature stages of cat fleas developing in simulated home environments. Image: A flea larva in the environment.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 7, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Douglas RossRobert ArtherCristiano von SimsonVeronica DoyleMichael Dryden Source Type: research
Epidemiology of East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection) in Kenya: past, present and the future
This review identifies and discusses the factors that have influenced the epidemiology of East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection) in Kenya in the past. The review then explores how the dynamism of these factors might alter the epidemiology of the disease in the future. The review ends by identifying methodologies that can capture this dynamism in the face of uncertainty. Image: Map of Kenya showing the actual (red) and probable (yellow) distribution of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in Kenya.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 7, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: John GachohiRob SkiltonFrank HansenPriscilla NgumiPhilip Kitala Source Type: research
Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP), made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations
The performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap) produced from disposable material in capturing Aedes spp. females was evaluated in an endemic area of dengue. The results suggested this simple trap as a tool to be included in A. aegypti surveillance activities. Image: Sticky trap.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 7, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Eloína de SantosMaria de Melo-SantosCláudia de OliveiraJuliana CorreiraCleide de Albuquerque Source Type: research
Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: Parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda
Conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys revealed the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis to decline with increasing altitude likely due to the local paucity of intermediate snail hosts. Image: Taking blood by ear-prick for serological testing.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - September 7, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: A HowellL MugishaJ DaviesE LaCourseJ ClaridgeD WilliamsL Kelly-HopeM BetsonN KabatereineJ Stothard Source Type: research
Hematodinium sp. and its bacteria-like endosymbiont in European brown shrimp (Crangon crangon)
A new symbiotic relationship was discovered between protist parasites, Hematodinium, and bacteria-like cells living inside them, raising questions about the benefit conferred by the endosymbiotic bacteria to its protist host, as well as their combined parasitic threat to European brown shrimp populations.
Source: Saline Systems - September 7, 2012 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Grant StentifordKelly BatemanHamish SmallMichelle PondAnette Ungfors Source Type: research
Galactose recognition by the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. [Additions and Corrections]
VOLUME 287 (2012) PAGES 16720–16733 Shortly preceding the submission of this manuscript, a paper by Müller et al. (Müller, J. J., Weiss, M. S., and Heinemann U. (2011) Acta Crystallogr. D 67, 936–944) revealed the crystal structure of the Sarcocystis muris TgMIC4 homolog SML-2 in complex with 1-thio-β-d-galactose. This structure demonstrates that SML-2 binds to galactose via the same mode as demonstrated for TgMIC4-A5 in this manuscript, thereby superseding our prediction of a similar binding mode here. However, it should be noted that Müller et al. suggest that a H57Y substitution in TgMIC4-A5 decreases specificit...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - September 7, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Marchant, J., Cowper, B., Liu, Y., Lai, L., Pinzan, C., Marq, J. B., Friedrich, N., Sawmynaden, K., Liew, L., Chai, W., Childs, R. A., Saouros, S., Simpson, P., Roque Barreira, M. C., Feizi, T., Soldati-Favre, D., Matthews, S. Tags: Additions and Corrections Source Type: research
Tracing the Evolution of Mitochondrial Protein Translocation Machinery♦ [Papers of the Week]
♦ See referenced article, J. Biol. Chem. 2012, 287, 31437–31445 Mitochondria are evolutionarily related to bacteria. To function in a eukaryotic cell, they have to import most of their proteins from the cytoplasm. Much of the importing is done by a pore in the outer mitochondrial membrane called Tom40, which is conserved in virtually all eukaryotes. However, the evolutionary origins of Tom40 are uncertain because its bacterial counterpart has not yet been identified. The archaic translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (ATOM) is the key component of the mitochondrial protein translocation machinery in the parasi...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - September 7, 2012 Category: Chemistry Tags: Molecular Biophysics Source Type: research
Bacterial Origin of a Mitochondrial Outer Membrane Translocase [Cell Biology]
Mitochondria are of bacterial ancestry and have to import most of their proteins from the cytosol. This process is mediated by Tom40, an essential protein that forms the protein-translocating pore in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Tom40 is conserved in virtually all eukaryotes, but its evolutionary origin is unclear because bacterial orthologues have not been identified so far. Recently, it was shown that the parasitic protozoon Trypanosoma brucei lacks a conventional Tom40 and instead employs the archaic translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (ATOM), a protein that shows similarities to both eukaryotic Tom40 a...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - September 7, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Harsman, A., Niemann, M., Pusnik, M., Schmidt, O., Burmann, B. M., Hiller, S., Meisinger, C., Schneider, A., Wagner, R. Tags: Molecular Biophysics Source Type: research
Absence of dry season Plasmodium parasitaemia, but high rates of reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea in preschool-aged children in Kaedi, southern Mauritania
This study reports the absence of Plasmodium parasitaemia among a random sample of preschool-aged children in the town of Kaedi, southern Mauritania during the dry season using malaria rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy. Meanwhile, high frequency of self-reported acute respiratory infection and diarrhoea were found. Image: Finger-prick blood sampling for malaria diagnosis.
Source: BioMed Central - September 7, 2012 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Sunkaru TourayHampâté BâOusmane BâMohamedou KoïtaCheikh B Ould Ahmed SalemMoussa KeïtaDoulo TraoréIbrahima SyMirko S WinklerJürg UtzingerGuéladio Cissé Source Type: research
Genetic structure of Aspergillus flavus populations in human and avian isolates
Abstract Aspergillus flavus is the second leading cause of allergic, invasive, and colonizing fungal diseases in humans, and also the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. Currently, it is not known whether there is a link between the environmental isolates and/or human isolates of A. flavus and those responsible for aspergillosis in birds. Microsatellite typing was used to analyze 29 A. flavus clinical and environmental avian isolates and 63 human clinical isolates collected from patients with a variety of aspergillosis diseases. The combination of all six markers yielded 77 diffe...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - September 6, 2012 Category: Microbiology Tags: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Brain Parasites, California's Hidden Health Problem
Sara Alvarez was afraid. The doctors told her she needed surgery brain surgery. Operations on such a complex organ are never simple, but this procedure was exceptionally difficult. There was a high risk of complications, of debilitation, of post-op problems. Alvarez might wake up paralyzed. She might wake up legally blind. Worse still, there was a chance she might not wake up at all. [More]
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - September 6, 2012 Category: Science Tags: Health,More Science,Mind & Brain Source Type: research
Functional and evolutionary implications of the cellular composition of the gill epithelium of feeding adults of a freshwater parasitic species of lamprey, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 1278-1283, e-First articles.
Source: Canadian Journal of Zoology - September 6, 2012 Category: Zoology Tags: article Source Type: research
Artemisia annua leaves and seeds mediate programmed cell death in Leishmania donovani.
We report that n-hexane fraction of Artemisia annua leaves (AAL) and seeds (AAS) possess significant antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes with GI(50) of 14.4 and 14.6 µg ml(─1), respectively and the IC(50) against intracellular amastigotes was found to be 6.6 and 5.05 µg ml(-1), respectively. Changes in morphology of promastigotes and growth reversibility analysis following treatment confirmed the leishmanicidal effect of the active fractions, which presented no cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells. Furthermore, the anti-leishmanial activity was mediated via apoptosis as evidenced by extern...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - September 6, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Islamuddin M, Farooque A, S Dwarakanath B, Sahal D, Afrin F Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Drug-resistant microorganisms with a higher fitness - can medicines boost pathogens?
Abstract Drug-resistant microorganisms (DRMs) are generally thought to suffer from a fitness cost associated with their drug-resistant trait, inflicting them a disadvantage when the drug pressure reduces. However, Leishmania resistant to pentavalent antimonies shows traits of a higher fitness compared to its sensitive counterparts. This is likely due the combination of an intracellular pathogen and a drug that targets the parasite's general defense mechanisms while at the same time stimulating the host's immune system, resulting in a DRM that is better adapted to withstand the host's immune response. This review ai...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - September 6, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vanaerschot M, Decuypere S, Berg M, Roy S, Dujardin JC Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research
Genome hyperevolution and the success of a parasite
The strategy of antigenic variation is to present a constantly changing population phenotype that enhances parasite transmission, through evasion of immunity arising within, or existing between, host animals. Trypanosome antigenic variation occurs through spontaneous switching among members of a silent archive of many hundreds of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) antigen genes. As with such contingency systems in other pathogens, switching appears to be triggered through inherently unstable DNA sequences. The archive occupies subtelomeres, a genome partition that promotes hypermutagenesis and, through telomere position ef...
Source: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences - September 6, 2012 Category: Science Authors: J. David Barry, James P. J. Hall, Lindsey Plenderleith Source Type: research
Canine Trypanosoma evansi infection introduced into Germany
Abstract A 9‐year‐old male Jack Russell Terrier with a history of travel to Thailand was presented with chronic lethargy, weight loss, unilateral anterior uveitis, pancytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and proteinuria. Numerous trypomastigotes were found on a blood smear, and using molecular methods the parasite was identified as Trypanosoma evansi. After initial response to treatment, the dog experienced a relapse with central neurologic signs 88 days after initial presentation and died. Antibodies to T evansi were detected in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a card agglutination test (CATT/T evansi), and PC...
Source: Veterinary Clinical Pathology - September 6, 2012 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Myriam Defontis, Janina Richartz, Nina Engelmann, Christian Bauer, Viktoria Maria Schwierk, Philippe Büscher, Andreas Moritz Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research