Parasitology Research This is an OPML file. It can be used to export all the MedWorm RSS feeds on this topic into your personal RSS reader (usually you have to save this file to your own computer before clicking on an Import OPML command in your own feed reader to upload the file which will then import all the feeds) or it can be used by webmasters to integrate MedWorm feeds with their own website. This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader, such as GoogleReader, or to display this data on your own website or blog. Subscribe to this data using MyMedWorm.Subscribe to this data using GoogleReader.Subscribe to this data using Bloglines.Subscribe to this data using MyYahoo.
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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 36.
The First Record of Nucleopolyhedrovirus Isolated from the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) in Turkey.
Conclusion: The isolation and characterization of a pure isolate of Lymantria dispar multinucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV-TR) from Turkey is presented for the first time. (Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2012; 36: 92-5). PMID: 22801913 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Yaman M, Bekircan C, Radek R, Linde A Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
[Retrospective Evaluation of the Results of Women Patients of Childbearing Age Investigated at a Microbiology Laboratory for Screening Toxoplasma gondii, in Antalya].
Conclusion: It has been determined that 67.6% of women in the province of Antalya and its surroundings are susceptible to acute Toxoplasma infection during childbearing age and their babies are an at risk group for congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID: 22801914 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Pekintürk N, Cekin Y, Gür N Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
Comparison of Four Methods for DNA Extraction From Echinococcus granulosus Protoscoleces.
Conclusion: Glass beads and boiling methods were the most suitable methods regarding their ease, quickness and cost effectiveness. (Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2012; 36: 100-4). PMID: 22801915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tappeh KH, Hanifian H, Diba K Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
[The distribution of intestinal parasites in people admitted to the yüzüncü yıl university parasitology laboratory of health research and training hospital, in 2009].
Conclusion: This research shows that the intestinal parasitosis problem still continues in the province. (Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2012; 36: 105-8). PMID: 22801916 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Yılmaz H, Taş-Cengiz Z, Ceylan A, Ekici A Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
[A case of traumatic myiasis in a dog].
Abstract A male Rottweiler dog was brought to the Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Veterinary Clinics with the complaint of injury. On examination, on the right rear side of the dog, Myiasis larvae were found. Twenty-seven were collected and larval mouth parts and posterior stigmas were dissected. Upon microscopic examination, the larvae of the dog were identified as third stage Lucilia spp. In the region where larvea were located, erythema, edema, and petechial hemorrhages were observed as pathological disorders. (Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2012; 36: 109-11). PMID: 22801917 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Aldemir OS, Ural K, Aysul N, Derincegöz O, Simşek E, Gülce-Güler A Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
[The First Case of Ophionyssus natricis (Gervais, 1844) on a Sea Snake (Natrix tessellata, Laurente 1768) (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) in Turkey].
This study was carried out to increase information about Ophionyssus natricis (Gervais, 1844) detected on the sea snake (Natrix tessellata). The mite individuals collected from the cage of a sea snake were brought to our laboratory by the owner of the snake. They werepreserved in 70% alcohol, and then the mites were mounted on slides in Canada balsam, after making them transparent in lacto phenol for a few days. They were identified to species in respect of their morphological characters under the light microscope. A total of nine mite individuals were collected from the cage of a sea snake, and all of them...
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dik B Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
[Alveolar Echinococcosis in Turkey: in the light of the Literature].
Abstract Alveolar echinococcosis is a parasitic infectious disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, which is one of the two most important species of Echinococcus. Foxes are significant reservoir hosts in Europe. AE is an endemic disease inTurkey and is particularly common in people living in the eastern Anatolia region. The disease is a very aggressive and potentially fatal infection which always affects the liver primarily, develops as a tumor-like lesion and metastasizes to any part of the body. Diagnosis of AE is often difficult and almost always only possible in the late...
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Miman O, Yazar S Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
[Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey].
Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania protozoon parasites is a disease which is characterized by long-term nodulo-ulcerative lesions healing spontaneously with scarring. The disease has been well-known in Anatolia for centuries and has different names such as; Urfa boil, Antep boil, year boil, Halep boil, oriental sore and beauty scar. The causative agents are Leishmania tropica and Leishmania tropica/Leishmania infantum in Southeastern Anatolia and East Mediterranean, respectively. CL is a notifiable disease in Turkey and, according to the Ministry of Health official records, 46....
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gürel MS, Yeşilova Y, Olgen MK, Ozbel Y Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
Malaria Cases in Antalya.
PMID: 22801921 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wiwanitkit V Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
Taurolidine use as a Scolicidal Agent: We Need Different Methodologies.
PMID: 22801922 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Turkish Society for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Teksöz S, Aytaç E Tags: Turkiye Parazitol Derg Source Type: research
Gene silencing in parasites: current status and future prospects.
Abstract Parasitic diseases cause important losses in public and veterinary health worldwide. Novel drugs, more reliable diagnostic techniques and vaccine candidates are urgently needed. Due to the complexity of parasites and the intricate relationship with their hosts, development of successful tools to fight parasites has been very limited to date. The growing information on individual parasite genomes is now allowing the use of a broader range of potential strategies to gain deeper insights into the host-parasite relationship and has increased the possibilities to develop molecular-based tools in the field of pa...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Manzano-Román R, Oleaga A, Pérez-Sánchez R, Siles-Lucas M Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Giardia--from genome to proteome.
Abstract In this review, the current status of genomic and proteomic research on Giardia is examined in terms of evolutionary biology, phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy. The review also describes how characterising genetic variation in Giardia from numerous hosts and endemic areas has provided a better understanding of life cycle patterns, transmission and the epidemiology of Giardia infections in humans, domestic animals and wildlife. Some progress has been made in relating genomic information to the phenotype of Giardia, and as a consequence, new information has been obtained on aspects of developmental bio...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Thompson RC, Monis P Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Malaria ecotypes and stratification.
Abstract To deal with the variability of malaria, control programmes need to stratify their malaria problem into a number of smaller units. Such stratification may be based on the epidemiology of malaria or on its determinants such as ecology. An ecotype classification was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) around 1990, and it is time to assess its usefulness for current malaria control as well as for malaria modelling on the basis of published research. Journal and grey literature was searched for articles on malaria or Anopheles combined with ecology or stratification. It was found that all malaria ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Schapira A, Boutsika K Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
The changing limits and incidence of malaria in Africa: 1939-2009.
Abstract Understanding the historical, temporal changes of malaria risk following control efforts in Africa provides a unique insight into what has been and might be archived towards a long-term ambition of elimination on the continent. Here, we use archived published and unpublished material combined with biological constraints on transmission accompanied by a narrative on malaria control to document the changing incidence of malaria in Africa since earliest reports pre-second World War. One result is a more informed mapped definition of the changing margins of transmission in 1939, 1959, 1979, 1999 and 2009. ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Snow RW, Amratia P, Kabaria CW, Noor AM, Marsh K Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Northern host-parasite assemblages: history and biogeography on the borderlands of episodic climate and environmental transition.
Abstract Diversity among assemblages of mammalian hosts and parasites in northern terrestrial ecosystems was structured by a deep history of biotic and abiotic change that overlies a complex geographic arena. Since the Pliocene, Holarctic ecosystems assembled in response to shifting climates (glacial and interglacial stages). Cycles of episodic dispersal/isolation and diversification defined northern diversity on landscape to regional scales. Episodes of geographic expansion and colonisation linked Eurasia and North America across Beringia and drove macroevolutionary structure of host and parasite associations. Asy...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hoberg EP, Galbreath KE, Cook JA, Kutz SJ, Polley L Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Parasites in Ungulates of Arctic North America and Greenland: A View of Contemporary Diversity, Ecology, and Impact in a World Under Change.
Abstract Parasites play an important role in the structure and function of arctic ecosystems, systems that are currently experiencing an unprecedented rate of change due to various anthropogenic perturbations, including climate change. Ungulates such as muskoxen, caribou, moose and Dall's sheep are also important components of northern ecosystems and are a source of food and income, as well as a focus for maintenance of cultural traditions, for northerners. Parasites of ungulates can influence host health, population dynamics and the quality, quantity and safety of meat and other products of animal origin consumed ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kutz SJ, Ducrocq J, Verocai GG, Hoar BM, Colwell DD, Beckmen KB, Polley L, Elkin BT, Hoberg EP Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Neorickettsial endosymbionts of the digenea: diversity, transmission and distribution.
Abstract Digeneans are endoparasitic flatworms with complex life cycles and distinct life stages that parasitize different host species. Some digenean species harbour bacterial endosymbionts known as Neorickettsia (Order Rickettsiales, Family Anaplasmataceae). Neorickettsia occur in all life stages and are maintained by vertical transmission. Far from benign however, Neorickettsia may also be transmitted horizontally by digenean parasites to their vertebrate definitive hosts. Once inside, Neorickettsia can infect macrophages and other cell types. In some vertebrate species (e.g. dogs, horses and humans), neorickett...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Vaughan JA, Tkach VV, Greiman SE Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Priorities for the elimination of sleeping sickness.
Abstract Sleeping sickness describes two diseases, both fatal if left untreated: (i) Gambian sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, a chronic disease with average infection lasting around 3 years, and (ii) Rhodesian sleeping sickness caused by T. b. rhodesiense, an acute disease with death occurring within weeks of infection. Control of Gambian sleeping sickness is based on case detection and treatment involving serological screening, followed by diagnostic confirmation and staging. In stage I, patients can remain asymptomatic as trypanosomes multiply in tissues and body fluids; in stage II, tryp...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Welburn SC, Maudlin I Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Scabies: important clinical consequences explained by new molecular studies.
Abstract In 2004, we reviewed the status of disease caused by the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei at the time and pointed out that very little basic research had ever been done. The reason for this was largely the lack of availability of mites for experimental purposes and, to a degree, a consequent lack of understanding of its importance, resulting in the trivial name 'itch mite'. Scabies is responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immunocompromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by bacterial pathoge...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fischer K, Holt D, Currie B, Kemp D Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Review: surveillance of chagas disease.
Abstract After remarkable reduction in prevalence through regional elimination of domestic vectors, the central challenge of Chagas disease control is shifting towards interruption of the disease transmission by non-eliminable vectors in Latin America. Vector surveillance with community participation was cost-effective against the eliminable vectors. But the efforts often failed against the non-eliminable vectors due to lack of surveillance coverage or sustainability. For instance, in El Salvador and Honduras, the operational vector control personnel lost access to many communities under decentralized health system...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hashimoto K, Yoshioka K Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Control methods of virus diseases in the mediterranean basin.
Abstract Viral pathogens form an important group of obligatory parasites of plants. About 977 plant viruses have been described and classified in 14 families and 70 genera. This group of pathogens has complex interactions with their host plants and vectors due to their integration in the molecular mechanisms of living cells, interfering with our ability to manage the malfunctions of virus infected plants by curing means. These constraints led to the perception that the best protection from virus diseases is by prevention. Many cultural procedures used for virus control are aimed at eradicating or altering one or mo...
Source: Advances in Virus Research - August 3, 2012 Category: Virology Authors: Antignus Y Tags: Adv Virus Res Source Type: research
An alternative form of melarsoprol in sleeping sickness: is an old drug always the best basis for a new one?
PMID: 22867944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Trends in Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Burri C Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
Genotyping Echinococcus granulosus from dogs from Western Iran.
Abstract Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic infection caused by the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. In the present study, adults of E. granulosus (n=20) were collected from 71 dogs from Western Iran and were genetically characterized using DNA sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (nad1). Consensus sequences were obtained for cox1 (366) and nad1 (471) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated nad1 and cox1 nucleotide sequence data was performed using Bayesian Inference approach. Overall, the dog isolates indicated nine different sequences i...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Parsa F, Harandi MF, Rostami S, Sharbatkhori M Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Characterization and expression of cathepsin B2 in Fasciola gigantica.
In this study, the recombinant cathepsin B2 (rFgCatB2), synthesized in Pichia pastoris, showed enzymatic activity on a fluorometric substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC and gelatin. Furthermore, this recombinant enzyme could degrade IgG and type I collagen. Mouse antiserum against rFgCatB2 reacted with the native FgCatB2 in whole body (WB) extracts of metacercariae (MET), newly excysted juveniles (NEJ) and 2week-old juveniles, but not in 3, 4week-old juveniles and adult flukes. Immunolocalization showed the presence of cathepsin B2 only in the caecal epithelium of MET, NEJ and 2week-old juveniles. Co-localization of FgCatB2 and a promi...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Chantree P, Wanichanon C, Phatsara M, Meemon K, Sobhon P Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Structural architecture and interplay of the nucleotide- and erythrocyte binding domain of the reticulocyte binding protein Py235 from Plasmodium yoelii.
Abstract Human malaria is caused by the cyclical invasion of the host's red blood cells (RBCs) by the invasive form of the parasite, the merozoite. The invasion of the RBC involves a range of parasite ligand receptor interactions, a process which is under intensive investigation. Two protein families are known to be important in the recognition and invasion of the human erythrocyte, the erythrocyte-binding like (EBL) proteins and the reticulocyte binding like proteins, of which the Py235 family in Plasmodium yoelii is a member. Recently the nucleotide binding domain (NBD94), that plays a role in ATP sensing, and th...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 3, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Grüber A, Manimekalai MS, Preiser PR, Grüber G Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Correlation Between the Clinico Radiological Heterogeneity and the Immune-Inflammatory Profiles in Pediatric Patients with Neurocysticercosis from a Tertiary Referral Centre
Conclusion: Parasite maintains equilibrium with host immune response in early infection, a mild Th1 response is provoked; but later this equilibrium is disturbed toward Th2 response that leads to parasite destruction. Number or stage of the parasites along with immunegenetic aspects may explain the pleomorphic and unpredictable course of NCC.
Source: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics - August 3, 2012 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kashyap, B., Das, S., Jain, S., Agarwal, A., Kaushik, J. S., Kaur, I. R. Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research
A Simple Dose Regimen of Artesunate and Amodiaquine Based on Arm Span- or Age Range for Childhood Falciparum Malaria: A Preliminary Evaluation
A dose regimen of artesunate and amodiaquine based on arm span- or age range (DRAAAS), derived from a study of 1674 children, was compared with standard dose regimen of the same drugs calculated according to body weight (SDRAA) in 68 malarious children. Children on DRAAAS received 0.8–1.0 of artesunate/kg and 0.9–1.2 times amodiaquine/kg compared with those receiving SDRAA. Parasite and fever clearance and fall in hematocrit in the first 3 days were similar; both regimens were well tolerated. DRAAAS is simple and is efficacious.
Source: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics - August 3, 2012 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sowunmi, A., Akinrinola, I. A., Gbotosho, G. O., Okuboyejo, T. M., Happi, C. T. Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research
Efficacy of oral miltefosine in visceral leishmaniasis in rural West Bengal, India
Conclusions: The study concludes that miltefosine is effective, well tolerated, and easily administrable drug in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis at the field levels.
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology - August 3, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pradyumna PatraSubhasish K GuhaArdhendu Kumar MajiPabitra SahaSwagata GangulyAbhiram ChakrabortyPratip K KunduSachchidananda SarkerKrishnangshu Ray Source Type: research
TLR‐mediated distinct IFN‐γ/IL‐10 pattern induces protective immunity against murine visceral leishmaniasis
Resistance to murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL) correlates with the development of an IFN‐γ predominant immune response. Beta1,4‐galactose terminal glycans are potent inducers of IFN‐γ. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of a 29 kDa β1,4‐galactose terminal glycoprotein (GP29) of Leishmania donovani (LD) in an in vitro macrophage model and an in vivo mouse model of VL. GP29 induced splenic macrophages to release NO and ROS in appreciable amounts that resulted in effective parasite clearance from macrophages. This was associated with the toll‐like receptor (TLR)‐4 mediated IL‐12 induction and inhibition of T...
Source: European Journal of Immunology - August 3, 2012 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Joydeep Paul, Subir Karmakar, Tripti De Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research
Recent advances in plasmepsin medicinal chemistry and implications for future antimalarial drug discovery efforts.
Abstract Plasmepsins are the aspartic proteases of Plasmodium that play key roles in the survival of the parasite in its host. The plasmepsins of the digestive vacuole play an important role in hemoglobin degradation, providing the parasite with a vital source of nutrients. Recently, plasmepsin V has been shown to be an essential protease, processing hundreds of parasite proteins for export into the host erythrocyte. The functions of the remaining plasmepsins have yet to be discovered. Over the past decade, much effort has been placed towards developing plasmepsin inhibitors as antimalarial agents, particularly tar...
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - August 2, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Meyers MJ, Goldberg DE Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
Synthetic peroxides as potent antimalarials. News and views.
Abstract The present review describes the development of synthetic cyclic peroxides, which are designed to surpass the antimalarial activity of the lead molecule, the natural product (+)-artemisinin and some of its C10 derivatives. To begin with, tricyclic and bicyclic 1,2,4-trioxanes are taken to show how the pharmacophore was identified and chirality proved to be irrelevant. The action of ferrous salts on trioxanes illustrates the structural elements that are needed so that reductive breaking of the peroxide bond leads to C-centered radicals, the alleged parasiticidal agents. Views are expressed on how heme, Plas...
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - August 2, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Jefford CW Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
Reversed chloroquine molecules as a strategy to overcome resistance in malaria.
Abstract This short review tells the story of how Reversed Chloroquine drugs (RCQs) were developed. These are hybrid molecules, made by combining the quinoline nucleus from chloroquine (CQ) with moieties which are designed to inhibit efflux via known transporters in the membrane of the digestive vacuole of the malaria parasite. The resulting RCQ drugs can have potencies exceeding that of CQ, while at the same time having physical chemical characteristics that may make them favorable as partner drugs in combination therapies. The need for such novel antimalarial drugs will continue for the foreseeable future. PM...
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - August 2, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Peyton DH Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
Falcipain inhibition as a promising antimalarial target.
We describe progress towards the discovery of promising falcipain inhibitors, in the light of their drug-like properties and the effect of the inhibition of several of these cysteine proteases. Some important aspects to focus on future development of falcipain inhibition are also discussed. PMID: 22242849 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - August 2, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Marco M, Coterón JM Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
Targeting protein kinases in the malaria parasite: update of an antimalarial drug target.
Abstract Millions of deaths each year are attributed to malaria worldwide. Transmitted through the bite of an Anopheles mosquito, infection and subsequent death from the Plasmodium species, most notably P. falciparum, can readily spread through a susceptible population. A malaria vaccine does not exist and resistance to virtually every antimalarial drug predicts that mortality and morbidity associated with this disease will increase. With only a few antimalarial drugs currently in the pipeline, new therapeutic options and novel chemotypes are desperately needed. Hit-to-Lead diversity may successfully provide novel ...
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - August 2, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zhang VM, Chavchich M, Waters NC Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
Editorial: QSAR/QSPR models as enabling technologies for drug & targets discovery in: medicinal chemistry, microbiology-parasitology, neurosciences, bioinformatics, proteomics and other biomedical sciences.
Editorial: QSAR/QSPR models as enabling technologies for drug & targets discovery in: medicinal chemistry, microbiology-parasitology, neurosciences, bioinformatics, proteomics and other biomedical sciences. Curr Top Med Chem. 2012;12(8):799-801 Authors: Gonzalez-Diaz H PMID: 22352908 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - August 2, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Gonzalez-Diaz H Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
A review of QSAR studies to discover new drug-like compounds actives against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis.
Abstract The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect more than one billion people (one-sixth of the world's population) and occur primarily in undeveloped countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Available drugs for these diseases are decades old and present an important number of limitations, especially high toxicity and, more recently, the emergence of drug resistance. In the last decade several Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies have been developed in order to identify new organic compounds with activity against the parasites responsible for these diseases, which are r...
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - August 2, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Castillo-Garit JA, Abad C, Rodríguez-Borges JE, Marrero-Ponce Y, Torrens F Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
From QSAR models of drugs to complex networks: state-of-art review and introduction of new Markov-spectral moments indices.
Abstract Quantitative Structure-Activity/Property Relationships (QSAR/QSPR) models have been largely used for different kind of problems in Medicinal Chemistry and other Biosciences as well. Nevertheless, the applications of QSAR models have been restricted to the study of small molecules in the past. In this context, many authors use molecular graphs, atoms (nodes) connected by chemical bonds (links) to represent and numerically characterize the molecular structure. On the other hand, Complex Networks are useful in solving problems in drug research and industry, developing mathematical representations of different...
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - August 2, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Riera-Fernández P, Martín-Romalde R, Prado-Prado FJ, Escobar M, Munteanu CR, Concu R, Duardo-Sanchez A, González-Díaz H Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
Acylation-dependent and-independent membrane targeting and distinct functions of small myristoylated proteins (SMPs) in Leishmania major.
Abstract Trypanosomatid parasites express a number of mono- and diacylated proteins that are targeted to distinct regions of the plasma membrane including the cell body, the flagellum and the flagellar pocket. The extent to which the acylation status and other protein motifs regulate the targeting and/or retention of these proteins to the distinct membrane domains is poorly defined. We have previously described a family of small myristoylated proteins (SMPs) that are either monoacylated (myristoylated) or diacylated (myristoylated and palmitoylated) and targeted to distinct plasma membrane domains. Diacylated SMP-1...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tull D, Heng J, Gooley PR, Naderer T, McConville MJ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
de novo analysis and functional classification of the transcriptome of the root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei, after 454 GS FLX sequencing.
Abstract The migratory endoparasitic root lesion nematode Pratylenchus thornei is a major pest of the cereals wheat and barley. In what we believe to be the first global transcriptome analysis for P. thornei, using Roche GS FLX sequencing, 787,275 reads were assembled into 34,312 contigs using two assembly programs, to yield 6,989 contigs common to both. These contigs were annotated, resulting in functional assignments for 3,048. Specific transcripts studied in more detail included carbohydrate active enzymes potentially involved in cell wall degradation, neuropeptides, putative plant nematode parasitism genes, and...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nicol P, Gill R, Fosu-Nyarko J, Jones MG Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Large-scale growth of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite in a wave bioreactor.
We describe methods for the large-scale in vitro culturing of synchronous and asynchronous blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites in sterile disposable plastic bioreactors controlled by wave-induced motion (wave bioreactor). These cultures perform better than static flask cultures in terms of preserving parasite cell cycle synchronicity and reducing the number of multiple-infected erythrocytes. The straight-forward methods described here will facilitate the large scale production of malaria parasites for antigen and organelle isolation and characterisation, for the high throughput screening of compound libraries with ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Dalton JP, Demanga CG, Reiling SJ, Wunderlich J, Eng JW, Rohrbach P Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Mass spectrometric analysis of the immunodominant glycan epitope of Echinococcus granulosus antigen Ag5.
Abstract In previous work we showed that Ag5, a major diagnostic antigen from the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus, possesses a dominant sugar epitope that upon removal results in abolition of most of the antigen immunoreactivity with patient sera. Analysis of this glycan modification has now been performed by western blotting and mass spectrometry. Reactivity to both a specific monoclonal antibody (TEPC15) and human C-reactive protein as well as the presence of a modification of 165 mass units, as detected by mass spectrometry of both glycopeptides and released N-glycans, indicated that the immunodominant su...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Paschinger K, Gonzalez-Sapienza GG, Wilson IB Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Epigenetics: a key regulator of platyhelminth developmental biology?
Abstract The Platyhelminthes (flukes/flatworms) are a large group of derived metazoans beautifully adapted for existence in diversely challenging ecosystems. As tractable examples of development and self-regeneration or as causative agents of aquacultural, veterinary and biomedically-relevant parasitic diseases, the platyhelminths are subject to intensive inter-disciplinary research. Given the complex lifestyles exhibited by individuals within this phylum, we postulate that epigenetic processes feature in many aspects of platyhelminth lifecycle diversity, development and environmentally-driven adaptations. PMID...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Geyer KK, Hoffmann KF Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae induce necrosis and release of IL33 from intestinal epithelial cells in vitro: implications for gastrointestinal nematode vaccine design.
Abstract Gastrointestinal nematodes represent a major production problem for ruminant livestock. Enhancing immunity to gastrointestinal nematodes through vaccination is desirable but mechanistic understanding of initial host responses that facilitate gastrointestinal nematode protective immunity is limited. We hypothesise that gastrointestinal nematode invasion induces mucosal epithelium damage and alarmin (e.g. IL33) release, thereby contributing to initiation of protective gastrointestinal nematode immunity. To test this, an in vitro air-liquid interface human HT-29 epithelial cell-Trichostrongylus colubriformis ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Andronicos NM, McNally J, Kotze AC, Hunt PW, Ingham A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Ookinete destruction within the mosquito midgut lumen explains Anopheles albimanus refractoriness to Plasmodium falciparum (3D7A) oocyst infection.
Abstract Previous studies have shown that the central American mosquito vector, Anopheles albimanus, is generally refractory to oocyst infection with allopatric isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. However, the reasons for the refractoriness of A. albimanus to infection with such isolates of P. falciparum are unknown. In the current study, we investigated the infectivity of the P. falciparum clone 3D7A to laboratory-reared A. albimanus and another natural vector of human malaria, Anopheles stephensi. Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes grown in vitro were simultaneously fed to both mosquito s...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Baton LA, Ranford-Cartwright LC Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Substitution saturation and nuclear paralogs of commonly employed phylogenetic markers in the Caryophyllidea, an unusual group of non-segmented tapeworms (Platyhelminthes).
Abstract Caryophyllidean cestodes (Platyhelminthes) represent an unusual group of tapeworms lacking serially repeated body parts that potentially diverged from the common ancestor of the Eucestoda prior to the evolution of segmentation. Here we evaluate the utility of two nuclear and two mitochondrial molecular markers (ssrDNA and lsrDNA, nad3 and cox1) for use in circumscribing generic boundaries and estimating interrelationships in the group. We show that these commonly employed markers do not contain sufficient signal to infer well-supported phylogenetic estimates due to substitution saturation. Moreover, we det...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Brabec J, Scholz T, Králová-Hromadová I, Bazsalovicsová E, Olson PD Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Epidemiology of mixed Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium infections in northern Senegal.
Abstract Due to the large overlap of Schistosoma mansoni- and Schistosoma haematobium-endemic regions in Africa, many people are at risk of co-infection, with potential adverse effects on schistosomiasis morbidity and control. Nonetheless, studies on the distribution and determinants of mixed Schistosoma infections have to date been rare. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in two communities in northern Senegal (n=857) to obtain further insight into the epidemiology of mixed infections and ectopic egg elimination. Overall prevalences of S. mansoni and S. haematobium infection were 61% and 50%, respectively, in t...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Meurs L, Mbow M, Vereecken K, Menten J, Mboup S, Polman K Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Population genetic analysis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in humans.
In this study, a multilocus sequence typing of E. bieneusi in AIDS patients in Lima, Peru was conducted, using 72 specimens previously genotyped as A, D, IV, EbpC, WL11, Peru7, Peru8, Peru10 and Peru11 at the internal transcribed spacer locus. Altogether, 39 multilocus genotypes were identified among the 72 specimens. The observation of strong intragenic linkage disequilibria and limited genetic recombination among markers were indicative of an overall clonal population structure of E. bieneusi. Measures of pair-wise intergenic linkage disequilibria and a standardised index of association (IAS) based on allelic profile dat...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - August 2, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Li W, Cama V, Feng Y, Gilman RH, Bern C, Zhang X, Xiao L Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Learning to Recognize a Cuckoo
Species that are parasitized by cuckoos have evolved several strategies for trying to avoid having their nests hijacked—one of the most obvious being outright attacking, or mobbing, of cuckoos that … [Read more]
Source: This Week in Science - August 2, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Stewart Wills (mailto:swills at aaas.org) Source Type: research
[Report] Cuckoos Combat Socially Transmitted Defenses of Reed Warbler Hosts with a Plumage Polymorphism
Parasitic cuckoos sporting new colors flourish after their warbler hosts learn to defend against the mainstream fashion.Authors: Rose Thorogood, Nicholas B. Davies
Source: Science: Current Issue - August 2, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Rose Thorogood Source Type: research
Cloning and characterization of two neuropeptide genes from cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avanae from India.
Abstract The cereal cyst nematode, Heterodera avenae (Wollenweber, 1924) is one of the most important plant parasitic nematodes of cereals. It is an obligate sedentary endo parasite causing considerable crop losses in wheat, barley and oats worldwide. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) play critical role as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the nervous system and proposed as one of the important targets for the plant parasitic nematode management. Therefore, for the first time we have cloned and characterized two neuropeptide genes (flp-12 and flp-16) from the cDNA library of feeding female of H. avenae. Sequence...
Source: Bioinformation - August 2, 2012 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Thakur P, Sharma A, Rao SB, Kumar M, G NP, Tyagi N, Kamaraju D, Papolu P, Banakar P, Rao U Tags: Bioinformation Source Type: research