Parasitology Research This is an OPML file. It can be used to export all the MedWorm RSS feeds on this topic into your personal RSS reader (usually you have to save this file to your own computer before clicking on an Import OPML command in your own feed reader to upload the file which will then import all the feeds) or it can be used by webmasters to integrate MedWorm feeds with their own website. This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader, such as GoogleReader, or to display this data on your own website or blog. Subscribe to this data using MyMedWorm.Subscribe to this data using GoogleReader.Subscribe to this data using Bloglines.Subscribe to this data using MyYahoo.
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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 4.
Plasmodium vivax: Modern Strategies to Study a Persistent Parasite's Life Cycle.
Abstract Plasmodium vivax has unique attributes to support its survival in varying ecologies and climates. These include hypnozoite forms in the liver, an invasion preference for reticulocytes, caveola-vesicle complex structures in the infected erythrocyte membrane and rapidly forming and circulating gametocytes. These characteristics make this species very different from P. falciparum. Plasmodium cynomolgi and other related simian species have identical biology and can serve as informative models of P. vivax infections. Plasmodium vivax and its model parasites can be grown in non-human primates (NHP), and in short...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - February 7, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Galinski MR, Meyer EV, Barnwell JW Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Red Blood Cell Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax.
Abstract Resistance to Plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection has been widely recognised to result from absence of the Duffy (Fy) blood group from the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) in individuals of African descent. Interestingly, recent studies from different malaria-endemic regions have begun to reveal new perspectives on the association between Duffy gene polymorphism and P. vivax malaria. In Papua New Guinea and the Americas, heterozygous carriers of a Duffy-negative allele are less susceptible to P. vivax infection than Duffy-positive homozygotes. In Brazil, studies show that the Fy(a) antigen, compared to...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - February 7, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zimmerman PA, Ferreira MU, Howes RE, Mercereau-Puijalon O Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Natural Acquisition of Immunity to Plasmodium vivax: Epidemiological Observations and Potential Targets.
Abstract Population studies show that individuals acquire immunity to Plasmodium vivax more quickly than Plasmodium falciparum irrespective of overall transmission intensity, resulting in the peak burden of P. vivax malaria in younger age groups. Similarly, actively induced P. vivax infections in malaria therapy patients resulted in faster and generally more strain-transcending acquisition of immunity than P. falciparum infections. The mechanisms behind the more rapid acquisition of immunity to P. vivax are poorly understood. Natural acquired immune responses to P. vivax target both pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - February 7, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mueller I, Galinski MR, Tsuboi T, Arevalo-Herrera M, Collins WE, King CL Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
G6PD Deficiency: Global Distribution, Genetic Variants and Primaquine Therapy.
Abstract Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a potentially pathogenic inherited enzyme abnormality and, similar to other human red blood cell polymorphisms, is particularly prevalent in historically malaria endemic countries. The spatial extent of Plasmodium vivax malaria overlaps widely with that of G6PD deficiency; unfortunately the only drug licensed for the radical cure and relapse prevention of P. vivax, primaquine, can trigger severe haemolytic anaemia in G6PD deficient individuals. This chapter reviews the past and current data on this unique pharmacogenetic association, which is becoming increasingl...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - February 7, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Howes RE, Battle KE, Satyagraha AW, Baird JK, Hay SI Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Genomics, Population Genetics and Evolutionary History of Plasmodium vivax.
Abstract Plasmodium vivax is part of a highly diverse clade that includes several Plasmodium species found in nonhuman primates from Southeast Asia. The diversity of primate malarias in Asia is staggering; nevertheless, their origin was relatively recent in the evolution of Plasmodium. We discuss how humans acquired the lineage leading to P. vivax from a nonhuman primate determined by the complex geological processes that took place in Southeast Asia during the last few million years. We conclude that widespread population genomic investigations are needed in order to understand the demographic processes involved i...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - February 7, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Carlton JM, Das A, Escalante AA Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Malariotherapy - insanity at the service of malariology.
Abstract From the early 1920s until the advent of penicillin in the mid 1940s, a clinical course of malaria was the only effective treatment of general paresis, a common manifestation of tertiary syphilis that was nearly always fatal. For a number of reasons, Plasmodium vivax became the parasite species most often employed for what became known as malariotherapy. This provided an opportunity, probably unique in the annals of medicine, to observe and investigate the biology, immunology and clinical evolution of a dangerous human pathogen in its natural host. There is little doubt that the lessons learned from these ...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - February 7, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Snounou G, Pérignon JL Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
EXPERIMENTAL VAGINAL INFECTION OF GOATS WITH SEMEN CONTAMINATED WITH THE "CPG" STRAIN OF Toxoplasma gondii.
In conclusion, artificial vaginal insemination with semen containing tachyzoites of T. gondii infected goats, and is a potential transmission route of this parasite through semen. PMID: 23391103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 7, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wanderley F, Porto WJ, Câmara D, Cruz NL, Feitosa BC, Freire R, Moraes E, Mota R Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
Evolutionary and ecological implications of sexual parasitism.
Abstract Sexual parasites offer unique insights into asexual and sexual reproduction. They mate with a 'host' whose genetic contribution is discarded either immediately (in androgenesis or gynogenesis) or after a delay of one generation (in hybridogenesis). The discarded genome can be maternal or paternal, implying that not only females but also males can reproduce asexually. The resulting lineages are often older than ecological or evolutionary theory predicts. Sexual parasites have links to a diverse set of concepts: selfish genetic elements, degradation of clonal genomes, evolution of sex, mate-choice theory, an...
Source: Trends in Ecology and Evolution - February 7, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Lehtonen J, Schmidt DJ, Heubel K, Kokko H Tags: Trends Ecol Evol Source Type: research
Schistosoma japonicum: susceptibility of neonate mice born to infected and non‐infected mothers following subsequent challenge
This study was to investigate the differences between neonate mice born to Schistosoma japonicum‐infected mothers and those born to non‐infected mothers in subsequent challenge. The intensity of infection (evidenced by worm burden and liver egg burden) and liver immunopathology (number and size of liver granulomas) were significantly reduced in neonates from infected mothers (I.M.) compared to neonates from non‐infected mothers (N.M.). Anti‐soluble worm antigen of S. japonicum (SWA) IgG could be detected in sera of neonates from I.M. (N.N./I.M.) at 1 week after delivery, remained a plateau for 2 weeks, gradually de...
Source: Parasite Immunology - February 7, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Fu‐jie Zhao, Xiao‐yu Huang, Xiao Hou, Yi Deng, Meng‐yu Wu, Fei Guan, Wen‐qi Liu, Yong‐long Li, Jia‐hui Lei Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Infection with T. cruzi and Progression to Cardiomyopathy: What is the Evidence and is the Tide Finally Turning Around?
Abstract Chagas disease also known as American trypanosomiasis has been haunting the American continent for centuries. Evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi has been tracked back to mummified tissues from the Chinchorro Indians from the Atacama desert almost 9000 years ago(1). However, the clinical description of the disease did not appear in the scientific literature until 1909 when Carlos Chagas brilliantly made the connection between the acute parasitic infection and the clinical manifestations(2). It seems perplexing that after more than a century, we are still just starting to pay attention to this devastating disorde...
Source: Circulation - February 7, 2013 Category: Cardiology Authors: Morillo CA Tags: Circulation Source Type: research
Mitotic Evolution of Plasmodium falciparum Shows a Stable Core Genome but Recombination in Antigen Families
by Selina E. R. Bopp, Micah J. Manary, A. Taylor Bright, Geoffrey L. Johnston, Neekesh V. Dharia, Fabio L. Luna, Susan McCormack, David Plouffe, Case W. McNamara, John R. Walker, David A. Fidock, Eros Lazzerini Denchi, Elizabeth A. Winzeler Malaria parasites elude eradication attempts both within the human host and across nations. At the individual level, parasites evade the host immune responses through antigenic variation. At the global level, parasites escape drug pressure through single nucleotide variants and gene copy amplification events conferring drug resistance. Despite their importance to global health, the...
Source: PLoS Genetics - February 7, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Selina E. R. Bopp et al. Source Type: research
Hybridization between two cestode species and its consequences for intermediate host range
Our study shows that hybridization between two highly host-specific fish parasites - Schistocephalus solidus and S. pungitii - is possible. The hybrids expand their host range and can, unlike their parental species, now infect both fish hosts. Image: Stickleback infected with multiple Schistocephalus plerocercoids.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - February 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Tina HenrichDaniel BeneshMartin Kalbe Source Type: research
The symbiotic role of Wolbachia in Onchocercidae and its impact on filariasis
Abstract Symbiotic associations between eukaryotes and microorganisms are frequently observed in nature, and range along the continuum between parasitism and mutualism. The genus Wolbachia contains well‐known intracellular bacteria of arthropods that induce several reproductive phenotypes that benefit the transmission of the bacteria. Interestingly, Wolbachia bacteria have been found in the Onchocercidae, a family of filarial nematodes, including species that cause human filarial diseases, e.g. lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. The endosymbiont is thought to be mutualistic in the Onchocercidae, and to provide esse...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - February 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: T. Bouchery, E. Lefoulon, G. Karadjian, A. Nieguitsila, C. Martin Tags: Review Source Type: research
The therapeutic potential of immune cross‐talk in leishmaniasis
Abstract Veterans of infection, Leishmania parasites have been plaguing mammals for centuries, causing a morbidity toll second only to that of malaria as the most devastating protozoan parasitic disease in the world. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is, by far, the most prevalent form of the disease, with symptoms ranging from a single self‐healing lesion to chronic metastatic leishmaniasis (ML). In an increasingly immunocompromised population, complicated CL is becoming a more likely outcome, characterized by severely inflamed, destructive lesions that are often refractory to current treatment. This is perhaps because our a...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - February 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: M.‐A. Hartley, K. Kohl, C. Ronet, N. Fasel Tags: Review Source Type: research
Loop‐mediated isothermal amplification combined with colorimetric nanogold for detection of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in penaeid shrimp
ConclusionsWithout sacrificing sensitivity or specificity, the new LAMP‐AuNP assay significantly reduced the time, ease and cost for molecular detection of E. hepatopenaei in shrimp.© 2013 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rungkarn Suebsing, Photchanathorn Prombun, Jiraporn Srisala, Wansika Kiatpathomchai Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
DAMPs and autophagy: Cellular adaptation to injury and unscheduled cell death.
Abstract Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated catabolic process involving the degradation of intracellular contents (e.g., proteins and organelles) as well as invading microbes (e.g., parasites, bacteria and viruses). Multiple forms of cellular stress can stimulate this pathway, including nutritional imbalances, oxygen deprivation, immunological response, genetic defects, chromosomal anomalies and cytotoxic stress. Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) are released by stressed cells undergoing autophagy or injury, and act as endogenous danger signals to regulate the subsequent inflammatory and immune re...
Source: Autophagy - February 6, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Zhang Q, Kang R, Zeh HJ, Lotze MT, Tang D Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
Features of autophagic cell death in Plasmodium liver-stage parasites.
Abstract Analyzing molecular determinants of Plasmodium parasite cell death is a promising approach for exploring new avenues in the fight against malaria. Three major forms of cell death (apoptosis, necrosis and autophagic cell death) have been described in multicellular organisms but which cell death processes exist in protozoa is still a matter of debate. Here we suggest that all three types of cell death occur in Plasmodium liver-stage parasites. Whereas typical molecular markers for apoptosis and necrosis have not been found in the genome of Plasmodium parasites, we identified genes coding for putative autopha...
Source: Autophagy - February 6, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Eickel N, Kaiser G, Prado M, Burda PC, Roelli M, Stanway RR, Heussler VT Tags: Autophagy Source Type: research
Loss of Trematode Parthenitae in Planorbella trivolvis (Mollusca: Gastropoda).
Abstract Abstract Infection by trematode parthenitae (larval, asexual trematodes) has severe consequences for molluscan hosts, resulting in cessation of reproduction and early mortality. Here, we present evidence that the freshwater snail Planorbella trivolvis can lose infections by trematode parthenitae. Of 8 P. trivolvis infected by reniferin parthenitae, 6 died within 2 weeks whereas the remaining 2 snails lost their infections within 82 days after initial examination. This phenomenon might suggest that molluscs can resist established trematode infections (i.e., "self-cure") or at least out-survive some tremato...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 6, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sears B, Rohr JR Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
Role of Plasmepsin V in export of diverse protein families from the Plasmodium falciparum exportome
Abstract Plasmodium falciparum exports several hundred effector proteins that remodel the host erythrocyte and enable parasites to acquire nutrients, sequester in the circulation and evade immune responses. The majority of exported proteins contain the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL; RxLxE/Q/D) in their N‐terminus, which is proteolytically cleaved in the parasite endoplasmic reticulum by Plasmepsin V, and is necessary for export. Several exported proteins lack a PEXEL or contain non‐canonical motifs. Here, we assessed whether Plasmepsin V could process the N‐termini of diverse protein families in P. falciparum. We ...
Source: Traffic - February 6, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Justin A. Boddey, Teresa G. Carvalho, Anthony N. Hodder, Tobias J. Sargeant, Brad E. Sleebs, Danushka Marapana, Sash Lopaticki, Thomas Nebl, Alan F. Cowman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
PARASITES OF TWO NATIVE FISHES IN ADJACENT ADIRONDACK LAKES.
Abstract Abstract This survey of parasites in two adjacent lakes is the first of its kind in the Adirondack Park of New York State. Wolf Lake is designated as a heritage lake whereas nearby Deer Lake is limnologically similar, but has at least 5 introduced fish species. Both lakes have 2 native species, i.e., white sucker, Catostomus commersonii, and redbreast sunfish, Lepomis auritus, which were the focus of this study. Parasite communities of both hosts were surveyed and compared between each lake and were statistically evaluated for differences in species similarity, prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundan...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - February 5, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bauer EF, Whipps CM Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
Safety of xenotransplantation: screening the donor pig and the recipient
Conclusion: Investigations of the last years resulted in highly sensitive and specific methods to study PERV and other microorganisms in donor pigs and human recipients of xenotransplants. These methods showed absence of PERV transmission in all investigated cases, both in more than 200 human xenotransplant recipients, mostly recipients of cellular xenotransplants, as well as in non‐human primates and small animals. New technologies under development may further decrease the probability of transmission. References: 1. Denner J. Recombinant porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV‐A/C): A new risk for xenotransplanta...
Source: Xenotransplantation - February 5, 2013 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Joachim Denner Source Type: research
Microbiological safety of xenotransplantation compared with allotransplantation
Transmission of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections via organ allografts is uncommon but may be associated with life‐threatening disease. Internationally, programs for screening of human organ donors for infectious risk are non‐uniform and vary with national standards and the availability of screening assays. Further, the failure to recognize and/or to report transmission events limits the utility of available data regarding the incidence of allograft‐associated disease transmission. Advances in xenotransplantation biology have allowed some limited clinical trials with the prospect for increased opport...
Source: Xenotransplantation - February 5, 2013 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Jay A. Fishman Source Type: research
Evaluating the potential of a new isotope‐labelled glyco‐ligand for estimating the remnant liver function of schistosoma‐infected mice
This study demonstrated that the isotope‐labelled OCTAM could accumulate in the liver, might have potential as an imaging agent for in vivo hepatic function evaluation of schistosomiasis.
Source: Parasite Immunology - February 5, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: P.‐C. Cheng, P.‐F. Chiang, K.‐M. Lee, C.‐H. Yeh, K.‐L. Hsu, S.‐W. Liu, L.‐H. Shen, C.‐L. Peng, C.‐K. Fan, T.‐Y. Luo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Analysis of kinetoplast cytochrome b gene of 16 Leishmania isolates from different foci of China: different species of Leishmania in China and their phylogenetic inference
In this paper, the cyt b gene of Leishmania from China was sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics methods to discuss in detail the implications of relationships between strains in China and other locations. Image: The phylogenetic network of the Leishmania cyt b sequences was built with 1000 bootstrap replicates.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - February 5, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bin-Bin YangDa-Li ChenJian-Ping ChenLin LiaoXiao-Su HuJia-Nan Xu Source Type: research
Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates infecting Anopheles stephensi, an Asian main malaria vector.
This study investigates the susceptibility of an Asian main malaria vector, An. stephensi, to Plasmodium vivax isolates, collected from tropical region of Iran. P. vivax gametocytes which used in ex vivo assay to An. stephensi infection were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP and sequencing. A 650-bp fragment was amplified from patients, followed by RFLP analysis using Alu I restriction enzyme determined the presence of P. vivax VK210 variants. Sequence analysis also showed 100% similarity with the previously reported VK210 sequences of haplotype B from Iran. This is the first study that reports An. stephensi mysorensis is suscep...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - February 4, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Gholizadeh S, Zakeri S, Djadid ND Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (L.) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Abstract The toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil and their major chemical constituents from Ocimum basilicum were evaluated against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. basilicum contained 20 compounds. The major chemical components identified were linalool (52.42%), methyl eugenol (18.74%) and 1, 8-cineol (5.61%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against late third-stage larvae of Cx. tritaeni...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - February 4, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Govindarajan M, Sivakumar R, Rajeswary M, Yogalakshmi K Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Control of Echinococcus multilocularis: Strategies, feasibility and cost-benefit analyses.
Abstract Echinococcus multilocularis, the zoonotic agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, has considerably extended its range and became more prevalent in many parts of the endemic areas. Accordingly, there is an increasing demand for measures to prevent human infections. Rising public awareness of this zoonosis and individual protective actions should be part of every prevention program. Considering the high reproduction of E. multilocularis in domestic dogs which live in close contact to humans, a monthly deworming scheme for domestic dogs with access to rodents is likely to be of high importance. This holds tru...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 4, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hegglin D, Deplazes P Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Adaptive aerial righting during the escape dropping of wingless pea aphids.
Abstract Pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are small sap-sucking insects that live on plants in colonies containing mostly wingless individuals. They often escape predators, parasitoids and grazing mammalian herbivores by dropping off the plant [1,2], avoiding immediate danger but exposing themselves to ground predators, starvation and desiccation . We show here that dropping pea aphids land on their legs, regardless of their initial orientation on the plant (like a defenestrated cat), by rotating their body during the fall. This righting ability is intriguing, as wingless aphids have no specialized structures fo...
Source: Current Biology - February 4, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Ribak G, Gish M, Weihs D, Inbar M Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research
The Effects of ACT Treatment and TS Prophylaxis on Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytemia in a Cohort of Young Ugandan Children.
Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis are important tools for malaria control, but there are concerns about their effect on gametocytes, the stage of the parasite responsible for transmission. We conducted a longitudinal clinical trial in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected children living in an area of high malaria transmission intensity in Uganda. Study participants were randomized to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) for all treatments of uncomplicated malaria (N = 4,380) as well as TS prophylaxis for diffe...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 4, 2013 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Kakuru A, Jagannathan P, Arinaitwe E, Wanzira H, Muhindo M, Bigira V, Osilo E, Homsy J, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Dorsey G Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi Infection in a 22-Month-Old Child in Arizona: First Report in the United States and a Review of the Literature.
Abstract A 22-month-old girl presented with neck pain and stiffness and magnetic resonance imaging showed an extradural mass extending from C2 through the C4 level with moderate to severe compression of the cord. A left unilateral C2-C4 laminectomy was performed revealing an extradural rubbery tumor; a small biopsy was obtained. Examination of stained tissue revealed the presence of a parasitic worm that was identified as a gravid female Onchocerca lupi. A magnetic resonance imaging at 7 weeks follow-up showed a significantly decreased size of the enhancing lesion and the patient's symptoms gradually resolved. This...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - February 4, 2013 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Eberhard ML, Ostovar GA, Chundu K, Hobohm D, Feiz-Erfan I, Mathison BA, Bishop HS, Cantey PT Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Inhibitors of eIF2α dephosphorylation slow replication and stabilize latency in Toxoplasma gondii.
In this study, we analyzed the activities of two specific inhibitors of eIF2α dephosphorylation, salubrinal (SAL) and guanabenz (GA). We establish that these drugs are able to inhibit the dephosphorylation of Toxoplasma eIF2α. Our results show that SAL and GA reduce tachyzoite replication in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, both drugs induce bradyzoite formation and inhibit the reactivation of latent bradyzoites in vitro. To address whether the antiparasitic activities of SAL and GA involve host eIF2α phosphorylation, we infected mutant MEF cells incapable of phosphorylating eIF2α, which had no impact on the efficacy of...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - February 4, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Konrad C, Queener SF, Wek RC, Sullivan WJ Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Drug Repurposing Screen Reveals FDA-Approved Inhibitors of Human HMG-CoA Reductase and Isoprenoid Synthesis that Block Cryptosporidium parvum Growth.
Abstract Cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease usually caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis in humans, can result in fulminant diarrhea and death in AIDS patients, and chronic infection and stunting in children. Nitazoxanide, the current standard of care, has limited efficacy in children and is no more effective than placebo in patients with advanced AIDS. Unfortunately, the lack of financial incentives and the technical difficulties associated with working with Cryptosporidium parasites have crippled efforts to develop effective treatments. In order to address these obstacles, we developed ...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - February 4, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bessoff K, Sateriale A, Lee KK, Huston CD Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823
The present work describes the insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia against Culex quinquefasciatus. Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for control of mosquitoes. Image: : Culex quinquefasciatus.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - February 4, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Virendra DuaArvind KumarAkhilesh PandeySandeep Kumar Source Type: research
Acetylcholinesterase of the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): cDNA sequence, baculovirus expression, and biochemical properties
The cDNA sequence encoding acetylcholinesterase of Phlebotomus papatasi was discovered and expressed in baculovirus, enabling biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme, a major target of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Image: Alignment of P. papatasi sequence to D. melanogaster AChE structure. Identical residues in red, variable in blue, gaps in grey (Courtesy A.P.Tuckow).
Source: Parasites and Vectors - February 4, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Kevin TemeyerDanett BrakeAlexander TuckowAndrew LiAdalberto Pérez de León Source Type: research
Coevolving parasites and population size shape the evolution of mating behaviour
Conclusions: This study provides unique, experimental insights into the combined roles of coevolving parasites and population size on the evolution of mating rate. Furthermore, we find that males and females respond differently to the same environmental conditions. Our results show that parasites can be key determinants of the sexual behaviour of their hosts.
Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology - Latest articles - February 4, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Niels KerstesCamillo BérénosOliver Martin Source Type: research
Inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptor regulates replication, differentiation, infectivity and virulence of the parasitic protist Trypanosoma cruzi
Summary In animals, inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are ion channels that play a pivotal role in many biological processes by mediating Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel IP3R in the parasitic protist, Trypanosoma cruzi, the pathogen responsible for Chagas disease. DT40 cells lacking endogenous IP3R genes expressing T. cruzi IP3R (TcIP3R) exhibited IP3‐mediated Ca2+ release from the ER, and demonstrated receptor binding to IP3. TcIP3R was expressed throughout the parasite life cycle but the expression level was much lower in b...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - February 4, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Muneaki Hashimoto, Masahiro Enomoto, Jorge Morales, Nagomi Kurebayashi, Takashi Sakurai, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Takeshi Nara, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
H2A.Z and H2B.Z double‐variant nucleosomes define intergenic regions and dynamically occupy var gene promoters in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum
Summary Histone variants are important components of eukaryotic chromatin and can alter chromatin structure to confer specialized functions. H2B variant histones are rare in nature but have evolved independently in the phyla Apicomplexa and Trypanasomatida. Here, we investigate the apicomplexan‐specific Plasmodium falciparum histone variant Pf H2B.Z and show that within nucleosomes Pf H2B.Z dimerizes with the H2A variant Pf H2A.Z and that Pf H2B.Z and Pf H2A.Z occupancy correlates in the subset of genes examined. These double‐variant nucleosomes also carry common markers of euchromatin like H3K4me3 and histone acetylat...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - February 4, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Michaela Petter, Shamista A. Selvarajah, Chin Chin Lee, Wai Hoe Chin, Archna P. Gupta, Zbynek Bozdech, Graham V. Brown, Michael F. Duffy Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Identification of active Plasmodium falciparum calpain to establish screening system for Pf-calpain-based drug development
First report of heterologous expression of functional P. falciparum calpain, a cysteine protease with unknown function in malaria parasites. The protease was biochemically characterized and extensive modelling studies and mutagenesis offered strong support for the identified catalytic triad of the single domain protease.
Source: Malaria Journal - February 3, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Byoung SohHyun-Ok SongYoonji LeeJunghyun LeeKusuma KaewintajukBinna LeeYun-Young ChoiJeong ChoSun ChoiHyun Park Source Type: research
Oomycete pathogens encode RNA silencing suppressors
Nature Genetics 45, 330 (2013). doi:10.1038/ng.2525 Authors: Yongli Qiao, Lin Liu, Qin Xiong, Cristina Flores, James Wong, Jinxia Shi, Xianbing Wang, Xigang Liu, Qijun Xiang, Shushu Jiang, Fuchun Zhang, Yuanchao Wang, Howard S Judelson, Xuemei Chen & Wenbo Ma Effectors are essential virulence proteins produced by a broad range of parasites, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, protozoa, insects and nematodes. Upon entry into host cells, pathogen effectors manipulate specific physiological processes or signaling pathways to subvert host immunity. Most effectors, especially those of eukaryotic pathogens...
Source: Nature Genetics - February 3, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yongli QiaoLin LiuQin XiongCristina FloresJames WongJinxia ShiXianbing WangXigang LiuQijun XiangShushu JiangFuchun ZhangYuanchao WangHoward S JudelsonXuemei ChenWenbo Ma Tags: Letter Source Type: research
Characterization of a second sterol‐esterifying enzyme in Toxoplasma highlights the importance of cholesterol storage pathways for the parasite
This study underlines the important physiological role of ACAT enzymes to store cholesterol in a sterol‐auxotrophic organism such as Toxoplasma, and furthermore opens up possibilities of exploiting TgACAT as targets for the development of antitoxoplasmosis drugs.
Source: Molecular Microbiology - February 3, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bao Lige, Vera Sampels, Isabelle Coppens Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
The impact of hotspot-targeted interventions on malaria transmission: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial
This study aims to provide direct evidence for a community effect of hotspot-targeted interventions. The trial is powered to detect large effects on malaria transmission in the context of ongoing malaria interventions. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine the effect of individual components of the interventions and the cost-effectiveness of a hotspot-targeted approach, where savings made by reducing the number of compounds that need to receive interventions should outweigh the costs of hotspot-detection.Trial registration: NCT01575613. The protocol was registered online on 20 March 2012; the first community was ra...
Source: Trials - February 2, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Teun BousemaJennifer StevensonAmrish BaidjoeGillian StresmanJamie GriffinImmo KleinschmidtEdmond RemarqueJohn VululeNabie BayohKayla LasersonMeghna DesaiRobert SauerweinChris DrakeleyJonathan Cox Source Type: research
IgE- and IgG mediated severe anaphylactic platelet transfusion reaction in a known case of cerebral malaria
Conclusion: Based on these results, screening of patients and donors with mild allergic reactions to IgE antibodies may help in understanding the pathogenesis as well as in planning for preventive desensitization and measures for safe transfusion.
Source: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science - February 2, 2013 Category: Hematology Authors: B ShanthiBhavanadharPriscilla ChandranA Krishna Prasad Source Type: research
Role of infectious agents in the carcinogenesis of brain and head and neck cancers
This review concentrates on tumours that are anatomically localised in head and neck regions. Brain cancers and head and neck cancers together account for more than 873,000 cases annually worldwide, with an increasing incidence each year. With poor survival rates at late stages, brain and head and neck cancers represent serious conditions. Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process and the role of infectious agents in this progression has not been fully identified. A major problem with such research is that the role of many infectious agents may be underestimated due to the lack of or inconsistency in experimental data obtaine...
Source: Infectious Agents and Cancer - February 2, 2013 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Kenneth AlibekAinur KakpenovaYeldar Baiken Source Type: research
Ascariasis as an unexpected cause of acute pancreatitis with cholangitis: a rare case report from urban area.
CONCLUSION: Ascaris lumbricoides is the uncommon cause of biliary obstruction with complications. It is also a possible cause even in the patients who live in urban areas. Endoscopic removal is the treatment of choice in addition to antihelminthic medications. PMID: 23306343 [PubMed - in process]
Source: JOP - February 1, 2013 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Phisalprapa P, Prachayakul V Tags: JOP Source Type: research
Two Patterns of Parasitic Male Mating Behaviors and their Reproductive Success in Japanese Medaka, Oryzias latipes.
Abstract We found two patterns of parasitic mating behaviors by male in Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, in the spawning by one female and two males in the aquarium condition. In the first type of parasitic mating behavior, the unpaired male would rush toward the closely adhering female and paired male, and simultaneously perform emission behavior with close adhesion to the female (simultaneous emission). The second type of parasitic mating behavior was that the unpaired male would rush toward the female with spawned eggs hanging down from the genital pore several seconds after pair-spawning, perform emission beha...
Source: Zoological Science - February 1, 2013 Category: Zoology Authors: Koya Y, Koike Y, Onchi R, Munehara H Tags: Zoolog Sci Source Type: research
Transcription Profiling of Immune Genes during Parasite Infection in Susceptible and Resistant Strains of the Flour Beetles (Tribolium castaneum).
This study demonstrated the effects of genetic background, the transcription profile to parasite infection, and identified the immunity- related genes that were significantly regulated by the infection of tapeworms in Tribolium beetles. PMID: 23380036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Experimental Parasitology - February 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zhong D, Wang MH, Pai A, Yan G Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Experimental amoebic liver abscess in hamsters caused by trophozoites of a Brazilian strain of Entamoeba dispar.
Abstract It has been claimed that amoebic molecules such as amoebapore, galactose/N-acetyl galactosamine inhibitable lectin, and cysteine proteases are responsible for host tissue destruction and are present in both pathogenic E. histolytica and non-pathogenic E. dispar. Some reports have provided evidence that after infection with E. dispar, pathological changes may occur in some humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate E. dispar pathogenicity by comparing it to the pathogenicity of E. histolytica through liver abscesses induced in hamsters. Syrian golden hamsters were challenged by intrahepatic inoculation w...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - February 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Guzmán-Silva MA, Santos HL, Peralta RS, Peralta JM, de Macedo HW Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
International Meeting on Apicomplexan Parasites in Farm Animals (ApiCOWplexa) 2012.
Authors: PMID: 23375102 [PubMed - in process]
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Parasitic genotypes appear to differ in leishmaniasis patients compared with asymptomatic related carriers.
Abstract For numerous infectious diseases affecting humans, clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic forms to severe pathologies. The originality of this study was its focus on asymptomatic carriers (ACs) of Leishmania infantum in southern France. The fundamental interest in these ACs is that they can be a reservoir of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. It remains to be established whether the parasitic genomes from ACs differ from those of patients. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was used to investigate the genetic variation among 36 French strains of L. infantum. Nine Leishmania strains isolat...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - February 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hide M, Marion E, Pomares C, Fisa R, Marty P, Bañuls AL Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research