Parasitology Research This is an OPML file. It can be used to export all the MedWorm RSS feeds on this topic into your personal RSS reader (usually you have to save this file to your own computer before clicking on an Import OPML command in your own feed reader to upload the file which will then import all the feeds) or it can be used by webmasters to integrate MedWorm feeds with their own website. This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader, such as GoogleReader, or to display this data on your own website or blog. Subscribe to this data using MyMedWorm.Subscribe to this data using GoogleReader.Subscribe to this data using Bloglines.Subscribe to this data using MyYahoo.
Find the best Christmas presents and January Sales in the UK with this simple shopping directory.
This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 8.
Prerequisites for the pharmaceutical industry to develop and commercialise helminths and helminth-derived product therapy.
Abstract During the past 10years, immunologists, epidemiologists and parasitologists have made many new exciting discoveries in the field of helminth-mediated immune regulation. In addition, many animal experiments have shown that certain helminths or products derived from helminths can protect mice from developing allergic or autoimmune disease. Some clinical trials utilising Trichuris suis or Necator americanus for the treatment of allergic disorders and inflammatory bowel disease have been conducted. The outcomes of these trials suggest that they may be used to treat these disorders. However, to date no helminth...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 3, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Tilp C, Kapur V, Loging W, Erb KJ Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Immunomodulation by helminth parasites: Defining mechanisms and mediators.
Abstract Epidemiological and interventional human studies, as well as experiments in animal models, strongly indicate that helminth parasitic infections can confer protection from immune dysregulatory diseases such as allergy, autoimmunity and colitis. Here, we review the immunological pathways that helminths exploit to downregulate immune responses, both against bystander specificities such as allergens and against antigens from the parasites themselves. In particular, we focus on a highly informative laboratory system, the mouse intestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, as a tractable model of host-parasite...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 3, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: McSorley HJ, Hewitson JP, Maizels RM Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Helminth mediated modulation of Type 1 diabetes (T1D).
Abstract Type 1 diabetes is increasing dramatically in incidence in the developed world. While there may be several reasons for this, improved sanitation and public health measures have altered our interactions with certain infectious agents such as helminths. There is increasing interest in the use of helminths or their products to alleviate inflammatory or allergic conditions. Using rodent models of diabetes, it has been possible to explore the therapeutic potential of both live infections as well as helminth-derived products on the development of autoimmunity. This review provides an overview of the findings fro...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - January 3, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zaccone P, Cooke A Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Gene expression responses in different regions of Eisenia fetida with antiparasitic albendazole exposure.
Abstract Albendazole (ABZ) is a veterinary drug with a high efficiency against parasite. The aim of this research is to investigate and characterize the response of gene expression in different regions of earthworms Eisenia fetida in relation to ABZ exposure. In this research, the earthworms were exposed to ABZ at 0, 10, 30, 90, and 270mg/kg concentrations for 42 days. Within the initial 14-day exposure, the expression levels of two target genes (mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit (l-rRNA) and heat shock protein (HSP90)) in different regions of earthworms were affected significantly by the different exposure con...
Source: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety - January 3, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Gao Y, Sun X, Gu X, Sun Z Tags: Ecotoxicol Environ Saf Source Type: research
Parasite biology: Cell division goes back to its roots
Nature Reviews Microbiology 11, 71 (2013). doi:10.1038/nrmicro2954 Author: Andrew Jermy Homologues of algal flagellum components act as spatial and temporal organizers of Toxoplasma gondii cell division.
Source: Nature Reviews Microbiology - January 3, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andrew Jermy Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research
The triumph of good over evil: protection by the sickle gene against malaria
The mechanisms underlying Plasmodium falciparum resistance in persons with sickle trait have been under active investigation for more than a half century. This Perspective reviews progress in solving this challenging problem, including recent studies that have exploited the genomics and proteomics of the parasite. The formation of Hb S polymer in the parasitized AS RBC leads to impaired parasite growth and development along with enhanced clearance from the circulation and reduced deposition in deep postcapillary vascular beds. Enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species in sickled AS RBCs is a pathogenetic feature share...
Source: Blood - January 3, 2013 Category: Hematology Authors: Bunn, H. F. Tags: Perspectives, Red Cells, Iron, and Erythropoiesis Source Type: research
You are where you live: parasitic nematode mitochondrial genome size is associated with the thermal environment generated by hosts
Abstract There exists remarkable interspecific variation in mitochondrial sequence evolution rates and in mitochondrial genome sizes. A number of hypotheses based on the forces of mutation and selection have been proposed to explain this variation. Among such hypotheses, we test three: 1) the ‘longevity‐dependent selection’, 2) the ‘functional constraints’ and 3) the ‘race for replication’ hypotheses, using published mtDNA genomic sequences of 47 Nematoda species. We did not find any relationship between body size (used as a proxy for longevity) and genome size or the substitution rate of protein sequences, p...
Source: Journal of Evolutionary Biology - January 3, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: M. Lagisz, R. Poulin, S. Nakagawa Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
A systematic analysis of Acanthamoeba genotype frequency correlated with source and pathogenicity: T4 is confirmed as a pathogen-rich genotype.
Abstract Acanthamoeba is a genus of facultative human parasites that is currently classified into 17 genotypes (T1-T17) each of which arguably represents a species. These amoebae cause Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK) a disease of the eye, and a rare but usually fatal Granulatomous Acanthamoeba Encephalitis (GAE). A database of strains derived from the literature and a number of fresh isolates has been constructed to detect trends of pathogenic and other associations with these genotypes. One genotype in particular, T4, was found to be over represented in human disease. The prevalence of this genotype has been commented...
Source: European Journal of Protistology - January 2, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Maciver SK, Asif M, Simmen MW, Lorenzo-Morales J Tags: Eur J Protistol Source Type: research
Schistosomiasis in areas of low endemicity: a new era in diagnosis.
Abstract Parasitological detection of Schistosoma is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis diagnosis in areas of transmission worldwide. However, a steep decrease of sensitivity in low-endemicity areas (LEAs) compromises estimation of schistosomiasis. Despite the restricted utilization of molecular and immunodiagnostic techniques, recent improvements and advances have been contributing to change this scenario, especially in LEAs. Nonetheless, the main issue in a new era of diagnosis overcomes technical advances per se and relates to the loss of 'gold standards' in schistosomiasis diagnosis in LEAs. Here, we review and...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - January 2, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Cavalcanti MG, Silva LF, Peralta RH, Barreto MG, Peralta JM Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
IL-33-dependent immunity against hookworms [Immunology]
Parasitic helminths are a major cause of chronic human disease, affecting more than 3 billion people worldwide. Host protection against most parasitic helminths relies upon Type 2 cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate interleukin (IL) 4 and 13 production from CD4+ T helper 2 cells (TH2) and innate lymphoid...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 2, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Hung, L.-Y., Lewkowich, I. P., Dawson, L. A., Downey, J., Yang, Y., Smith, D. E., Herbert, D. R. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Insect odors and plant defense [Ecology]
Recent work indicates that plants respond to environmental odors. For example, some parasitic plants grow toward volatile cues from their host plants, and other plants have been shown to exhibit enhanced defense capability after exposure to volatile emissions from herbivore-damaged neighbors. Despite such intriguing discoveries, we currently know relatively little...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 2, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Helms, A. M., De Moraes, C. M., Tooker, J. F., Mescher, M. C. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe
Ixodes ricinus ticks are changing in their European distribution at extremes of altitude and latitude, as well as within their prior range. Drivers for change include climate, landuse change, movement of wild animals and anthropogenic change. Image: A female Ixodes ricinus.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 2, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jolyon MedlockKayleigh HansfordAntra BormaneMarketa DerdakovaAgustín Estrada-PeñaJean-Claude GeorgeIrina GolovljovaThomas JaensonJens-Kjeld JensenPer JensenMaria KazimirovaJosé OteoAnna PapaKurt PfisterOlivier PlantardSarah RandolphAnnapaola RizzoliMar Source Type: research
Localization of wolbachia-like gene transcripts and peptides in adult onchocerca flexuosa worms indicates tissue specific expression
This paper demonstrates that several of the Wolbachia-like sequences in the genome of the Wolbachia-free filarial parasite Onchocerca flexuosa are expressed at the RNA and protein levels in a spatially and temporally regulated manner, a potential indication of biological significance. Image: Antibodies against a Wolbachia-like peptide label the surface of intra-uterine microfilaria.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 2, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Samantha McNultyKerstin FischerKurt CurtisGary WeilNorbert BrattigPeter Fischer Source Type: research
30-yr course and favorable outcome of alveolar echinococcosis despite multiple metastatic organ involvement in a non-immune suppressed patient
We report the 30-yr history of a well-documented human case of alveolar echinococcosis, with a lung lesion at presentation followed by the discovery of a liver lesion, both removed by surgery. Subsequently, within the 13 years following diagnosis, metastases were disclosed in eye, brain and skull, as well as additional lung lesions. This patient had no immune suppression, and did not have the genetic background known to predispose to severe alveolar echinococcosis; it may thus be hypothesized that iterative multi-organ involvement was mostly due to the poor adherence to benzimidazole treatment for the first decade after di...
Source: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials - January 2, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karine BardonnetDominique VuittonFrédéric GrenouilletGeorges MantionEric DelabrousseOleg BlagosklonovJean-Philippe MiguetBresson-Hadni Solange Source Type: research
Complex Life Cycles: Why Refrain from Growth before Reproduction in the Adult Niche?
Abstract Abstract Organisms with complex life cycles occupy distinct niches as larvae and adults. One presumed advantage of this is the ability to exploit different resources successively throughout ontogeny. Various taxa, however, have evolved nonfeeding, nongrowing adult stages. We show theoretically that this counterintuitive no-growth strategy is favored when the optimal larval size is greater than or equal to the optimal adult size for reproduction. We empirically investigated this in a group of parasitic worms (helminths). Helminths are transmitted trophically between hosts before reproducing in large, high-t...
Source: The American Naturalist - January 1, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Benesh DP, Chubb JC, Parker GA Tags: Am Nat Source Type: research
Evidence and Implications of Mortality Associated with Acute Plasmodium vivax Malaria.
Abstract SUMMARY Vivax malaria threatens patients despite relatively low-grade parasitemias in peripheral blood. The tenet of death as a rare outcome, derived from antiquated and flawed clinical classifications, disregarded key clinical evidence, including (i) high rates of mortality in neurosyphilis patients treated with vivax malaria; (ii) significant mortality from zones of endemicity; and (iii) the physiological threat inherent in repeated, very severe paroxysms in any patient, healthy or otherwise. The very well-documented course of this infection, with the exception of parasitemia, carries all of the attribut...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - January 1, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Baird JK Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.
Abstract SUMMARY Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being ca...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - January 1, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Esch KJ, Petersen CA Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
Cryptosporidium pathogenicity and virulence.
Abstract SUMMARY Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of medical and veterinary importance that causes gastroenteritis in a variety of vertebrate hosts. Several studies have reported different degrees of pathogenicity and virulence among Cryptosporidium species and isolates of the same species as well as evidence of variation in host susceptibility to infection. The identification and validation of Cryptosporidium virulence factors have been hindered by the renowned difficulties pertaining to the in vitro culture and genetic manipulation of this parasite. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in ident...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - January 1, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Bouzid M, Hunter PR, Chalmers RM, Tyler KM Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
False‐Negative Serologies in Amebic Liver Abscess: Report of Two Cases
We report two cases of amebic liver abscess illustrating the inequal sensitivity of serologic tests detecting anti‐amebic antibodies.
Source: Journal of Travel Medicine - January 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marie‐Pierre Otto, Patrick Gérôme, Christophe Rapp, Michel Pavic, Thierry Vitry, Lionel Crevon, Philippe Debourdeau, Fabrice Simon Tags: BRIEF COMMUNICATION Source Type: research
Malaria Rapid Diagnostic tests in travel medicine
Abstract Malaria is a serious condition in the non‐immune traveller, and prognosis depends on timely diagnosis. Although microscopy remains the cornerstone for diagnosis, malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are increasingly used in non‐endemic settings. They are easy to use, provide results rapidly and require no specific training and equipment. Reported sensitivities vary between different RDT products but are generally good for Plasmodium falciparum with RDTs detecting the P. falciparum antigen histidine‐rich protein‐2 (PfHRP2) scoring slightly better than P. falciparum‐lactate dehydrogenase (Pf‐pLDH)‐det...
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - January 1, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jessica Maltha, Philippe Gillet, Jan Jacobs Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research
Cryptosporidium parvum scavenges LDL‐derived cholesterol and micellar cholesterol internalized into enterocytes
This study highlights the evolutionary advantages for epicellular pathogens to access to nutrients from the outside and inside of the host cell.
Source: Cellular Microbiology - January 1, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Karen Ehrenman, Jane W. Wanyiri, Najma Bhat, Honorine D. Ward, Isabelle Coppens Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
[Acute intestinal infection and parasitosis: It is urgent to illuminate the "black box"!].
PMID: 23260760 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Presse Medicale - January 1, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Bouchaud O Tags: Presse Med Source Type: research
[Circumstances for diagnosis and treatment of intestinal parasitosis in France].
Abstract In a compatible context, hypereosinophilia is suggestive of helminthosis. When the count is higher than 1000/mm(3), a primo-invasion syndroma may be considered, especially if allergic signs are present. Below that level, the helminthosis is probably at the adult stage (chronic phase). In a chronic diarrhoea occurring after a journey abroad, "emerging" protozoa (crypto-microsporidia, Isospora, Cyclospora…) are possibly in cause. A presumptive treatment may be considered. A systematic screening for schistosomiasis (serology and stool examination) is recommended in travellers exposed to the risk (contacts w...
Source: Presse Medicale - January 1, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Bouchaud O Tags: Presse Med Source Type: research
Different secreted phosphatase activities in Leishmania amazonensis
Abstract Leishmania has strong acid phosphatase activity both on the external surface of the plasma membrane and secreted into the extracellular milieu. Secreted acid phosphatase (sAcP), which is the most abundant secreted protein of Leishmania, is also a virulence factor that plays a role in vertebrate infection and survival in sand flies. In the present study, we characterized the secreted phosphatase activities in L. amazonensis. Both acidic and alkaline secreted phosphatase activities were observed with β‐glycerophosphate and p‐nitrophenyl phosphate (p‐NPP) hydrolysis and were inhibited with sodium tartrate and ...
Source: FEMS Microbiology Letters - January 1, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Anne Cs Fernandes, Deivid C Soares, Elvira M Saraiva, José R Meyer‐Fernandes, Thaïs Souto‐Padrón Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research
Neurocysticercosis on the arabian peninsula, 2003-2011.
Abstract TO THE EDITOR: Neurocysticercosis occurs when humans become intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Taenia solium by ingesting its eggs after contact with a Taenia spp. carrier. This parasitic disease is endemic to most of the developing world, where it represents a leading cause of acquired epilepsy (1). In conjunction with an increasing number of immigrants from disease-endemic areas, there has been a recent increase in the number of patients with a diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in industrialized countries. PMID: 23260165 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - January 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Del Brutto OH Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
Chronic coccidian infestation compromises flight feather quality in house sparrows Passer domesticus
Parasites usurp indispensable resources for birds during a moult, and this is particularly relevant for those parasites residing in host intestines. This might compromise the nutritionally demanding moult and, thus, feather functionality. Although lower feather quality has profound and multifaceted adverse effects on residual fitness, surprisingly, little is known about parasites' effect on feather traits, especially over the longer term. We conducted an aviary experiment by medicating half of a group of naturally infested house sparrows Passer domesticus against intestinal coccidians for 15 months, spanning two consecutiv...
Source: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society - January 1, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Péter L. Pap, Csongor I. Vágási, Lőrinc Bărbos, Attila Marton Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil.
Neotropical Monogenoidea. 57. Revision and phylogenetic position of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae), with descriptions of new species from the Guatemalan chulin Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in Mexico and the barred sorubim Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Linnaeus) (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) in Brazil. Syst Parasitol. 2013 Jan;84(1):1-15 Authors: Kritsky DC, Boeger WA, Mendoza-Franco EF, Vianna RT Abstract The diagnosis of Scleroductus Jara & Cone, 1989 (Gyrodactylidae) is amended to include viviparous species having a large spine associated with the eja...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Kritsky DC, Boeger WA, Mendoza-Franco EF, Vianna RT Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
Redescriptions and new records of species of Otobothrium Linton, 1890 (Cestoda: Trypanorhyncha).
Abstract Redescriptions are provided for five incompletely described species of Otobothrium Linton, 1890: Otobothrium alexanderi Palm, 2004 from two species of carcharhinid sharks, Carcharhinus cautus (Whitley) and C. melanopterus (Quoy & Gaimard) at three localities off northern Australia; O. australe Palm, 2004 based on material collected from the type-host and type-locality and from six additional myliobatid and carcharhinid host species off Western Australia, the Northern Territory and northern Queensland; O. insigne Linton, 1905 from Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Richardson) and Sphyrna tudes (Valenciennes) ...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Schaeffner BC, Beveridge I Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
Hysterothylacium simile n. sp. and H. aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) from marine fishes in the Bohai and Yellow Sea, China, with comments on the record of H. paralichthydis (Yamaguti, 1941) from Chinese waters.
Abstract Hysterothylacium simile n. sp., collected from the Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus (Cuvier) (Perciformes: Lateolabracidae) in the Bohai Sea off China, is described using both light and scanning electron microscopy. The new species differs from its congeners in the presence of narrow lateral alae originating a short distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips, a long intestinal caecum (60.4-79.1% of oesophageal length) and a relatively short ventricular appendix (intestinal caecum to ventricular appendix ratio 1:0.58-0.85), long spicules (2.11-2.99 mm, 4.25-7.83% of body length), the nu...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Li L, Zhang LP, Liu YY Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
New records of the chaetiferous leech-like annelid Paracanthobdella livanowi (Epshtein, 1966) (Annelida: Clitellata: Acanthobdellida) from Kamchatka, Russia.
Abstract Acanthobdellidans are unique in their organisation and phylogenetic relationships due to having transitional characters that combine features of oligochaetous and achaetous annelids. Alongside the relatively well-studied Acanthobdella peledina Grube, 1851, there is another member of the group, Paracanthobdella livanowi (Epshtein, 1966), with five rows of chaetae and an anterior sucker. It appears that the anterior sucker is weakly developed in small juveniles but acquires a deep cavity in adults. Smaller individuals of P. livanowi can be distinguished from A. peledina, which does not possess an anterior su...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Utevsky SY, Sokolov SG, Shedko MB Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
A new species of Parspina Pearse, 1920 (Digenea: Cryptogonimidae) from Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes) (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in the Paraná River basin, Argentina, and a key to the genus.
Abstract A new species of cryptogonimid belonging to the genus Parspina Pearse, 1920 is described from the intestine of Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes) in the Paraná River basin, Argentina. Parspina pimelodellae n. sp. is characterised by having: (i) a body length/width ratio of 1:3.6-5.3 at the level of the ventral sucker; (ii) 21 oral spines; (iii) an oral sucker larger than the ventral sucker, with a sucker width ratio of 1:0.6-0.7; (iv) a postcaecal region of 16-19% of the body-length; (v) a compact, transversely elongate ovary, anterior to and well separated from the testes; (vi) small, branched vitelline...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Arredondo NJ, de Núñez MC Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
A new genus and species of hatschekiid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) from groupers (Actinopterygii: Serranidae) collected off the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.
Abstract A new genus and species of copepod, Mihbaicola sakamakii n. g., n. sp., belonging to the siphonostomatoid family Hatschekiidae, is described based on the females collected from inside the tissue of the branchiostegal membrane in three species of the groupers, Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål) (type-host), E. merra Bloch and Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacépède), collected off Okinawa-jima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, North Pacific Ocean. The new genus can be distinguished from other hatschekiid genera by a combination of the following characters in the female:...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Uyeno D Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
Guineafowl, ticks and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Turkey: the perfect storm?
Abstract To control ticks carrying the emerging Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Turkey the government is introducing thousands of exotic helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris). However, not only do these birds eat negligible numbers of ticks, but they are also excellent nurseries for the young of Hyalomma marginatum ticks, the best vectors of CCHF. PMID: 23206535 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Trends in Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Sekercioğlu CH Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
Getting trichy: tools and approaches to interrogating Trichomonas vaginalis in a post-genome world.
Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite of the urogenital tract in men and women, with a worldwide presence and significant implications for global public health. T. vaginalis research entered the age of genomics with the publication of the first genome sequence in 2007, but subsequent utilization of other 'omics' technologies and methods has been slow. Here, we review some of the tools and approaches available to interrogate T. vaginalis biology, with an emphasis on recent advances and current limitations, and draw attention to areas where further efforts are needed to examine effectively the complex and intr...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Conrad MD, Bradic M, Warring SD, Gorman AW, Carlton JM Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
Diversity and phylogeny of insect trypanosomatids: all that is hidden shall be revealed.
Abstract Monoxenous trypanosomatids, which are usually regarded as benign dwellers of the insect alimentary tract, represent a relatively obscure group within the family Trypanosomatidae. This field of study has long been in disarray with the genus level taxonomy of this group remaining artificial, species criteria elusive, host specificity and occurrence poorly known, and their diversity mostly unexplored. The time has arrived to remedy this situation: a phylogenetic approach has been applied to taxa recognition and description, and a culture-independent (PCR-based) approach for detection and identification of org...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Maslov DA, Votýpka J, Yurchenko V, Lukeš J Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
The Cinderella syndrome: why do malaria-infected cells burst at midnight?
Abstract An interesting quirk of many malaria infections is that all parasites within a host - millions of them - progress through their cell cycle synchronously. This surprising coordination has long been recognized, yet there is little understanding of what controls it or why it has evolved. Interestingly, the conventional explanation for coordinated development in other parasite species does not seem to apply here. We argue that for malaria parasites, a critical question has yet to be answered: is the coordination due to parasites bursting at the same time or at a particular time? We explicitly delineate these f...
Source: Trends in Parasitology - January 1, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Mideo N, Reece SE, Smith AL, Metcalf CJ Tags: Trends Parasitol Source Type: research
Dynamics of cytokines and immunoglobulins serum profiles in primary and secondary Cryptosporidium parvum infection: Usefulness of Luminex® xMAP technology.
In this study, we analyzed these immune mediators in the serum of immunocompetent mice inoculated with C. parvum oocysts, using Luminex, to understand how the immune system responds to an infection by this parasite. Animal sera were also analyzed by ELISA to determine the expressed immunoglobulin isotype profile, and compare the obtained trend with data obtained by Luminex. Specific-pathogen-free BALB/C mice were inoculated with oocysts of C. parvum at days 0 and 22. Peripheral blood was aseptically collected from sacrificed mice on several time points, and immune mediators were evaluated in serum samples. Infection was co...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 31, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Codices V, Martins C, Novo C, de Sousa B, Lopes A, Borrego M, Matos O Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi: Cloning, expression and functional analysis of 1-Cys peroxiredoxin.
In this study 1-Cys peroxiredoxin (1-Cys-Prx) from Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi were cloned and characterized. The complete genes coding for 1-Cys-Prx of P. vivax (Pv1-Cys-Prx) and P. knowlesi (Pk1-Cys-Prx) were PCR amplified and the recombinant proteins were produced by heterologous over-expression in Escherichia coli. Both recombinant proteins showed antioxidant activity with the mixed function oxidation assay. Using specific polyclonal antibodies, it was indicated that Pv1-Cys-Prx and Pk1-Cys-Prx are expressed in the cytoplasm of the parasite. Altogether, the results suggested that 1-Cys-Prxs protect the par...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 31, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Hakimi H, Asada M, Angeles JM, Kawai S, Inoue N, Kawazu S Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Dehydroepiandrosterone effect on Plasmodium falciparum and its interaction with antimalarial drugs.
Abstract Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibits glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) of different species and may potentially decrease intracellular glutathione. Therefore, it can have and enhance anti-parasitic action against Plasmodium spp. We evaluated the antiplasmodial activity and the interaction of DHEA with several antimalarial drugs. The inhibitory effect of DHEA on erythrocytic and G6PDH activity and changes in the content of total and reduced gluthatione Plasmodium falciparum content were also evaluated. DHEA showed antiplasmodial activity in vitro, but the potency was low (IC(50) 118.5μM). DHEA in...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - December 31, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zuluaga L, Parra S, Garrido E, López-Muñoz R, Maya JD, Blair S Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
A NEW LEECH SPECIES FROM THE ŁYNA RIVER NEAR OLSZTYN, POLAND (CLITELLATA: HIRUDINIDA: PISCICOLIDAE).
A NEW LEECH SPECIES FROM THE ŁYNA RIVER NEAR OLSZTYN, POLAND (CLITELLATA: HIRUDINIDA: PISCICOLIDAE). J Parasitol. 2012 Dec 31; Authors: Bielecki A, Cichocka JM, Swiatek P, Gorzel M Abstract Abstract A new species of fish leech from Poland, Piscicola burresoni n. sp. (Piscicolidae), is described. It was found in 2007 on stones and on pike (Esox lucius L.) and chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) in the Łyna River, Poland. The leech is small, relatively flattened, with a prominent coarctation between the trachelosome and urosome. The pigmentation is unique to the new species and it has 14 annuli with gonopores sep...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - December 31, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Bielecki A, Cichocka JM, Swiatek P, Gorzel M Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
Repellents and acaricides as personal protection measures in the prevention of tick-borne diseases.
Abstract A number of preventive measures for the protection of humans against tick-borne diseases were evaluated. Measures involving the avoidance of tick bites with the use of protective clothing and insect repellents are the simplest and most effective. Repellents are applied directly to the skin or clothing and other fabrics, such as bednets, tents and anti-mosquito screens. Currently, DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is considered the most efficient arthropod repellent reference substance. The registered and recommended active repellent ingredients for skin and/or cloths application, among others, are: DEET, 1-me...
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - December 31, 2012 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Cisak E, Wójcik-Fatla A, Zając V, Dutkiewicz J Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research
The impact of intensity of invasion of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus on the course of the parasitic phase.
Abstract Investigations into the effect of the intensity of invasion on tick-questing behaviour were conducted on 3 groups of rabbits: 1) 10 females and 5 males, 2) 20 females and 10 males, 3) 40 females and 20 males in the case of I. ricinus, whereas in the case of D. reticulatus, another three groups were used: 1) 10 females and 15 males, 2) 20 females and 15 males, 3) 40 females and 15 males. Given the different invasion intensities, no significant difference was found in the time of attachment to the host (p=0.3773) or in the feeding period (p=0.1051) for Ixodes ricinus females. In turn, body weight of engorged...
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - December 31, 2012 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Bartosik K, Buczek A Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research
Cutaneous complications of improper leech application.
Discussion: Infection is considered the most common complication of hirudotherapy, even though bacteriological examination of leech applied by the patient showed neither bacterial nor parasitic infection. The skin lesions were probably of allergic origin; whether this reaction was due to substances released from the leech or as a consequence of reusing the same leech, remains to be determined. PMID: 23311809 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - December 31, 2012 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Pietrzak A, Kanitakis J, Tomasiewicz K, Wawrzycki B, Kozłowska-Łój J, Dybiec E, Chodorowska G Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research
Unusual presentation of the urogenital myiasis caused by Luciliasericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae).
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is thefi¬rst report of the unusual presentation of the urogenital myiasis in Slovakian men with poor social habits and hygiene. PMID: 23311811 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM - December 31, 2012 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Nagy V Tags: Ann Agric Environ Med Source Type: research
Multi-locus typing scheme for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina reveals high levels of genetic variability in strains from Northern Argentina.
Abstract Bovine babesiosis, caused by the protozoa Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina, is a tick-borne disease distributed in tropical regions worldwide. Current control measures are based on the use of acaricides and live attenuated vaccines. The major economic impact of babesiosis lies in the cattle industry. In order to gain insight into the extent of genetic diversity in populations of parasites in the field, we developed two MLST schemes for the molecular genotyping of B. bigemina and B. bovis. We have also developed a custom-designed bioinformatic pipeline to facilitate the automated processing of raw sequenc...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - December 31, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Guillemi E, Ruybal P, Lia V, González S, Farber M, Wilkowsky SE Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Mutation analysis in pfmdr1 and pfmrp1 as potential candidate genes for artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates 4years after implementation of artemisinin combination therapy in Iran.
Abstract The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistant to the commonly used anti-malarial drugs is a major challenge in the control and elimination of malaria. The present study provides information on genetic analysis in multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) (N86Y/S1034C/N1042D/F1226Y/D1246Y) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (pfmrp1) (H191Y/S437A/I876V/F1390I/K1466R) genes that are probably associated with artemisinin resistance as well as chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) 76T in P. falciparum clinical isolates (N=200) exposed to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) 4years after its adopt...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - December 31, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Pirahmadi S, Zakeri S, Afsharpad M, Djadid ND Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Delusions of parasitosis
Jillian W Wong, John YM KooIndian Journal of Dermatology 2013 58(1):49-52Patients with delusions of parasitosis (DOP) are more commonly recognized in dermatology practices today. However, dermatologists may feel uncomfortable treating these patients because of the psychiatric nature of their disorder. As a result of the fact that DOP patients strongly prefer to seek treatment from dermatologists rather than mental health professionals, it is important for dermatologists to be well equipped with a basic understanding of the disorder and with tools to assist this patient population. In this review, we discuss the epidemiolog...
Source: Indian Journal of Dermatology - December 31, 2012 Category: Dermatology Authors: Jillian W WongJohn YM Koo Source Type: research
Reliable diagnosis of post‐kala‐azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) using slit aspirate specimen to avoid invasive sampling procedures
ConclusionsSlit aspirates are a simpler and minimally invasive sampling technique for initial screening by serology followed by confirmatory diagnosis of PKDL with microscopy and/or Q‐PCR. The simplified procedure has the potential for epidemiological studies and assessment of cure in PKDL.
Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health - December 31, 2012 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Sandeep Verma, Vasundhra Bhandari, Kumar Avishek, Venkatesh Ramesh, Poonam Salotra Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Do host species evolve a specific response to slave-making ants?
Conclusions: We used two different analyses of our behavioral data (standardized with the chemical distance between colonies or not) to test our hypothesis. Standardized data show behavioral differences which could indicate qualitative and specific parasite recognition. We finally stress the importance of considering the whole set of potentially interacting species to understand the coevolution between social parasites and their hosts.
Source: Frontiers in Zoology - December 31, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Olivier DelattreRumsaïs BlatrixNicolas ChâlineStéphane ChameronAnne FédouChloé LeroyPierre Jaisson Source Type: research
Expatriates ill after travel:results from the Geosentinel Surveillance Network
Conclusions: Ill returned expatriates differ from other travelers in travel characteristics and proportionate morbidity for specific diseases, based on the region of exposure and travel reason. They are more likely to present with more serious illness.
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - December 31, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Poh-Lian LimPauline HanLin ChenSusan MacDonaldPrativa PandeyDeVon HalePatricia SchlagenhaufLouis LoutanAnnelies Wilder-SmithXiaohong DavisDavid Freedman Source Type: research