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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 18.
Analysis of serum cytokine levels in children with chronic cough associated with Toxocara canis infection
Summary Toxocara infection is associated with an increased prevalence of airway symptoms and may be a possible aetiologic agent of chronic cough. The occurrence of toxocariasis in Hungary is mild and/or sporadic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of serum cytokines (IL‐1, IL‐2, IL‐4, IL‐5, IL‐6, IL‐10, IL‐13, IFN‐gamma and TNF‐alpha) and total IgE, the blood eosinophil count, the results of skin prick and non‐specific bronchus provocation tests in Toxocara‐seropositive children with chronic cough relative to those in healthy controls. The patients exhibited moderate eosinophilia,...
Source: Parasite Immunology - November 22, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: D. Nagy, O. Bede, J. Danka, Z. SzÉnási, S. Sipka Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Reduced Plasmodium berghei sporozoite liver load associates with low protective efficacy after intradermal immunization
In conclusion, protection against sporozoite infection is likely dependent on parasite liver infection and subsequently generated cellular immune responses.
Source: Parasite Immunology - November 22, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: K. NGANOU‐MAKAMDOP, I. PLOEMEN, M. BEHET, G.‐J. VAN GEMERT, C. HERMSEN, M. ROESTENBERG, R. W. SAUERWEIN Source Type: research
Salinity-tolerant larvae of mosquito vectors in the tropical coast of Jaffna, Sri Lanka and the effect of salinity on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to Aedes aegypti larvae
Several mosquito species were found in brackish water sites in Jaffna Peninsula. Salinity was found to have a small but significant effect on the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to Ae. aegypti larvae. Image: Brackish water coastal marsh in Sarasalai where mosquito larvae, including Aedes albopictus were collected in the black battery box shown.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - November 22, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pavilupillai JudeTharmatha TharmasegaramGobika SivasubramaniyamMeena SenthilnanthananSelvam KannathasanSelvarajah RaveendranRanjan RamasamySinnathamby Surendran Source Type: research
Predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of culicoides imicola in Sardinia using a discrete-time population model
Longitudinal entomological surveillance networks are valuable sources of information in order to characterize insect vector population dynamics. Here, we present the results of a model which predicts monthly population abundance of the main bluetongue vectors found in the Mediterranean basin, as a function of eco-climatic variables recorded either by remote-sensing or by weather stations, one time-step before insect catches. Image: Predicted distribution of the dominant BT vector in Sardinia.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - November 22, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thibaud RigotAnnamaria ConteMaria GoffredoEls DucheyneGuy HendrickxMarius Gilbert Source Type: research
Validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of human IgG directed against the repeat region of the circumsporozoite protein of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum
Paper describes the methodology for the standardization and validation of an ELISA protocol for the repetitive region of the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein on which a present malaria vaccine in phase III clinical trial is based.
Source: Malaria Journal - November 22, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Frederic ClementVincent DewarEva Van BraeckelIsabelle DesombereMarianne DewerchinChristine SwysenMarie-Ange DemoitiéErik JongertJoe CohenGeert Leroux-RoelsPierre Cambron Source Type: research
A dedicated surveillance network for congenital toxoplasmosis in Greece, 2006-2009: assessment of the results
Conclusion: The DSN for CT proved to be more sensitive than the classical notification system, easy in application and very efficient in reporting rare diseases such as CT. Similar DSNs could be used to provide useful information on other rare diseases.
Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles - November 22, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Maria AptouramaniMaria TheodoridouGeorge SyrogiannopoulosAndreas MentisVasiliki PapaevangelouKaterina GaitanaAlexandros DaponteChristos Hadjichristodoulou Source Type: research
Apoptosis in Blastocystis spp. is related to subtype
This study reports that among the four subtypes of Blastocystis spp. investigated for rate of apoptosis when treated with MTZ, subtype 3 showed the highest significant increase after 72h of in vitro culture when treated with MTZ at 0.1mg/ml (79%; p
Source: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - November 21, 2012 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: D.B. Dhurga, K.G. Suresh, T.C. Tan, S. Chandramathi Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
No effect of host–parasite co‐evolution on host range expansion
Abstract Antagonistic co‐evolution between hosts and parasites (reciprocal selection for resistance and infectivity) is hypothesized to play an important role in host range expansion by selecting for novel infectivity alleles, but tests are lacking. Here, we determine whether experimental co‐evolution between a bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25) and a phage (SBW25Φ2) affects interstrain host range: the ability to infect different strains of P. fluorescens other than SBW25. We identified and tested a genetically and phenotypically diverse suite of co‐evolved phage variants of SBW25Φ2 against both sympatric a...
Source: Journal of Evolutionary Biology - November 21, 2012 Category: Biology Authors: P. D. Scanlan, A. R. Hall, P. Burlinson, G. Preston, A. Buckling Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Battling Sand Flies To Protect U.S. Troops
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists are helping deployed American troops protect themselves against sand flies, which are major pests in Afghanistan, Africa and the Middle East. Sand flies are vectors of Leishmania parasites that cause leishmaniasis, a devastating disease for which there is no vaccine or medication. People who are bitten by infected sand flies do not know whether they have the disease until it becomes apparent three or four months later. Symptoms include permanent skin disfigurement and sometimes severe organ damage...
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - November 21, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Tropical Diseases Source Type: news
Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidade) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in central western of Minas Gerais state - Brazil.
Abstract The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urba...
Source: Acta Tropica - November 21, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nascimento BW, Saraiva L, Neto RG, Meira PC, Sanguinette CD, Tonelli GB, Botelho HA, Belo VS, Silva ES, Gontijo CM, Filho JD Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Translatability of helminth therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases.
Abstract Modern hygienic lifestyles are associated with the emergence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which now afflicts millions of people in highly-developed countries. Meticulous hygiene interrupts conduits of transmission required for ubiquitous exposure to parasitic worms (helminths). We proposed that loss of exposure to helminths permits development of IBD. Early clinical trials suggested that exposure to helminths such as Trichuris suis or Necator americanus can improve IBD. Over the last several years, processes to "medicinalize"T. suis have been developed and use of this helminth is now being studied i...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - November 21, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Weinstock JV, Elliott DE Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
On the Efficacy and safety of vaccination in cattle with live tachyzoites of Neospora caninum for the prevention of Neospora-associated fetal loss.
This study confirms that live vaccination can be an effective method of preventing neosporosis in cattle, yet highlights the technical hurdle of preservation of live parasites that must be overcome for a vaccine to be commercially successful. PMID: 23175289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - November 21, 2012 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Weber FH, Jackson JA, Sobecki B, Choromanski L, Olsen M, Meinert T, Frank R, Reichel MP, Ellis JT Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research
Mitochondria "fuel" breast cancer metabolism: Fifteen markers of mitochondrial biogenesis label epithelial cancer cells, but are excluded from adjacent stromal cells.
Abstract Here, we present new genetic and morphological evidence that human tumors consist of two distinct metabolic compartments. First, re-analysis of genome-wide transcriptional profiling data revealed that > 95 gene transcripts associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and/or mitochondrial translation were significantly elevated in human breast cancer cells as compared with adjacent stromal tissue. Remarkably, nearly 40 of these upregulated gene transcripts were mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs), functionally associated with mitochondrial translation of protein components of the OXPHOS complex. Second, ...
Source: Cell Cycle - November 21, 2012 Category: Cytology Authors: Sotgia F, Whitaker-Menezes D, Martinez-Outschoorn UE, Tsirigos A, Lamb R, Sneddon S, Hulit J, Howell A, Lisanti MP Tags: Cell Cycle Source Type: research
‘Transient’ Genetic Suppression Facilitates Generation of Hexose Transporter Null Mutants in Leishmania mexicana
Summary The genome of Leishmania mexicana encompasses a cluster of three glucose transporter genes designated LmxGT1, LmxGT2, and LmxGT3. Functional and genetic studies of a cluster null mutant (Δlmxgt1‐3) have dissected the roles of these proteins in Leishmania metabolism and virulence. However, null mutants were recovered at very low frequency, and comparative genome hybridizations revealed that Δlmxgt1‐3 mutants contained a linear extrachromosomal 40 kb amplification of a region on chromosome 29 not amplified in WT parasites. These data suggested a model where this 29‐40k amplicon encoded a second site suppresso...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - November 21, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiuhong Feng, Dayana Rodriguez‐Contreras, Tamsen Polley, Lon‐Fye Lye, David Scott, Richard J.S. Burchmore, Stephen M. Beverley, Scott M. Landfear Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Transcriptome analysis reveals unique metabolic features in the Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts associated with environmental survival and stresses
Conclusions: CpArray15K is the first microarray chip developed for C. parvum, which provides the Cryptosporidium research community a needed tool to study the parasite transcriptome and functional genomics. CpArray15K has been successfully used in profiling the gene expressions in the parasite oocysts as well as their responses to UV-irradiation. These observations shed light on how the parasite oocysts might adapt and respond to the hostile external environment and associated stress such as UV irradiation.
Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles - November 21, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Haili ZhangFengguang GuoHuaijun ZhouGuan Zhu Source Type: research
An assessment on epitope prediction methods for protozoa genomes
Conclusions: Our study indicates that the combination of B cells epitope predictors is the best tool for predicting epitopes on protozoan parasites proteins. Regarding subcellular localization, the best result was obtained when the three algorithms predictions were combined. The developed pipeline is available upon request to authors.
Source: BMC Bioinformatics - Latest articles - November 21, 2012 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Daniela ResendeAntônio RezendeNesley OliveiraIzabella BatistaRodrigo Corrêa-OliveiraAlexandre ReisJeronimo Ruiz Source Type: research
Tick parasites of rodents in Romania: host preferences, community structure and geographical distribution
Rodent and tick associations were studied in Romania, showing a relatively high diversity of ticks. The most common tick in rodents was I. ricinus, followed by I. redikorzevi. Image: Unfed adult female Ixodes ricinus.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - November 21, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Andrei MihalcaMirabela DumitracheAttila SándorCristian MagdasMiruna OlteanAdriana GyörkeIoana MateiAngela IonicaGianluca D'AmicoVasile CozmaCalin Gherman Source Type: research
Rediscovery of Haematobosca zuluensis (Zumpt), (Diptera, Stomoxyinae): Re-description and amended keys for the genus
Described from a single specimen captured in 1923, more recent collections confirm the existence of the biting fly Haematobosca zuluensis, allowing an improved description and update of an identification key to global species in this genus. Image: Stomoxyine biting fly, Haematobosca zuluensis.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - November 21, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Leo BraackAdrian Pont Source Type: research
Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards
Ixodes ricinus abundances and Borrelia prevalences at three biotopes in the Siebengebirge, Germany, compared with data from previous studies, revealed increasing abundances since 1987. Prevalences did not increase simultaneously, but the number of multiple Borrelia infections in ticks rose. Image: Galio-Fagetum typicum biotope and Ixodes ricinus at the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - November 21, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Alexandra SchwarzVáclav HönigZuzana Vavru¿kováLibor GrubhofferCarsten BalczunAntje AlbringGünter Schaub Source Type: research
Rather than by direct acquisition via lateral gene transfer, GHF5 cellulases were passed on from early Pratylenchidae to root-knot and cyst nematodes
Conclusions: All Tylenchida members investigated here harbored one or multiple GHF5 cellulases. Three types of catalytic domains are distinguished, and the presence of at least two types is relatively common among plant parasitic Tylenchida. Analysis of coding sequences of cellulases suggests that root-knot and cyst nematodes did not acquire this gene directly by lateral genes transfer. More likely, these genes were passed on by ancestors of a family nowadays known as the Pratylenchidae.
Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology - Latest articles - November 21, 2012 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Katarzyna Rybarczyk-Myd¿owskaHazel MaborekeHanny van MegenSven van den ElsenPaul MooymanGeert SmantJaap BakkerJohannes Helder Source Type: research
Herbivore defense in ferns
(Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology) Researchers have found that bracken ferns do not release volatiles when attacked. Emission of volatiles usually attracts ichneumon wasps or predatory bugs that parasitize herbivores. Nevertheless, volatile emission could be elicited in fern fronds after treatment with jasmonic acid, which induces the synthesis of volatile substances in flowering plants. This suggests that ferns can in principle mobilize this kind of defense reaction. However, they do not use this indirect defense to fend off herbivores.
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - November 21, 2012 Category: Biology Source Type: news
Compounds from Sorindeia juglandifolia
(Anacardiaceae) exhibit potent anti-plasmodial
activities in vitro and in vivo
Fractions of Sorindeia juglandifolia and two compounds isolated from these fractions were active against cultured malaria parasites, the P. falciparum protease falcipain-2, and in a rodent malaria model.
Source: Malaria Journal - November 21, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Raceline KamkumoAlvine NgoutaneLauve TchokouahaPatrick FokouEugénie MadiesseJennifer LegacJean KezetasBruno LentaFabrice BoyomTheophile DimoWilfred MbachamJiri GutPhilip Rosenthal Source Type: research
Herbivore defense in ferns
They dominated the earth for 200 million years and numerous different species can still be found all over the world: mosses, horsetails and ferns. Researchers have now found out that bracken ferns do not release any volatiles when they are attacked − unlike many of the now dominant and evolutionary younger flowering plants. Such an emission of volatile compounds may attract the pest insects’ enemies, such as ichneumon wasps or predatory bugs, that parasitize herbivores. Nevertheless, volatile emission could be also elicited in fern fronds, if they had been treated with plant hormone jasmonic acid.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - November 20, 2012 Category: Science Source Type: news
Maternal Care and Infanticide by Males in Helvibis longicauda (Araneae: Theridiidae)
In this study, we describe extended maternal care in Helvibis longicauda (Theridiidae) and evaluate the effectiveness of maternal protection against predators of eggs and spiderlings. We conducted experiments comparing the frequency of egg sac destruction and mortality of spiderlings in the presence and absence of mothers. We also observed the behaviour of the mother and spiderlings during prey capture events and interactions with possible predators. Helvibis longicauda females guard their egg sacs until the emergence of the young and guard the spiderlings for several instar stages, fighting possible predators, including c...
Source: Ethology - November 20, 2012 Category: Zoology Authors: Marcelo O. Gonzaga, Natália O. Leiner Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
Plasmodium falciparum: Epigenetic Control of var Gene Regulation and Disease.
Abstract Plasmodium, one of the most important members of Apicomplexan protozoans imposes a significant economic and health impact on human populations around the world. Plasmodium parasite has complex life cycle with morphologically distinct asexual and sexual developmental stages in the human host and Anopheline mosquito vector. The parasites undergo rapid transition between morphological states and antigenic variation in order to sustain chronic infection and immune evasion in human host. To achieve all these, parasites adopt various regulatory pathways including transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatio...
Source: Sub-Cellular Biochemistry - November 20, 2012 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Deshmukh AS, Srivastava S, Dhar SK Tags: Subcell Biochem Source Type: research
A role for IL-22 in the relationship between intestinal helminths, gut microbiota and mucosal immunity.
Abstract The intestinal tract is home to nematodes as well as commensal bacteria (microbiota), which have coevolved with the mammalian host. The mucosal immune system must balance between an appropriate response to dangerous pathogens and an inappropriate response to commensal microbiota that may breach the epithelial barrier, in order to maintain intestinal homeostasis. IL-22 has been shown to play a critical role in maintaining barrier homeostasis against intestinal pathogens and commensal bacteria. Here we review the advances in our understanding of the role of IL-22 in helminth infections, as well as in respons...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - November 20, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Leung JM, Loke P Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Sirtuins as emerging anti-parasitic targets.
This article reviews the currently available structural, biochemical, pharmacological, and medicinal chemistry studies on these enzymes, and discusses the perspectives of selectively targeting the parasitic sirtuins as a novel therapeutic strategy for the human parasitic diseases. PMID: 23220641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - November 20, 2012 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zheng W Tags: Eur J Med Chem Source Type: research
C-terminal low-complexity sequence repeats of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku modulate DNA binding.
Abstract Ku protein is an integral component of the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double strand break repair. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ku homologs have been characterized and shown to bind DNA ends. A unique feature of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku is its basic C-terminal tail that contains several lysine-rich low-complexity PAKKA repeats that are absent from homologs encoded by obligate parasitic mycobacteria. Such PAKKA repeats are also characteristic of mycobacterial histone-like protein (Hlp) for which they have been shown to confer the ability to appose DNA ends. Unexpectedly, removal of the lysine...
Source: Bioscience Reports - November 20, 2012 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kushwaha AK, Grove A Tags: Biosci Rep Source Type: research
Resolving Differences in Substrate Specificities between Human and Parasite Phosphoribosyltransferases via Analysis of Functional Groups of Substrates and Receptors.
Abstract We herein review experimental and theoretical approaches widely applied to delineation of the differences in substrate specificities between human and parasite phosphoribosyltransferases (PRTases), the latter of which are key targets for treatment of diseases caused by parasites. Standard Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations have been applied to determine why the human PRTase prefers guanine over xanthine, whereas the Tritrichomonas foetus enzyme exhibits only a slight preference. We analyze this problem with the aid of standard MD simulations, as well as constant-pH MD simulations. Comparison of results of...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - November 20, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gasik Z, Shugar D, Antosiewicz JM Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Potential application of network descriptions for understanding conformational changes and protonation states of ABC transporters.
Abstract The ABC (ATP Binding Cassette) transporter protein superfamily comprises a large number of ubiquitous and functionally versatile proteins conserved from archaea to humans. ABC transporters have a key role in many human diseases and also in the development of multidrug resistance in cancer and in parasites. Although a dramatic progress has been achieved in ABC protein studies in the last decades, we are still far from a detailed understanding of their molecular functions. Several aspects of pharmacological ABC transporter targeting also remain unclear. Here we summarize the conformational and protonation ch...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - November 20, 2012 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hegedűs T, Gyimesi G, Gáspár ME, Szalay KZ, Gangal R, Csermely P Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
Relevance of improved epidemiological knowledge to sustainable control of Haemonchus contortus in Nigeria.
Abstract Nigeria experiences losses in small ruminant production as a result of a high prevalence of infection with Haemonchus contortus, but there have been very few investigative studies into the epidemiology of H. contortus in Nigeria, particularly in the south and western parts of the country. For successful planning and execution of control of hemonchosis in Nigeria, there is a need for insight into the epidemiology of free-living stages under the prevailing local conditions and models for climatic and environmental factors that control the risk of hemonchosis and distribution of H. contortus. In this review, ...
Source: Animal Health Research Reviews - November 20, 2012 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Bolajoko MB, Morgan ER Tags: Anim Health Res Rev Source Type: research
Abundances and host relationships of chigger mites in Yunnan Province, China
This paper reports on ectoparasitic chigger mites found on small mammals in Yunnan Province, southwest China. Data were accumulated from 19 investigation sites (counties) between 2001 and 2009. A total of 10 222 small mammal hosts were captured and identified; these represented 62 species, 34 genera and 11 families in five orders. From the body surfaces of these 10 222 hosts, a total of 92 990 chigger mites were collected and identified microscopically. These represented 224 species, 22 genera and three subfamilies in the family Trombiculidae (Trombidiformes). Small mammals were commonly found to be infested by chigger mit...
Source: Medical and Veterinary Entomology - November 20, 2012 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Y.‐Z. ZHAN, X.‐G. GUO, J. R. SPEAKMAN, X.‐H. ZUO, D. WU, Q.‐H. WANG, Z.‐H. YANG Source Type: research
Starvation-induced hibernation of Plasmodium [Microbiology]
We report that when isoleucine is...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - November 20, 2012 Category: Science Authors: Babbitt, S. E., Altenhofen, L., Cobbold, S. A., Istvan, E. S., Fennell, C., Doerig, C., Llinas, M., Goldberg, D. E. Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research
Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status
Immigrant children were examined for intestinal parasites and nutritional status. Fifteen per cent scored positive for parasites and stunted children were statistically more affected by parasites. The major risk factors were living in shanties and cohabitation with other families. Improving social and economic conditions of immigrants is an urgent need. Image: Immigrant children in Rome.
Source: BioMed Central - November 20, 2012 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Laura ManganelliFederica BerrilliDavid Di CaveLucia ErcoliGioia CapelliDomenico OtrantoAnnunziata Giangaspero Source Type: research
Host microtubule plus‐end binding protein CLASP1 influences sequential steps in the Trypanosoma cruzi infection process
This study provides novel molecular insights into the T. cruzi infection process, emphasizing functional links between parasite‐elicited signalling, host microtubule plus‐end tracking proteins and dynein‐based retrograde transport. Highlighted in this work is a previously unrecognized role for CLASPs in dynamic lysosome positioning, an important aspect of the nutrient sensing response in mammalian cells.
Source: Cellular Microbiology - November 20, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiaoyan Zhao, Praveen Kumar, Sheena Shah‐Simpson, Kacey L. Caradonna, Niels Galjart, Crystal Teygong, Ira Blader, Torsten Wittmann, Barbara A. Burleigh Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
The Hsp90–Sti1 interaction is critical for Leishmania donovani proliferation in both life cycle stages
Summary The heat shock protein 90 plays a pivotal role in the life cycle control of Leishmania donovani promoting the fast‐growing insect stage of this parasite. Equally important for insect stage growth is the co‐chaperone Sti1. We show that replacement of Sti1 is only feasible in the presence of additional Sti1 transgenes indicating an essential role. To better understand the impact of Sti1 and its interaction with Hsp90, we performed a mutational analysis of Hsp90. We established that a single amino acid exchange in the Leishmania Hsp90 renders that protein resistant to the inhibitor radicicol (RAD), yet does not in...
Source: Cellular Microbiology - November 20, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Antje Hombach, Gabi Ommen, Mareike Chrobak, Joachim Clos Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
A serological method for detection of Nosema ceranae
ConclusionsELISA is comparable in sensitivity with the qRT‐PCR, less expensive and faster. When this method is commercialized and made available to beekeepers, it will allow them to make informed decisions for the application of in‐hive chemicals. Hence, beekeepers may be able to determine when treatments for control of N. ceranae are unnecessary, and reduce the cost, time and possible side effects of these treatments.© No claim to US Government works. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - November 20, 2012 Category: Microbiology Authors: Katherine A. Aronstein, Thomas C. Webster, Eduardo Saldivar Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Schistosomiasis transmission and environmental change: a spatio-temporal analysis in Porto de Galinhas, Pernambuco - Brazil
Background: In Brazil, schistosomiasis mansoni infection is an endemic disease that mainly affects the country's rural populations who carry out domestic and social activities in rivers and water accumulations that provide shelter for the snails of the disease. The process of rural migration to urban centers and the disorderly occupation of natural environments by these populations from endemic areas have favored expansion of schistosomiasis to locations that had been considered to be disease-free. Based on environmental changes that have occurred in consequent to an occupation and urbanization process in the locality of P...
Source: International Journal of Health Geographics - November 20, 2012 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Elainne GomesOnicio Leal-NetoJones AlbuquerqueHernande SilvaConstança Barbosa Source Type: research
[Personal View] Lessons from malaria control to help meet the rising challenge of dengue
Achievements in malaria control could inform efforts to control the increasing global burden of dengue. Better methods for quantifying dengue endemicity—equivalent to parasite prevalence surveys and endemicity mapping used for malaria—would help target resources, monitor progress, and advocate for investment in dengue prevention. Success in controlling malaria has been attributed to widespread implementation of interventions with proven efficacy. An improved evidence base is needed for large-scale delivery of existing and novel interventions for vector control, alongside continued investment in dengue drug and vaccine development.
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 19, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katherine L Anders, Simon I Hay Tags: Personal View Source Type: research
[Newsdesk] Calls for more detailed studies on toxoplasmosis
2012 has seen a renewed focus on a long-documented infection, Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan infection that is transmitted to human beings through contaminated food or direct contact with faeces of cats that are shedding the organism in their excrement. Large numbers of the general population are infected with the parasites. 20–40% of adults in the UK and USA have antibodies for T gondii, while seroprevalence is higher in central Europe, South and Central America, and in west Africa (50–80%), and similar or lower in southeast Asia, China, and Korea (4–39%), Scandinavia (11–28%), and Australia (30%).
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 19, 2012 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tony Kirby Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research
Activation of autophagic programmed cell death and innate immune gene expression reveals immuno-competence of integumental epithelium in Bombyx mori infected by a dipteran parasitoid
Abstract In insects, the integument forms the primary barrier between the environment and internal milieu, but cellular and immune responses of the integumental epithelium to infection by micro- and macro-parasites are mostly unknown. We elucidated cellular and immune responses of the epithelium induced through infection by a dipteran endoparasitoid, Exorista bombycis in the economically important silkworm Bombyx mori. Degradative autophagic vacuoles, lamella-like bodies, a network of cytoplasmic channels with cellular cargo, and an RER network that opened to vacuoles were observed sequentially with increase ...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - November 19, 2012 Category: Cytology Tags: Cell and Tissue Research Source Type: research
A nematode immunomodulator suppresses grass pollen-specific allergic responses by controlling excessive Th2 inflammation.
Abstract Helminth parasites modulate the immune system by complex mechanisms to ensure persistence in the host. Released immunomodulatory parasite components lead to a beneficial environment for the parasite by targeting different host cells and in parallel to a modulation of unrelated inflammatory responses in the host, such as allergy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the potent helminth immunomodulator, filarial cystatin, in a murine model of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity induced by a clinically relevant aeroallergen (timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen) and on the function of ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - November 19, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Daniłowicz-Luebert E, Steinfelder S, Kühl AA, Drozdenko G, Lucius R, Worm M, Hamelmann E, Hartmann S Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Stage-specific expression and antigenicity of glycoprotein glycans isolated from the human liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini.
Abstract Infection by Opisthorchis viverrini (liver fluke) is a major public health problem in southeastern Asia, resulting in hepatobiliary disease and cholangiocarcinoma. Fluke surface glycoconjugates are prominently presented to the host, thereby constituting a crucial immunological interface that can determine the parasite's success in establishing infection. Therefore, N- and O-linked glycoprotein glycan profiles of the infective metacercarial stage and of the mature adult were investigated by nanospray ionisation-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (NSI-MS(n)). Glycan immunogenicity was investigated by immunobl...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology - November 19, 2012 Category: Parasitology Authors: Talabnin K, Aoki K, Saichua P, Wongkham S, Kaewkes S, Boons GJ, Sripa B, Tiemeyer M Tags: Int J Parasitol Source Type: research
Alterations in Plasmodium falciparum Genetic Structure Two Years after Increased Malaria Control Efforts in Western Kenya.
Abstract The impact of malaria intervention measures (insecticide-treated net use and artemisinin combination therapy) on malaria genetics was investigated at two sites in western Kenya: an endemic lowland and an epidemic highland. The genetic structure of the parasite population was assessed by using microsatellites, and the prevalence of drug-resistant mutations was examined by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Two years after intervention, genetic diversity remained high in both populations. A significant decrease in the prevalence of quintuple mutations conferr...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - November 19, 2012 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Vardo-Zalik AM, Zhou G, Zhong D, Afrane YA, Githeko AK, Yan G Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Molecular Diagnosis of Subcutaneous Spirometra erinaceieuropaei Sparganosis in a Japanese Immigrant.
We report a case of subcutaneous sparganosis in a 68-year-old female Japanese immigrant in Germany. The patient complained of a painless erythema caudal of the umbilicus with a palpable subcutaneous cherry-sized lump. Polymerase chain reaction on formalin-fixed parasite tissue identified Spirometra erinaceieuropaei as the causative agent; the proliferative form of sparganosis, which is caused by the branching and disseminating Sparganum proliferum, could, thus, be excluded. From the excised sparganum, an immunofluorescence test was established and revealed an antibody response directed against the parasite's tegument. Hist...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - November 19, 2012 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tappe D, Berger L, Haeupler A, Muntau B, Racz P, Harder Y, Specht K, Prazeres da Costa C, Poppert S Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Trematodes and nematodes parasitizing the benthic insect community of an Andean Patagonian stream, with emphasis on plagiorchiid metacercariae
We describe the trematodes and nematodes parasitizing the benthic insects of an Andean Patagonian stream and the presence of parasites in the terrestrial adult stages. Members of 3 of 20 insect taxa were found to be parasitized by larval nematodes, and members of six taxa harbored metacercariae of digeneans. In benthic samples, chironomids, simuliids (Order Diptera), and baetids (Order Ephemeroptera) harbored mermithid larvae (Nematoda). The stonefly Antarctoperla michaelseni (Order Plecoptera), the caddisfly Smicridea annulicornis (Order Trichoptera), a watersnipe fly (Order Diptera: Athericidae), and three species of lep...
Source: Invertebrate Biology - November 19, 2012 Category: Biology Authors: Gustavo D. Mariluan, Gustavo P. Viozzi, Ricardo J. Albariño Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of calcium-binding protein 5 from Entamoeba histolytica
In this study, EhCaBP5 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified protein crystallized in space group C222 and the crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. The Matthews coefficient indicated the presence of one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a VM of 2.35 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 47.7%.
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section F - November 19, 2012 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Kumar, S.Zaidi, R.Gourinath, S. Tags: calcium-binding protein 5 Entamoeba histolytica crystallization communications Source Type: research
Anti-Flammatory Benefits Likely To Be Revealed In Rare Parasitic Fungi
Caterpillar fungi (Cordyceps) are rare parasites found on hibernating caterpillars in the mountains of Tibet. For centuries they have been highly prized as a traditional Chinese medicine - just a small amount can fetch hundreds of pounds. Scientists at The University of Nottingham have been studying how this fungus could work by studying cordycepin, one of the drugs found in these mushrooms. They have already discovered that cordycepin has potential as a cancer drug...
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - November 17, 2012 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Immune System / Vaccines Source Type: news
Caterpillar fungi may benefit asthma patients
Research shows that cordycepin, extracted from a group of rare parasitic caterpillar fungi of the genus Cordyceps, has unusual anti-inflammatory properties that may make it a good candidate for treating conditions such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis.
Source: MedWire News - Respiratory - November 17, 2012 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: news
Population genetics of Parascaris equorum based on DNA fingerprinting.
Abstract The large roundworm of horses, Parascaris equorum is considered ubiquitous in breeding operations, and is regarded as a most important helminth pathogen of foals. Over the past decade, this parasite has been reported increasingly resistant to anthelmintic drugs worldwide. This paper reports analysis of the population genetic structure of P. equorum. Adult parasites (n=194) collected from Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Germany, Brazil and the USA were investigated by amplified restriction fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. The genetic variation was low (Hj=0.12-0.4), for the global population of worms....
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - November 17, 2012 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tydén E, Morrison DA, Engström A, Nielsen MK, Eydal M, Höglund J Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research