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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 7.
A new peltogastrid rhizocephalan parasitising a hermit crab from the Japanese coast: a second species of Dipterosaccus Van Kampen & Boschma, 1925 (Crustacea: Cirripedia).
A new peltogastrid rhizocephalan parasitising a hermit crab from the Japanese coast: a second species of Dipterosaccus Van Kampen & Boschma, 1925 (Crustacea: Cirripedia). Syst Parasitol. 2013 Feb;84(2):137-47 Authors: Yoshida R, Hirose M, Hirose E Abstract A new rhizocephalan species of the genus Dipterosaccus Van Kampen & Boschma, 1925, is described from the host hermit crab Calcinus vachoni Forest on the coasts of mainland Japan and the Ryukyu Archipelago. Dipterosaccus shiinoi n. sp. differs from the previously described species, D. indicus Van Kampen & Boschma, 1925, which is redescribed, pr...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 28, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Yoshida R, Hirose M, Hirose E Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
A new genus and species of parasitic isopod (Isopoda: Bopyridae: Orbioninae) from Chinese waters, with a new locality and host record for Orbione halipori Nierstrasz & Brender à Brandis, 1923.
A new genus and species of parasitic isopod (Isopoda: Bopyridae: Orbioninae) from Chinese waters, with a new locality and host record for Orbione halipori Nierstrasz & Brender à Brandis, 1923. Syst Parasitol. 2013 Feb;84(2):149-56 Authors: An J, Boyko CB, Li X Abstract Parasymmetrorbione bicauda n. g., n. sp. is described from Chinese waters infesting two species of Solenocera Lucas (Decapoda: Penaeoidea). The new genus differs from other orbionine genera by the following combination of features: a pronounced asymmetry of coxal and lateral plate development, biramous uropods, tuberculate latera...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 28, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: An J, Boyko CB, Li X Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
Choniomyzon inflatus n. sp. (Crustacea: Copepoda: Nicothoidae) associated with Ibacus novemdentatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae) from Japanese waters.
Abstract A new species of parasitic copepod, Choniomyzon inflatus n. sp., is described based on specimens collected from the external egg masses of the smooth fan lobster Ibacus novemdentatus Gibbes captured in the North Pacific Ocean off Ainan, Ehime Prefecture, western Japan. The new species differs from its congeners in having a globular to ovoid prosome, in bearing asymmetrically arranged denticles at a rounded apex of both the terminal segment of the antenna and the maxilliped, and in lacking serrate lobes on the basis of legs 1 and 2. The species is similar in size and shape to the host's eggs, which may be i...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 28, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Wakabayashi K, Otake S, Tanaka Y, Nagasawa K Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
Review of haploporid (Trematoda) genera with ornate muscularisation in the region of the oral sucker, including four new species and a new genus.
Abstract Species of the Haploporidae Nicoll, 1914 with elaborate muscularisation of the oral sucker belong in three trematode genera, including three new species and a new genus from the intestine of fishes in Australian waters. Spiritestis Nagaty, 1948 is resurrected and S. herveyensis n. sp. is described from the mullet Moolgarda seheli (Forsskål) collected in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia; the latter differs from S. arabii Nagaty, 1948 in that the position of the genital pore is pharyngeal rather than post-pharyngeal and the geographical range is off Australia rather than the Red Sea. A new genus is propose...
Source: Systematic Parasitology - January 28, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Pulis EE, Overstreet RM Tags: Syst Parasitol Source Type: research
Innate immune defense system of the skin.
Abstract Background - Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have a pivotal role in cutaneous innate immunity. They are present in the skin of many animals, including mammals, and are both constitutively present and inducible by infection and injury. Functions - Antimicrobial peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity against bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites, with different potencies depending on their peptide structure. They also act as multifunctional effector molecules that influence diverse cellular processes, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation, cytokine production, angiogenesis and...
Source: Veterinary Dermatology - January 28, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Afshar M, Gallo RL Tags: Vet Dermatol Source Type: research
Silence, activate, poise, and switch! Mechanisms of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum.
Summary Phenotypic variation in genetically identical malaria parasites is an emerging topic. Although antigenic variation is only part of a more global parasite strategy to create adaptation through epigenetically controlled transcriptional variability, it is the central mechanism enabling immune evasion and promoting pathogenesis. The var gene family is the best‐studied example in a wide range of clonally variant gene families in Plasmodium falciparum. It is unique in its strict selection of a single member for activation, a process termed monoallelic expression. The conceptual advances that have emerged from studying ...
Source: Cellular Microbiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Julien Guizetti, Artur Scherf Tags: Microreview Source Type: research
Protein intrinsic disorder in the acetylome of intracellular and extracellular Toxoplasma gondii
, 2013, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C3MB25517D, PaperBin Xue, Victoria Jeffers, William J. Sullivan, Vladimir N. UverskyToxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes a number of species of medical and veterinary importance. Inhibitors of lysine deacetylases (KDACs) exhibit potent antiparasitic...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Mol. BioSyst. latest articles - January 28, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Bin Xue Source Type: research
7‐chloro‐4‐quinolinylhydrazones: a promising and potent class of antileishmanial compounds
Abstract In this work, we report the antileishmanial evaluation of twenty 7‐chloro‐4‐quinolinylhydrazone derivatives (1‐20). Firstly, the compounds were tested against promastigotes of four different Leishmania species. After that, all derivatives were assayed against L. braziliensis amastigotes and murine macrophages. Furthermore, it was investigated if the antiamastigote L. braziliensis effect of the compounds could be associated to NO production. Compounds 6 and 7 showed a strong leishmanicidal activity against intracellular parasite with IC50 in nanogram levels (30 and 20 ng/mL, respectively). Appreciable activ...
Source: Chemical Biology and Drug Design - January 28, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Elaine S. Coimbra, Luciana M. R. Antinarelli, Adilson D. da Silva, Marcelle L. F. Bispo, Carlos R. Kaiser, Marcus V. N. Souza Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Nigeria: Scientists Develop Enhanced Malaria Test
[Vanguard]The search for an improved malaria test has received a boost as scientists from the University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin have developed a method for detecting malaria parasites in mosquito vectors that could help yield better estimates of malaria transmission intensity in different settings.
Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria - January 28, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
Prevalence of Asymptomatic Parasitemia and Gametocytemia among HIV-Infected Ugandan Children Randomized to Receive Different Antiretroviral Therapies.
In this report, we compared the prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia using data from the same cohort. The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia did not differ between the two ART treatment arms. The PI-based arm was associated with a lower risk of gametocytemia at the time of diagnosis of malaria (6.6% versus 14.5%, P = 0.03) and during the 28 days after malaria diagnosis (3.4% versus 6.5%, P = 0.04). Thus, in addition to decreasing the incidence of malaria, the use of PI-based ART may lower transmission, as a result of a decrease in gametocytemia, in areas of high malaria transmission intensity. P...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 28, 2013 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ikilezi G, Achan J, Kakuru A, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Clark TD, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Dorsey G Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Inter-Relationships of Cardinal Features and Outcomes of Symptomatic Pediatric Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in 1,933 Children in Kampala, Uganda.
Abstract Malaria remains a challenging diagnosis with variable clinical presentation and a wide spectrum of disease severity. Using a structured case report form, we prospectively assessed 1,933 children at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Children with uncomplicated malaria significantly differed from those with severe disease for 17 features. Among 855 children with severe disease, the case-fatality rate increased as the number of severity features increased. Logistic regression identified five factors independently associated with death: cerebral malaria, hypoxia, seve...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - January 28, 2013 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Cserti-Gazdewich CM, Dhabangi A, Musoke C, Ssewanyana I, Ddungu H, Nakiboneka-Ssenabulya D, Nabukeera-Barungi N, Mpimbaza A, Dzik WH Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Blastocystis hominis Associated Acute Urticaria.
Abstract ABSTRACT:: Acute urticaria has many causative factors, which may include infections, medications (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, contraceptives and others), insect bites, physical stimuli, allergens or underlying systemic disorders. Blastocystis spp, although ubiquitous in developing countries, is rarely implicated in causing disease in the developed world. The authors present a case of acute urticaria caused by Blastocystis hominis (protozoon parasite) in an elderly farmer in rural United States. This case vignette emphasizes the importance of checking stool for ova and parasites to lo...
Source: The American Journal of the Medical Sciences - January 28, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Verma R, Delfanian K Tags: Am J Med Sci Source Type: research
A HT/PEXEL motif in Toxoplasma dense granule proteins is a signal for protein cleavage but not export into the host cell
Abstract Apicomplexan parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium, secrete proteins for attachment, invasion and modulation of their host cells. The host targeting (HT), also known as the Plasmodium export element (PEXEL), directs Plasmodium proteins into erythrocytes to remodel the host cell and establish infection. Bioinformatic analysis of Toxoplasma revealed a HT/PEXEL‐like motif at the N‐terminal of several hypothetical unknown and dense granule proteins. Hemagglutinin (HA)‐tagged versions of these uncharacterized proteins show co‐localization with dense granule proteins found on the parasitophorous va...
Source: Traffic - January 28, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Chia‐Hung Christine Hsiao, N. Luisa Hiller, Kasturi Haldar, Laura J. Knoll Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 1: Prevalence and associated key factors
This study reveals an alarmingly high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli children in rural Malaysia indicating an urgent need for a sustainable and effective control programme in these communities. Image: An Orang Asli village
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 28, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nabil NasrHesham Al-MekhlafiAbdulhamid AhmedMuhammad RoslanAwang Bulgiba Source Type: research
Towards an effective control programme of soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Part 2: Knowledge, attitude, and practices
Knowledge, attitude and practices on STH infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia were found to be inadequate, indicating that proper health education should be integrated in any upcoming STH control programme. Image: Ova of STH detected in faecal samples
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 28, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Nabil NasrHesham Al-MekhlafiAbdulhamid AhmedMuhammad RoslanAwang Bulgiba Source Type: research
20 amazing facts about the human body
Many of the most exciting discoveries in all fields of science are being played out in the human body1 APPENDIX TO LIFE The appendix gets a bad press. It is usually treated as a body part that lost its function millions of years ago. All it seems to do is occasionally get infected and cause appendicitis. Yet recently it has been discovered that the appendix is very useful to the bacteria that help your digestive system function. They use it to get respite from the strain of the frenzied activity of the gut, somewhere to breed and help keep the gut's bacterial inhabitants topped up. So treat your appendix with respect.2 SUP...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - January 26, 2013 Category: Science Authors: The Observer Tags: Genetics Astronomy Evolution Consciousness Body image Human biology Physics Features Reproduction The Observer Chemistry Science Source Type: news
Disruption of heat shock factor 1 reduces the formation of conidia and thermotolerance in the mycoparasitic fungus Coniothyrium minitans.
Abstract Coniothyrium minitans is a bio-control agent of Sclerotinia spp., and has the ability to produce abundant conidia to infect the host fungi. Mediation of heat shock factors (HSFs) is required to adapt to the acute temperatures, and to regulate the expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) to function as molecular chaperones to assist in development, protein folding and stability. A heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) gene was identified from a T-DNA insertion mutant that lost the ability to form conidia in liquid culture as well as on solid media. Null mutants lacking CmHSF1 were constructed by gene disruption strate...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - January 26, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Hamid MI, Zeng F, Cheng J, Jiang D, Fu Y Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research
No evidence for positive selection at two potential targets for malaria transmission-blocking vaccines in Anopheles gambiae s.s.
Abstract Human malaria causes nearly a million deaths in sub-Saharan Africa each year. The evolution of drug-resistance in the parasite and insecticide resistance in the mosquito vector has complicated control measures and made the need for new control strategies more urgent. Anopheles gambiae s.s. is one of the primary vectors of human malaria in Africa, and parasite-transmission-blocking vaccines targeting Anopheles proteins have been proposed as a possible strategy to control the spread of the disease. However, the success of these hypothetical technologies would depend on the successful ability to broadly targe...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 26, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Crawford JE, Rottschaefer SM, Coulibaly B, Sacko M, Niaré O, Riehle MM, Traore SF, Vernick KD, Lazzaro BP Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
DNA barcoding reveals diversity of hymenoptera and the dominance of parasitoids in a sub-arctic environment
Conclusions: The diversity of parasitoids in this sub-Arctic environment implies a high diversity of potential host species throughout the same range. We discuss these results in the contexts of resolving interspecific interactions that may include cryptic species, and developing reproducible methods to estimate and compare species richness across sites and between surveys, especially when morphological specialists are not available to identify every specimen.
Source: BioMed Central - January 26, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Julie K StahlhutJosé Fernández-TrianaSarah J AdamowiczMatthias BuckHenri GouletPaul DN HebertJohn T HuberMark T MeriloCory S SheffieldThomas WoodcockM Alex Smith Source Type: research
Breaking Haller’s Rule: Brain-Body Size Isometry in a Minute Parasitic Wasp
Brain Behav Evol (DOI:10.1159/000345945)
Source: Brain, Behavior and Evolution - January 25, 2013 Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Digital imaging shows promise in assessing crop health
The parasitic root damage to bananas and plantains has been measured by assessing their leaf area using a digital photographic system.
Source: SciDev.Net - January 25, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
Direct evidence for the adaptive role of copy number variation on antifolate susceptibility in Plasmodium falciparum
We report that increases in gch1 CN alter pyrimethamine resistance in most parasites lines. However we find evidence of a detrimental effect of very high levels of gch1 overexpression in parasite lines with high endogenous levels of gch1 expression, revealing the importance of maintaining balance in the folate pathway and implicating changes in gch1 expression in preserving proper metabolic flux. This work expands our understanding of parasite adaptation to drug pressure and provides a possible mechanism for how specific mutations become fixed within parasite populations.
Source: Molecular Microbiology - January 25, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Adina Heinberg, Edwin Siu, Chaya Stern, Elizabeth A Lawrence, Michael T Ferdig, Kirk W Deitsch, Laura A Kirkman Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Mobilizing Transposable Elements
Transposable elements are parasitic DNA elements that can jump around the genome. They make up large portions of eukaryotic genomes (up to 50% of the human genome). In the short … [Read more]
Source: This Week in Science - January 25, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Stewart Wills (mailto:swills at aaas.org) Source Type: research
Acanthamoeba royreba: Morphological features and in vitro cytopathic effect.
Abstract Observations on cultured Acanthamoeba royreba trophozoites and in vitro cytopathogenicity of this amoeba are described. In culture, amoebae were active, pleomorphic and moved on the substrate by producing endocytic structures and emitting slight cytoplasmic microprojections from the cell surface. These projections were formed by hyaline cytoplasm and they were related to motion structures such as acanthopodia and lamellipodia, in which actin provides a framework that allows rapid changes in morphology. In the cytoplasm abundant vacuoles of different size and content were seen. By means of electron microsco...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 25, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: González-Robles A, Salazar-Villatoro L, Omaña-Molina M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Martínez-Palomo A Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Proteomic analysis of the tegument and excretory-secretory products of Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Digenea) adult worms.
Abstract Dicroceliosis, caused by Dicrocoelium dendriticum, is an important hepatic parasitosis in ruminants, whose immunological diagnosis and control remain unsatisfactory. There are very few studies on the antigens of this trematode and molecular knowledge about it is practically nil. Therefore the aim of this study was to identify the major antigenic proteins in the tegument (TG) and excretory-secretory (ES) antigenic extracts of D. dendriticum. The separation conditions of the protein extracts were optimized using 2-D PAGE; the gels were stained with colloidal Coomassie or transferred to carry out immunodetect...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 25, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Martínez-Ibeas AM, González-Lanza C, Manga-González MY Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
SUPPLEMENTAL DESCRIPTION OF MYXOBOLUS SQUAMALIS (MYXOZOA).
Abstract Abstract ABSTRACT: Myxobolus squamalis is a myxozoan skin parasite first reported from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Identification of the parasite based on myxospore morphology is unreliable because M. squamalis is similar to several other myxobolids that share host species and geographic ranges. The only ssrRNA gene sequence available for M. squamalis is from Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, but these data are not linked with any information on spore morphology. Here, we provide a supplemental description of M. squamalis from its type host, O. mykiss, using both myxospore morphology, mo...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - January 25, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Polley TM, Atkinson SD, Jones GR, Bartholomew JL Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
Laoxyuris laonasti n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Syphaciinae) parasite of Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia: Diatomyidae): morphology, biology, taxonomy, phylogeny.
Abstract A new Oxyurid genus and species are described in a rodent recently discovered in Lao PDR: Laonastes aenigmamus which happens to be the single survivor of the Diatomyidae, a family considered to be extinct since the Miocene. The morphological characters of the new parasite species allow classifying it within the Syphaciinae Railliet, 1916, a subfamily whose members are exclusively parasites of Lagomorpha and Rodents. Male Syphaciinae have developed several types of ventral cuticular ornamentation used to firmly grip the female during mating. The ornamental characters observed in the new species include a fi...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - January 25, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hugot JP, Feliu C, Douangboupha B, Ribas A Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
Entamoeba histolytica Exacerbates Epithelial Tight Junction Permeability and Proinflammatory Responses in Muc2(-/-) Mice.
Abstract Human mucin-2 (MUC-2) is the first line of innate host defense in preventing pathogen-induced epithelial injury. Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) colonizes the mucus layer by binding of the parasite's surface galactose lectin to galactose and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine residues on colonic MUC-2, preventing parasite contact-dependent cytolysis of epithelial cells. We quantified early innate responses to Eh in wild-type and MUC-2-deficient mice (Muc2(-/-)) using closed colonic loops. Eh infection in wild-type but not Muc2(-/-) mice induced a time-dependent increase in (3)H-labeled mucin and nonmucin glycoprotein sec...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - January 25, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Kissoon-Singh V, Moreau F, Trusevych E, Chadee K Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research
Effects of Neospora caninum infection on brain microvascular endothelial cells bioenergetics
The study shows that the protozoan Neospora caninum is capable of invading, replicating and exiting human brain microvascular endothelial cells without disrupting their normal proliferation or mitochondrial integrity despite an increase in the infected cell respiration. Image: Immunofluorescence staining of N. caninum tachyzoites (green) and DAPI stained endothelial cell nuclei (blue).
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 25, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hany ElsheikhaCharlotte McKinlayNashwa ElsaiedPaul Smith Source Type: research
Identification and characterization of microRNAs in the pancreatic fluke Eurytrema pancreaticum
This study investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult Eurytrema pancreaticum using next-generation sequencing technology combined with real-time quantitative PCR, and identified 14 novel miRNAs, providing novel resources for a better understanding of the parasite. Image: Adults of Eurytrema pancreaticum.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 25, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Min-Jun XuChun-Ren WangSi-Yang HuangJing-Hua FuDong-Hui ZhouQiao-Cheng ChangXu ZhengXing-Quan Zhu Source Type: research
A flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin prevents flea transmission of Bartonella henselae in cats
Ctenocephalides felis is a vector for Bartonella henselae and the organism can live in flea frass for at least 9 days. Wearing a collar containing imidacloprid and moxidectin blocked B. henselae infection amongst cats for 8 months. Image: Adult Ctenocephalides felis and frass.
Source: Parasites and Vectors - January 25, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Michael LappinWendell DavisJennifer HawleyMelissa BrewerArianne MorrisDorothee Stanneck Source Type: research
Mechanism and Molecular Evolution of Mitochondrial Erv [Enzymology]
Mia40 and the sulfhydryl:cytochrome c oxidoreductase Erv1/ALR are essential for oxidative protein import into the mitochondrial intermembrane space in yeast and mammals. Although mitochondrial protein import is functionally conserved in the course of evolution, many organisms seem to lack Mia40. Moreover, except for in organello import studies and in silico analyses, nothing is known about the function and properties of protist Erv homologues. Here we compared Erv homologues from yeast, the kinetoplastid parasite Leishmania tarentolae, and the non-related malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Both parasite proteins have ...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - January 25, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Eckers, E., Petrungaro, C., Gross, D., Riemer, J., Hell, K., Deponte, M. Tags: Enzymology Source Type: research
Crystal Structures of EhUbiquitin and EhUbc5 [Protein Synthesis and Degradation]
Ubiquitination is important for numerous cellular processes in most eukaryotic organisms, including cellular proliferation, development, and protein turnover by the proteasome. The intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica harbors an extensive ubiquitin-proteasome system. Proteasome inhibitors are known to impair parasite proliferation and encystation, suggesting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway as a viable therapeutic target. However, no functional studies of the E. histolytica ubiquitination enzymes have yet emerged. Here, we have cloned and characterized multiple E. histolytica ubiquitination components, spanning ubiqui...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - January 25, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Bosch, D. E., Siderovski, D. P. Tags: Protein Structure and Folding Source Type: research
Malaria parasites tolerate a broad range of ionic environments and do not require host cation remodeling
We examined these assumptions and the parasite's ionic requirements by establishing continuous culture in novel sucrose‐based media. With sucrose as the primary osmoticant and K+ and Cl‐ as the main extracellular ions, we obtained parasite growth and propagation at rates indistinguishable from those in physiological media. These conditions abolish long‐known increases in intracellular Na+ via parasite‐induced channels, excluding a requirement for erythrocyte cation remodeling. We also dissected Na+, K+, and Cl‐ requirements and found that unexpectedly low concentrations of each ion meet the parasite's demands. Su...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - January 25, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ajay D. Pillai, Rachel Addo, Paresh Sharma, Wang Nguitragool, Prakash Srinivasan, Sanjay A. Desai Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Small RNA pyrosequencing in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica reveals strain-specific small RNAs that target virulence genes
Conclusions: We provided a full spectrum analysis for E. histolytica AGO2-2 associated 27nt small RNAs. Additionally, comparative analysis of small RNA populations from virulent and non-virulent amebic strains indicates that small RNA populations may regulate virulence genes.
Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles - January 24, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Hanbang ZhangGretchen EhrenkauferNeil HallUpinder Singh Source Type: research
In vitro efficiency of 9-(N-cinnamoylbutyl)aminoacridines against blood- and liver-stage malaria parasites.
Abstract Novel 9-aminoacridine derivatives were synthesized by linking the heteroaromatic core to different cinnamic acids through an aminobutyl chain. The test compounds demonstrated mid-nanomolar in vitro activity against erythrocytic stages of the chloroquine-resistant W2 strain of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Two of the most active derivatives also showed in vitro activity against liver-stage Plasmodium berghei, with activity greater than that of the reference liver-stage antimalarial primaquine. The compounds were not toxic to human hepatoma cells at concentrations up to 5μM. Hence, 9-(N-...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters - January 24, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Pérez B, Teixeira C, Gomes AS, Albuquerque IS, Gut J, Rosenthal PJ, Prudêncio M, Gomes P Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Lett Source Type: research
TREATING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM INFECTION IN CALVES.
This study confirmed previous reports of azithromycin efficacy against C. parvum infection, but found co-trimoxazole and Kalvangi to be ineffective for this infection under these treatment regimens. PMID: 23347204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - January 24, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Nasir A, Avais M, Khan MS, Khan JA, Hameed S, Reichel MP Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
TWO NEW EIMERIA SPECIES PARASITIC IN CORNCRAKES (Crex crex) (Gruiformes: Rallidae) IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.
In this study we describe 2 new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) parasites isolated from the feces of corncrake (Crex crex) (Gruiformes: Rallidae), bred in captivity in the UK. Oocysts of Eimeria crecis n. sp. were approximately spherical and measured 15.3 µm (13-18) X 14.3 (12-16), providing an oocyst shape index of 1.1. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria nenei n. sp. were ellipsoidal and measured 23.6 (21-26) X 18.1 (17-20), providing an oocyst shape index of 1.3. A micropyle and polar granule were present. Surveying free-living, wild adult corncr...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - January 24, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Jeanes C, Vaughan-Higgins R, Green RE, Sainsbury AW, Marshall RN, Blake DP Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
Efficacy of the treatments used for the control of Caligus rogercresseyi infecting Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in a new fish‐farming location in Region XI, Chile
Abstract Caligus rogercresseyi is the most important parasite affecting Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout farming in sea water in Chile. After the outbreaks of the infectious salmon anaemia recorded in Region X from 2007, the salmon industry has expanded southwards to Region XI, where 60% of Atlantic salmon in Chile is now produced. In parallel with the relocation of salmon production, sea lice infestation has also spread to Region XI, and today C. rogercresseyi is the most serious threat to the salmon‐farming industry in this region. The results obtained through a year of monitoring between September 2007 and August 20...
Source: Journal of Fish Diseases - January 24, 2013 Category: Zoology Authors: S Bravo, M Nuñez, M T Silva Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Leishmania expressed lipophosphoglycan interacts with TLR2 to decrease TLR9 expression and reduce anti‐leishmanial responses
Abstract Two different TLRs have been shown to play a role in host responses to Leishmania infection. TLR2 is involved in parasite survival in macrophages upon activation by lipophosphoglycan, a virulence factor expressed by Leishmania. In contrast, activation of TLR9 has been shown to promote a host‐protective response. However, whether there is a relationship between the interaction of LPG and TLR2 on the one hand with the effect of TLR9 on the other remains unknown. Here, we report that in vitro infection of macrophages with a L. major parasite with high expression levels of LPG results in decreased TLR9 expression co...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - January 24, 2013 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sunit Srivastava, Surya Prakash Pandey, Mukesh Kumar Jha, Himanshu Singh Chandel, Bhaskar Saha Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The use of fluorescent reporter protein tagging to study the interaction between Root Knot Nematodes and Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae
In this study, mCherry was employed as a reporter protein to investigate the interaction between the soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis (Pcb) and root knot nematode (M. incognita). Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis was transformed with pMP7604 generating Pcb_mCherry strain. This strain was shown to attach to the surface coat of M. incognita J2 at the optimum temperature of 28 °C. This suggests that RKN juveniles may play a role in disseminating Pcb in soils that are heavily infested with Pcb. The presence of RKN juveniles was shown to play a role in introducing Pc...
Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology - January 24, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Aobakwe Mongae, Gugulethu C. Kubheka, Ntsane Moleleki, Lucy N. Moleleki Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Discovery of a Diverse Clade of Gregarine Apicomplexans (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) from Pacific Eunicid and Onuphid Polychaetes, Including Descriptions of Paralecudina n. gen., Trichotokara japonica n. sp., and T. eunicae n. sp.
Abstract Marine gregarines are poorly understood apicomplexan parasites with large trophozoites that inhabit the body cavities of marine invertebrates. Two novel species of gregarines were discovered in polychaete hosts collected in Canada and Japan. The trophozoites of Trichotokara japonica n. sp. were oval to rhomboidal shaped, and covered with longitudinal epicytic folds with a density of six to eight folds/micron. The nucleus was situated in the middle of the cell, and the mucron was elongated and covered with hair‐like projections; antler‐like projections also extended from the anterior tip of the mucron. The dist...
Source: The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology - January 24, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sonja Rueckert, Kevin C. Wakeman, Brian S. Leander Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Persistent digestive disorders in the tropics: causative infectious pathogens and reference diagnostic tests
Conclusions: Diagnosis of the broad spectrum of intestinal pathogens is often cumbersome. There is a need for rapid diagnostic tests that are simple and affordable for resource-constrained settings, so that the management of patients suffering from persistent digestive disorders can be improved.
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - January 24, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sören BeckerJürg VogtStefanie KnoppMarcus PanningDavid WarhurstKatja PolmanHanspeter MartiLutz von MüllerCedric YansouniJan JacobsEmmanuel BottieauMoussa SackoSuman RijalFransiska MeyantiMichael MilesMarleen BoelaertPascal LutumbaLisette van LieshoutEl Source Type: research
Analysis of antibody induction upon immunization with distinct NTS-DBL1alpha-domains of PfEMP1 from rosetting Plasmodium falciparum parasites
This study used peptide arrays and parasite panels to investigate the specificity and cross-reactivity of vaccine antibodies. Antibodies had strong homologous parasite reactivity but limited or no cross-reactivity on different rosetting parasite variants.
Source: Malaria Journal - January 24, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Davide AngelettiLetusa AlbrechtMats WahlgrenKirsten Moll Source Type: research
Parasites of Madagascar's lemurs expanding with climate change
Rising temperatures and shifting rainfall patterns in Madagascar could fuel the spread of lemur parasites and the diseases they carry.
Source: ScienceDaily Headlines - January 23, 2013 Category: Science Source Type: news
Upregulation of chicken TLR4, TLR15 and MyD88 in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with Eimeria tenella in vitro.
Abstract Coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria parasites, is a major parasitic disease responsible for great economic losses in the poultry industry. Toll-like receptor (TLR) family is one of the most important innate immune receptors, which involved in pathogen detection by initiating host responses, and it plays important roles in the reduction and clearance of pathogens. Very little information is available about the roles of chicken TLRs (ChTLRs) during Eimeria tenella infection. In the current study, mRNA expression of ChTLRs and associated signal adaptors in heterophils and monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated wi...
Source: Experimental Parasitology - January 23, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Zhou Z, Wang Z, Cao L, Hu S, Zhang Z, Qin B, Guo Z, Nie K Tags: Exp Parasitol Source Type: research
Identification of microRNAs from Plutella xylostella larvae associated with parasitization by Diadegma semiclausum.
In conclusion, expression profiling of miRNAs provided insights into their possible involvement in insect immune response to parasitism and offer an important resource for further studies. PMID: 23352895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology - January 23, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Etebari K, Hussain M, Asgari S Tags: Insect Biochem Mol Biol Source Type: research
REDESCRIPTION AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF HYSTEROTHYLACIUM THALASSINI BRUCE, 1990 (NEMATODA: ANISAKIDAE) FROM MARINE FISHES IN THE SOUTH CHINA SEA.
Abstract Abstract Hysterothylacium thalassini Bruce, 1990 was redescribed using light microscopy and, for the first time, scanning electron microscopy based on newly collected specimens from the marine fishes Priacanthus tayenus Richardson and P. macracanthus Cuvier (Perciformes: Priacanthidae) in the South China Sea. Previously unreported or inaccurately described morphological features of taxonomic significance are described, including the number and morphology of paracloacal and postcloacal papillae, the morphology of the vulva, and the presence of small phasmids in the both sexes. Moreover, specimens of H. tha...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - January 23, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Liu YY, Xu Z, Zhang LP, Li L Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research
Proterometra macrostoma (Trematoda: Azygiidae): Location of the redia and emergence path from the snail, Elimia semicarinata (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae). Ronald Rosen, Ericka Berg, Julianna Dolan, Bailey King, Michon Martin, and Franceska Mehmeti, Biology Program, Berea College, Berea, Kentucky 40404. Correspondence should be sent to: email@example.com.
The objectives of this study were to describe: (1) the osmotic environment and precise location of the redia in the snail intermediate host, (2) where retraction of the distome body into the cercarial tail occurs, and (3) the subsequent emergence path of the cercaria out of the snail. Snails, Elimia semicarinata, were collected from North Elkhorn Creek in Scott County, Kentucky, and screened daily for patent infections. Live rediae were extracted from infected snails in either APW (artificial pond water) or ASW (artificial snail water) and monitored for changes in morphology and movement every hour over 5 hr at 22 C. Infec...
Source: The Journal of Parasitology - January 23, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Rosen R, Berg E, Dolan J, King B, Martin M, Mehmeti F Tags: J Parasitol Source Type: research