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Perinatology & Neonatology

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory.

[Comment] Emergence of a hypervirulent neonatal pathogen
Many prevention practices have been adopted to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with infections in newborn babies caused by group B streptococcus. Despite these efforts, the bacterium remains a leading cause of bloodstream infections and meningitis worldwide. Group B streptococcus typically affects babies younger than 7 days (early-onset) or infants up to 3 months of age (late-onset). The primary prevention strategy involves prophylactic antibiotic treatment of women during childbirth. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shannon D Manning Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Global burden of listeriosis: the tip of the iceberg
Listeriosis is a rare but severe infection. Three main invasive forms are described: septicaemia, neurolisteriosis, and maternal–neonatal infection. Listeriosis can also present as febrile gastroenteritis. Its foodborne origin was evidenced in the early 1980s. Since then, listeriosis has been implicated in about 80 recognised outbreaks, which led, mainly in high-income countries, to the implementation of national and supranational surveillance systems. This implementation of surveillance systems had a key role in the dissection of risk factors and control of outbreaks. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alexandre Leclercq, Caroline Charlier, Marc Lecuit Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Global Health: Steroids Are No Boon to World’s Poorer Women
Giving steroids to women who are about to give birth prematurely may be useless or even dangerous in poor countries where most women give birth at home. (Source: NYT)
Source: NYT - October 20, 2014 Category: American Health Authors: By DONALD G. McNEIL Jr. Tags: Steroids Pregnancy and Childbirth Premature Babies Koso-Thomas, Marion Spong, Catherine Y Third World and Developing Countries Source Type: news

Global Health: Steroids Are No Boon to World’s Poorer Women
Giving steroids to women who are about to give birth prematurely may be useless or even dangerous in poor countries where most women give birth at home. (Source: NYT Health)
Source: NYT Health - October 20, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Authors: By DONALD G. McNEIL Jr. Tags: Steroids Pregnancy and Childbirth Premature Babies Koso-Thomas, Marion Spong, Catherine Y Third World and Developing Countries Source Type: news

Pregnancy Complications in Women With Heart Disease Conceiving With Fertility Therapy
A growing number of women seek infertility treatment with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI), in conjunction with ovarian stimulation treatments (1). Although ART improve the chances of successful pregnancy, there are potential risks for the mother and offspring, including ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), venous thrombosis, multiple gestations, pre-eclampsia, and pre-term delivery (1). Women with heart disease have an increased baseline risk of these obstetric and perinatal complications (2,3). They may not tolerate additional risks im...
Source: Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Cardiovascular Interventions - October 20, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Patterns of use of a maternal mental health service in a low‐resource antenatal setting in South Africa
Abstract The prevalence of perinatal common mental disorders in South Africa is high, yet little is known about mental health service use among pregnant and postnatal women. This paper reports on pregnant women's patterns of use of a counselling service at a primary level obstetric facility in Cape Town, South Africa, between January 2010 and December 2011. It investigates whether these are associated with demographics, severity and risk of depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 3311) were screened for psychological distress using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at their first antenatal visit. Risk factor...
Source: Health and Social Care in the Community - October 20, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Emily Baron, Sally Field, Zuhayr Kafaar, Simone Honikman Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Hemolysis in neonatal rats results in auditory impairment.
Conclusion: This study suggests that hyperbilirubinemia in the neonatal rat can impair auditory function and induce peripheral nerve pathology by reducing neurofilament-positive cells in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). This finding indicates a potential connection between hyperbilirubinemia and auditory impairment. OBJECTIVE: To establish a neonatal rat hyperbilirubinemia induced by hemolysis and assess the possible link between hyperbilirubinemia and auditory impairment. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into two groups - a bilirubin exposure group injected with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride at 7 and 28 days of ag...
Source: Acta Oto-Laryngologica - October 20, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Li Q, Chen P, Guo W, Fang R, Yang S Tags: Acta Otolaryngol Source Type: research

Perspectives on Transition From NICU to HomePerspectives on Transition From NICU to Home
What factors could improve the transition of patients from the NICU to home? Journal of Perinatology : Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Source: Medscape Today Headlines - October 20, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Pediatrics Journal Article Source Type: news

Constitutive Expression of GsαR201C in Mice Produces a Heritable, Direct Replica of Human Fibrous Dysplasia Bone Pathology and Demonstrates Its Natural History
ABSTRACT Fibrous dysplasia of bone (FD) is a crippling skeletal disease associated with postzygotic mutations (R201C, R201H) of the gene encoding the α subunit of the stimulatory G protein, Gs. By causing a characteristic structural subversion of bone and bone marrow, the disease results in deformity, hypomineralization, and fracture of the affected bones, with severe morbidity arising in childhood or adolescence. Lack of inheritance of the disease in humans is thought to reflect embryonic lethality of germline‐transmitted activating Gsα mutations, which would only survive through somatic mosaicism. We have generated m...
Source: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research - October 20, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Isabella Saggio, Cristina Remoli, Emanuela Spica, Stefania Cersosimo, Benedetto Sacchetti, Pamela G Robey, Kenn Holmbeck, Ana Cumano, Alan Boyde, Paolo Bianco, Mara Riminucci Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Distinct phenotypic features of neonatal murine macrophages
In conclusion, we observed a distinct phenotype of the neonatal macrophage population. The specific functions of this macrophage population could help to understand the excessive inflammatory reactions observed in the very young. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: European Journal of Immunology)
Source: European Journal of Immunology - October 20, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Thomas Winterberg, Gertrud Vieten, Tatiana Meier, Yi Yu, Mandy Busse, Christian Hennig, Gesine Hansen, Roland Jacobs, Benno M Ure, Joachim F Kuebler Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Pregnancy outcomes in a woman with neuromyelitis optica
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS associated with antibodies directed to aquaporin-4 (AQP4–immunoglobulin G [IgG]).1 The clinical features of NMO include inflammation of the optic nerve, the spinal cord, and specific brain areas, which coincide with sites of high AQP4 expression.1 Immunopathologic evidence implicates AQP4-IgG in the pathogenesis of NMO and suggests that AQP4-IgG reactivity and pathogenicity is restricted to the CNS.1,2 (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - October 20, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Asgari, N., Henriksen, T. B., Petersen, T., Lillevang, S. T., Weinshenker, B. G. Tags: Autoimmune diseases, Neonatal, Devic's syndrome CLINICAL/SCIENTIFIC NOTES Source Type: research

Impact of prolonged dinoprostone cervical ripening on the rate of artificial induction of labor: A prospective study of 330 patients
ConclusionThis study allows us to show for the first time that sustained‐release of dinoprostone leads to spontaneous induction of labor without increasing the obstetrical risk in a majority of patients. (Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research)
Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research - October 20, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Christine Denoual‐Ziad, Stéphanie Aicardi‐Nicolas, Christian Creveuil, Cathy Gaillard, Michel Dreyfus, Guillaume Benoist Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Comparison of abuse experiences of rural and urban African American women during perinatal period - Bhandari S, Bullock LF, Richardson JW, Kimeto P, Campbell JC, Sharps PW.
A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated) - October 18, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Risk Factor Prevalence, Injury Occurrence Source Type: news

Fetal and Neonatal Imaging and Strategy of Primary Neonatal Heart Transplantation in Hypoplastic Left Heart with Ebstein's Anomaly
We present the anatomic constellation of mitral stenosis/aortic atresia variant of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Ebstein's anomaly, and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, an exceeding rare congenital heart defect. Prenatal echocardiography led to concern about the capacity of the right ventricle to increase cardiac output with lung expansion and pulmonary arterial runoff at birth, prompting the precaution of extracorporeal membrane oxygenator standby at delivery. Stage I palliation was not attempted, and control of pulmonary arterial blood flow was achieved with pulmonary artery banding, allowing sufficient ongo...
Source: Echocardiography - October 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: James M. Hammel, David A. Danford, Robert L. Spicer, Shelby Kutty Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti‐androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate
CONCLUSIONSMixtures of endocrine disrupters relevant for human exposure was found to elicit persistent effects on the rat prostate following perinatal exposure, suggesting that human perinatal exposure to environmental chemicals may increase the risk of prostate cancer later in life. Prostate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: The Prostate)
Source: The Prostate - October 18, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Julie Boberg, Hanna K. L. Johansson, Niels Hadrup, Karin Dreisig, Line Berthelsen, Kristian Almstrup, Anne Marie Vinggaard, Ulla Hass Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Is Fetal Cerebroplacental Ratio an Independent Predictor of Intrapartum Fetal Compromise and Neonatal Unit Admission?
Lower fetal cerebroplacental ratio is independently associated with the need for operative delivery for presumed fetal compromise and with neonatal unit admission at term. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 18, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: Asma A. Khalil, José Morales-Rosello, Maddalena Morlando, Hasina Hannan, Amar Bhide, Aris Papageorghiou, Basky Thilaganathan Source Type: research

Mode of delivery and other risk factors for Escherichia coli infections in very low birth weight infants
Background: Infections in newborns remain one of the most significant problems in modern medicine. Escherichia coli is an important cause of neonatal bloodstream and respiratory tract infections and is associated with high mortality. The aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiology of E. coli infection in Polish neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and resistance to antibiotics, with particular reference to the safety of very low birth weight infants. Methods: Continuous prospective infection surveillance was conducted in 2009-2012 in five NICUs, including 1,768 newborns whose birth weight was (Source: BMC Pediatrics)
Source: BMC Pediatrics - October 18, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Agnieszka ChmielarczykJadwiga Wójkowska-MachDorota RomaniszynPawe¿ AdamskiEwa HelwichRyszard LauterbachMonika PobiegaMaria Borszewska-KornackaEwa Gulczy¿skaAgnieszka KordekPiotr Heczko Source Type: research

Unemployment at municipality level is associated with an increased risk of small for gestational age births ¿ a multilevel analysis of all singleton births during 2005¿2010 in Finland
IntroductionNeighbourhood level deprivation has been shown to influence adverse perinatal outcomes independent of individual level socioeconomic status (SES) in countries with high income inequality, such as the United States. The present study evaluates whether municipality level deprivation defined based on education (proportion of inhabitants with university level education), income (mean income per capita) and unemployment were associated with the prevalence of preterm birth ( (Source: International Journal for Equity in Health)
Source: International Journal for Equity in Health - October 18, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Sari RäisänenMichael KramerMika GisslerJuho SaariSeppo Heinonen Source Type: research

Evaluation of neuromotor development by means of the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test
Conclusion: The test allowed nurses to assess infant development, identify deviations early, and plan interventions.Objetivo: Investigar el desarrollo neuromotor de los niños en riesgo entre tres y 12 meses de vida, por medio de la versión brasileña del Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT). Método: Estudio longitudinal con 78 niños y 76 padres egresados ​​de una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales en Fortaleza-CE, Brasil. Se aplicaron dos instrumentos: HINT y un cuestionario socioeconómico, entre los meses de julio de 2009 a agosto de 2010. Se analizaron 55 niños prematuros y 23 niños nacidos de término. ...
Source: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP - October 17, 2014 Category: Nursing Source Type: research

Neonatal Seizure Detection Using Atomic Decomposition With a Novel Dictionary
Atomic decomposition (AD) can be used to efficiently decompose an arbitrary signal. In this paper, we present a method to detect neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG) seizure based on AD via orthogonal matching pursuit using a novel, application-specific, dictionary. The dictionary consists of pseudoperiodic Duffing oscillator atoms which are designed to be coherent with the seizure epochs. The relative structural complexity (a measure of the rate of convergence of AD) is used as the sole feature for seizure detection. The proposed feature was tested on a large clinical dataset of 826 h of EEG data from 18 full-term newborns...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - October 17, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

Delayed preconditioning with NMDA receptor antagonists in a rat model of perinatal asphyxia.
CONCLUSIONS: We ascribe neuroprotection induced in the immature rats by the pretreatment with both NMDA receptor antagonists 48 to 92 h before hypoxia-ischemia to tolerance evoked by preconditioning, while the neuroprotective effect of (+)MK-801 applied 24 h before the insults may be attributed to direct consequences of the inhibition of NMDA receptors. This is the first report demonstrating the phenomenon of inducing tolerance against hypoxia-ischemia in vivo in developing rat brain by preconditioning with NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID: 25310738 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Folia Neuropathologica)
Source: Folia Neuropathologica - October 17, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Makarewicz D, Sulejczak D, Duszczyk M, Małek M, Słomka M, Lazarewicz J Tags: Folia Neuropathol Source Type: research

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a long preclinical period?
The onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is conventionally considered as commencing with the recognition of clinical symptoms. We propose that, in common with other neurodegenerations, the pathogenic mechanisms culminating in ALS phenotypes begin much earlier in life. Animal models of genetically determined ALS exhibit pathological abnormalities long predating clinical deficits. The overt clinical ALS phenotype may develop when safety margins are exceeded subsequent to years of mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation or an imbalanced environment of excitation and inhibition in the neuropil. Somatic mutations, ...
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - October 17, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Eisen, A., Kiernan, M., Mitsumoto, H., Swash, M. Tags: Motor neurone disease, Neuromuscular disease, Spinal cord Neurodegeneration Source Type: research

Estrogen inhibits BMP4‐induced BMP4 expression in cardiomyocytes: a potential mechanism of estrogen‐mediated protection against cardiac hypertrophy
Conclusion and ImplicationsEstrogen treatment inhibited BMP4‐induced BMP4 expression in cardiomyocytes through stimulating ERβ receptor and inhibiting JNK activation. The present work provides a novel mechanism of estrogen‐mediated protection against cardiac hypertrophy. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - October 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yu‐Chun Wang, Xiao‐Lin Xiao, Na Li, Di Yang, Yue Xing, Rong Huo, Ming‐Yu Liu, Yan‐Qiu Zhang, De‐Li Dong Tags: Research Paper – Chinese innovation in cardiovascular drug discovery Themed Issue Source Type: research

Neonatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorders in infants
What is already known on this topic? Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a prevalence rate of 1 in 68 among children1; with genetic, familial (eg, maternal and paternal age), prenatal (eg, low birth weight and prematurity) and perinatal factors associated with an increased risk for later development of ASD.2 3 What does this paper add? The likelihood of an ASD diagnosis increased with decreasing gestational age and decreasing birth weight. High-frequency ventilation and intraventricular cranial haemorrhages (ICH) were also related to increased risk. ASD outcome was established through a combination of tools; results were ...
Source: Evidence-Based Mental Health - October 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Webb, S. J. Tags: Neurology, Autism, Pervasive developmental disorder, Competing interests (ethics) Prevalence, assessment and diagnosis Source Type: research

A population-based study of neonatal mortality and maternal care utilization in the Indian state of Bihar
Conclusions: Neonatal mortality continues to be relatively high in Bihar, and the utilization of maternal care very low and inequitable. Interventions need to address these deficiencies. (Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth)
Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth - October 17, 2014 Category: OBGYN Authors: G Anil KumarRakhi DandonaPriyanka ChamanPriyanka SinghLalit Dandona Source Type: research

Animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. iii: the preterm and term rabbit models.
ANIMAL MODELS OF BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA. III: THE PRETERM AND TERM RABBIT MODELS. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014 Oct 17; Authors: D'Angio CT, Ryan RM Abstract Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is an important lung developmental pathophysiology that affects many premature infants each year. Newborn animal models employing both premature and term animals have been used over the years to study various components of BPD. This review describes some of the neonatal rabbit studies that have contributed to the understanding of BPD, including those using term newborn hyperoxia exposure models, prem...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - October 17, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: D'Angio CT, Ryan RM Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Parenteral Soy Oil and Fish Oil Emulsions: Impact of Dose Restriction on Bile Flow and Brain Size of Parenteral Nutrition-Fed Neonatal Piglets.
Conclusion: Low-dose fat emulsions reduce the risk of developing PNALD. Further investigation of the risk to brain development in neonates exposed to dose restriction, particularly with fish oil, is required. PMID: 25326097 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: JPEN Journal Of Parenteral And Enteral Nutrition)
Source: JPEN Journal Of Parenteral And Enteral Nutrition - October 17, 2014 Category: Nutrition Authors: Josephson J, Turner JM, Field CJ, Wizzard PR, Nation PN, Sergi C, Ball RO, Pencharz PB, Wales PW Tags: JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr Source Type: research

Australian midwives knowledge, attitude and perceived learning needs around perinatal mental health - Hauck YL, Kelly G, Dragović M, Butt J, Whittaker P, Badcock JC.
DESIGN AND AIM: a cross sectional survey was undertaken to explore midwives׳ knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mental health disorders in childbearing women vis-à-vis their perceived mental health learning needs. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: a 50.1% resp... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated) - October 16, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Occupational Issues Source Type: news

The Pediatrix BabySteps® Data Warehouse — A Unique National Resource for Improving Outcomes for Neonates
Abstract The Pediatrix Medical Group Clinical Data Warehouse represents a unique electronic data capture system for the assessment of outcomes, the management of quality improvement (CQI) initiatives, and the resolution of important research questions in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This system is described in detail and the manner in which the Data Warehouse has been used to measure and improve patient outcomes through CQI projects and research is outlined. The Pediatrix Data Warehouse now contains more than 1 million patients, serving as an exceptional tool for evaluating NICU care. Examples are prov...
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - October 16, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Childhood behaviour problems predict crime and violence in late adolescence: Brazilian and British birth cohort studies
Conclusions Conduct problems and hyperactivity are similar precursors of crime and violence across different social settings. Early crime and violence prevention programmes could target these behavioural difficulties and associated risks in LMICs as well as in HICs. (Source: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology)
Source: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology - October 16, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research

Sojourn in excessively high oxygen saturation ranges in individual very low birth weight neonates
ConclusionMeasures to improve compliance with targeted SpO2 ranges should be applied universally although further improvement may be achieved by specifically targeting babies receiving supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Paediatrica)
Source: Acta Paediatrica - October 16, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Jenda Arawiran, JeanneMarie Curry, Lorna Welde, Gad Alpan Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Maternal cardiac function, uteroplacental Doppler flow parameters and pregnancy outcome: a systematic review.
ConclusionThis review shows that there is increasing evidence for an association between pre‐existent subclinical cardiac dysfunction, poor placentation (reflected by uteroplacental Doppler flow abnormalities) and poor pregnancy outcome. It may be postulated that preexistent suboptimal cardiac performance, either as a result of congenital heart disease, or of a subclinical latent condition, is one of the common denominators of poor placentation, leading to poor pregnancy outcome. (Source: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology - October 16, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: M.A.M. Kampman, C.M. Bilardo, B.J.M. Mulder, J.G. Aarnoudse, C. Ris‐Stalpers, D.J. Veldhuisen, P.G. Pieper Tags: Systematic Review Source Type: research

Magnesium sulfate exposure and neonatal intensive care unit admission at term
amp; D J Lyell (Source: Journal of Perinatology)
Source: Journal of Perinatology - October 16, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: A I GirsenM B GreenbergY Y El-SayedH LeeB CarvalhoD J Lyell Source Type: research

Recurrence of group B streptococcus colonization in successive pregnancies
mp; E Hirsch (Source: Journal of Perinatology)
Source: Journal of Perinatology - October 16, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: L C ColicchiaD S LauderdaleH DuM AdamsE Hirsch Source Type: research

The effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake during pregnancy on adiposity of healthy full-term offspring at birth
Cordeiro-Ferreira (Source: Journal of Perinatology)
Source: Journal of Perinatology - October 16, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: L Pereira-da-SilvaC CaboA C MoreiraA L PapoilaD VirellaR NevesK M BridgesG Cordeiro-Ferreira Source Type: research

Clinical outcome and cost of treatment and care for neonates less than 1000 grams admitted to Vali-e ASR Hospital
Conclusion: Medication, medical supplies and equipment cost was significantly high. This is especially due to the fact that the present types of insurances do not cover such expenses very well, forcing parents to pay themselves. Insurance systems are expected to take this issue into immediate account. (Source: Health Economics Review)
Source: Health Economics Review - October 16, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Hosein DaliliMohaddese FallahiSaeid MoradiFatemeh NayeriMamak ShariatArash Rashidian Source Type: research

The breadth and type of systemic inflammation and the risk of adverse neurological outcomes in extremely low gestational age newborns
Increasing breadth of early neonatal inflammation, indexed by the number of protein elevations or the number of protein functional classes elevated, is associated with increasing risk of disorders of brain structure and function among infants born extremely premature. (Source: Pediatric Neurology)
Source: Pediatric Neurology - October 16, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Karl C.K. Kuban, Thomas M. O’Shea, Elizabeth N. Allred, Raina N. Fichorova, Tim Heeren, Nigel Paneth, Deborah Hirtz, Olaf Dammann, Alan Leviton, ELGAN Study Investigators Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of non-criteria obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome.
Abstract Accurate diagnosis of obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a prerequisite for optimal clinical management. The international consensus (revised Sapporo) criteria for obstetric APS do not include low positive anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti β2 glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) antibodies (< 99th centile) and/or certain clinical criteria such as two unexplained miscarriages, three non-consecutive miscarriages, late pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, late premature birth, or two or more unexplained in vitro fertilisation failures. In this review we examine the available evidence to address the question o...
Source: Thrombosis and Haemostasis - October 16, 2014 Category: Hematology Authors: Arachchillage DR, Machin SJ, Mackie IJ, Cohen H Tags: Thromb Haemost Source Type: research

An Evaluation of Hawaii’s Healthy Start Program Using Child Abuse Hospitalization Data
Abstract This retrospective study had a twofold focus: (1) to assess the utility of a perinatal screening and assessment protocol for identifying families with an elevated child maltreatment risk and (2) to assess the effectiveness of an intensive home visitation program designed to prevent severe maltreatment. Among 15,864 families screened and assessed for child maltreatment risk, elevated risk was identified in 4,464 families, 1,738 of whom received intensive home visiting services and 2,728 who did not. Subsequently, data on hospitalizations with a child maltreatment diagnosis were used as outcome measures. Am...
Source: Journal of Family Violence - October 15, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Mathematical Model Evaluating the Timing of Early Diagnostic Testing in HIV-Exposed Infants in South Africa
Conclusions: Six weeks may no longer be the optimal age to diagnose perinatal HIV infections. Two early PCR tests (at birth and 10 weeks) would likely be the ideal diagnostic algorithm, but must be coupled with improved program coverage. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 15, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Prevention Source Type: research

Raltegravir Pharmacokinetics in Neonates Following Maternal Dosing
Abstract: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1097 was a multicenter trial to determine washout pharmacokinetics and safety of in utero/intrapartum exposure to raltegravir in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy. Twenty-two mother–infant pairs were enrolled; evaluable pharmacokinetic data were available from 19 mother–infant pairs. Raltegravir readily crossed the placenta, with a median cord blood/maternal delivery plasma raltegravir concentration ratio of 1.48 (range, 0.32–4.33). Raltegravir elimination was highly variable and ex...
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - October 15, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Brief Report: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Defective Natural Killer cell antiviral capacity in paediatric HBV infection
Summary Natural Killer (NK) cells exhibit dysregulated effector function in adult chronic HBV infection (CHB), which may contribute to virus persistence. The role of NK cells in children infected perinatally with HBV is less studied. Access to a unique cohort enabled the cross‐sectional evaluation of NK cell frequency, phenotype and function in HBV‐infected children relative to uninfected children. We observed a selective defect in NK cell IFN‐γ production, with conserved cytolytic function, mirroring the functional dichotomy observed in adult infection. Reduced expression of NKp30 on NK cells suggests a role of imp...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - October 15, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ida L Heiberg, Laura J Pallett, Thilde N Winther, Birthe Høgh, Mala K Maini, Dimitra Peppa Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Effect of the new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus among Japanese women
Conclusions Because the new GDM criteria greatly affect perinatal complications, intervention for GDM starting at an early stage and strict follow-up (especially GDM with obesity) are important for reducing complications as well as the incidence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the mother and child. (Source: Diabetology International)
Source: Diabetology International - October 15, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
School performance at age 7 in late preterm and early term birth infants In this large study school performance in reading, writing, speaking and listening, mathematics and science were analysed in the third year of schooling in 6025 infants in England who were enrolled in the millennium cohort study. Of the term born children 18% performed below the expected level. This figure was 21% for early term infants, 25% for late preterm infants, 31% in moderately preterm infants and 43% in very preterm infants. Although the individual risk increments are small, late preterm and early term births represent a quarter of all infants...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition - October 15, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Stenson, B. Tags: Fantoms Source Type: research

Late preterm and early term children: the early years at school
Chan and Quigley report the key stage 1 outcomes for the Millennium Cohort based on gestational age at birth.1 We have been aware for some time of the relationship between special educational needs,2 school failure3 and gestational age but this study demonstrates that even as early as school year 3 this effect can be demonstrated. Moreover, they have also divided ‘term’ births into early (37–38 weeks) and full term (39–41 weeks). Consistent with the findings of MacKay et al2 from Scotland, it seems clear that the relationship with educational risk is continuous from full term downwards. This is a hi...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition - October 15, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Marlow, N. Tags: Neurological injury, Child health, Trauma, Injury Editorials Source Type: research

Has enough evidence accumulated to consider CPAP a first-line standard of care in developing countries?
Deciding when sufficient evidence has accumulated for a new therapy to become the ‘standard of care’ is a trade-off between absolute certainty obtained from myriads of trials and insufficient ‘proof.’ In developing countries, the financial and technical resources needed to make new therapies widely available further complicate this balance. Moreover, expensive, large-scale trials are often conducted in industrialised countries. Can the evidence provided by these studies inform treatment selection in resource-limited settings? Or, are ‘local’ studies always necessary? Decisions to adopt n...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition - October 15, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Jensen, E. A., DeMauro, S. B., Kirpalani, H. Tags: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Child health, Infant health, Neonatal health, Mechanical ventilation Editorials Source Type: research