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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 13.
Disturbed Sleep in Parkinson's disease – anatomical and pathological correlates
ConclusionsPathological changes in these structures, residing in the brain circuitry relating to sleep physiology, strongly predict the presence of sleep disturbances in PD.
Source: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology - January 30, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: M.E. Kalaitzakis, S.M. Gentleman, R.K.B. Pearce Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
From the mouths of babes: Dental caries in infants and children and the intensification of agriculturel in mainland Southeast Asia
This article investigates the prevalence and location of caries in the dentition of infants and children (less than 15 years of age) from eight prehistoric mainland Southeast Asian sites collectively spanning the Neolithic to late Iron Age, during which time rice agriculture became an increasingly important subsistence mode. Caries prevalence varied among the sites but there was no correlation with chronological change. The absence of evidence of a decline in dental health over time can be attributed to the relative noncariogenicity of rice and retention of broad‐spectrum subsistence strategies. No differences in caries ...
Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology - January 29, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: S. E. Halcrow, N. J. Harris, N. Tayles, R. Ikehara‐Quebral, M. Pietrusewsky Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Temporal alterations and cellular mechanisms of transmural repolarization during progression of mouse cardiac hypertrophy and failure
ConclusionThe two distinct TDR modes were revealed during the progression of mouse cardiac hypertrophy and failure, indicating that the remodeling of TDR depends on the stage of the disease.Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society
Source: Acta Physiologica - January 29, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Chenxia Shi, Xiaofeng Wang, Fang Dong, Yuhong Wang, Jingfang Hui, Zhige Lin, Jing Yang, Yanfang Xu Tags: Regular Paper Source Type: research
Cardiac autonomic impairment during sleep is linked with disease severity in Parkinson's disease.
CONCLUSION: VLF and LF during REM sleep might constitute surrogate markers of disease severity. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide additional clinical evidence of the autonomic impairment commonly observed in PD, and prove that cardiac autonomic dysfunction during REM sleep is correlated with disease severity. PMID: 23375381 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Neurophysiology - January 29, 2013 Category: Neurology Authors: Palma JA, Urrestarazu E, Alegre M, Pastor MA, Valencia M, Artieda J, Iriarte J Tags: Clin Neurophysiol Source Type: research
Microfluidics and cancer: are we there yet?
We present a review of role of microlfuidcs in cancer research, including the history, recent advances and future directions to explore where the field stand currently in addressing complex clinical challenges and future of it. This review identifies four critical areas in cancer research, in which microfluidics can change the current paradigm. These include cancer cell isolation, molecular diagnostics, tumor biology and high-throughput screening for therapeutics. In addition, some of our lab's current research is presented in the corresponding sections. PMID: 23358873 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomedical Microdevices - January 29, 2013 Category: Biomedical Engineering Authors: Zhang Z, Nagrath S Tags: Biomed Microdevices Source Type: research
Overexpression of developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) increases bone loss.
Abstract The developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) is a novel subclass of GTP binding proteins. Many functional characteristics of osteoclast (OC) are associated with small GTPases. We hypothesized that DRG2 affects bone mass via modulating OC activity. Using DRG2 transgenic mice, we investigated the role of DRG2 in bone remodeling. DRG2 overexpression caused a decrease in bone mass and an increase in the number and activity of OC in vivo. DRG2 overexpression increased fusion, spreading, survival, and resorption activity of OC in vitro. Down-regulation of DRG2 by siRNA decreased fusion, spreading, ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 29, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Ke K, Sul OJ, Kim W, Lee MH, Ko MS, Suh JH, Kim HJ, Kim SY, Park JW, Choi HS Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Lymphotoxin-a is a Novel Adiponectin Expression Suppressor Following Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion.
Abstract Recent clinical observations demonstrate adiponectin (APN), an adipocytokine with potent cardioprotective actions, is significantly reduced following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). However, mechanisms responsible for MI/R-induced hypoadiponectinemia remain incompletely understood. Adult male mice were subjected to 30 minutes MI followed by varying reperfusion periods. Adipocyte APN mRNA and protein expression, and plasma APN and TNF concentrations were determined. APN expression/production began to decline 3 hours after reperfusion (reaching nadir 12 hours after reperfusion), returning to control ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 29, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Lau WB, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Liu B, Wang XL, Yuan YX, Christopher TA, Lopez BL, Gao E, Koch WJ, Ma XL, Wang YJ Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
CaSR-mediated Interactions Between Calcium and Magnesium Homeostasis in Mice.
Abstract Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) homeostasis are interrelated and share common regulatory hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D. However, the role of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in Mg homeostasis in vivo is not well-understood. We sought to investigate the interactions between Mg and Ca homeostasis using genetic mouse models with targeted inactivation of PTH (PTH KO) or both PTH and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) (double knockout, DKO). Serum Mg is lower in PTH KO and DKO mice than in WT mice on standard chow, while supplemental dietary Ca leads to equivalent Mg levels for...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 29, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Quinn SJ, Thomsen AR, Egbuna OI, Pang J, Baxi K, Goltzman D, Pollak MR, Brown EM Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Metabolic scaling in turtles.
Abstract Bennett and Dawson (1976) presented an analysis of the relationship of metabolic rate (MR) and body mass among turtles, based on 10 studies, but unlike most other groups of ectotherms, there has been no update to include the many later reports on turtles. Here I present a review of the data on turtle metabolic rates at 20, 25, and 30 °C, along with regression equations and graphical analyses from a large number of studies. Two generalities emerge: (1) reported metabolic rates for sea turtles are higher than for other chelonians, although it is not certain whether this is an intrinsic characteristic of sea...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 29, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Ultsch GR Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research
Intracoronary secretin increases cardiac perfusion and function in anaesthetized pigs through pathways involving β‐adrenoceptors and nitric oxide
In conclusion, in anaesthetized pigs secretin primarily increased cardiac function and perfusion through the involvement of specific receptors, β‐adrenoceptors and NO release.
Source: Experimental Physiology - January 29, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Elena Grossini, Claudio Molinari, Vera Morsanuto, David A. S. G Mary, Giovanni Vacca Source Type: research
Humphrey Ridley (1653‐1708): Forgotten neuroanatomist and neurophysiologist
Humphrey Ridley is a little known character in the history of anatomy and physiology. Born in 1653, Ridley was a physician and anatomist who followed the research done by Willis, Vieussens, and Galen. Outside of a cursory knowledge of his birth and death, readers have only two remnants of his contributions to science: The Anatomy of the Brain, containing its Mechanism and Physiology and Observationes Quaedam Medico‐Practicae et Physiologicae de Asthmate et Hydrophobia. The former text was the first book in the English language written on the human brain. Ridley's studies using cadavers executed by hanging provided him wi...
Source: Clinical Anatomy - January 29, 2013 Category: Anatomy Authors: Philip Veith, Koichi Watanabe, Mohammadali M. Shoja, Christa Blaak, Marios Loukas, R. Shane Tubbs Tags: A Glimpse of Our Past Source Type: research
Coupling of functional connectivity and blood flow [Neuroscience]
Human brain functional networks contain a few densely connected hubs that play a vital role in transferring information across regions during resting and task states. However, the relationship of these functional hubs to measures of brain physiology, such as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), remains incompletely understood. Here, we used...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 29, 2013 Category: Science Authors: Liang, X., Zou, Q., He, Y., Yang, Y. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Gene expression profiling of early intervertebral disc degeneration reveals a down-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling and caveolin-1 expression: implications for development of regenerative strategies
Conclusions: Early IVD degeneration involves down-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling and caveolin-1 expression, which appears to be essential to the physiology and preservation of NCs. Therefore, caveolin-1 may be regarded an exciting target for developing strategies for IVD regeneration.
Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy - January 29, 2013 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Lucas SmoldersBjorn MeijDavid OnisFrank RiemersNiklas BergknutRichard WubboltsGuy GrinwisMartin HouwelinMarian Groot KoerkampDik van LeenenFrank HolstegeHerman HazewinkelLaura CreemersLouis PenningMarianna Tryfonidou Source Type: research
Myogenic tone is impaired at low arterial pressure in mice deficient in the low voltage‐activated CaV3.1 T‐type Ca2+ channel
Conclusion: Our data using mice deficient in the CaV3.1 T‐type channel represents new evidence for the involvement of non‐L‐type channels in arteriolar tone regulation. We showed that CaV3.1 channels are important for myogenic tone at low arterial pressure, which is potentially relevant under resting conditions in vivo. Moreover, CaV3.1 channels are not involved in Ca2+ entry and vasoconstriction to large depolarization with e.g. high‐KCl. Finally, we caution against using NNC 55‐0396 as a specific T‐type channel blocker in native cells expressing high‐voltage activated Ca2+ channels. Acta Physiologica © 201...
Source: Acta Physiologica - January 29, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Karl Björling, Hiromitsu Morita, Miriam F. Olsen, Andrei Prodan, Pernille B. Hansen, Philippe Lory, Niels‐Henrik Holstein‐Rathlou, Lars J. Jensen Tags: Regular Paper Source Type: research
Transcriptional investigation of the effect of mixed feeding to identify the main cellular stresses on recombinant Pichia pastoris.
Abstract Heterologous protein expression using Pichia pastoris causes metabolic stress on the physiology of host cells, which may compromise the yields of secreted foreign proteins. Thus, understanding these metabolic stresses during secretory expression allows us to circumvent these undesirable effects. We investigated the effect of co-feeding two alternative carbon resources, sorbitol and yeast extract (YE), on the physiology of A3, a P. pastoris strain carrying 18 copies of the porcine insulin precursor (PIP) gene. Comparative transcriptional analysis was performed on 13 selected genes involved in important cell...
Source: Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology - January 28, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhu T, Hang H, Chu J, Zhuang Y, Zhang S, Guo M Tags: J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Myocardin and MicroRNA‐1 modulate bladder activity through connexin 43 expression during post‐natal development
We report the involvement of myocardin (MYOCD) and microRNA‐1 (miR‐1) in the regulation of connexin 43 (GJA1), a major gap junction in bladder smooth muscle, and the collective role of these molecules during post‐natal bladder development. Wild type mouse bladders showed normal development from early postnatal to adult including increases in bladder capacity and maintenance of normal sensitivity to cholinergic agents concurrent with down‐regulation of MYOCD and several smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractile genes. Myocardin heterozygous‐knockout mice exhibited reduced expression of Myocd mRNA and several SMC contra...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Masaaki Imamura, Yoshio Sugino, Xiaochun Long, Orazio J. Slivano, Nobuyuki Nishikawa, Naoki Yoshimura, Joseph M. Miano Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Ras Activated ERK and PI3K Pathways Differentially Affect Directional Movement of Cultured Fibroblasts
Cell Physiol Biochem 2013;31:123-142 (DOI:10.1159/000343355)
Source: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry - January 28, 2013 Category: Cytology Source Type: research
First Insights into the Social Organisation of Goodman’s Mouse Lemur (Microcebus lehilahytsara) – Testing Predictions from Socio-Ecological Hypotheses in the Masoala Hall of Zurich Zoo
Folia Primatol 2013;84:32–48 (DOI:10.1159/000345917)
Source: Folia Primatologica - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Coordination strategies used in stone knapping
This study provides further information with respect to the motor strategies used during stone knapping. Kinematics of the striking arm were recorded in expert and novice knappers while producing flakes of two different sizes. Using Uncontrolled Manifold Analysis, the results showed that knappers structure joint angle movements such that the hammer trajectory variability is minimized across trials, with experts displaying significantly smaller variability compared with novices. Principal component analysis further revealed that a single component captures the complexity of the strike and that the strike is governed by move...
Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Robert Rein, Blandine Bril, Tetsushi Nonaka Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
First Insights into the Social Organisation of Goodman’s Mouse Lemur (Microcebus lehilahytsara) – Testing Predictions from Socio-Ecological Hypotheses in the Masoala Hall of Zurich Zoo
Folia Primatol 2013;84:32–48 (DOI:10.1159/000345917)
Source: Folia Primatologica - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Functional and pharmacological consequences of the distribution of voltage‐gated calcium channels in the renal blood vessels
Abstract Calcium channel blockers are widely used to treat hypertension because they inhibit voltage‐gated calcium channels that mediate transmembrane calcium influx in e.g. vascular smooth muscle and cardiomyocytes. The calcium channel family consists of several subfamilies, of which the L‐type is usually associated with vascular contractility. However, the L‐, T‐ and P/Q‐types of calcium channels are present in the renal vasculature and are differentially involved in controlling vascular contractility, thereby contributing to regulation of kidney function and blood pressure. In the preglomerular vascular bed al...
Source: Acta Physiologica - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Pernille B. L. Hansen Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Research Fellow: the control and physiological function of ultradian rhythms in the stress axis, University of Edinburgh, UK
Added via www.jobs.ac.uk. Based in the Centre for Integrative Physiology you will be part of a multidisciplinary team investigating the control and physiological function of ultradian rhythms in the stress axis supported by an MRC programme grant between Edinburgh, Bristol and Exeter (UK). You will be a highly motivated recent PhD/postdoc with expertise in electrophysiological, optogenetic and/or imaging approaches with an interest in the control of pituitary hormone secretion. The ability to work independently as well as within a multidisciplinary team is essential. For more information on the role and instructions on h...
Source: Society for Endocrinology - January 28, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news
Transient Receptor Potential Channels - Emerging Novel Drug Targets for the Treatment of Pain.
We present one of the most relevant strategies in the search for novel analgesic drugs, namely the TRP channels and their ligands, both agonists and antagonists as potential novel therapeutics for inflammatory and neuropathic pain syndromes. The safety profile of these agents, in particular their impact on thermosensation, is also discussed below. PMID: 23409716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - January 28, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Sałat K, Moniczewski A, Librowski T Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research
Vascular compliance during insulin infusion and oral glucose challenge
Conclusion: PWV increased during euglycemic clamp conditions without significant changes in C1 or C2. Oral glucose had less effect on PWV and changes in C1 and C2 were minimal. These data support mechanisms that link insulin and arterial stiffness in vascular physiology and suggest that part of the mechanism of CVD in insulin resistance may relate to insulin's effects on arterial stiffness.
Source: Artery Research - January 28, 2013 Category: Cardiology Authors: Houry Puzantian, Ari Mosenkis, Raymond R. Townsend Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
John Gaetano Forte, PhD
John Forte, a pioneer in studying the acid-secreting gastric parietal cell, mentor to scores of aspiring scientists and physicians, teacher to thousands of biology and physiology students, and devoted husband, father, and grandfather died November 19, 2012, after a long battle with leukemia. John was a Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology in the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley. He is survived by his loving wife of 51 years, Trudy, who was also his colleague and collaborator; his daughters, Michele Ramos (Marcelio), Susan McElhany (Clay); son John (Nicole), and grand...
Source: Gastroenterology - January 28, 2013 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Terry Machen, Curtis Okamoto, Catherine Chew, James R. Goldenring Tags: In Memoriam Source Type: research
Fibre type specific change in FXYD1 phosphorylation during acute intense exercise in humans.
In conclusion, FXYD1 ser68 phosphorylation increased by an acute bout of intense exercise, in human Type II fibres, while AB_FXYD1 signal intensity was lowered in both Type I and Type II fibres, indicating fibre type differences in FXYD1 phosphorylation on serine 63, serine 68 and threonine 69. This together with the observation of a higher abundance of the Na+-K+ pump α2-isoform protein in Type II fibres is likely to have importance for the exercise-induced human Na+-K+ pump activity in the different fibre types. PMID: 23359667 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Thomassen M, Murphy RM, Bangsbo J Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Functional significance of synaptic terminal size in glutamatergic sensory pathways in thalamus and cortex.
Abstract Glutamatergic pathways are a major information carrying and processing network of inputs in the brain. There is considerable evidence suggesting that glutamatergic pathways do not represent a homogenous group and that they can be segregated into at least two broad categories. Class 1 glutamatergic inputs, which are suggested to be the main information carriers, are characterized by a number of unique synaptic and anatomical features, such as the large synaptic boutons with which they often terminate. On the other hand, Class 2 inputs, which are thought to play a modulatory role, are associated, amongst oth...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Petrof I, Sherman SM Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
STIM2 drives Ca2+ oscillations through store-operated Ca2+ entry caused by mild store depletion.
Abstract Agonist-induced calcium oscillations in many cell types are triggered by Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and driven by store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). STIM1 and STIM2 serve as endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) sensors that, upon store depletion, activate Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels (Orai1-3, CRACM1-3) in the plasma membrane. However, their relative roles in agonist-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations remains ambiguous. We here report that while both STIM1 and STIM2 contribute to store-refilling during Ca2+ oscillations in mast cells (RBL), T cells (Jurkat) and human embryonic kidney (H...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Thiel M, Lis A, Penner R Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
The essential role of peripheral respiratory chemoreceptor inputs in maintaining breathing revealed when CO2 stimulation of central chemoreceptors is diminished.
Abstract Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is a condition characterized by oscillations between apnoea and hyperpnoea during sleep. Smith and Dempsey proposed that withdrawal of peripheral chemoreceptor (carotid body) activation following transient ventilatory overshoots plays an essential role in causing apnoea, raising the possibility that sustaining carotid body activity during ventilatory overshoots may prevent apnoea. To test whether sustained peripheral chemoreceptor activation is sufficient to drive breathing, even in the absence of central chemoreceptor stimulation and vagal feedback, we used a vagotomized, decere...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Fiamma MN, O'Connor ET, Roy A, Zuna I, Wilson RJ Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Endogenous activation of presynaptic NMDA receptors enhances glutamate release from the primary afferents in the spinal dorsal horn in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
In this study, we determined if presynaptic NMDA receptors in the primary afferent central terminals play a role in synaptic plasticity of the spinal first sensory synapse in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded from superficial dorsal horn neurons of spinal slices taken from young adult rats. We showed that increased glutamate release from the primary afferents contributed to the enhanced amplitudes of EPSCs evoked by input from the primary afferents in neuropathic rats. Endogenous activation of presynaptic NMDA receptors increased glutama...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Yan X, Yan E, Gao M, Weng HR Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Calcium-dependent regulation of climbing fiber synapse elimination during postnatal cerebellar development.
Abstract Functional neural circuit formation during postnatal development involves massive elimination of early-formed redundant synapses and strengthening of necessary synaptic connections. In the cerebellum, one-to-one connection from climbing fiber (CF) to Purkinje cell (PC) is established through four distinct phases: (1) strengthening of a single CF among multiple CFs in each PC at P3-P7, (2) translocation of a single strengthened CF to PC dendrites from around P9, and (3) early phase (P7 to around P11) and (4) late phase (around P12 to P17) of elimination of weak CF synapses from PC somata. Mice with PC-selec...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Kano M, Nakayama H, Hashimoto K, Kitamura K, Sakimura K, Watanabe M Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Genetic ablation of aquaporin-2 in the mouse connecting tubules results in defective renal water handling.
Abstract Body water balance is regulated via the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), which is expressed in the renal connecting tubule (CNT) and collecting duct (CD). The relative roles of AQP2 in the CNT and CD are not fully understood. To study the role of AQP2 in the CNT we generated a mouse model with CNT-specific AQP2 deletion (AQP2-CNT-KO). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated an absence of AQP2 in the CNT of AQP2-CNT-KO mice. 24 hour urine output was significantly increased (KO: 3.0±0.3; WT: 1.9±0.3 mL/20 g BW) and urine osmolality decreased (KO: 1179±107; WT: 1...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Kortenoeven ML, Pedersen NB, Miller RL, Rojek A, Fenton RA Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Gastrin-releasing peptide acts via postsynaptic BB2 receptors to modulate inward rectifier K+ and TRPV1-like conductances in rat paraventricular thalamic neurons.
Abstract Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a bombesin-like peptide with a widespread distribution in the mammalian CNS, where it has a role in food intake, circadian rhythm generation, fear memory, itch sensation and sexual behavior. While it has been established that GRP predominantly excites neurons, details of the membrane mechanism involved in this action remain largely undefined. We used perforated-patch recording in acute brain slice preparations to investigate GRP-affected receptors and ionic conductances in neurons of the rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT). PVT is a component of the midline and int...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Hermes ML, Kolaj M, Coderre EM, Renaud LP Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
A heart to heart on temperature: Impaired temperature tolerance of triploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) due to early onset of cardiac arrhythmia.
Abstract Triploid (3N) salmonids are of interest to aquaculture and sport fishing industries, however it has been shown that 3N fish have impaired tolerance to high temperatures. To test the hypothesis that poor high temperature tolerance in 3N salmonids is related to impaired O(2) delivery to the body, maximum heart rate (fH) was measured in 2N (diploid) and 3N rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during an incremental temperature challenge. fH of both ploidies was similar at 10°C. However, a significant effect of ploidy on the response of fH to temperature from 10 to 22°C was reflected in a lower Q(10) for 3N in...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Verhille C, Anttila K, Farrell AP Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research
Digestive capacities allow the Mexican long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris nivalis) to live in cold environments.
Abstract Digestive capabilities of nectar-feeding vertebrates to assimilate sugars affect their ability to acquire and store energy and could determine the minimal temperatures at which these animals can survive. Here, we described the sugar digestive capability of Leptonycteris nivalis and related it with its capacity to live in cold environments. We measured the enzymatic activity, food intake rate and changes in body mass of bats feeding at four different sucrose concentrations (from 5 to 35% wt./vol.). Additionally, we used a mathematical model to predict food intake and compared it with the food intake of bats...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Ayala-Berdon J, Galicia R, Flores-Ortíz C, Medellín RA, Schondube JE Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research
Resistance to oxidative damage but not immunesuppression by organic tin compounds in natural populations of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentoni).
Abstract The acute toxicity of organic tin compounds (OTCs) has been studied in detail. However, due to their complex nature, very little is known about species-specific methods of accumulation and consequences for food-webs. Chironomids, on which e.g. Daubenton's bats feed, may act as vectors for the transport of organic tin compounds from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Bats are prone to environmental toxins because of their longevity and their ecological role as top predators. Organic tin compounds are associated with increased formation of reactive oxygen species and associated oxidative damage as well as su...
Source: Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology and pharmacology : CBP - January 28, 2013 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lilley T, Ruokolainen L, Meierjohann A, Kanerva M, Stauffer J, Laine VN, Atosuo J, Lilius EM, Nikinmaa M Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol Source Type: research
Ex vivo electroporation of retinal cells: a novel, high efficiency method for functional studies in primary retinal cultures.
Abstract Primary retinal cultures constitute valuable tools not only for basic research on retinal cell development and physiology, but also for the identification of factors or drugs that promote cell survival and differentiation. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of this system it is imperative to develop efficient and reliable techniques for the manipulation of gene expression. However, achieving appropriate transfection efficiencies in these cultures has remained challenging. The purpose of this work was to develop and optimize a technique that would allow the transfection of chick retinal cells w...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - January 28, 2013 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Vergara MN, Gutierrez C, O'Brien DR, Canto-Soler MV Tags: Exp Eye Res Source Type: research
Genetic evidence for spatio‐temporal changes in the dispersal patterns of two sympatric African colobine monkeys
Abstract Western black‐and‐white colobus and Temmink's red colobus are two forest‐dependent African primates with similar ecological requirements, often found in sympatry. Their most striking difference lies in their social system: black‐and‐white colobus live in small groups with mainly male‐mediated dispersal but where females can also disperse, whereas red colobus live in larger groups with males described as philopatric. To investigate whether genetic evidence supports the reported patterns of dispersal based on observational data, we examined eight black‐and‐white and six red colobus social groups from...
Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Tania Minhós, Elizabeth Nixon, Cláudia Sousa, Luis M. Vicente, Maria Ferreira da Silva, Rui Sá, Michael W. Bruford Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Noninvasive molecular sexing: An evaluation and validation of the SRY‐ and amelogenin‐based method in three new lemur species
In this study, we (i) show that this molecular sexing test works on three additional lemur species (Microcebus tavaratra, Propithecus coronatus and P. verreauxi) from two previously untested genera and one previously untested family, suggesting that these markers are likely to be universal among lemurs and other strepsirrhines; (ii) provide the first evidence that this PCR‐based sexing test works on degraded DNA obtained from noninvasive samples; (iii) validate the approach using a large number of known‐sex individuals and a multiple‐tubes approach, and show that mismatches between the field sex and the final molecul...
Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Cécile Vanpé, Jordi Salmona, Isa Pais, Célia Kun‐Rodrigues, Claire Pichon, Samuel Viana Meyler, Clément Rabarivola, Rebecca J. Lewis, Mohamed Thani Ibouroi, Lounès Chikhi Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research
Culture modifies expectations of kinship and sex‐biased dispersal patterns: A case study of patrilineality and patrilocality in tribal yemen
Abstract Studies of the impact of post‐marital residence patterns on the distribution of genetic variation within populations have returned conflicting results. These studies have generally examined genetic diversity within and between groups with different post‐marriage residence patterns. Here, we directly examine Y chromosome microsatellite variation in individuals carrying a chromosome in the same Y haplogroup. We analyze Y chromosome data from two samples of Yemeni males: a sample representing the entire country and a sample from a large highland village. Our results support a normative patrilocality in highland Y...
Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Ryan L. Raaum, Ali Al‐Meeri, Connie J. Mulligan Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Periosteal versus true cross‐sectional geometry: A comparison along humeral, femoral, and tibial diaphyses
Abstract Cross‐sectional geometric (CSG) properties of human long bone diaphyses are typically calculated from both periosteal and endosteal contours. Though quantification of both is desirable, periosteal contours alone have provided accurate predictions of CSG properties at the midshaft in previous studies. The relationship between CSG properties calculated from external contours and “true” (endosteal and periosteal) CSG properties, however, has yet to be examined along the whole diaphysis. Cross‐sectional computed tomography scans were taken from 21 locations along humeral, femoral, and tibial diaphyses in 20 ad...
Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Alison A. Macintosh, Thomas G. Davies, Timothy M. Ryan, Colin N. Shaw, Stock Jay T. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Lower limb activity in the Cis‐Baikal: Entheseal changes among middle holocene siberian foragers
Abstract Lower limb entheseal changes are evaluated in order to reconstruct activity levels and more fully understand cultural and behavioral variation among the middle Holocene (ca. 9,000–3,000 years BP) foragers of Siberia's Cis‐Baikal region. The four cemetery samples examined span a period of diachronic change characterized by an 800‐ to 1,000‐year discontinuity in the use of formal cemeteries in the region. Two of the cemetery samples represent the early Neolithic Kitoi culture, dating from 8,000 to 7,000/6800 cal. BP; the other two represent the late Neolithic‐early Bronze Age Isakovo‐Serovo‐Glazkovo (I...
Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology - January 28, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Angela R. Lieverse, Vladimir Ivanovich Bazaliiskii, Olga Ivanovna Goriunova, Andrzej W. Weber Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Interleukin‐32 expression is associated with a poorer prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Abstract Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represent the sixth most common malignancy diagnosed worldwide. Patient's survival is low due the high frequency of tumor recurrence. Inflammation promotes carcinogenesis as well as the formation of metastasis. Indeed, proinflammatory mediators are known to stimulate the expression of specific transcription factors such as Snai1 and to increase the ability of tumor cells to migrate into distant organs. The atypical interleukin‐32 (IL32) was mainly described to exacerbate inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel diseases. IL32 is expressed...
Source: Molecular Carcinogenesis - January 28, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: S. Guenin, M. Mouallif, P. Hubert, N. Jacobs, N. Krusy, A. Duray, M.M. Ennaji, S. Saussez, P. Delvenne Tags: Brief Communication Source Type: research
Interleukin‐27 expression modifies prostate cancer cell crosstalk with bone and immune cells in vitro
Abstract Prostate cancer is frequently associated with bone metastases, where the crosstalk between tumor cells and key cells of the bone microenvironment (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, immune cells) amplifies tumor growth. We have explored the potential of a novel cytokine, interleukin‐27 (IL‐27), for inhibiting this malignant crosstalk, and have examined the effect of autocrine IL‐27 on prostate cancer cell gene expression, as well as the effect of paracrine IL‐27 on gene expression in bone and T cells. In prostate tumor cells, IL‐27 upregulated genes related to its signaling pathway while downregulating malignancy...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Olga Zolochevska, Adriana O. Diaz‐Quiñones, Jayne Ellis, Marxa L. Figueiredo Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Mollugin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis by suppressing fatty acid synthase in HER2‐overexpressing cancer cells
Abstract Mollugin is a naphthohydroquine found in the roots of Rubia cordifolia, and has been reported to have a variety of biological activities, including anti‐inflammatory and apoptotic effects. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which mollugin exerts anti‐tumor effect in HER2‐overexpressing cancer cells. Our results showed that mollugin exhibited potent inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, especially in HER2‐overexpressing SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells and SK‐OV‐3 human ovarian cancer cells in a dose‐ and time‐dependent manner without affecting immortal...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Minh Truong Do, Yong Pil Hwang, Hyung Gyun Kim, MinKyun Na, Hye Gwang Jeong Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Protein phosphatase 2A Cα regulates osteoblast differentiation and the expressions of bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin via osterix transcription factor
In this study, we further examined the role of PP2A Cα in osteoblast differentiation by establishing the stable cell lines that overexpress PP2A Cα. Overexpression of PP2A Cα reduced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Osteoblast differentiation and mineralization were also decreased in PP2A Cα‐overexpressing cells, with reduction of bone‐related genes including osterix, bone sialoprotein (Bsp), and osteocalcin (OCN). Luciferase assay showed that the transcriptional activity of the Osterix promoter region was decreased in PP2A Cα‐overexpressing cells. Introduction of ectopic Osterix rescued the expression of Bs...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Hirohiko Okamura, Kaya Yoshida, Di Yang, Tatsuji Haneji Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
An investigation of donor and culture parameters which influence epithelial outgrowths from cultured human cadaveric limbal explants
This study shows that an important factor correlating with growth variation is the duration of corneo‐scleral tissue in organ culture. Interestingly, donor age was not correlated with limbal explant growth. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Oliver Baylis, Paul Rooney, Francisco Figueiredo, Majlinda Lako, Sajjad Ahmad Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Mesenchymal stem cells contribute to endogenous FVIII:c production
Abstract Besides the liver, it has been difficult to identify which organ(s) and/or cellular component(s) contribute significantly to the production of human FVIII:c (FVIII). Thus far, only endothelial cells have been shown to constitute a robust extrahepatic source of FVIII, possibly explaining both the diverse presence of FVIII mRNA in the body, and the observed increase in FVIII levels during liver failure. Here, we investigate whether human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), ubiquitously present in different organs, could also contribute to FVIII production. MSC isolated from human lung, liver, brain, and bone marrow expres...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Chad Sanada, Chung‐Jung Kuo, Evan J. Colletti, Melisa Soland, Saloomeh Mokhtari, Mary Ann Knovich, John Owen, Esmail D. Zanjani, Christopher D. Porada, Graça Almeida‐Porada Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Systemic effects of Wnt signaling
Abstract Wnt signaling plays a key role in several physiological and pathological aspects. Even if Wnt signal was first described more than 20 years ago, its role in systemic effects, such as angiogenesis and vascular disorders, bone biology, autoimmune diseases, neurological diseases and neoplastic disorders, was only recently emerged through the use of animal and in vitro models. Moreover, Wnt signaling inhibitors, such as DKK‐1, may be advantageously considered targets for the treatment of several diseases, including osteoporosis, vascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, neurological diseases and cancer. Nevertheless...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: N Maruotti, A Corrado, A Neve, FP Cantatore Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Endothelial cell leptin receptor mutant mice have hyperleptinemia and reduced tissue uptake
Abstract Hyperleptinemia is usually associated with obesity and leptin resistance. Endothelial cell leptin receptor knockout (ELKO) mice without a signaling membrane‐bound leptin receptor in endothelia, however, have profound hyperleptinemia without signs of leptin resistance. Leptin mRNA in adipose tissue was unchanged. To test the hypothesis that the ELKO mutation results in delayed degradation and slowed excretion, we determined the kinetics of leptin transfer in groups of ELKO and wildtype mice after intravenous bolus injection of 125I‐leptin and the reference substance 131I‐albumin. The degradation pattern of 12...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - January 28, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Hung Hsuchou, Bhavaani Jayaram, Abba J. Kastin, Yuping Wang, Suidong Ouyang, Weihong Pan Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research