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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 5.
Heat‐washout – an objective method for diagnosing neuropathy and atherosclerosis in diabetic patients
ConclusionThe heat‐washout method seems useful as and objective method for evaluating as well the presence of a VAR as atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetics.
Source: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging - February 13, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: M. Midttun, O. Snorgaard Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
The acute effects of exercise on the microvascular volume of Achilles tendons in healthy young subjects
ConclusionThe present data reveal that real‐time harmonic CEU can be used to determine the MV of healthy Achilles tendons both at rest and after 1 h of running exercise.
Source: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging - February 13, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Jessica Pingel, Adrian Harrison, Charlotte Suetta, Lene Simonsen, Henning Langberg, Jens Bülow Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Netrin-1 treated macrophages protects kidney against ischemia reperfusion injury of the kidney and suppresses inflammation by inducing M2 polarization.
In this study, we report novel mechanisms underlying netrin-1's effects on macrophages using in vivo and in vitro studies. Overexpression of netrin-1 in spleen and kidney of transgenic mice increased expression of arginase-1, IL-4 and IL-13 and decreased expression of COX-2, indicating a phenotypic switch in macrophage polarization toward an M2-like phenotype. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant increase in mannose receptor-positive macrophages in spleen as compared to wild type. In vitro, netrin-1 induced the expression of M2 marker expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages, peritoneal macrophages a...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Ranganathan P, Jayakumar C, Ramesh G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
The role of macrophages in the fibrotic phase of rat crescentic glomerulonephritis.
In conclusion, this study demonstrates that macrophages contribute to renal dysfunction and tissue damage in established crescentic glomerulonephritis as it progresses from the acute inflammatory to a chronic fibrotic phase. PMID: 23408165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Han Y, Ma FY, Tesch GH, Manthey CL, Nikolic-Paterson DJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
"Lithium" A Versatile Tool to Understand Renal Physiology"
Abstract By virtue of its unique interactions with kidney cells, lithium became an important research tool in renal physiology and pathophysiology. Investigators have uncovered the intricate relationship of lithium with the vasopressin and aldosterone systems, and the membrane channels or transporters regulated by them. While doing so, their work has also led to: (i) questioning the role of adenylyl cyclase activity and prostaglandins in lithium-induced suppression of aquaporin-2 gene transcription; (ii) unraveling the role of purinergic signaling in lithium-induced polyuria; and (iii) highlighting the importance o...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Kishore BK, Ecelbarger CM Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
Nitric oxide in afferent arterioles after uninephrectomy depends on extracellular L-arginine.
In conclusion, NO-dependent hyperperfusion of the remaining kidney in early UNX is associated with increased NO-release from the afferent arteriole which is highly dependent on extracellular L-arginine availability. PMID: 23408167 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Helle F, Skogstrand T, Schwartz IF, Schwartz D, Iversen BM, Palm F, Hultström M Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
miRNA-200b represses transforming growth factor beta1-induced EMT and fibronectin expression in kidney proximal tubular cells.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise of a novel class of endogenous small noncoding RNA that frequently down-regulate the expression of target genes. Recent reports suggest that miRNA-200b prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells by targeting the E-box binding transcription factors Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) and Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2). About 35% of active fibroblasts are derived from EMT which is central to the development of progressive renal fibrosis. Hence this study was designed to assess the effect of miRNA-200b on transforming growth factor beta...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Tang O, Chen X, Shen S, Hahn M, Pollock CA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
Kidney epithelial cells netrin-1 suppresses AKI-induced interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis through suppression of IL-6/STAT3 signaling.
Abstract Acute kidney injury induced organ fibrosis is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease, which remains one of the leading causes of death in the developed world. However, knowledge on molecules that may suppress the fibrogenic response after injury is lacking. In ischemic models of acute kidney injury, we demonstrate a new function of netrin-1 in regulating interstitial fibrosis. Acute injury was promptly followed by a rise in serum creatinine in both wild-type and netrin-1 transgenic animals. However, the wild type showed a slow recovery of kidney function as compared...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Ranganathan P, Jayakumar C, Ramesh G Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
Carl W. Gottschalk Distinguished Lecturer of the American Physiological Society Renal Section.
Abstract - PMID: 23408170 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Blount MA Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
Stratified Communities of Active Archaea in Shallow Sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, Southern China.
In this study, the archaeal diversity above, within, and beneath the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the Pearl River Estuary sediment core was described. The majority of the clones obtained from the metabolically active fraction of the archaeal community were most closely related to miscellaneous crenarchaeotal group and terrestrial miscellaneous euryarchaeotal group. Notably, although the Pearl River Estuary sediment belong to high methane and high organic carbon environment, sequences affiliated with methanotrophic and methanogenic archaea were detected as minor group in 16S rRNA clone libraries. No obvious evi...
Source: Current Microbiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chen J, Wang F, Jiang L, Yin X, Xiao X Tags: Curr Microbiol Source Type: research
Sex differences in cardiac autonomic regulation and in repolarisation electrocardiography.
Abstract The review summarises the present knowledge on the sex differences in cardiac autonomic regulations and in related aspects of electrocardiography with particular attention to myocardial repolarisation. Although some of the sex differences are far from fully established, multitude of observations show consistent differences between women and men. Despite more pronounced parasympathetic cardiac regulation, women have higher resting heart rate and lower baroreflex sensitivity. Of the electrocardiographic phenomena, women have longer QT interval duration, repolarisation sequence more synchronised with the inve...
Source: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Smetana P, Malik M Tags: Pflugers Arch Source Type: research
Sex differences in myocardial metabolism and cardiac function: an emerging concept.
Abstract There is substantial evidence that there are dramatic sex-related differences in the incidence of cardiovascular disease, apparently related to the presence of steroid hormones. This is supported by the discovery of steroid hormone receptors in the heart and vasculature. More controversial is the area of sex-related differences in cardiac metabolism and function. A number of human and animal studies have demonstrated that estrogen and testosterone have cardiac metabolic effects. Additionally, research shows females have higher heart rates and various indices of function, including cardiac output and stroke...
Source: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Wittnich C, Tan L, Wallen J, Belanger M Tags: Pflugers Arch Source Type: research
Acute endurance exercise induces changes in vasorelaxation responses that are vessel-specific.
In conclusion, an acute bout of endurance exercise increased vascular responsiveness. The dynamic and percent adjustments were vessel-specific with vessel function likely determining the response. PMID: 23408026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Murias JM, Grise KN, Jiang M, Kowalchuk H, Melling CW, Noble EG Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Reversal of Mitochondrial Proteomic Loss in Type 1 Diabetic Heart with Overexpression of Phospholipid Hydroperoxide Glutathione Peroxidase.
Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction is a contributor to diabetic cardiomyopathy. Previously, we observed proteomic decrements within the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) and matrix of diabetic cardiac interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) correlating with dysfunctional mitochondrial protein import. The goal of this study was to determine whether overexpression of mitochondria phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase 4 (mPHGPx), an antioxidant enzyme capable of scavenging membrane-associated lipid peroxides in the IMM, could reverse proteomic alterations, dysfunctional protein import and ultimately, mitochondr...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Baseler WA, Dabkowski ER, Jagannathan R, Thapa D, Nichols CE, Shepherd DL, Croston TL, Powell MJ, Razunguzwa TT, Lewis SE, Schnell DM, Hollander JM Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Skeletal muscle PLIN proteins, ATGL and CGI-58, interactions at rest and following stimulated contraction.
Abstract Evidence indicates that skeletal muscle lipid droplet proteins (PLINs) regulate lipolysis through protein-protein interactions on the lipid droplet surface. In adipocytes, PLIN1 is thought to regulate lipolysis by directly interacting with CGI-58, an activator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Upon lipolytic stimulation PLIN1 is phosphorylated releasing CGI-58 to fully activate ATGL and initiate triglyceride breakdown. The absence of PLIN1 in skeletal muscle leads us to believe that other PLIN family members undertake this role. Our purpose was to examine interactions between PLIN2, PLIN3, and PLIN5, ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Macpherson RE, Ramos S, Vandenboom R, Roy BD, Peters SJ Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Sensory nerves and nitric oxide contribute to reflex cutaneous vasodilation in humans.
Abstract We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of cutaneous sensory nerves would attenuate reflex cutaneous vasodilation in response to an increase in core temperature. Nine subjects were equipped with four microdialysis fibers on the forearm. Two sites were treated with topical anesthetic EMLA cream for 120 minutes. Sensory nerve inhibition was verified by lack of sensation to a pinprick. Microdialysis fibers were randomly assigned as: 1) lactated Ringer's (control); 2) 10 mM L-NAME to inhibit NOS; 3) EMLA + lactated Ringer's; and 4) EMLA + L-NAME. Laser-Doppler flowmetry was used as an index of skin blood flow...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Wong BJ Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Asymmetry in the control of cardiac performance by dorsomedial hypothalamus.
Abstract Dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) plays a key role in integrating cardiovascular responses to stress. We have recently reported greater heart rate responses following disinhibition of the right side of the DMH (R-DMH) in anesthetized rats and greater suppression of stress-induced tachycardia following inhibition of the R-DMH in conscious rats (both compared to similar intervention in the left DMH), suggesting existence of right/left side asymmetry in controlling cardiac chronotropic responses by the DMH. The aim of the present study was to determine whether similar asymmetry is present for controlling cardiac...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Xavier CH, Beig MI, Ianzer D, Fontes MA, Nalivaiko E Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Photoperiod history-dependent responses to intermediate day lengths engage hypothalamic iodothyronine deiodinase type III mRNA expression.
Abstract Perihypothalamic thyroid hormone signaling features prominently in the seasonal control of reproductive physiology. Triiodothyronine (T(3)) signaling stimulates gonadal development, and decrements in T(3) signaling are associated with gonadal regression. Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T(4)) into biologically-inactive 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT(3)), and in long-day breeding Siberian hamsters exposure to long (LD) and short (SD) photoperiods respectively inhibit and stimulate hypothalamic dio3 mRNA expression. Reproductive responses to intermediate-duration photop...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Kampf-Lassin A, Prendergast BJ Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Renal Sensory and Sympathetic Nerves Reinnervate the Kidney in a Similar Time Dependent Fashion Following Renal Denervation in Rats.
Conclusion: in normotensive rats, reinnervation of the renal sensory nerves occurs over the same time course as reinnervation of the renal sympathetic nerves, both being complete at 9 to 12 weeks following renal denervation. PMID: 23408032 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Mulder J, Hokfelt T, Knuepfer MM, Kopp UC Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Antenatal betamethasone has a sex-dependent effect on the in vivo response to endothelin in adult sheep.
Abstract Antenatal steroid administration is associated with multiple cardiometabolic alterations including hypertension; however the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are unclear. The aim of the present study was to ascertain, in vivo, the contribution of the endothelin system to the development of hypertension in the adult offspring and the signaling pathway involved. Pregnant sheep were treated with two doses of betamethasone (n=23) or vehicle (n=22) at 80 days (~0.55) gestation and allowed to deliver at term. Adult sheep were chronically instrumented under general anesthesia to place vascular catheters and ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Lee JH, Zhang J, Flores L, Rose JC, Massmann GA, Figueroa JP Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Fish Oil and Neurovascular Reactivity to Mental Stress in Humans.
In conclusion, 8 weeks of fish oil supplementation significantly attenuated both HR and total MSNA reactivity to mental stress, and elicited a paradoxical blunting of calf vascular conductance. These findings support and extend the growing evidence that fish oil may have positive health benefits regarding neural cardiovascular control in humans. PMID: 23408034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 13, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Carter JR, Schwartz CE, Yang H, Joyner MJ Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Evaluation of long‐term function, complications, quality of life and health status after restorative proctocolectomy with ileo neo rectal and with ileal pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis
ConclusionComparison of INRA and RPC on an intention to treat basis was not considered to be realistic due to the high intraoperative conversion rate and the failures in the INRA group. RPC remains the procedure of choice for restoring intestinal continuity after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis.© 2013 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Source: Colorectal Disease - February 13, 2013 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Joost T. Heikens, Jolanda Vries, Dirk J. Jong, Brenda L. den Oudsten, Wim Hopman, Joannes M.M. Groenewoud, Marion B. Kolk, Hein G. Gooszen, Cees J.H.M. Laarhoven Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Alcohol-Induced Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebral Blood Volume in Social Drinkers
Conclusion: In conclusion, a BAC of 0.08% causes both an average increase in global and regional CBF. There was stronger correlation between alcohol-induced changes in CBF and CBV in WM than in GM, suggesting the vasculature in the WM to be relatively more affected than the GM. Simultaneous measurements of CBF and CBV after acute alcohol intoxication in social drinkers are important in basic human neuroscience research to elucidate and understand brain physiology in the presence of exogenous neuro-pharmaceutical manipulations.
Source: Alcohol and Alcoholism - February 13, 2013 Category: Addiction Authors: Gundersen, H., van Wageningen, H., Gruner, R. Tags: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Source Type: research
Sex-Specific mTOR Signaling Determines Sexual Dimorphism in Myocardial Adaptation in Normotensive DOCA-Salt Model [Original Articles Part 2]
The deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model exhibits adverse cardiac remodeling in male mice and cardiac protection in female mice, even when blood pressure is normalized. We hypothesized that intact mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is necessary for cardiac protection in females. We first tested sex differences and intracellular signaling after mTOR targeting with rapamycin in wild-type mice. Radio-telemetric blood pressure was maintained at normal for 6 weeks. Rapamycin significantly reduced left ventricular hypertrophy, preserved ejection fraction, inhibited fibrosis, and maintained capillary st...
Source: Hypertension - February 13, 2013 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gurgen, D., Kusch, A., Klewitz, R., Hoff, U., Catar, R., Hegner, B., Kintscher, U., Luft, F. C., Dragun, D. Tags: Cardio-renal physiology/pathophysiology Original Articles Part 2 Source Type: research
Central Rho Kinase Inhibition Restores Baroreflex Sensitivity and Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Protein Imbalance in Conscious Rabbits With Chronic Heart Failure [Original Articles Part 2]
The small GTPase RhoA and its associated kinase ROCKII are involved in vascular smooth muscle cell contraction and endothelial NO synthase mRNA destabilization. Overactivation of the RhoA/ROCKII pathway is implicated in several pathologies, including chronic heart failure (CHF), and may contribute to the enhanced sympathetic outflow seen in CHF as a result of decreased NO availability. Thus, we hypothesized that central ROCKII blockade would improve the sympathovagal imbalance in a pacing rabbit model of CHF in an NO-dependent manner. CHF was induced by rapid ventricular pacing and characterized by an ejection fraction of ...
Source: Hypertension - February 13, 2013 Category: Cardiology Authors: Haack, K. K. V., Gao, L., Schiller, A. M., Curry, P. L., Pellegrino, P. R., Zucker, I. H. Tags: Cardio-renal physiology/pathophysiology Original Articles Part 2 Source Type: research
Probiotic-derived treatment offers new hope for premature babies
(American Physiological Society) Study in the American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology addresses critical component of problem affecting infants with necrotizing enterocolitis.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 13, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
Love Your Heart 2013: Promoting Heart Health in Europe
This is the 2013 Valentine's Day Campaign initiated by the MEP Heart Group in the European Parliament. It aims at ensuring that cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the n°1 killer in Europe, are given the appropriate attention on the EU policy agenda.You are warmly invited to join the MEP Heart Group Twitter & Facebook campaign on 13 & 14 February for raising awareness. Topics: Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS), Arrhythmias, Atrial Fibrillation, Basic Science, Cardiac Tumours, Cardiovascular Disease Prevention - Risk Assessment and Management, Cardiovascular Nursing, Cardiovascular S...
Source: ESC News and Press - February 12, 2013 Category: Cardiology Source Type: news
Physiology of the Intrathecal
Bolus: The Leptomeningeal
Route for Macromolecule and Particle Delivery to CNS
Molecular PharmaceuticsDOI: 10.1021/mp300474m
Source: Molecular Pharmaceutics - February 12, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mikhail I. Papisov, Vasily V. Belov and Kimberley S. Gannon Source Type: research
Accuracy of pointing movements relies upon a specific tuning between APAs and prime mover activation
ConclusionWe propose that, besides preserving the whole body balance, APAs are also tailored to obtain an accurate voluntary movement.Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society
Source: Acta Physiologica - February 12, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: A. Caronni, F. Bolzoni, R. Esposti, C. Bruttini, P. Cavallari Tags: Regular Paper Source Type: research
The effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on cells and tissuesseries:Advances in Experimental Medicine and BiologyProteomics is widely used in search of biomarkers, pharmacology, clinical research and toxicology. With the help of proteomics large amount of information about the physiology of living cells can be obtained in a single experiment. Combining this information with data from genomics and other high-throughput screening techniques like transcriptomics and metabolomics allows gaining new insights ...
Source: Springer Biomedical Sciences titles - February 12, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Biomedicine (general) Source Type: news
Molecular 'Calcium Sponge' Developed To Tackle Heart Failure
Researchers at the University of Minnesota's Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology and the Lillehei Heart Institute have utilized molecular genetic engineering to optimize heart performance in models of diastolic heart failure by creating an optimized protein that can aid in high-speed relaxation similar to fast twitching muscles. Within heart cells, calcium plays a major role in orchestrating normal heart pump function...
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - February 12, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Heart Disease Source Type: news
Sodium bicarbonate causes dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow in infants and children with single ventricle physiology.
Conclusions:Dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) caused by bolus NaHCO(3) are an important consideration in vulnerable populations wherein risk of rapid CBF fluctuations does not outweigh the benefit of treating a base deficit.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.25. PMID: 23403802 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Pediatric Research - February 12, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Buckley EM, Naim MY, Lynch JM, Goff DA, Schwab PJ, Diaz LK, Nicolson SC, Montenegro LM, Lavin NA, Durduran T, Spray TL, Gaynor JW, Putt ME, Yodh AG, Fogel MA, Licht DJ Tags: Pediatr Res Source Type: research
Severe Pneumonia Mortality in Elderly Patients Is Associated With Downregulation of Toll-like Receptors 2 and 4 on Monocytes.
CONCLUSIONS:: These findings demonstrate a previously undocumented association between mortality in elderly patients with severe pneumonia and decreased TLR2 and TLR4 expression. Our results highlight that TLRs can be targeted in the development of improved immune modulation therapies for these patients. PMID: 23406892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of the Medical Sciences - February 12, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tang L, Li Q, Bai J, Zhang H, Lu Y, Ma S Tags: Am J Med Sci Source Type: research
Effects of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 Inhibition on Hepatic Glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis.
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11β-HSD1) inhibition on basal and hormone stimulated glucose metabolism in fasted conscious dogs. For 7d prior to study either an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (HSD1-I; n=6) or placebo (PBO; n=6) were administered. After the basal period a 4h metabolic challenge followed where glucagon (3x-basal), epinephrine (5x-basal), and insulin (2x-basal) concentrations were increased. Hepatic glucose fluxes did not differ between groups during the basal period. In response to the metabolic challenge hepatic glucose productio...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 12, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Winnick JJ, Ramnanan CJ, Saraswathi V, Roop J, Scott M, Jacobson P, Jung P, Basu R, Cherrington AD, Edgerton DS Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Breast cancer resistance protein regulates apical ectoplasmic specialization dynamics stage-specifically in the rat testis.
Abstract Drug transporters determine the bioavailability of drugs in the testis behind the blood-testis barrier (BTB). Thus, they are crucial for male contraceptive development if these drugs (e.g., adjudin) exert their effects behind the BTB. Herein breast cancer resistant protein (Bcrp), an efflux drug transporter, was found to be expressed by both Sertoli and germ cells. Interestingly, Bcrp was not a component of the Sertoli cell BTB. Instead, it was highly expressed by peritubular myoid cells at the tunica propria, and also endothelial cells of the microvessels in the interstitium at all stages of the epithelia...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 12, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Qian X, Mruk DD, Wong EW, Cheng CY Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecules Reverse Leptin Resistance Induced by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.
In conclusion, the pathological mechanism of leptin resistance may be ameliorated by the pharmacological application of CO. PMID: 23403944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 12, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Zheng M, Zhang Q, Joe Y, Kim SK, Uddin MJ, Rhew H, Kim T, Ryter SW, Chung HT Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Insulin Infusion Suppresses While Glucose Infusion Induces Toll Like Receptors and HMG-B1 Protein Expression in Mononuclear Cells of Type 1 Diabetics.
Conclusions. While insulin reduces indices of oxidative and inflammatory stress in patients with type 1 diabetes, even small amounts of glucose (20g over 4h) induce oxidative and inflammatory stress. These effects are reflected in TLR, p38 MAPkinase and HMGB1expression. The induction of significant oxidative and inflammatory stress by small amounts of glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications. PMID: 23403945 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 12, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Dandona P, Ghanim H, Green K, Sia CL, Abuaysheh S, Kuhadiya N, Batra M, Dhindsa S, Chaudhuri A Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Asparagine Synthetase: Regulation by Cell Stress and Involvement in Tumor Biology.
Abstract Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) catalyzes the conversion of aspartate and glutamine to asparagine and glutamate in an ATP-dependent reaction. The enzyme is ubiquitous in its organ distribution in mammals, but basal expression is relatively low in tissues other than the exocrine pancreas. Human ASNS activity is highly regulated in response to cell stress, primarily by increased transcription from a single gene located on chromosome 7. Among the genomic elements that control ASNS transcription is the C/EBP-ATF response element (CARE) within the promoter. Protein limitation or an imbalanced dietary amino acid co...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 12, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Balasubramanian MN, Butterworth EA, Kilberg MS Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
CHARACTERIZATION OF β CELL PLASTICITY MECHANISMS INDUCED IN MICE BY A TRANSIENT SOURCE OF EXOGENOUS INSULIN.
Abstract β cell plasticity governs the adjustment of β cell mass and function to ensure normoglycemia. The study of how β cell mass is controlled and the identification of alternative sources of β cells are active fields of research. β cell plasticity has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological conditions. We developed a mice model in which we induced major β cell mass atrophy by implanting insulin pellets (IPI) for 7 or 10 days. The implants were then removed (IPR) to observe the timing and characteristics of β cell regeneration in parallel to changes in glycemia. Following IPR, the endoc...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 12, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Nollevaux MC, Rahier J, Marchandise J, Thurion P, Godecharles S, Van den Steen G, Jamart J, Sempoux C, Jacquemin P, Guiot Y Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Effects of Antibiotics on Bacterial Species Composition and Metabolic Activities in Chemostats Containing Defined Populations of Human Gut Microorganisms.
Abstract The composition and metabolic activities of the human colonic microbiota are modulated by a number of external factors, including diet and antibiotic therapy. Changes in the structure and metabolism of the gut microbiota may have long term consequences for host health. The large intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem comprising several hundreds of different bacterial species, which complicates investigations on intestinal physiology and ecology. To facilitate such studies, a highly simplified microbiota was used in this investigation consisting of 14 anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic organisms...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - February 12, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Newton DF, Macfarlane S, Macfarlane GT Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Environmental hyperosmolality regulates phospholipid biosynthesis in the renal epithelial cell line MDCK [Research Articles]
Hyperosmolality is a key signal for renal physiology. On the one hand, it contributes to the differentiation of renal medullary structures and to the development of the urinary concentrating mechanism. On the other, it is a stress factor. In both cases, hyperosmolality activates processes that require an adequate extension of cellular membranes. In the present work, we examined whether hyperosmolality regulates phospholipid biosynthesis, which is needed for the membrane biogenesis in the renal epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). Because phospholipids are the structural determinants of all cell membranes,...
Source: The Journal of Lipid Research - February 12, 2013 Category: Lipidology Authors: Casali, C. I., Weber, K., Favale, N. O., Tome, M. C. F. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
New study finds neither HFCS nor table sugar increases liver fat under 'real world' conditions
(Fleishman-Hillard, Inc.) A study published today in the Journal of Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism presented compelling data showing the consumption of both high fructose corn syrup and sucrose (table sugar) at levels consistent with average daily consumption do not increase liver fat in humans, a leading cause of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The findings also add to an already well-established body of science that high fructose corn syrup and table sugar are metabolically equivalent.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - February 12, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news
Nursing workload in neurological intensive care units: Cross-sectional study
Conclusion: The present results are important for the effective planning and use of nursing resources according to the care needs of patients in neuro-ICUs.
Source: Intensive and Critical Care Nursing - February 11, 2013 Category: Nursing Authors: Alda Ferreira Queijo, Renata Soares Martins, Rafaela Andolhe, Elaine Machado Oliveira, Ricardo Luis Barbosa, Katia Grillo Padilha Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Advanced arterial blood gas analysis in septic shock: A Singaporean nursing case review
Conclusion: The use of case review is enlightening in understanding the disease process and the decision-making that accompanies this. The lessons learnt are applicable to a wider nursing audience because understanding acid–base physiology is beneficial in supporting and advancing critical care nursing practice.
Source: Intensive and Critical Care Nursing - February 11, 2013 Category: Nursing Authors: Martin Christensen, Fiona Chen Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Junior Scientist Position: Study of the neurohormonal signals from the digestive tract in animal models with controlled intestinal microbiota, Paris, France
Via http://www.eurosciencejobs.comvery year, INRA seeks researchers from all disciplines to reinforce laboratory and fieldwork teams. The Institute is recruiting through open competitions and offering permanent positions. Object of research and skills: The research activities will deal with intestinal microbiota modulation of the signals that regulate food intake originating from the digestive tract. The scope of the research extends to obesity and other metabolic diseases. This requires expertise in animal physiology, specifically in gastro-intestinal physiology and neuro-endocrinology of the digestive tract in relation ...
Source: Society for Endocrinology - February 11, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: news
Energy Balance in Motion(Westerterp)
series:SpringerBriefs in PhysiologyEnergy balance can be maintained by adapting energy intake to changes in energy expenditure and vice versa, where short-term changes in energy expenditure are mainly caused by physical activity. Questions are whether physical activity is affected by over and under-eating, is intake affected by an increase or a decrease in physical activity, and does overweight affect physical activity? ...
Source: Springer Biomedical Sciences titles - February 11, 2013 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Human Physiology Source Type: news
Review of Sacral Neuromodulation for Management of Constipation.
Conclusion. Sacral neuromodulation may be an effective treatment in selected patients with constipation and should be a part of the management repertoire. Improvement in defecatory frequency with temporary wire placement is a good predictor of subsequent response following permanent implant. Further research into predictive factors for success would improve patient selection. PMID: 23404204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Surgical Innovation - February 11, 2013 Category: Surgery Authors: Sharma A, Bussen D, Herold A, Jayne D Tags: Surg Innov Source Type: research
Complexin Facilitates Exocytosis and Synchronizes Vesicle Release in Two Secretory Model Systems.
Abstract Complexins (Cplxs) are small, SNARE-associated proteins believed to regulate fast, calcium-triggered exocytosis. However, studies have pointed to either an inhibitory and/or facilitatory role in exocytosis, and the role of Cplxs in synchronizing exocytosis is relatively unexplored. Here, we compare the function of Cplx 1 and 2 in two model systems of calcium-dependent exocytosis. In mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), we find that lack of Cplx 1 significantly reduces and desynchronizes calcium-triggered synaptic transmission; furthermore, high-frequency stimulation elicits synaptic facilitation, instead ...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - February 11, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Lin MY, Rohan JG, Cai H, Reim K, Ko CP, Chow RH Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Genetically-Encoded pH-Indicators (GEpHIs) Reveal Activity-Dependent Cytosolic Acidification of Drosophila Motor Nerve Termini in vivo.
Abstract All biochemical processes, including those underlying synaptic function and plasticity, are pH sensitive. Cytosolic pH (pH(cyto)) shifts are known to accompany nerve activity in situ but technological limitations have prevented characterization of such shifts in vivo. Genetically-Encoded pH-indicators (GEpHIs) allow for tissue specific in vivo measurement of pH. We expressed three different GEpHIs in the cytosol of Drosophila larval motor neurons and observed substantial presynaptic acidification in nerve termini during nerve stimulation in situ. SuperEcliptic pHluorin was the most useful GEpHI for studyin...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - February 11, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Rossano AJ, Chouhan AK, Macleod GT Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research
Selective mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake deficit in disease endstage vulnerable motoneurons of the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that targets some somatic motoneuron populations, while others e.g. those of the oculomotor system are spared. The pathophysiological basis of this pattern of differential vulnerability, which is preserved in a transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SOD1(G93A)), and the mechanism of neurodegeneration in general are unknown. Hyperexcitability and calcium dysregulation have been proposed by others on the basis of data out of juvenile mice that are, however, asymptomatic. No studies have been done with symptomatic mice ...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - February 11, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Fuchs A, Kutterer S, Mühling T, Duda J, Schütz B, Liss B, Keller BU, Roeper J Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research