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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 9.
Reference standards for forced expiratory indices in Chinese preschool children
This study justifies the need for ethnic‐specific reference equations and presents spirometry references in young Chinese children. Their forced expiratory indices are determined by gender, age, weight and standing height, and standing height is the best anthropometric index to predict all spirometric indices. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - February 8, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ting F. Leung, Tak C. Liu, Kwok K. Mak, Xuefen Su, Hing Y. Sy, Albert M. Li, Joseph T.F. Lau, Sooky Lum, Gary W.K. Wong Tags: Original Article: Pulmonary Physiology Source Type: research
Quality of spirometry in 5‐to‐8‐year‐old children
ConclusionsOur results support the proposal that a FET ≥3 sec, a BEV ≤80 ml, and repeatability in FEV1 and FVC ≤100 ml, or 10%, be taken into account as elements in quality control for spirometry in children. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - February 8, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Laura Gochicoa‐Rangel, Claudia Vargas‐Domínguez, María Eugenia García‐Mujica, Anaid Bautista‐Bernal, Isabel Salas‐Escamilla, Rogelio Pérez‐Padilla, Luis Torre‐Bouscoulet Tags: Original Article: Pulmonary Physiology Source Type: research
L‐arginine or tempol supplementation improve renal and cardiovascular function in rats with reduced renal mass and chronic high salt intake
ConclusionReduction in nephron number during early life followed by chronic HS intake is associated with oxidative stress, impaired renal autoregulation and development of hypertension. Treatment strategies that increase NO bioavailability, or reduce levels of reactive oxygen species, were proven beneficial in this model of renal and cardiovascular disease.Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society
Source: Acta Physiologica - February 7, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Mattias Carlström, Russell D Brown, Ting Yang, Michael Hezel, Erik Larsson, Peter G. Scheffer, Tom Teerlink, Jon O Lundberg, A. Erik G. Persson Tags: Regular Paper Source Type: research
The neurobiology of antisocial personality disorder: The quest for rehabilitation and treatment - Pemment J.
Psychopathy is perhaps one of the most misused terms in the American public, which is in no small part due to our obsession with those who have no conscience, and our boldness to try and profile others with this disorder. Here, I present how psychopathy is...
Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated) - February 7, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Tags: Ergonomics, Human Factors, Anthropometrics, Physiology Source Type: news
G6PD Deficiency: Global Distribution, Genetic Variants and Primaquine Therapy.
Abstract Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a potentially pathogenic inherited enzyme abnormality and, similar to other human red blood cell polymorphisms, is particularly prevalent in historically malaria endemic countries. The spatial extent of Plasmodium vivax malaria overlaps widely with that of G6PD deficiency; unfortunately the only drug licensed for the radical cure and relapse prevention of P. vivax, primaquine, can trigger severe haemolytic anaemia in G6PD deficient individuals. This chapter reviews the past and current data on this unique pharmacogenetic association, which is becoming increasingl...
Source: Advances in Parasitology - February 7, 2013 Category: Parasitology Authors: Howes RE, Battle KE, Satyagraha AW, Baird JK, Hay SI Tags: Adv Parasitol Source Type: research
Middle-Aged Men May Need More Protein To Maintain Muscle Mass
People tend to lose muscle mass as they age; researchers are investigating ways to delay or counteract age-related muscle loss. A study conducted by the Exercise Metabolism Research Group at McMaster University suggests that current guidelines for meat consumption are based on the protein needed to prevent deficiency without consideration for preservation of muscle mass, particularly for older individuals who are looking to maintain their muscle as they age. This research was published in the journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism...
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - February 7, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Bones / Orthopedics Source Type: news
Mechanisms that Regulate Stem Cell Aging and Life Span.
Abstract Mammalian aging is associated with reduced tissue regeneration, increased degenerative disease, and cancer. Because stem cells regenerate many adult tissues and contribute to the development of cancer by accumulating mutations, age-related changes in stem cells likely contribute to age-related morbidity. Consistent with this, stem cell function declines with age in numerous tissues as a result of gate-keeping tumor suppressor expression, DNA damage, changes in cellular physiology, and environmental changes in tissues. It remains unknown whether declines in stem cell function during aging influence organism...
Source: Cell Stem Cell - February 7, 2013 Category: Stem Cells Authors: Signer RA, Morrison SJ Tags: Cell Stem Cell Source Type: research
Elevated SOCS3 and Altered IL-6 Signaling is Associated with Age-Related Human Muscle Stem Cell Dysfunction.
Abstract Aging is associated with increased circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) and a reduced myogenic capacity, marked by reduced muscle stem cell (satellite cell, SC) activity. Although IL-6 is an important for normal SC function, it is unclear whether elevated IL-6 associated with aging alters SC function. We hypothesized that mild chronically elevated IL-6 would be associated with a blunted SC response through altered IL-6 signaling and elevated suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) in the elderly. Nine healthy older adult men (OA; 69.6±3.9y) and 9 young male controls (YC; 21. 3±3.1y) completed 4 sets of 10...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: McKay BR, Ogborn DI, Baker JM, Toth KG, Tarnopolsky MA, Parise G Tags: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol Source Type: research
Classic Broken Cell and Newer Live Cell Methods for Cell Cycle Assessment.
Abstract Many common, important diseases are either caused or exacerbated by hyperactivation (e.g. cancer) or inactivation (e.g. heart failure) of the cell division cycle. A better understanding of the cell cycle is critical for interpreting numerous types of physiological changes in cells. Moreover, insights into how to control it will facilitate new therapeutics for a variety of diseases and new avenues in regenerative medicine. The progression of cells through the four main phases of their division cycle (G(0)/G(1), S [DNA synthesis], G(2) and M [mitosis]) is a highly conserved process orchestrated by several pa...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Henderson L, Bortone DS, Lim C, Zambon AC Tags: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol Source Type: research
Is half of a lens gap junction channel better than none? Focus on "Properties of two cataract associated mutations located in the N-terminus of Connexin 46"
Abstract Editorial Focus. PMID: 23392114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: White TW Tags: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol Source Type: research
Identification of prolyl carboxypeptidase as an alternative enzyme for processing of renal angiotensin II using mass spectrometry.
In conclusion, results suggest ACE2 metabolizes Ang II in the kidney at neutral and basic pH, while PCP catalyzes the same reaction at acidic pH. This is the first report demonstrating that renal Ang-(1-7) formation from Ang II is independent of ACE2. Elucidation of ACE2 independent Ang-(1-7) production pathways may have clinical important implications in patients with metabolic and renal disease. PMID: 23392115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Grobe N, Weir NM, Leiva O, Ong FS, Bernstein KE, Schmaier AH, Morris M, Elased KM Tags: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol Source Type: research
GABA-ergic synaptic inputs of locus coeruleus neurons in wild-type and Mecp2-null mice.
Abstract Rett syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder resulting from defects in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Deficiency of the Mecp2 gene causes abnormalities in several systems in the brain, especially the norepinephrinergic and GABA-ergic systems. The norepinephrinergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) modulate a variety of neurons, and play an important role in multiple functions in the central nervous system. In Mecp2(-/Y) mice, defects in the intrinsic membrane properties of LC neurons have been identified, while how their synaptic inputs are affected remains unclear. Therefor...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Jin X, Cui N, Zhong W, Jin XT, Jiang C Tags: Am J Physiol Cell Physiol Source Type: research
Streptococcus mutans: a new Gram-positive paradigm?
Abstract Despite the enormous contributions of the bacterial paradigms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to basic and applied research, it is well known that no single organism can be a perfect representative of all other species. However, given that some bacteria are difficult, or virtually impossible, to cultivate in the laboratory, that some are recalcitrant to genetic and molecular manipulation, and that others can be extremely dangerous to manipulate, the use of model organisms will continue to play an important role in the development of basic research. In particular, model organisms are very useful for ...
Source: Microbiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lemos JA, Quivey RG, Koo H, Abranches J Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
Sex Differences in Brain Activity to Anticipated and Experienced Visceral Pain in Healthy Subjects.
Abstract Females demonstrate higher pain sensitivity and prevalence of chronic visceral pain conditions such as functional gastrointestinal disorders, than males. The role of sex differences in the brain processing of visceral pain is still unclear. In 16 male and 16 female healthy subjects we compared personality, anxiety levels, skin conductance response (SCR) and brain processing using functional MRI during anticipation and pain induced by oesophageal distension at pain toleration level. There was no significant difference in personality scores, anxiety levels, SCR and subjective ratings of pain between sexes. I...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Kano M, Farmer AD, Aziz Q, Giampietro V, Brammer MJ, Williams SC, Fukudo S, Coen SJ Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research
Serotonin (5-HT) and cholecystokinin (CCK) mediate nutrient induced segmentation in guinea pig small intestine.
Abstract Segmentation is an important process in nutrient mixing and absorption; however, the mechanisms underlying this motility pattern are poorly understood. Segmentation can be induced by luminal perfusion of fatty acid in guinea pig small intestine in vitro and mimicked by the serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (300 nM), and by cholecystokinin (CCK). Serotonergic and CCK-related mechanisms underlying nutrient induced segmentation were investigated using selective 5-HT and CCK antagonists on isolated segments of small intestine, luminally perfused with 1 mM decanoic acid. Motility patterns were ana...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Ellis M, Chambers JD, Gwynne RM, Bornstein JC Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research
H. pylori acutely inhibits gastric secretion by activating CGRP sensory neurons coupled to stimulation of somatostatin and inhibition of histamine secretion.
In conclusion, acute administration of H. pylori is capable of inhibiting acid secretion directly as well as indirectly by activating intramural CGRP sensory neurons coupled to stimulation of SST and inhibition of histamine secretion. Activation of neural pathways provides one explanation as to how initial patchy colonization of the superficial gastric mucosa by H. pylori can acutely inhibit acid secretion. PMID: 23392237 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Zaki M, Coudron PE, McCuen RW, Harrington L, Chu S, Schubert ML Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research
Regulation of urea synthesis during the acute phase response in rats.
Conclusion: TNF-α acutely up-regulated the CUNS. Later, despite the fully established 24-h acute phase response and the decreased activity of the urea cycle enzyme genes, there was no change in the urea cycle enzyme proteins or the CUNS. Thus, in no phase after the initiation of the acute phase response was in vivo urea synthesis orchestrated in combination with acute phase protein synthesis so as to limit N waste. PMID: 23392238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - February 7, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Thomsen KL, Jessen N, Buch Møller A, Aagaard NK, Grønbæk H, Holst JJ, Vilstrup H Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research
Methods to Detect Hydrogen Peroxide in Living Cells: Possibilities and Pitfalls.
Abstract Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an inescapable consequence of aerobic metabolism. Although some of these oxygen-derived metabolites are well-documented mediators of cell and tissue damage, others have been shown to be crucial for cell survival and homeostasis. One ROS that has been identified as a major second messenger in redox signaling is hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). This small, membrane-permeable oxidant is produced transiently in physiological (nontoxic) amounts by a variety of different enzymes residing within different subcellular compartments and organelles. There is a...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 7, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Grisham MB Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research
Excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption is independent from lactate accumulation in two cyprinid fishes.
This study utilized the close relationship but strongly divergent physiology between C. carpio and C. carassius to examine the possible correlation between excess post-hypoxic oxygen consumption (EPHOC) and lactate accumulation. No difference in the EPHOC:O(2) deficit ratio was observed between the two species after 2.5h anoxia, with ratios of 2.0±0.6 (C. carpio) and 1.3±0.3 (C. carassius). As predicted, lactate accumulation dynamics did significantly differ between the species in both plasma and white muscle following anoxic exposure. Significant lactate accumulation was seen in both plasma and muscle in C. carpio, but ...
Source: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular and integrative physiology. - February 7, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Genz J, Jyde MB, Svendsen JC, Steffensen JF, Ramløv H Tags: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol Source Type: research
Rape (Brassica chinensis L.) seed germination, seedling growth, and physiology in soil polluted with di-n-butyl phthalate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.
Abstract Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) pollution in agricultural soils caused by widely employed plastic products is becoming more and more widespread in China. PAEs polluted soil can lead to phytotoxicity in higher plants and potential health risks to human being. We evaluated the individual toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two representative PAEs, to sown rape (Brassica chinensis L.) seeds within 72 h (as germination stage) and seedlings after germination for 14 days by monitoring responses and trends of different biological parameters. No significant effects of six ...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - February 7, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ma T, Christie P, Teng Y, Luo Y Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
Distribution and accumulation of elements (As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn) in tissues of fish species from different trophic levels in the Danube River at the confluence with the Sava River (Serbia).
Abstract Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca), European catfish (Silurus glanis), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and gobies (Neogobius gymnotrachelus, Neogobius melanostomus) were collected from the Danube River (Belgrade section), and samples of liver, muscle, or whole-body composites (in the case of gobies) were analyzed for As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn with inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry to find out if there was a correlation between accumulation of these elements in predatory and prey species, as well as in pairs of species with overlapping diets. Concentrations of all analyzed elements were either high...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - February 7, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Subotić S, Višnjić Jeftić Z, Spasić S, Hegediš A, Krpo-Ćetković J, Lenhardt M Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
The defence of legitimate exercise physiology research from real and perceived bias: a rebuttal
Source: Health Promotion International - February 7, 2013 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Burr, J. F., Jamnik, V. K., Gledhill, N. Tags: LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Source Type: research
Agreement between behavioral observation and polygraphy for the diagnosis of sleep‐wake states in preterm neonates
Abstract Sleep plays a major role in human well‐being and could influence the brain development and maturation in the neonatal period (1,2). REM sleep deprivation in neonatal animal models affects immediately the respiratory physiology and the subsequent brain development and behavior at adult age (3‐5). Consequently, protection and care of preterm neonates sleep in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) need to be considered as a potentially better practice (6). Only scarce data exist on the validity of behavioral observations in comparison with polygraphy recordings. ©2013 The Author(s)/Acta Pædiatrica ©2013 Foun...
Source: Acta Paediatrica - February 7, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Anna Sevestre, Emmanuel Oger, Valérie Bertelle, Dominique Mabin, Jacques Sizun Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Understanding Metabolic Regulation and Its Influence on Cell Physiology
Christian M. Metallo, Matthew G. Vander Heiden. Metabolism impacts all cellular functions and plays a fundamental role in biology. In the last century, our knowledge of metabolic pathway architecture and the genomic landscape of disease has inc....
Source: Molecular Cell - February 6, 2013 Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Compartmentation of cAMP Signalling in Cardiomyocytes in Health and Disease
Abstract cAMP is an ubiquitous second messenger critically involved in the regulation of heart function. It has been shown to act in discrete subcellular signalling compartments formed by differentially localized receptors, phosphodiesterases and protein kinases. Cardiac diseases such as hypertrophy or heart failure are associated with structural and functional remodelling of these microdomains which leads to changes in cAMP compartmentation. In this review, we will discuss recent key findings which provided new insights into cAMP compartmentation in cardiomyocytes with a particular focus on its alterations in heart diseas...
Source: Acta Physiologica - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Ruwan K. Perera, Viacheslav O. Nikolaev Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Oophorectomy hinders antioxidant adaptation promoted by swimming in Wistar rats
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 0, Issue 0, Page 148-153, e-First articles.
Source: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Tags: article Source Type: research
Mouse With More Human-Like Immune Response Could Help Accelerate Development Of More Effective Immunotherapies
Medical scientists at the University of Southern California (USC) have bred a first-of-its-kind mouse model that possesses an immune response system more like a human's. The discovery makes way for quicker and more cost-effective development of next-generation drugs to treat human diseases like cancer, diabetes and tuberculosis. Medical researchers have long used mice and rats to help formulate new drugs and vaccines, in part because their genetic and biological characteristics closely parallel human physiology...
Source: Health News from Medical News Today - February 6, 2013 Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Immune System / Vaccines Source Type: news
Epicardial adipose tissue: a review of physiology, pathophysiology, and clinical applications.
Abstract Visceral fat tissue is an important predictor of cardio-metabolic diseases, carrying more risk than general fat accumulation. Epicardial fat, a particular form of visceral fat deposited around the heart, is considered an important cardiovascular risk predictor, in view of producing and releasing several adipo-cytokines. There is growing evidence about the physiological and metabolic importance of epicardial fat. Epicardial fat thickness and volume have both strong correlation between obesity, impaired fasting glucose, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and atherosclero...
Source: The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology - February 6, 2013 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sengül C, Ozveren O Tags: Anadolu Kardiyol Derg Source Type: research
Divergent Phenotype of Rat Thoracic and Abdominal Perivascular Adipose Tissues.
Abstract Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated as a source of pro-atherogenic cytokines. Phenotypic differences in local PVAT depots may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility among arteries and even regions within an artery. It has been proposed that PVAT around the abdominal and thoracic aorta share characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively; however, a detailed comparison of the phenotype of these PVAT depots has not been performed. Using young and older adult rats, we compared the phenotype of PVATs surrounding the abdominal and thoracic aorta to each other and...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Padilla J, Jenkins NT, Vieira-Potter VJ, Laughlin MH Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Marine, freshwater and aerially acclimated mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) use different strategies for cutaneous ammonia excretion.
Abstract Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins are ammonia gas (NH(3)) channels known to be involved in ammonia transport in animals. Due to the different osmo- and ionoregulatory challenges faced by teleost fishes in marine and freshwater (FW) environments, we hypothesized that ammonia excretion strategies would differ between environments. Also, we hypothesized that cutaneous NH3 volatilization in air-acclimated fish is facilitated by base secretion. To test these hypotheses we used the skin of the euryhaline amphibious mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus). The skin excretes ammonia and expresses Rh glycoproteins. Sero...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Cooper CA, Wilson JM, Wright PA Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Regional Relation between Skin Blood Flow and Sweating to Passive Heating and Local Administration of Acetylcholine in Young, Healthy Humans.
This study aimed to explore the relation between regional sweating rates (RSR) and skin blood flow (SkBF) responses to thermal and pharmacological stimuli in young, healthy subjects. In nine subjects (23±3 yrs), intradermal microdialysis (MD) probes were inserted into the ventral forearm, abdomen, thigh, and lower back and perfused with lactated Ringer solution. RSR over each MD membrane were measured using ventilated capsules with a laser-Doppler probe housed in each capsule for measurement of red cell flux (LDF) as an index of SkBF. Subjects completed a whole body heating protocol to 1°C rise in oral temperature, and a...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Smith CJ, Kenney WL, Alexander LM Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Invited Review: Reciprocal regulation of the nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathway in pathophysiology; relevance and clinical implications.
This article provides a comprehensive state-of-the art overview in this area. PMID: 23389111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Salvemini D, Kim SF, Mollace V Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research
Lysosomal Membrane Proteins and their central role in physiology
Summary The lysosomal membrane was thought for a long time to primarily act as a physical barrier separating the luminal acidic milieu from the cytoplasmic environment. Meanwhile, it has been realized that unique lysosomal membranes play essential roles in a number of cellular events ranging from phagocytosis, autophagy, cell death, virus infection to membrane repair. This review provides an overview about the most interesting emerging functions of lysosomal membrane proteins and how they contribute to health and disease. Their importance is exemplified by their role in acidification, transport of metabolites and ions acro...
Source: Traffic - February 6, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Michael Schwake, Bernd Schröder, Paul Saftig Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
Probiotic use decreases intestinal inflammation and increases bone density in healthy male but not female mice
Abstract Osteoporosis can result from intestinal inflammation, as is seen with inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics, microorganisms that provide a health benefit to the host when ingested in adequate amounts, can have anti‐inflammatory properties and are currently being examined to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we examined if treating healthy male mice with Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (a candidate probiotic with anti‐TNFα activity) could affect intestinal TNFα levels and enhance bone density. Adult male mice were given L. reuteri 6475 orally by gavage for 3X/week for four weeks. Examination of jej...
Source: Journal of Cellular Physiology - February 6, 2013 Category: Cytology Authors: Laura R. McCabe, Regina Irwin, Laura Schaefer, Robert A. Britton Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Adaptive thermogenesis in adipocytes: Is beige the new brown? [Reviews]
One of the most promising areas in the therapeutics for metabolic diseases centers around activation of the pathways of energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue is a particularly appealing target for increasing energy expenditure, given its amazing capacity to transform chemical energy into heat. In addition to classical brown adipose tissue, the last few years have seen great advances in our understanding of inducible thermogenic adipose tissue, also referred to as beige fat. A deeper understanding of the molecular processes involved in the development and function of these cell types may lead to new therapeutics for obes...
Source: Genes and Development - February 6, 2013 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wu, J., Cohen, P., Spiegelman, B. M. Tags: Molecular Physiology and Metabolism Reviews Source Type: research
Current state and recent advances in biopharmaceutical production in Escherichia coli, yeasts and mammalian cells.
We describe the most widely used methods for the expression of recombinant proteins in the cytoplasm or periplasm of E. coli, as well as strategies for secreting the product to the growth medium. Recombinant expression in E. coli influences the cell physiology and triggers a stress response, which has to be considered in process development. Increased expression of a functional protein can be achieved by optimizing the gene, plasmid, host cell, and fermentation process. Relevant properties of two yeast expression systems, S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris, are summarized. Optimization of expression in S. cerevisiae has focused...
Source: Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology - February 6, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Berlec A, Strukelj B Tags: J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
COMMON mechanisms of dysfunctional adipose tissue and obesity‐ related cancer
Abstract The relation between cancer and metabolic disorders was proposed several decades ago but the complete puzzle of the mechanisms involved in cancer development and progression remain obscure. In the last years many groups have been studying systemic adipose markers in cancer patients. However, few consistent results were obtained. On the other hand, several studies revealed many aspects of adipose tissue physiology in obesity. Nowadays it is recognized that excessive lipid uptake in adipocytes leads to hypertrophy and consequently to metabolic dysregulation, hypoxia, inflammation, impaired adipocytokine expression a...
Source: Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews - February 6, 2013 Category: Endocrinology Authors: P. Matafome, D. Santos‐Silva, C. M. Sena, R. Seiça Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
A new dynamic in vitro modular capillaries-venules modular system: Cerebrovascular physiology in a box
Conclusion: The unique characteristics afforded by the DIV-BBB in combination with a venule segment will realistically expand our ability to dissect and study the physiological and functional behavior of distinct segments of the human cerebrovascular network.
Source: BMC Neuroscience - Latest articles - February 6, 2013 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luca CuculloMohammed HossainWilliam TierneyDamir Janigro Source Type: research
Elevated energy coupling and aerobic capacity improves exercise performance in endurance‐trained elderly subjects
New Findings •What is the central question of this study?Does exercise performance reflect the improvements in mitochondrial capacity and energy coupling efficiency found with endurance training in elderly subjects? •What is the main finding and its importance?Exercise performance of the elderly benefits from elevations in energy coupling and oxidative phosphorylation capacity at both the whole‐body and muscle levels that accompany endurance training. Increased maximal oxygen uptake (), mitochondrial capacity and energy coupling efficiency are reported after endurance training (ET) in adult subjects. Here we test ...
Source: Experimental Physiology - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Kevin E. Conley, Sharon A. Jubrias, M. Elaine Cress, Peter C. Esselman Source Type: research
Action of hypoxia‐inducible factor in liver and kidney from mice with Pax8‐rtTA‐based deletion of von Hippel‐Lindau protein
ConclusionsInducible, Pax8‐rtTA‐based deletion of VHL leads to organ‐specific expression of epithelial HIF and erythropoietin in liver and kidney without causing pathological changes. Uniform, maximal and sustained HIF activation along the renal tubule may serve to study the potential benefits of hypoxia adaptation in experimental renal injury.
Source: Acta Physiologica - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: S. Mathia, A. Paliege, R. Koesters, H. Peters, H.‐H. Neumayer, S. Bachmann, C. Rosenberger Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Deep hypothermia in vivo – why is it so deleterious for the heart?
Source: Acta Physiologica - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: M. S. Hunger, G. Pfitzer Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
New drug for treatment of insulin‐resistant complication?
Source: Acta Physiologica - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Lena Eliasson Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
A role for ROS in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy
Abstract It is clear that at pathologically high chronic levels reactive oxygen species (ROS) are cytotoxic. However, it is also now clear that during contraction ROS are produced at low (physiological) levels and play an important role in cell signalling in normal healthy skeletal muscle (reviewed in (Powers and Jackson, 2008)). To date, much of the work regarding skeletal muscle ROS produced during contraction has focussed on endurance exercise. This has led to considerable controversy in the literature regarding the potential for antioxidant Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society
Source: Acta Physiologica - February 6, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Glenn D. Wadley Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Is thyroid hormone signaling relevant for vertebrate embryogenesis?
Abstract Classically, thyroid hormones (THs) have been primarily associated with postembryonic development (Tata, 1968), notably metamorphosis in anuran amphibians and flat fish. This period is parallel to the perinatal period in man and many marked developmental transitions in other species. As amply described in other chapters, metamorphosis is characterized by a peak of thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) that is synchronous with the metamorphic climax. In contrast, the developmental period that characterizes embryonic development prior to the significant production of TH by the endogenous thyroid gland...
Source: Current Topics in Developmental Biology - February 5, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Morvan-Dubois G, Fini JB, Demeneix BA Tags: Curr Top Dev Biol Source Type: research
Climate change driven plant-metal-microbe interactions.
Abstract Various biotic and abiotic stress factors affect the growth and productivity of crop plants. Particularly, the climatic and/or heavy metal stress influence various processes including growth, physiology, biochemistry, and yield of crops. Climatic changes particularly the elevated atmospheric CO(2) enhance the biomass production and metal accumulation in plants and help plants to support greater microbial populations and/or protect the microorganisms against the impacts of heavy metals. Besides, the indirect effects of climatic change (e.g., changes in the function and structure of plant roots and diversity...
Source: Environment International - February 5, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Rajkumar M, Prasad MN, Swaminathan S, Freitas H Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research
In Vivo Evidence Suggesting Reciprocal Renal HIF-1 Up-Regulation and STAT3 Activation in Response to Hypoxic and Non-Hypoxic Stimuli.
Abstract In vitro studies suggest that combined activation of HIF and STAT3 promotes the hypoxia response. However, their inter-relationship in vivo remains poorly defined. The present study investigates the possible relationship between HIF-1 upregulation and STAT3 activation in the rodent kidney in vivo. HIF-1 and STAT3 activation were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis in: i) models of hypoxia-associated kidney injury induced by radiocontrast media or rhabdomyolysis; ii) following activation of STAT3 by IL-6/sIL-6R complex; or iii) following HIF-1α stabilization using hypoxic and...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology - February 5, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nechemia-Arbely Y, Khamaisi M, Rosenberger C, Koesters R, Shina A, Geva C, Shriki A, Klaus S, Rosen S, Rose-John S, Galun E, Axelrod JH, Heyman SN Tags: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Source Type: research
Lactate oxidation in human skeletal muscle mitochondria.
Abstract Lactate is an important intermediate metabolite in human bioenergetics and is oxidized in many different tissues including the heart, brain, kidney, adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle. The mechanism(s) explaining the metabolism of lactate in these tissues, however, remains unclear. Here, we analyze the ability of skeletal muscle to respire lactate using an in situ mitochondrial preparation that leaves the native tubular reticulum and subcellular interactions of the organelle unaltered. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the m. vastus lateralis in 16 human subjects. Samples were chemically p...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 5, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Jacobs RA, Meinild AK, Nordsborg NB, Lundby C Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Endothelial microparticles increase in mitral valve disease and impair mitral valve endothelial function.
Abstract Mitral valve endothelial cells are important for maintaining lifelong mitral valve integrity and function. Plasma endothelial microparticles (EMPs) increased in various pathological conditions related to activation of endothelial cells. However, whether EMPs will increase in mitral valve disease and their relationship remains unclear. Here, 81 patients with mitral valve disease and 45 healthy subjects were analyzed for the generation of EMPs by flow cytometry. Human mitral valve endothelial cells (HMVECs) were treated with EMPs. The phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the a...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 5, 2013 Category: Physiology Authors: Ci HB, Ou ZJ, Chang FJ, Liu DH, He GW, Xu Z, Wang ZP, Yuan HY, Zhang X, Ou JS Tags: Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research