Medicine RSS Search Engine

Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 10.

Determinants of outcome of solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura: an observational cohort study
Conclusions: Patients with large SFTP with a high mitotic index and high proliferation rate should be followed-up closely and over a prolonged time period in order to recognize recurrence of the SFTP early and at a treatable stage. Future research on this topic should focus on the prognostic role of immunohistochemistry including Ki-67 expression and molecular parameters. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - August 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Daniel FranzenMatthias DieboldAlex SoltermannDidier SchneiterPeter KestenholzRolf StahelWalter WederMalcolm Kohler Source Type: research

Hand Sanitiser Provision for Reducing Illness Absences in Primary School Children: A Cluster Randomised Trial
Conclusions The provision of hand sanitiser in addition to usual hand hygiene in primary schools in New Zealand did not prevent disease of severity sufficient to cause school absence. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000478213Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary (Source: PLoS Medicine)
Source: PLoS Medicine - August 12, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Patricia Priest et al. Source Type: research

Subcostal TAP block and postoperative respiratory function after abdominal surgery
(Source: Anaesthesia)
Source: Anaesthesia - August 12, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: C. Carrié, M. Biais Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

Disease-specific T Helper Cell Polarizing Function of Lesional Dendritic Cells in Different Types of Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.
Conclusion: Distinct subsets of lesional DCs were found in eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic CRSwNP, where OX40L/PD-L1(+) lesional DCs in eosinophilic CRSwNP could prime TH2 cells, whereas the low OX40L/PD-L1-expressing lesional DCs in non-eosinophilic CRSwNP primarily induced TH1/TH17 cells. PMID: 25117756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - August 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shi LL, Song J, Xiong P, Cao PP, Liao B, Ma J, Zhang YN, Zeng M, Liu Y, Wang H, Cui YH, Huang SK, Liu Z Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

The Relationship between Hospital Volume and Mortality in Severe Sepsis.
Conclusions: Patients with severe sepsis treated in hospitals with higher case volumes had improved adjusted outcomes. PMID: 25117723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - August 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gaieski DF, Edwards JM, Kallan MJ, Mikkelsen ME, Goyal M, Carr BG Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Temperature-related mortality in 17 large Chinese cities: How heat and cold affect mortality in China.
Abstract Few multicity studies have been conducted to investigate the acute health effects of cold and hot temperatures in China. We aimed to examine the relationship between temperature and daily mortality in 17 large Chinese cities. We first calculated city-specific effect of temperature using time-series regression models combined with distributed lag nonlinear models; then we pooled the city-specific estimates with the Bayesian hierarchical models. The cold effects lasted longer than the hot effects. For the cold effects, a 1°C decrease from the 25th to 1st percentiles of temperature over lags 0-14 days was as...
Source: Environmental Research - August 12, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ma W, Chen R, Kan H Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research

Characterization of a double-hit murine model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
CONCLUSION: This two-hit model of ARDS shows a complex pathological picture of ARDS closely mimicking a human ARDS as described by the Berlin Definition and therefore might facilitate interpretation of prospective experimental results. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25115497 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology - August 12, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Voelker M, Fichtner F, Kasper M, Kamprad M, Sack U, Kaisers U, Laudi S Tags: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Source Type: research

Assessment of the neutrophilic antibody-dependent respiratory burst (ADRB) response to Plasmodium falciparum.
Abstract Semi-immunity against Pf malaria is based on a combination of cellular and humoral immune responses. PMNs and IgGs are considered important components of this process, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the neutrophilic ADRB by analyzing the production of ROS in response to Pf antigen-specific IgGs bound to solid-phase immobilized antigens (sADRB) or whole merozoites (mADRB). We found that the PMN stimulations in each assay were based on different underlying mechanisms, demonstrating the importance of the assay set-up for the evaluation of antibody-triggered PMN responses. In the sA...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - August 12, 2014 Category: Hematology Authors: Kapelski S, Klockenbring T, Fischer R, Barth S, Fendel R Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

[Pulmonary hypertension: Definition, diagnostic and new classification.]
Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH): mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP)≥25mmHg on right heart catheterization at rest. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): mPAP≥25mmHg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)≤15mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR)>3Wood units. Patients with compatible symptoms (exertional dyspnea, syncopes, signes of right heart failure) can show signs of PH on cardiac echography and therefore need to be investigated in search of the cause of PH. After ruling out the frequent causes of PH (left heart and chronic respiratory diseases), the V/Q lung scan is used to screen ...
Source: Presse Medicale - August 12, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Seferian A, Simonneau G Tags: Presse Med Source Type: research

Retrospective observational study of diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay on fiberoptic bronchoscopy sampling for early diagnosis of smear-negative or sputum-scarce patients with suspected tuberculosis
Conclusion: Our study has confirmed the clinical benefits provided by XP assay compared to SM for the early diagnosis of suspected pulmonary TB cases requiring FOB, on per procedure samples, especially in a low TB-burden country. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - August 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pierre Le PaludVincent CattoirBrigitte MalbrunyRomain MagnierKarine CampbellYoussef OulkhouirGérard ZalcmanEmmanuel Bergot Source Type: research

Effects of dietary threonine and tryptophan supplementation on growing pigs induced by porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome vaccination.
Abstract A total of 32 growing pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with two different diets (conventional [CON] diet vs. threonine [Thr]- and tryptophan [Trp]-rich [TTR] diet) and two immunological challenge regimens (porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome [PRRS] vaccine vs. phosphate buffer solution [PBS]) to study the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with Trp and Thr would benefit for growing pigs vaccinated with PRRS vaccine. After feeding the experimental diets for 21 d, the pigs were intramuscularly vaccinated with PRRS or PBS. Performance data were recorded over a p...
Source: Archives of Animal Nutrition - August 12, 2014 Category: Nutrition Authors: Xu S, Shen J, Fang Z, Zhao Y, Lin Y, Che L, Wu D Tags: Arch Anim Nutr Source Type: research

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide increases mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II activity and protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation in neurons.
This study demonstrated that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide, specifically CART55-102, increased the survival rate, but decreased the mortality of neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), in a dose-dependent manner. The above-mentioned effects of CART55-102 were most significant at 0.4nM. These results indicated that CART55-102 suppressed neurotoxicity and enhanced neuronal survival after oxygen-glucose deprivation. CART55-102(0.4nM) significantly diminished reactive oxygen species levels and markedly increased the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II in oxygen-glu...
Source: Brain Research - August 12, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Sha D, Wang L, Zhang J, Qian L, Li Q, Li J, Qian J, Gu S, Han L, Xu P, Xu Y Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Enhanced metabolic and redox activity of vascular aquatic plant Lemna valdiviana under polarization in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.
In this study, duckweed species Lemna valdiviana was investigated as a photoautotrophycally grown biocatalyst in recently developed Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell. Stable current outputs, reaching maximum of 226±11mА/m(2), were achieved during the operating period. The electricity production is associated with electrons generated through the light-dependent reactions in the chloroplasts as well as the respiratory processes in the mitochondria and transferred to the anode via endogenous electron shuttle, synthesized by the plants as a specific response to the polarization. In parallel, a considerable increase in th...
Source: Bioelectrochemistry - August 12, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hubenova Y, Mitov M Tags: Bioelectrochemistry Source Type: research

Machine predicts heart attacks 4 hours before doctors
Training an algorithm on hospital visit data allows it to tell if a patient is likely to go into cardiac or respiratory arrest (Source: New Scientist - Health)
Source: New Scientist - Health - August 11, 2014 Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
If you are old and stupid, please close the Journal now Famously, the anti-European party UKIP failed to do well in the elections in London because, as a spokesperson stated as her foot disappeared down her throat and out of her bottom, ‘London is full of young educated people’. This issue of Thorax, produced by and for educated people of all ages, celebrates our European friends, to coincide with the ERS in Munich. We have a European themed cover, manuscripts from all over Europe and would like more. Enjoy Munich and enjoy Thorax, and send us your best manuscripts! A long time ago, in a city far far away The M...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bush, A., Pavord, I. Tags: Airwaves Source Type: research

Trials of home mechanical ventilation in COPD: what have we learnt?
Chronic respiratory failure following an acute exacerbation of COPD is associated with excess morbidity and mortality1 and, empirically, the use of long-term non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to treat the chronic respiratory failure to improve outcome is a rational therapeutic option. Although detailed physiological studies have demonstrated a reduction in the arterial pCO2 by managing sleep disordered breathing and enhancing sleep quality, previous randomised controlled trials have failed to translate physiological improvement into a clinical benefit.2–4 Despite the lack of clinical trial evidence supporting the additi...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Murphy, P. B., Hart, N. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

The early origins of COPD in severe asthma: the one thing that leads to another or the two things that come together?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is diagnosed during middle to late adult life, when significant airflow limitation has already developed by the time the disease is recognised. What if the origins of COPD occurred much earlier? If this were true, it would have major implications for detection (screening) and prevention of COPD. Convincing evidence is hard to obtain, because it requires exceptionally long follow-up, such as half a life span, a period that is often longer than the average career of a researcher! Williams and McNichol established such a longitudinal asthma study from a 1957 birth cohort, and now T...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mattes, J., Gibson, P. G. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Hot off the breath: a big step forward for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology1 with a median survival of 3 years from the time of diagnosis.2 The recent decade has seen a tremendous investment in IPF clinical research, and as a result, we have moved beyond traditional treatment approaches (prednisone and other immunomodulatory therapies) toward clinical trials of potential antifibrotic therapies.3 As recently as 2011, however, an international guideline committee concluded that there remained insufficient evidence to support the regular use of any IPF pharmacotherapy.1 Because of this, the...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ryerson, C. J., Collard, H. R. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Medicines regulation, Interstitial lung disease HOT off the breath Source Type: research

The Clinical COPD Questionnaire: response to pulmonary rehabilitation and minimal clinically important difference
Conclusions The CCQ is responsive to PR with an estimated clinically important improvement of –0.4 points. The CCQ is a practical alternative to more time-consuming measures of HRQoL. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kon, S. S. C., Dilaver, D., Mittal, M., Nolan, C. M., Clark, A. L., Canavan, J. L., Jones, S. E., Polkey, M. I., Man, W. D.-C. Tags: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Prognostic evaluation of COPD patients: GOLD 2011 versus BODE and the COPD comorbidity index COTE
Conclusions In this population of COPD patients, the BODE index had a better survival prediction than the ABCD GOLD categories. Adding the COTE to the BODE index was complimentary and significantly improved outcome prediction. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: de Torres, J. P., Casanova, C., Marin, J. M., Pinto-Plata, V., Divo, M., Zulueta, J. J., Berto, J., Zagaceta, J., Sanchez-Salcedo, P., Cabrera, C., Carrizo, S., Cote, C., Celli, B. R. Tags: Epidemiologic studies Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

The association between childhood asthma and adult chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusions Children with severe asthma are at increased risk of developing COPD. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tai, A., Tran, H., Roberts, M., Clarke, N., Wilson, J., Robertson, C. F. Tags: Editor's choice, Child health, Asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Gimeno-Santos E, Frei A, Steurer-Stey C, et al. Determinants and outcomes of physical activity in patients with COPD: a systematic review. Thorax 2014;69:731–39. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204763 The following Collaborator list should be included in this article. PROactive consortium: Chiesi Farmaceutici S.A.: Caterina Brindicci, Tim Higenbottam; Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Thierry Trooster, Fabienne Dobbels; Glaxo Smith Kline: Margaret X. Tabberer; University of Edinburgh, Old College South Bridge: Roberto Rabinovich, Bill McNee; Thorax Research Foundation, Athens: Ioannis Vogiatzis; Royal Brompton and Hare...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brindicci, Higenbottam, Trooster, Dobbels, Tabberer, Rabinovich, McNee, Vogiatzis, Polkey, Hopkinson, Garcia-Aymerich, Puhan, Frei, van der Molen, De Jong, de Boer, Jarrod, McBride, Kamel, Rudell, Wilson, Ivanoff, Kulich, Glendenning, Karlsson, Corriol-Ro Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Impaired innate immune alveolar macrophage response and the predilection for COPD exacerbations
Conclusions Our results support a paradigm of impaired innate responses of COPD AMs to respiratory pathogens, mediated by impaired TLR responses, underlying a propensity for exacerbations in COPD. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Berenson, C. S., Kruzel, R. L., Eberhardt, E., Dolnick, R., Minderman, H., Wallace, P. K., Sethi, S. Tags: Cardiothoracic surgery Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Human mesenchymal stem cells reduce the severity of acute lung injury in a sheep model of bacterial pneumonia
Conclusions Human MSCs were well tolerated and improved oxygenation and decreased pulmonary oedema in a sheep model of severe ARDS. Trail registration number: NCT01775774 for Phase 1. NCT02097641 for Phase 2. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Asmussen, S., Ito, H., Traber, D. L., Lee, J. W., Cox, R. A., Hawkins, H. K., McAuley, D. F., McKenna, D. H., Traber, L. D., Zhuo, H., Wilson, J., Herndon, D. N., Prough, D. S., Liu, K. D., Matthay, M. A., Enkhbaatar, P. Tags: Adult respiratory distress syndrome, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections Critical care Source Type: research

Nocturnal non-invasive ventilation in COPD patients with prolonged hypercapnia after ventilatory support for acute respiratory failure: a randomised, controlled, parallel-group study
Discussions We could not demonstrate an improvement in time to readmission or death by adding NIV for 1 year in patients with prolonged hypercapnia after an episode of NIV for ARF. There is no reason to believe the NIV was not effective since daytime PaCO2 and night-time PCO2 improved. The trend for improvement in HRQL favouring NIV we believe nevertheless should be explored further. Trial registration number NTR1100. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Struik, F. M., Sprooten, R. T. M., Kerstjens, H. A. M., Bladder, G., Zijnen, M., Asin, J., Cobben, N. A. M., Vonk, J. M., Wijkstra, P. J. Tags: Non-invasive ventilation Source Type: research

Saketkoo LA, Mittoo S, Huscher D, et al. Connective tissue disease related interstitial lung diseases and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: provisional core sets of domains and instruments for use in clinical trials. Thorax 2014;69:428-36. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204202 The following collaborator group should have been included at the end of the author list: The CTD-ILD Special Interest Group. The author list now reads: Saketkoo LA, Mittoo S, Huscher D, Khanna D, Dellaripa PF, Distler O, Flaherty KR, Frankel S, Oddis CV, Denton CP, Fischer A, Kowal-Bielecka OM, LeSage D, Merkel PA, Phillips K, Pittrow D, Swigris J, Antoni...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Factors associated with clinical deterioration shortly after PE
Conclusions Most patients do not clinically deteriorate after PE diagnosis. Several factors are associated with short-term clinical deterioration, but these factors differ from those associated with 30-day mortality. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kabrhel, C., Okechukwu, I., Hariharan, P., Takayesu, J. K., MacMahon, P., Haddad, F., Chang, Y., Parry, Blair Tags: Emergency medicine, Epidemiologic studies, Heart failure, Ischaemic heart disease, Venous thromboembolism Pulmonary vasculature Source Type: research

Mesothelioma risk after 40 years since first exposure to asbestos: a pooled analysis
Conclusions Exposure to asbestos confers a long-term risk of developing pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma which increases following cessation of exposure. While the rate of increase appears to start to level out after 40–50 years no one survives long enough for the excess risk to disappear. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Reid, A., de Klerk, N. H., Magnani, C., Ferrante, D., Berry, G., Musk, A. W., Merler, E. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Respiratory cancer, Occupational and environmental medicine, Environmental issues Respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

The effectiveness of BCG vaccination in preventing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease in Greenland
Conclusions BCG vaccination was effective in reducing both MTI and TB disease among children and young adults in a TB high-endemic setting in Greenland. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michelsen, S. W., Soborg, B., Koch, A., Carstensen, L., Hoff, S. T., Agger, E. M., Lillebaek, T., Sorensen, H. C. F., Wohlfahrt, J., Melbye, M. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases, Vaccination / immunisation, Child health Tuberculosis Source Type: research

The path to personalised medicine in COPD
Our understanding of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has changed dramatically over the past two decades. We have moved from an airflow limitation-centric view to the realisation that COPD is a complex and heterogeneous disease, which leads inevitably to the need for personalising the assessment and treatment of patients with COPD. This review provides a brief perspective of the extraordinary transition that the COPD field has experienced in the last two decades, and speculates on how it should/can move forward in the near future in order to really achieve the goal of personalising COPD medicine in the clinic. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Agusti, A. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Mortality of patients with COPD participating in chronic disease management programmes: a happy end?
Conclusions These results do not suggest that CDM programmes expose patients with COPD to excessive mortality risk. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Peytremann-Bridevaux, I., Taffe, P., Burnand, B., Bridevaux, P. O., Puhan, M. A. Tags: Epidemiologic studies Research letter Source Type: research

The first reference equations for the 6-minute walk distance over a 10 m course
Conclusions The presented reference equations are the first to evaluate 6MWD over a 10 m course and expand the usefulness of the 6MWT. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Beekman, E., Mesters, I., Gosselink, R., Klaassen, M. P. M., Hendriks, E. J. M., Van Schayck, O. C. P., de Bie, R. A. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, General practice / family medicine Research letter Source Type: research

5 versus 14 days of prednisone for acute COPD exacerbations
This study confirms that further steroids seem neither to do more harm nor more good... (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Quint, L. J. Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research

Disentangling the discordance between epidemiological associations and physiological mechanisms
Burney et al1 recently presented an ecological analysis of Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study data to investigate the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence and mortality with smoking and poverty. It is striking that no association was observed between the national prevalence rates of COPD and airflow limitation. This raises serious questions about the accuracy of COPD diagnosis, and suggests that COPD was considerably overdiagnosed. Despite this, the authors’ main conclusion is that the high COPD mortality in low-income countries is associated with spirometric restri...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stanojevic, S., Cole, T. J., Stocks, J., Quanjer, P. H. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality and prevalence: the associations with smoking and poverty: a BOLD analysis--authors' reply
We are grateful to Dr Stanojevic and her colleagues1 for their interest in our paper.2 On their first point we assume that they mean mortality rates not national prevalence rates. In either case the weak association between diagnosis and spirometric findings is already well known and unsurprising given that very few people have spirometric testing. In the case of death certificates the situation is further confounded by the limited choice of International Classification of Disease codes for people dying with chronic lung disease. Their second paragraph deals with two separate issues, the potential divergence between nation...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Burney, P., Kato, B., Janson, C., Mannino, D., Studnicka, M., Tan, W., Bateman, E., Kocabas, A., Vollmer, W. M., Gislason, T., Marks, G., Koul, P. A., Gnatiuc, L., Buist, S., for the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) Study Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

The good the bad and the ugly
We were, of course, very interested to read the manuscript by Saggar et al,1 and the accompanying editorial by Nathan2 relating to the use of parenteral treprostinil therapy in patients referred for lung transplantation with pulmonary hypertension (PH) in association with pulmonary fibrosis (PF). It is good that there is continued interest in finding a clinical phenotype of patient with PF who may benefit on both symptomatic and prognostic grounds from targeted PH therapy. It is also good because there is a great clinical need to help this group of desperate patients awaiting lung transplantation over and above oxygen ther...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Corris, P. A., Sithamparanathan, S., Thirugnanasothy, L. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Il Buono, Il Brutto, Il Cattivo
We appreciate the constructive commentary by Dr Paul Corris and colleagues1 that highlights the merits and limitations of our manuscript. A recent editorial from Dr Vincent Cottin requested that clinical trials, in the setting of pulmonary fibrosis (PF)-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH), ‘should first be conducted in subjects with disproportionate elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance as compared to the severity of pulmonary whom PH likely contributes the most to exercise limitation and morbidity’.2 In this spirit, the purpose of our study is to emphasise the inclusion of a specific, alt...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Saggar, R., Khanna, D., Forfia, P. R., Saggar, R. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Pneumonia and inhaled corticosteroids in COPD
Combination treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists decreases exacerbations and improves quality of life in patients with COPD; however; a potential concern is an increased risk of pneumonia. Although the TORCH and INSPIRE studies have shown the risk of pneumonia to increase with fluticasone/salmeterol versus placebo and tiotropium, there has been no direct comparison of fixed combinations of inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting β2-agonists. The PATHOS study compared the occurrences of pneumonia and pneumonia-related events in patients with COPD treated with either fluticasone/salmeterol...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jabbar, A. Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research

Child uptake of smoking by area across the UK
Smoking is a major public health problem. As smokers age and die prematurely, the tobacco industry must continue to recruit new, young smokers. Survey data indicate that currently in the UK around 207 000 children aged 11–15 start smoking every year. We used local data on adult smoking rates to apportion national data on child smoking uptake to specific areas. The presentation of data for individual local authorities, which now have responsibility for public health, can be used to focus attention locally. For example, this analysis demonstrates that each day, 67 children, more than two classrooms full, start smo...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hopkinson, N. S., Lester-George, A., Ormiston-Smith, N., Cox, A., Arnott, D. Tags: Open access, Child health, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use, Tobacco use (youth) Chest clinic Source Type: research

The exposome: a new paradigm to study the impact of environment on health
Environmental factors, here taken to include pollutants, lifestyle factors and behaviours, can play an important role in serious, chronic pathologies with large societal and economic costs, including respiratory disease. However, measurement of the environmental component in epidemiological studies has traditionally relied on much more uncertain and incomplete assessments than measurement of the genome. The ‘exposome’ has therefore been proposed as a new paradigm to encompass the totality of human environmental (meaning all non-genetic) exposures from conception onwards, complementing the genome. Evidently, the...
Source: Thorax - August 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vrijheid, M. Tags: Epidemiologic studies Chest clinic Source Type: research