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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 10.

Brainstem Disconnection Syndrome in a Patient with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (P7.333)
CONCLUSIONS: Cerebellar and pontine hypoplasia may occur due to ischemic insult secondary to basilar artery hypoplasia, or through insult during the 2nd or 3rd trimester. The disconnection syndrome may be on the extreme end of this spectrum. This is the first case described in the setting of fetal alcohol syndrome. Previous studies demonstrated a reduction in cortical vessel density in animal models exposed to alcohol during gestation. We propose that prenatal alcohol use may have had an influence on fetal angiogenesis resulting in basilar hypoplasia and resultant disconnection syndrome.Disclosure: Dr. Mehta has nothing to...
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehta, C., Agarwal, R., Kumar, A., Maqbool, M. Tags: Child Neurology and Developmental Neurology VI Source Type: research

Is IVIg Therapy Warranted in Progressive Lower Motor Neuron Syndromes without Conduction Block? (S16.004)
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study do not support uniform use of IVIg in patients presenting with progressive asymmetric LMN limb weakness. It is suggested that IVIg treatment be limited to patients who demonstrate clinical features suggestive of multifocal motor neuropathy.Study Supported by: National Health and Medical Research Council and the Motor Neurone Disease Research Institute of Australia (grant #1039520).Disclosure: Dr. Simon has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ayer has received personal compensation for activities with Walgreens as an employee. Dr. Lomen-Hoerth has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Simon, N., Ayer, G., Lomen-Hoerth, C. Tags: Neuromuscular and Clinical Neurophysiology (EMG): Clinical Trials and Therapy Source Type: research

The Effect of Tirasemtiv on Functional Status in Patients with ALS (S16.005)
Conclusions: This study tests the hypothesis that improvements in skeletal muscle performance can have a meaningful effect on ALS patient function.Study Supported by: Cytokinetics, IncDisclosure: Dr. Lee has received personal compensation for activities with Cytokinetics as an employee. Ms. Barragan has received personal compensation for activities with Cytokinetics, Inc. as an employee. Dr. Meng has received personal compensation for activities with Cytokinetics, Inc. as an employee. Dr. Wolff has received personal compensation for activities with Cytokinetics, Inc. as an employee. Dr. Wolff holds stock and/or stock optio...
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Shefner, J., Lee, J., Barragan, D., Meng, L., Wolff, A., Andrews, J. Tags: Neuromuscular and Clinical Neurophysiology (EMG): Clinical Trials and Therapy Source Type: research

ALS : Pain in Addition to Anything Else (S20.002)
CONCLUSION :Pain is very frequent in spinal as well as in bulbar ALS patients, at all stages of disease. Because of all other debilitating symptoms, pain stay an underreported, underestimated and undertreated symptom. Nevertheless, unrelieved pain is a distressing phenomenon and need to be systematically considered.Disclosure: Dr. Guy Renouil has nothing to disclose. Dr. Cornut Chauvinc has nothing to disclose. Dr. Moisset has nothing to disclose. Dr. Clavelou has received personal compensation for activities with Schering AG, Biogen Idec, Serono Inc., and Sanofi-Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. as a speaker. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Guy, N., Cornut Chauvinc, C., Moisset, X., Clavelou, P. Tags: Pain and Palliative Care Source Type: research

Prevalence, Course And Associations Of Depression In ALS: Lack Of Worsening With Disease Progression. (S36.002)
CONCLUSIONS: Depression is prevalent in ALS and is associated with disease severity at initial assessment. Paradoxically however, worsening depression is not observed during follow-up despite disease progression. ALS patients who are female, older, have pseudobulbar affect, or respiratory onset of symptoms are more prone to depression and should be screened for early intervention.Disclosure: Dr. Thakore has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pioro has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Thakore, N., Pioro, E. Tags: Neuromuscular Disease: Clinical Source Type: research

White Matter Microstructure Abnormalities in Patients with Dominant Optic Atrophy and OPA1 Mutations (S39.002)
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DOA linked to OPA1 gene mutations present diffuse WM microstructural abnormalities. Clinical expression of DOA could be influenced by the level of mithocondrial impairment and potential compensatory mechanisms, such as increased protein expression. Restricted water diffusion might be explained by a higher macromolecular water binding, due to increased molecular crowding and microviscosity.Study Supported by:Disclosure: Dr. Messina has nothing to disclose. Dr. Rocca has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec and Serono Symposia International Foundation. Dr. Bianchi Marzoli ...
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Messina, R., Rocca, M., Bianchi Marzoli, S., Milesi, I., Cascavilla, M. L., Petrolini, M., Falini, A., Comi, G., Filippi, M. Tags: Neuro-ophthalmology/Neuro-otology II Source Type: research

DPPX Autoantibody: Frequency, Clinical Accompaniments and Outcomes (S40.001)
CONCLUSIONS:DPPX-IgG is a biomarker for a treatable, autoimmune CNS and autonomic disorder with predominant (but not exclusive) hyperexcitable phenotype.Disclosure: Dr. Lennon stands to receive royalty payments for commercial assays to detect of Aquaporin 4-specific Autoantibody. Dr. Komorowski has received personal compensation for activities with EuroImmun AG as an employee. Dr. Probst has received personal compensation for activities with EuroImmun AG as an employee. Dr. Aksamit has nothing to disclose. Dr. Lucchinetti stands to receive royalty payments from Biogen Idec. Dr. Pittock's institution has received compensati...
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Tobin, W. O., Lennon, V., Komorowski, L., Probst, C., Clardy, S., Aksamit, A., Lucchinetti, C., Pittock, S., Tippmann-Peikert, M., Wirrell, E., McKeon, A. Tags: General Neurology II Source Type: research

A Novel Homozygous Mutation Of SLC52A3 Gene Associated With Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome (BVVL) (S42.001)
Conclusions: We report a girl with progressive pontobulbar palsy and sensorineural hearing loss with a confirmed novel homozygous SLC52A3 mutation who experienced dramatic improvement with high dose riboflavin as per the protocol pioneered by Bosch et al. Because of this condition’s potentially rapid progression and poor prognosis, prompt clinical recognition of BVVL and institution of high dose riboflavin could be life saving.Disclosure: Dr. Naik has nothing to disclose. Dr. Chopra has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pletcher has nothing to disclose. Dr. Gordhan has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ming has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Naik, S., Chopra, E., Pletcher, B., Gordhan, C., Ming, X. Tags: Child Neurology I Source Type: research

iPSC-Derived Neural Stem Cells Ameliorate The Phenotype Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy with Respiratory Distress Type 1 (SMARD1) (S56.007)
CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the translational potential of pluripotent cells for cell-mediated therapies in motor neuron disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases.Disclosure: Dr. Corti has nothing to disclose. Dr. Simone has nothing to disclose. Dr. Nizzardo has nothing to disclose. Dr. Rizzo has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ruggieri has nothing to disclose. Dr. Salani has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bucchia has nothing to disclose. Dr. Rinchetti has nothing to disclose. Dr. Zanetta has nothing to disclose. Dr. Faravelli has nothing to disclose. Dr. Monguzzi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Magri has nothing to disclose. Dr. B...
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Corti, S., Simone, C., Nizzardo, M., Rizzo, F., Ruggieri, M., Salani, S., Bucchia, M., Rinchetti, P., Zanetta, C., Faravelli, I., Monguzzi, E., Magri, F., Bresolin, N., Comi, G. Tags: Anterior Horn Disease Source Type: research

Is IVIg Therapy Warranted in Progressive Lower Motor Neuron Syndromes without Conduction Block? (I6-1.009)
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study do not support uniform use of IVIg in patients presenting with progressive asymmetric LMN limb weakness. It is suggested that IVIg treatment be limited to patients who demonstrate clinical features suggestive of multifocal motor neuropathy.Study Supported by: National Health and Medical Research Council and the Motor Neurone Disease Research Institute of Australia (grant #1039520).Disclosure: Dr. Simon has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ayer has received personal compensation for activities with Walgreens as an employee. Dr. Lomen-Hoerth has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Simon, N., Ayer, G., Lomen-Hoerth, C. Tags: Peripheral Neuropathies Poster Presentations Source Type: research

Optical Imaging of Facial Perfusion in Migraine (I9-1.002)
Conclusions:Our pilot data suggest that migraineurs and controls may be distinguishable based on baseline and stimulus-evoked facial hemodynamic oscillations. Reflectance imaging of facial trigeminal and autonomic function is feasible and may be useful to examine physiological endophenotypes of migraine and other craniofacial neurological disorders.Disclosure: Dr. Peterson has nothing to disclose. Dr. Hunter has nothing to disclose. Dr. Cortez has nothing to disclose. Dr. Theriot has nothing to disclose. Dr. Brennan has received personal compensation for activities with MAP Pharmaceuticals and Allergan, Inc. as an advisory...
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Peterson, J., Hunter, L., Cortez, M., Theriot, J., Brennan, K. Tags: Emerging Concepts in Headache Therapy Poster Presentations Source Type: research

Spinocerebellar Ataxias with Hypogonadism: Unraveling a Novel Group of Inherited Neurometabolic Disorders (I11-1.005)
CONCLUSIONS: The association between cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadism comprise heterogenous entities. Screening for CDG and Coq10 deficiency should be done in such patients as a part of the work-up investigation. Identification of the molecular basis of BNS widens our comprehension of this rare group of the disorders,with involvement of glycosphingolipids metabolism in its physiopathology.Disclosure: Dr. Lourenco has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sobreira has nothing to disclose. Dr. Giugliani has nothing to disclose. Dr. Zuchner has received license fee payments from Athena Diagnostics. Dr. Marques, Jr. has nothing to disclo...
Source: Neurology - April 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Lourenco, C., Sobreira, C., Giugliani, R., Zuchner, S., Marques, W. Tags: Proteinopathy in Neurodegenerative Disease Poster Presentations Source Type: research

Immune deficiency in Ataxia‐Telangiectasia: a longitudinal study of 44 patients
This study shows that subtle quantitative changes in certain immunological parameters such as lymphocyte subset counts may occur in patients with A‐T over time. However, in general, for the majority of patients the severity of immune deficiency (both clinically and in terms of immunological blood markers) does not seem to deteriorate significantly with time. This finding serves to inform the long‐term management of this cohort of patients because, if recurrent respiratory tract infections present later in life, then other contributory factors (e.g. cough/swallowing difficulties, underlying lung disease) should be inves...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - April 9, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: C. Chopra, G. Davies, M. Taylor, M. Anderson, S. Bainbridge, P. Tighe, E. M. McDermott Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Laryngotracheal separation in an infant with severe dysgenesis of the larynx
Conclusions: The presented case illustrates that LTS may be considered a safe and effective initial treatment option for chronic aspiration in select infants with severe dysgenesis of the larynx. (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - April 9, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Michael E. McCormick, Brian K. Reilly, Jonathan G. Murnick, Joshua R. Bedwell Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Sodium channel blockers for cystic fibrosis.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that the topical administration of a short-acting sodium channel blocker improves respiratory condition in people with cystic fibrosis and some limited evidence of deterioration in lung function. PMID: 24715704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - April 9, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Burrows EF, Southern KW, Noone PG Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Deferring the prescription of antibiotics has minimal impact on severity of symptoms.
Authors: Abstract Delaying prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections, compared with immediate prescribing, makes no significant difference to patients' symptom severity and greatly reduces the use of antibiotics, according to a randomised controlled trial by UK researchers. PMID: 24712601 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)
Source: Nursing Standard - April 9, 2014 Category: Nursing Tags: Nurs Stand Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Physical Impairment after Acute Lung Injury in a National, Multi-Center Study.
Conclusions: Patients had substantial impairments, from predicted values, for 6-minute walk distance and SF-36 Physical Function outcome measures. Minimizing corticosteroid dose and implementing existing evidence-based methods to reduce duration of ICU stay and associated patient immobilization may be important interventions for improving ALI survivors' physical outcomes. PMID: 24716641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - April 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Needham DM, Wozniak AW, Hough CL, Morris PE, Dinglas VD, Jackson JC, Mendez-Tellez PA, Shanholtz C, Ely EW, Colantuoni E, Hopkins RO, with the NIH NHLBI ARDS Network Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Keratinocyte Growth-Factor Promotes Epithelial Survival and Resolution in a Human Model of Lung Injury.
Conclusions KGF treatment increases BAL SP-D, a marker of type II alveolar epithelial cell proliferation in a human model of ALI. Additionally KGF increases alveolar concentrations of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra, and mediators that drive epithelial repair (MMP-9) and enhance macrophage clearance of dead cells and bacteria (GM-CSF). PMID: 24716610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - April 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shyamsundar M, McAuley DF, Ingram RJ, Gibson DS, O'Kane D, McKeown ST, Edwards A, Taggart C, Elborn JS, Calfee CS, Matthay MA, O'Kane CM Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

The Pla Protease of Yersinia pestis Degrades Fas Ligand to Manipulate Host Cell Death and Inflammation.
Abstract Pneumonic plague is a deadly respiratory disease caused by Yersinia pestis. The bacterial protease Pla contributes to disease progression and manipulation of host immunity, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are largely unknown. Here we show that Pla degrades the apoptotic signaling molecule Fas ligand (FasL) to prevent host cell apoptosis and inflammation. Wild-type Y. pestis, but not a Pla mutant (Δpla), degrades FasL, which results in decreased downstream caspase-3/7 activation and reduced apoptosis. Similarly, lungs of mice challenged with wild-type Y. pestis show reduced levels of FasL and act...
Source: Cell Host and Microbe - April 9, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Caulfield AJ, Walker ME, Gielda LM, Lathem WW Tags: Cell Host Microbe Source Type: research

Worsening Preoperative Heart Failure Is Associated with Mortality and Noncardiac Complications, But Not Myocardial Infarction after Noncardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
CONCLUSIONS:: Worsening preoperative HF is associated with a significant increase in postoperative morbidity and mortality when controlling for other comorbidities. Although these likely have a multifactorial etiology, patients are much more likely to suffer from respiratory, renal, and infectious complications than cardiac complications. PMID: 24722256 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia)
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia - April 9, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Maile MD, Engoren MC, Tremper KK, Jewell E, Kheterpal S Tags: Anesth Analg Source Type: research

[Acute cough in infants: Impact on families and pharmacists of contraindications of the Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé (ANSM).]
CONCLUSION: ANSM contraindications still have a limited impact on pharmacists and families. Therefore, efforts must be pursued to stop delivering cough medicines for infants. The information and educational campaigns should also involve parents and help to improve nasal wash use. PMID: 24726669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives de Pediatrie)
Source: Archives de Pediatrie - April 9, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Alauzet F, Blanc S, Montaudié I, Piccini-Bailly C, Berlioz-Baudoin M, Bégassat M, Albertini M, Giovannini-Chami L Tags: Arch Pediatr Source Type: research

Alios BioPharma snags $41 million for childhood respiratory drug work
Alios BioPharma Inc. will spend $41 million from a Series B round of funding on a mid-stage trial of its lead drug against respiratory syncytial virus and a handful of preclinical programs targeting influenza and the common cold. A quartet of existing corporate venture funds — Novo Ventures, GlaxoSmithKline's SR One, Roche Venture Fund and Novartis Ventures — as well as a new, undisclosed investor participated in the round, the South San Francisco company said. Alios' lead drug, AL-8176, is… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - April 8, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ron Leuty Source Type: research

Increased levels of plasma galectin-9 in patients with influenza virus infection.
In conclusion, plasma Gal-9 could be a new biomarker for patients with influenza infection. PMID: 24695077 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine)
Source: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine - April 8, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Katoh S, Ikeda M, Shimizu H, Mouri K, Obase Y, Kobashi Y, Fukushima K, Hirashima M, Oka M Tags: Tohoku J Exp Med Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and outcomes in critical patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
Conclusion: The high fatality in critical patients with HFRS underscores the importance of clinicians' alertness to the occurrence of potentially fatal complications and changes in biochemical status to ensure that timely and systematically supportive treatment can be initiated when necessary. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - April 8, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hong DuPing-Zhong WangJing LiLu BaiHuan LiHai-Tao YuWei JiangYe ZhangJun-Ning WangXue-Fan Bai Source Type: research

Respiratory viruses associated with patients older than 50 years presenting with ILI in Senegal, 2009 to 2011
Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrates a variety of respiratory viruses in the elderly. It also highlights a high prevalence of these viruses in this age group. We speculate from these results that the impact of respiratory viruses other than influenza on the elderly has been considerably underestimated. A more exhaustive study seems necessary in order to provide a more complete picture of the burden of respiratory viruses on morbidity among adults over 50 years old in the sub-Saharan context. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - April 8, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ndongo DiaVincent RichardDavy KioriEl CisseFatoumata SarrAbdourahmane FayeDéborah GoudiabyOusmane DiopMbayame Niang Source Type: research

How communication affects prescription decisions in consultations for acute illness in children: a systematic review and meta-ethnography
Conclusions: Misunderstandings occurred due to parents and clinicians talking at cross purposes about the 'seriousness' of the illness and because parents' expressions of concern or requests for additional information were sometimes perceived as a challenge to the clinicians' diagnosis or treatment decision. This modifiable problem may be an important contribution to the unnecessary and unwanted prescribing of antibiotics. Primary care clinicians should be offered training to understand parent communication primarily as expressions of concern or attempts at understanding and always to check rather than infer parental expec...
Source: BMC Family Practice - April 8, 2014 Category: Primary Care Authors: Christie CabralJeremy HorwoodAlastair HayPatricia Lucas Source Type: research

Comparison of same day diagnostic tools including Gene Xpert and unstimulated IFN-gamma for the evaluation of pleural tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study
Conclusion: The usefulness of Xpert MTB/RIF to diagnose pleural TB is limited by its poor sensitivity. IFN-gamma is an excellent rule-in test and, compared to ADA, has significantly better sensitivity and rule-out value in a TB-endemic setting. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - April 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Richard MeldauJonny PeterGrant TheronGreg CalligaroBrian AllwoodGreg SymonsHoosain KhalfeyGina NtombenhleUreshnie GovenderAnke BinderRichard van Zyl-SmitKeertan Dheda Source Type: research

Do heart and respiratory rate variability improve prediction of extubation outcomes in critically ill patients?
Altered heart and respiratory rate variability during spontaneous breathing trials are significantly associated with extubation failure; a predictive model provides optimal accuracy of prediction in all patients (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - April 8, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Andrew SeelyAndrea BraviChristophe HerryGeoffrey GreenAndré LongtinTim RamsayDean FergussonLauralyn McIntyreDalibor KubelikDonna MaziakNiall FergusonSamuel BrownSangeeta MehtaClaudio MartinGordon RubenfeldFrank JaconoGari CliffordAnna FazekasJohn Marshal Source Type: research

Multilevel competing risk models to evaluate the risk of nosocomial infection
Conclusions: A combination of competing risks and multilevel models is required to understand direct and indirect risk factors for NI and distinguish patient-level from ICU-level factors. (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - April 8, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Martin WolkewitzBen CooperMercedes Palomar-MartinezFrancisco Alvarez-LermaPedro Olaechea-AstigarragaAdrian BarnettStephan HarbarthMartin Schumacher Source Type: research

Delayed sequence intubation for management of respiratory failure in a 6‐year‐old child in a paediatric emergency department
(Source: Emergency Medicine Australasia)
Source: Emergency Medicine Australasia - April 8, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Ruth M Löllgen, Phillip Webster, Emma Lei, Andrew Weatherall Tags: Case Letter Source Type: research

Mitochondrial topoisomerase I (Top1mt) is a novel limiting factor of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that mitochondrial topoisomerase I, Top1mt, which is conserved across vertebrates, is critical for cardiac tolerance to DOX and adaptive response to DOX cardiotoxicity. They also suggest the potential of Top1mt single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) testing to investigate patient susceptibility to DOX induced cardiotoxicity. PMID: 24714774 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Cancer Research)
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - April 8, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Khiati S, Dalla Rosa I, Sourbier C, Ma X, Rao VA, Neckers LM, Zhang H, Pommier Y Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research

Tuberculosis, pulmonary cavitation and matrix metalloproteinases.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic infectious disease of global importance, is facing the emergence of drug-resistant strains with few new drugs to treat the infection. Pulmonary cavitation, the hallmark of established disease, is associated with very high bacillary burden. Cavitation may lead to delayed sputum culture conversion, emergence of drug resistance, and transmission of the infection. The host immunological reaction to M. tuberculosis is implicated in driving the development of TB cavities. TB is characterized by a matrix degrading phenotype in which the activity of proteolytic matrix metalloproteinase...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - April 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ong CW, Elkington PT, Friedland JS Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Comparison of same day diagnostic tools including Gene Xpert and unstimulated IFN-¿ for the evaluation of pleural tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study
Background: The accuracy of currently available same-day diagnostic tools (smear microscopy and conventional nucleic acid amplification tests) for pleural tuberculosis (TB) is sub-optimal. Newer technologies may offer improved detection. Methods: Smear-microscopy, adenosine deaminase (ADA), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and Xpert MTB/RIF [using an unprocessed (1 ml) and centrifuged (~20 ml) sample] test accuracy was evaluated in pleural fluid from 103 consecutive patients with suspected pleural TB. Culture for M.tuberculosis and/or histopathology (pleural biopsy) served as the reference standard. Patients were followed prospe...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - April 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Richard MeldauJonny PeterGrant TheronGreg CalligaroBrian AllwoodGreg SymonsHoosain KhalfeyGina NtombenhleUreshnie GovenderAnke BinderRichard van Zyl-SmitKeertan Dheda Source Type: research

Immune response to Bordetella pertussis is associated with season and undernutrition in Senegalese children.
CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental and nutritional factors modulate children's response to pertussis following natural infection or vaccination. PMID: 24726248 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Source: Vaccine - April 8, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Gaayeb L, Pinçon C, Cames C, Sarr JB, Seck M, Schacht AM, Remoué F, Hermann E, Riveau G Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

[Two cases of pneumocephalus following noninvasive continuous positive airway ventilation after transsphenoidal neurosurgery.]
We report two cases of pneumocephalus following the use of continuous positive airway pressure ventilation after transsphenoidal surgery. One patient had an obstructive sleep apnea and the other suffered acute respiratory failure. In both cases, pneumocephalus caused major morbidity and required specific treatment and prolonged considerably hospital stay. Based on these observations we believe new precautions in the use of noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation should be recommended. PMID: 24726003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annales Francaises d'Anesthesie et de Reanimation)
Source: Annales Francaises d'Anesthesie et de Reanimation - April 8, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Zlotnik D, Taylor G, Simmoneau A, Viot-Blanc V, Devys JM Tags: Ann Fr Anesth Reanim Source Type: research

Protective Role of Amantadine in Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress Mediated by Hepatitis C Virus Protein Expression.
In conclusion, these results support a role of amantadine in preserving cellular bioenergetics and redox homeostasis in HCV-infected cells and unveil an effect of the drug which might be exploited for a broader therapeutic utilization. PMID: 24726442 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochemical Pharmacology)
Source: Biochemical Pharmacology - April 8, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Quarato G, Scrima R, Ripoli M, Agriesti F, Moradpour D, Capitanio N, Piccoli C Tags: Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Respiratory manganese particle size, time-course and neurobehavioral outcomes in workers at a manganese alloy production plant.
Abstract The progression of manganism with chronic exposure to airborne manganese (Mn) is not well understood. Here, we further investigate the findings on exposure and neurobehavioral outcomes of workers from a silico- and ferromanganese production plant and non-exposed workers from the same community in 1990 and 2004, using a variety of exposure metrics that distinguish particle size and origin within the range of respirable airborne exposures. Mn exposure matrices for large respirable particulate (Mn-LRP, dust) and small respirable particulate (Mn-SRP, fume), based on process origins, were used together with det...
Source: Neurotoxicology - April 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Park RM, Bouchard MF, Baldwin M, Bowler R, Mergler D Tags: Neurotoxicology Source Type: research

IL-27R-Mediated Regulation of IL-17 Controls the Development of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Pathogenesis.
This study investigates the role of IL-27 signaling in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection using IL-27Rα-deficient mice (IL-27rKO). Analysis of lungs from RSV-infected IL-27rKO mice showed exacerbation of mucus secretion compared with wild type, as well as enhanced expression of Muc5ac and Gob5 mRNA, markers of goblet cell metaplasia/hyperplasia. When compared with wild-type mice, RSV-challenged IL-27rKO mice had enhanced expression of Th17-associated cytokine IL-17a and an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels. Neutralization of IL-17 in RSV-infected IL-27rKO mice resulted in a significant decrease in the...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - April 8, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: de Almeida Nagata DE, Demoor T, Ptaschinski C, Ting HA, Jang S, Reed M, Mukherjee S, Lukacs NW Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research

Decline of ambient air pollution levels due to measures to control automobile emissions and effects on the prevalence of respiratory and allergic disorders among children in Japan.
CONCLUSIONS: The enforcement of measures to control automobile emissions based on the Automobile NOx/PM law was shown to have reduced air pollution and contributed to decreases in the prevalence of respiratory and allergic disorders in 3-year-old children. PMID: 24727639 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environmental Research)
Source: Environmental Research - April 8, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Hasunuma H, Ishimaru Y, Yoda Y, Shima M Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research

Gold nanoparticles-based enhanced ELISA for respiratory syncytial virus
New J. Chem., 2014, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C4NJ00253A, PaperLei Zhan, Wen Bi Wu, XIao Xi Yang, Cheng Zhi HuangRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) mediates severe respiratory illness in infants and young children worldwide, and it is also a significant pathogen of the elderly and immune compromised. Due to low...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles)
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - April 7, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Lei Zhan Source Type: research

Positional effects on lung mechanics of ventilated preterm infants with acute and chronic lung disease
ConclusionsOn short‐term basis, prone positioning does not offer significant advantages in lung mechanics in mechanically ventilated infants with RDS, while it is associated with lower Rrs values in patients with evolving BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - April 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: V. Vendettuoli, C. Veneroni, E. Zannin, D. Mercadante, P. Matassa, A. Pedotti, M. Colnaghi, R. L. Dellacà, F. Mosca Tags: Original Article: Neonatal Lung Disease Source Type: research

Long term outcome of tonsillar regrowth after partial tonsillectomy in children with obstructive sleep apnea
Conclusion: Partial tonsillectomy is sufficient to relieve obstruction while maintaining immunological function. This procedure has several post-operative advantages. Palatine tonsils infrequently regrow. Risk factors include young age, upper respiratory tract infections, history of allergy, and history of acute tonsillitis prior to regrowth. (Source: Auris, Nasus, Larynx)
Source: Auris, Nasus, Larynx - April 7, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Qingfeng Zhang, Dawei Li, Hui Wang Tags: General Otolaryngology Source Type: research

70 Year Old Male: Short of Breath
  Good morning sports fans! You are dispatched to the residence of a 70 year old male, complaining of “shortness of breath”. You pull up to a well kept home, and are met at the front door by the patient’s wife. She tells you that her husband came home from the hospital yesterday after cosmetic eye surgery. You are led into the kitchen, and find your patient sitting in a chair at the kitchen table. There is an eye patch over his right eye. He appears to be in moderate respiratory distress. His color is ok, but you note he can only speak in short sentences. He tells you that he was fine until this morn...
Source: EMS 12-Lead - April 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: David Baumrind Tags: ems-health-safety ems-topics patient-management Training training-development case study Source Type: research

Glibenclamide in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: a 12-week, prospective, single-center, open-label, dose-escalation study
Rambiritch V, Maharaj B, Naidoo P (Source: International Journal of COPD)
Source: International Journal of COPD - April 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Exploring the heterogeneity of effects of corticosteroids on acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Routine use of corticosteroids is not recommended for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as they do not improve long term outcomes and may even cause harm in certain subgroups of patients. (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - April 7, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Sheng-Yuan RuanHsien-Ho LinChun-Ta HuangPing-Hung KuoHuey-Dong WuChong-Jen Yu Source Type: research

Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor modulates urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis
Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), 11.7 kDa serine protease inhibitor, is produced primarily in the respiratory tract, but it is often elevated in lung, head/neck and ovarian cancers. SLPI expression in relation to cancer progression, metastasis and invasion has been studied extensively in non-small cell lung cancer. However, the role of SLPI during the early stages of carcinogenesis remains unknown. We hypothesized that SLPI is required from the initiation and promotion to the progression of lung carcinogenesis. A skin allograft model using SLPI-knockout (SLPI-KO) mice and short hairpin RNA-treated cells was u...
Source: Carcinogenesis - April 7, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Jan Treda, C., Fukuhara, T., Suzuki, T., Nakamura, A., Zaini, J., Kikuchi, T., Ebina, M., Nukiwa, T. Tags: Original Manuscript Source Type: research