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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 10.

Blockade of PDE4B limits lung vascular permeability and lung inflammation in LPS-induced acute lung injury.
Abstract Acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is actually involved in an ongoing and uncontrolled inflammatory response in lung tissues. Although extensive studies suggested that PDE4B may be related to inflammation, the underlying cell biological mechanism of ALI remains unclear. To further investigate the mechanism how PDE4B take part in inflammatory response and the maintenance of vascular integrity, we established the experimental model of ALI in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, we found that Cilomilast, Diazepam and PDE4B knockout could potently inhibit the LPS-induced NF-κB activa...
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - July 11, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Ma H, Shi J, Wang C, Guo L, Gong Y, Li J, Gong Y, Yun F, Zhao H, Li E Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Impact of alginate-producing on alveolar macrophage apoptotic cell clearance
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is a hallmark of lung disease in cystic fibrosis. Acute infection with P. aeruginosa profoundly inhibits alveolar macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) via direct effect of virulence factors. During chronic infection, P. aeruginosa evades host defense by decreased virulence, which includes the production or, in the case of mucoidy, overproduction of alginate. The impact of alginate on innate immunity, in particular on macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells is not known. (Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis)
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - July 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Charles A. McCaslin, Daniela N. Petrusca, Christophe Poirier, Karina A. Serban, Gregory G. Anderson, Irina Petrache Source Type: research

Serology as a diagnostic tool for predicting initial acquisition in children with cystic fibrosis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) serology could potentially be a useful adjunct to respiratory culture methods for the detection of initial or early Pa infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). (Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis)
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - July 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cori Daines, Donald VanDeVanter, Umer Khan, Julia Emerson, Sonya Heltshe, Sharon McNamara, Michael Anstead, Markus Langkamp, Gerd Doring, Felix Ratjen, Bonnie Ramsey, Ronald L. Gibson, Wayne Morgan, Margaret Rosenfeld, for the EPIC Investigators Source Type: research

Intraoperative apnea in children after buffered 5% povidone‐iodine site sterilization for stabismus surgery
ConclusionsApnea at the time of ocular preparation with buffered 5% povidone‐iodine solution is common. The precise mechanism of this response is unknown. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 10, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: John D. Emhardt, Kathryn M. Haider, David A. Plager, Dava L. Grundhoefer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A compartment model of alveolar–capillary oxygen diffusion with ventilation–perfusion gradient and dynamics of air transport through the respiratory tract
(Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine)
Source: Computers in Biology and Medicine - July 10, 2014 Category: Bioinformatics Authors: Jacek Jaworski, Grzegorz Redlarski Source Type: research

Interim CDC Guidance for Polio Vaccination for Travel to and from Countries Affected by Wild Poliovirus.
Abstract In the prevaccine era, infection with wild poliovirus (WPV) was common worldwide, with seasonal peaks and epidemics in the summer and fall in temperate areas. The incidence of poliomyelitis in the United States declined rapidly after the licensure of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in 1955 and live oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s. The last cases of indigenously acquired WPV in the United States occurred in 1979, the last WPV case in a U.S. resident traveling abroad occurred in 1986, and the last WPV imported case was in 1993. Since 2000, the United States has exclusively used IPV, resulting in preven...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - July 10, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wallace GS, Seward JF, Pallansch MA, Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Quartz and Respirable Dust in the Dutch Construction Industry: A Baseline Exposure Assessment as Part of a Multidimensional Intervention Approach
In conclusion, the detailed information on determinants of exposure, use of control measures, and constraints to use these control measures can be used for the determination and systematic prioritization of intervention measures used to design and implement our intervention strategy. This study underlines the need for multidisciplinary workplace exposure control strategies although larger study populations are necessary to determine a possible causal association between organizational and psychosocial factors and psychosocial factors and control measures. (Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene)
Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene - July 10, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: van Deurssen, E., Pronk, A., Spaan, S., Goede, H., Tielemans, E., Heederik, D., Meijster, T. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Reconstruction of Historical Exposures at a Welsh Nickel Refinery (1953-2000)
This study uses nickel measurements from the 1970s to the present, documentation of process changes, and dust measurements taken around the1950s to construct an exposure matrix for the recent cohort. It provides evidence of at least 30-fold decreases in levels of nickel exposure from the 1950s to the present, with estimated inhalable nickel concentrations in the 1950s in excess of 5mg Ni m–3. (Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene)
Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene - July 10, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sivulka, D. J., Seilkop, S. K., Lascelles, K., Conard, B. R., Jones, S. F., Collinson, E. C. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Respiratory Source Control Using Surgical Masks With Nanofiber Media
Conclusions: Substituting nanofiber for conventional filter media significantly reduced face mask airflow resistance directing more airflow through the face mask resulting in enhanced filtration. Respiratory source control efficacy similar to that achieved through the use of an N95 respirator worn by the source and decreased airflow resistance using nanofiber masks may improve compliance and reduce receiver exposure. (Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene)
Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene - July 10, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Skaria, S. D., Smaldone, G. C. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities related to work at a flavouring manufacturing facility
Conclusions Symptoms and lung function findings were consistent with undiagnosed or subclinical obliterative bronchiolitis and associated with workplace exposures. Further efforts to lower exposures to flavouring chemicals, including diacetyl substitutes, are warranted. (Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - July 10, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Cummings, K. J., Boylstein, R. J., Stanton, M. L., Piacitelli, C. A., Edwards, N. T., LeBouf, R. F., Kreiss, K. Tags: Editor's choice, Other exposures Workplace Source Type: research

Lactate dehydrogenase as a biomarker for silica exposure-induced toxicity in agate workers
Conclusions This study proposes that total LDH activity and the LDH ratio (plasma/cells), along with occupational exposure history, are markers for silica exposure-induced toxicity in agate workers. (Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - July 10, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Aggarwal, B. D. Tags: Respiratory, Other exposures Exposure assessment Source Type: research

Biofilm‐specific extracellular matrix proteins of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae
Abstract Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), a human respiratory tract pathogen, can form colony biofilms in vitro. Bacterial cells and the amorphous extracellular matrix (ECM) constituting the biofilm can be separated using sonication. The ECM from 24‐ and 96‐h NTHi biofilms contained polysaccharides and proteinaceous components as detected by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy. More conventional chemical assays on the biofilm ECM confirmed the presence of these components and also DNA. Proteomics revealed eighteen proteins present in biofilm ECM tha...
Source: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology - July 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Siva Wu, Marc M. Baum, James Kerwin, Debbie Guerrero, Simon Webster, Christoph Schaudinn, David VanderVelde, Paul Webster Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Sickle Cell Disease in children: chronic complications and search of predictive factors for adverse outcomes
ConclusionsLeucocytosis and dactylitis in the first year of life can be predictors of SCD severity while the presence of α‐thalassemia can be protective. The determination of early predictors of chronic complications of SCD may improve the comprehensive care of these patients.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: European Journal of Haematology)
Source: European Journal of Haematology - July 10, 2014 Category: Hematology Authors: Inês Vaz Silva, Ana Filipa Reis, Maria João Palaré, Anabela Ferrão, Teresa Rodrigues, Anabela Morais Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Can epidemic detection systems at the hospital level complement regional surveillance networks: Case study with the influenza epidemic?
Conclusions: The implementation of an automatic surveillance system to detect patients with influenza or respiratory syndrome from computerized ED records could allow outbreak alerts at the intra-hospital level before the publication of regional data and could accelerate the implementation of preventive transmission-based precautions in hospital settings. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Solweig Gerbier-ColombanVéronique Potinet-PagliaroliMarie-Hélène Metzger Source Type: research

NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 237 Leu/Met polymorphism modifies effects of cigarette smoking on risk of elevated levels of serum liver enzyme in male Japanese health check-up examinees: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions: Cigarette smoking appears to increase the risk of elevated levels of serum ALT or serum GGT in ND2-237Met genotypic men, but to decrease the risk of elevated levels of serum ALT in ND2-237Leu genotypic men. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - July 10, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Akatsuki KokazeMasao YoshidaMamoru IshikawaNaomi MatsunagaKanae KaritaTadahiro OhtsuHirotaka OchiaiTakako ShirasawaHinako NanriYuta BabaHiromi HoshinoYutaka Takashima Source Type: research

Sleep pathology characterization in sickle cell disease: Case–control study
ConclusionComparing children with and without SCD, sleep architecture was similar in both groups and minimum SpO2 was significantly lower in SCD children although both groups had a similar AHI. This is an important issue in these children, so it is essential to have a sleep evaluation in order to prevent complications and co‐morbidities. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - July 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Maria Inês Mascarenhas, Helena Cristina Loureiro, Teresa Ferreira, Alexandra Dias Tags: Original Article: Sleep & Breathing Source Type: research

Lung function over the first 3 years of life in children with congenital diaphragmatic hernia
ConclusionsLung functions of survivors of CDH remain abnormal throughout the first 3 years of life. The degree of pulmonary function impairment correlated both with markers of the initial degree of pulmonary hypoplasia and the duration of mechanical ventilation. Understanding the relationship between the phenotypic presentation of CDH and the potential for subsequent lung growth could help refine both pre‐ and postnatal therapies to optimize lung growth in CDH infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - July 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Howard B. Panitch, Daniel J. Weiner, Rui Feng, Myrza R. Perez, Fiona Healy, Joseph M. McDonough, Natalie Rintoul, Holly L. Hedrick Tags: Original Article: Neonatal Lung Disease Source Type: research

Functional mapping of community‐acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin of Mycoplasma pneumoniae defines regions with ADP‐ribosyltransferase, vacuolating and receptor‐binding activities
Summary Community‐acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin from Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a 591‐amino‐acid virulence factor with ADP‐ribosyltransferase (ADPRT) and vacuolating activities. It is expressed at low levels during in vitro growth and at high levels during colonization of the lung. Exposure of experimental animals to purified recombinant CARDS toxin alone is sufficient to recapitulate the cytopathology and inflammatory responses associated with M. pneumoniae infection in humans and animals. Here, by molecular modelling, serial truncations and site‐directed mutagenesis, we show that the N‐te...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - July 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Thirumalai R. Kannan, Manickam Krishnan, Kumaraguruparan Ramasamy, Argentina Becker, Olga N. Pakhomova, P. John Hart, Joel B. Baseman Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Recent outbreak of scrub typhus in North Western part of India
Conclusion: Scrub typhus has emerged as an important cause of febrile illness in Jaipur. Empirical treatment with doxycycline is justified in endemic areas. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Parul SinhaSweta GuptaRomika DawraPuneet Rijhawan Source Type: research

Diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Comparison between ante-mortem and post-mortem cultures in trauma patients
Conclusions: Culture results of a properly collected tracheal aspirate should be taken into consideration along with Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC's) diagnostic criteria to maximise the diagnosis of VAP. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - July 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: S LalwaniP MathurV TakS JananiSI KumarR BaglaMC Misra Source Type: research

Comparison of acoustic and impedance methods with mask capnometry to assess respiration rate in obese patients recovering from general anaesthesia
In this study, respiration rate was simultaneously recorded every second for up to 60 min using a computer in 30 adult obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg.m−2), by three methods: acoustic; thoracic impedance; and capnometry via a facemask (Capnomask®, reference method). Of the 99 771 data triplets collected, only 85 520 (86%) were included; 12 021 (84%) were not studied due to failure of capnometry and 2240 (16%) due to failure of the acoustic method. Compared with capnometry, bias was similar using both the acoustic method and impedance (−0.3 bpm vs −0.6 bpm, respectively, p = 0.09), but limits of ...
Source: Anaesthesia - July 10, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: D. Frasca, L. Geraud, J.‐M. Charriere, B. Debaene, O. Mimoz Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Characterization of a Respiratory Complex from P. furiosus [Membrane Biology]
The archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus grows optimally at 100 °C by converting carbohydrates to acetate, CO2, and H2, obtaining energy from a respiratory membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH). This conserves energy by coupling H2 production to oxidation of reduced ferredoxin with generation of a sodium ion gradient. MBH is encoded by a 14-gene operon with both hydrogenase and Na+/H+ antiporter modules. Herein a His-tagged MBH was expressed in P. furiosus and the detergent-solubilized complex purified under anaerobic conditions by affinity chromatography. Purified MBH contains all 14 subunits by electrophoretic analysis (13 subunits ...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - July 10, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: McTernan, P. M., Chandrayan, S. K., Wu, C.-H., Vaccaro, B. J., Lancaster, W. A., Yang, Q., Fu, D., Hura, G. L., Tainer, J. A., Adams, M. W. W. Tags: Enzymology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on Ozone-induced Airway Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness.
Abstract Exposure to ozone (O3) has been associated with airway inflammation, oxidative stress and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). The goal of this study was to examine whether these adverse effects of ozone could be prevented or reversed by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a reducing agent. The H2S donor sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) (2 mg/kg) or vehicle (PBS) was intraperitoneally injected into mice 1 hour before and after 3-hour ozone (2.5 ppm) or air exposure, and the mice were studied 24 hours later. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with NaHS reduced the ozone-induced increases in the total cells, including...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - July 10, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Zhang P, Li F, Wiegman CH, Zhang M, Hong Y, Gong J, Chang Y, Zhang JJ, Adcock I, Chung KF, Zhou X Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

[Complications in pediatric anesthesia.]
Abstract As in adult anesthesia, morbidity and mortality could be significantly reduced in pediatric anesthesia in recent decades. This fact cannot conceal the fact that the incidence of anesthetic complications in children is still much more common than in adults and sometimes with a severe outcome. Newborns and infants in particular but also children with emergency interventions and severe comorbidities are at increased risk of potential complications. Typical complications in pediatric anesthesia are respiratory problems, medication errors, difficulties with the intravenous puncture and pulmonal aspiration. In t...
Source: Der Anaesthesist - July 10, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Becke K Tags: Anaesthesist Source Type: research

The Anticoagulation of Calf Thrombosis (ACT) project: results from the randomized controlled external pilot trial.
ConclusionsWe have established the feasibility of definitive study regarding the value of therapeutic anticoagulation in IDDVT and provide an approximate point estimate for serious complications with a contemporary conservative strategy. Clinical Trial Registrationwww.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN75175695. Background: There is currently little evidence defining the clinical importance of detecting and treating isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT). International guidelines vary regarding diagnostic and therapeutic advice. The potential benefits of anticoagulation are unquantified. We sought to evaluate the feasib...
Source: Chest - July 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Horner D, Hogg K, Body R, Nash MJ, Baglin T, Mackway-Jones K Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Novel use of pleural ultrasound can identify malignant entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage.
ConclusionsThis novel ultrasound technique can identify entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage, which could allow appropriate choice of definitive management (pleurodesis versus indwelling catheter), reducing the number of interventions required to treat malignant pleural effusion. Rationale: The presence of entrapped lung changes the appropriate management of malignant pleural effusion from pleurodesis to insertion of an indwelling pleural catheter. No methods currently exist to identify entrapped lung prior to effusion drainage. Objectives: To develop a method to identify entrapped lung using tissue movement a...
Source: Chest - July 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Salamonsen MR, Lo AK, Ng AC, Bashirzadeh F, Wang WY, Fielding DI Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Tree and forest effects on air quality and human health in the United States.
Abstract Trees remove air pollution by the interception of particulate matter on plant surfaces and the absorption of gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. However, the magnitude and value of the effects of trees and forests on air quality and human health across the United States remains unknown. Computer simulations with local environmental data reveal that trees and forests in the conterminous United States removed 17.4 million tonnes (t) of air pollution in 2010 (range: 9.0-23.2 million t), with human health effects valued at 6.8 billion U.S. dollars (range: $1.5-13.0 billion). This pollution removal equ...
Source: Environmental Pollution - July 10, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Nowak DJ, Hirabayashi S, Allison Bodine, Greenfield E Tags: Environ Pollut Source Type: research

Distal-proximal crosstalk in the heme binding pocket of the NO sensor DNR.
Abstract In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa the denitrification process is triggered by nitric oxide (NO) and plays a crucial role for the survival in chronic infection sites as a microaerobic-anaerobic biofilm. This respiratory pathway is transcriptionally induced by DNR, an heme-based gas sensor which positively responds to NO. Molecular details of the NO sensing mechanism employed by DNR are now emerging: we recently reported an in vitro study which dissected, for the first time, the heme-iron environment and identified one of the heme axial ligand (i.e. His187), found to be crucial to respond ...
Source: Biometals - July 10, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Cutruzzolà F, Arcovito A, Giardina G, Della Longa S, D'Angelo P, Rinaldo S Tags: Biometals Source Type: research

Pseudoxanthobacter liyangensis sp. nov., isolated from a DDT-contaminated soil.
Abstract An aerobic, Gram-stain negative, pale, rod-shaped, nitrogen-fixing bacterial strain DDT-3T was isolated from a dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane-contaminated soil in Liyang, China. Strain DDT-3T grew at temperatures ranging from 20-40°C (optimum at 30-37°C) and pH ranges from 5.0-10.0 (optimum at pH 7.0-8.0). The G+C content of the total DNA was 70.1 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain DDT-3T showed the highest similarity to that of Pseudoxanthobacter soli CC4T (99.6%), followed by Kaistia dalseonensis B6-8T (93.3%), Kaistia soli 5YN9-8T (93.0%) and Amorphous orientalis YIM D10 T (93.0%). Strain DDT...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - July 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu XM, Chen K, Meng C, Zhang L, Zhu JC, Huang X, Li SP, Jiang JD Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Flavobacterium arsenatis sp. nov., a novel anti-arsenic bacterium from the high-arsenic sediment in Jianghan Plain, China.
Abstract A novel bacterial strain Z(T) was isolated from the high-arsenic sediment in Jianghan Plain, China. The strain was Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped, and formed yellow colonies. This bacterium is capable of resisting to arsenate and arsenite with the MICs of 40 mM and 20 mM, respectively. The strain also possesses catalase, and doesn't produce oxidase. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolate showed the highest similarity (96.9%) to that of the type strain of Flavobacterium soli. According to the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and the phenotypic properties of the strain Z(T), it was as...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - July 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Ao L, Zeng XC, Nie Y, Mu Y, Zhou L, Luo X Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Production of Acylated Homoserine Lactone by a novel marine strain of Proteus vulgaris and inhibition of its swarming by phytochemicals.
Abstract A marine strain of Proteus vulgaris, capable of activating multiple acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) -based reporter cultures, was isolated. The cognate signal molecule was characterized as octanoyl homoserine lactone (OHL)and its production was observed to be growth dependent, with maximum production( 5.675µg/L) at the 24th hour of its growth. The strain exhibited swarming but its motility was not affected upon addition of pure OHL or culture supernatant. Phytochemicals such as quercitin and berberine chloride inhibited OHL production as well as reduced swarming. FliA, the predominantly upregulated prot...
Source: Microbiology - July 10, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Biswa P, Doble M Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research

The 'Malawi device': a durable, reusable, low cost device from own materials for emergency ventilation during percutaneous tracheostomy.
We describe a method by which the airway and ventilation can be maintained if accidental tracheal extubation occurs before completion of a percutaneous tracheostomy. The 'Malawi Device', a cheap and simple modification of readily available equipment, enables a single operator to maintain the airway and ventilate the patient when the above scenario occurs. PMID: 25011380 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Source: Tropical Doctor - July 10, 2014 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Pollach G, Namboya F, Jung K Tags: Trop Doct Source Type: research

Use of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in CF
We read with interest the published review by Nazareth and Walshaw [1] in relation to renal disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). (Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis)
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - July 10, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Courtney Munro, Sarath Ranganathan, Kingsley Coulthard, Cathy Quinlan Source Type: research

The Effects of Polymyxin B-immobilized Fiber Hemoperfusion on Respiratory Impairment in Endotoxemic Pigs.
Conclusion: PMX-DHP is effective for treating respiratory impairment and contributes to the decreased mortality rate in the endotoxemic pigs. PMID: 24998959 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Nippon Medical School)
Source: Journal of Nippon Medical School - July 9, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Koami H, Sakamoto Y, Miyasho T, Itami T, Tamura J, Ishizuka T, Kawamura Y, Nakamura K, Miyoshi K, Yamashita K Tags: J Nippon Med Sch Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate 100 mug and 200 mug once daily in the treatment of moderate-severe asthma in adults and adolescents: a 24-week randomised study
This study was performed to descriptively assess the efficacy and safety of two doses of FF, with no planned formal statistical hypothesis testing. Methods: This was a 24-week double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group study (NCT01431950). Patients aged >=12 years with moderate-severe persistent asthma and uncontrolled on mid-high dose ICS were stratified by baseline FEV1 and randomised (1:1) to treatment with FF 100mug or 200mug once daily in the evening. The primary endpoint was change from baseline trough FEV1 after 24 weeks; secondary and other endpoints included peak expiratory flow (PEF) and rescue- and symptom-free 2...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - July 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ashley WoodcockJan LötvallWilliam BusseEric BatemanSally StoneAnna EllsworthLoretta Jacques Source Type: research

COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils
Conclusions: Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils is impaired in COPD and is related to the severity and frequency of COPD exacerbations. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - July 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Osama EltboliMona BafadhelFay HollinsAdam WrightBeverley HargadonNeeta KulkarniChristopher Brightling Source Type: research

Galactomannan in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage for Diagnosing Invasive Fungal Disease.
Conclusions: Galactomannan in the BAL had modest agreement with EORTC/MSG criteria for diagnosing invasive fungal disease in immunocompromised patients with a high degree of antifungal exposure. PMID: 25007380 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Crit Car...)
Source: Am J Respir Crit Car... - July 9, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Affolter K, Tamm M, Jahn K, Halter J, Passweg J, Hirsch HH, Stolz D Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Electronic Cigarettes: A Position Statement of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies.
Conclusions: The health and safety claims regarding electronic nicotine delivery devices should be subject to evidentiary review. The potential benefits of electronic cigarettes to an individual smoker should be weighed against potential harm to the population of increased social acceptability of smoking and use of nicotine, the latter of which has addictive power and untoward effects. As a precaution, electronic nicotine delivery devices should be restricted or banned until more information about their safety is available. If they are allowed, they should be closely regulated as medicines or tobacco products. PMID: 25...
Source: Am J Respir Crit Car... - July 9, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Schraufnagel DE, Blasi F, Drummond MB, Lam DC, Latif E, Rosen MJ, Sansores R, Van Zyl-Smit R, on behalf of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Association between helicopter with physician versus ground emergency medical services and survival for adults with major trauma in Japan
Conclusions: Among patients with major trauma in Japan, transport by helicopter with a physician may be associated with improved survival to hospital discharge compared with ground services, after controlling for multiple known confounders. (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - July 9, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Toshikazu AbeOsamu TakahashiDaizoh SaitohYasuharu Tokuda Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic neurological disorders
Paraneoplastic Neurological Disorders (PND) are uncommon but important because they frequently present before a cancer is diagnosed and because they cause severe neurological disability. Current thinking is that they are caused by an autoimmune response to ‘onconeural’ antigens, shared by the tumour and the nervous system, although the precise immunopathogenic mechanism is unknown. It is likely that there is an important cellular immune response as evidenced by the presence of lymphocytic infiltration and activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes, found in the CSF of affected patients. PND may affect any part of the ne...
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - July 9, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Rees, J. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Brain stem / cerebellum, Coma and raised intracranial pressure, Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Infection (neurology), Neuromuscular disease, Radiology, Disability, Radiology (diagnostics) NEUROPSYCHIATRY RESEARCH UPDATE Source Type: research

Mutation analysis of a large cohort of GNE myopathy reveals a diverse array of GNE mutations affecting sialic acid biosynthesis
Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis of a large single-ethnic cohort of GNE myopathy is expected to lead to personalised rational therapy. GNE myopathy, which is also called distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles, Nonaka distal myopathy, quadriceps sparing myopathy, and hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM or IBM2), is a late-onset autosomal recessive myopathy characterised by progressive distal muscular atrophy and weakness. Disease onsets are largely in the second and third decades of life with weakness in anterior tibial muscles. Upper limbs are affected in late stages, while quadriceps muscles as well as facial, o...
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - July 9, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Ohno, K. Tags: Genetics, Immunology (including allergy), Muscle disease, Neuromuscular disease, Musculoskeletal syndromes Editorial commentaries Source Type: research

Combination of meal and exercise timing with a high-fat diet influences energy expenditure and obesity in mice.
Abstract In mice, obesity has been observed not only in those freely fed a high-fat diet (HFD) but also in those fed while physically inactive. In contrast, a HFD during physically active periods protects against obesity and the impairments in the circadian rhythm induced by free feeding of a HFD. Although exercise is known to be effective for obesity prevention and management, the optimal timing of exercise has not yet been determined. In the present experiments, we aimed to determine the best combination of daily timing of HFD consumption and exercise for the prevention of HFD-induced weight gain in mice. In this...
Source: Chronobiology International - July 9, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: Sasaki H, Ohtsu T, Ikeda Y, Tsubosaka M, Shibata S Tags: Chronobiol Int Source Type: research

IHG-1 Increases Mitochondrial Fusion and Bioenergetic Function.
Abstract Increased in high glucose-1 (IHG-1) is a conserved mitochondrial protein associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) that amplifies profibrotic TGF-β1 signaling and increases mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we report that inhibition of endogenous IHG-1 expression results in reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, ATP production and mitochondrial fusion. Conversely, overexpression of IHG-1 leads to increased mitochondrial fusion and also protects cells from reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis. IHG-1 forms complexes with known mediators of mitochondrial fusion - mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2, and enhan...
Source: Diabetes - July 9, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hickey FB, Corcoran JB, Griffin B, Bhreathnach U, Mortiboys H, Reid HM, Andrews D, Byrne S, Furlong F, Martin F, Godson C, Murphy M Tags: Diabetes Source Type: research

Agents that increase AAM differentiation blunt RSV-mediated lung pathology.
We reported that alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) mediate resolution of RSV-induced pathology. AAM differentiation requires macrophage-derived IL-4 and -13, autocrine/paracrine signaling through the type I IL-4 receptor, and STAT6 activation. Based on these findings, we reasoned that it would be possible to intervene therapeutically in RSV disease by increasing AAM differentiation, thereby decreasing lung pathology. Mice treated with the IL-4/anti-IL-4 immune complexes, shown previously to sustain levels of circulating IL-4, increased the RSV-induced AAM markers arginase-1 and mannose receptor and decreased the l...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 9, 2014 Category: Hematology Authors: Shirey KA, Lai W, Pletneva LM, Finkelman FD, Feola DJ, Blanco JC, Vogel SN Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Region specific mitochondrial impairment in mice with widespread overexpression of alpha-synuclein.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons leading to motor deficits. The mechanisms underlying the preferential vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in PD remain poorly understood. Recent evidence supports a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in PD pathogenesis. Genetic and pathological studies also point to alpha-synuclein as a critical factor in both familial and sporadic forms of the disease; alpha-synuclein pathology affects mitochondrial function but is widespread in PD brain, raising th...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - July 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Subramaniam SR, Vergnes L, Franich NR, Reue K, Chesselet MF Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research

Development of the e-Baby Serious Game With Regard to the Evaluation of Oxygenation in Preterm Babies: Contributions of the Emotional Design.
Abstract The present study aimed to describe the development process of a serious game that enables users to evaluate the respiratory process in a preterm infant based on an emotional design model. The e-Baby serious game was built to feature the simulated environment of an incubator, in which the user performs a clinical evaluation of the respiratory process in a virtual preterm infant. The user learns about the preterm baby's history, chooses the tools for the clinical evaluation, evaluates the baby, and determines whether his/her evaluation is appropriate. The e-Baby game presents phases that contain respiratory...
Source: Computers, Informatics, Nursing : CIN - July 9, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Fonseca LM, Dias DM, Góes FD, Seixas CA, Scochi CG, Martins JC, Rodrigues MA Tags: Comput Inform Nurs Source Type: research

Rtp801 Suppression of Epithelial mTORC1 Augments Endotoxin-Induced Lung Inflammation.
Abstract The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cellular responses to environmental stress. mTOR (and its primary complex mTORC1) is, therefore, ideally positioned to regulate lung inflammatory responses to an environmental insult, a function directly relevant to disease states such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our previous work in cigarette smoke-induced emphysema identified a novel protective role of pulmonary mTORC1 signaling. However, studies of the impact of mTORC1 on the development of acute lung injury are conflicting. We hypothesized that Rtp801, an endogenous in...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - July 9, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Nadon AM, Perez MJ, Hernandez-Saavedra D, Smith LP, Yang Y, Sanders LA, Gandjeva A, Chabon J, Koyanagi DE, Graham BB, Tuder RM, Schmidt EP Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research

Intraoperative apnea in children after buffered 5% povidone‐iodine site sterilization for strabismus surgery
ConclusionsApnea at the time of ocular preparation with buffered 5% povidone‐iodine solution is common. The precise mechanism of this response is unknown. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 9, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: John D. Emhardt, Kathryn M. Haider, David A. Plager, Dava L. Grundhoefer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate 100 ¿g and 200 ¿g once daily in the treatment of moderate-severe asthma in adults and adolescents: a 24-week randomised study
This study was performed to descriptively assess the efficacy and safety of two doses of FF, with no planned formal statistical hypothesis testing. Methods: This was a 24-week double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group study (NCT01431950). Patients aged >=12 years with moderate-severe persistent asthma and uncontrolled on mid-high dose ICS were stratified by baseline FEV1 and randomised (1:1) to treatment with FF 100mug or 200mug once daily in the evening. The primary endpoint was change from baseline trough FEV1 after 24 weeks; secondary and other endpoints included peak expiratory flow (PEF) and rescue- and symptom-free 2...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - July 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ashley WoodcockJan LötvallWilliam BusseEric BatemanSally StoneAnna EllsworthLoretta Jacques Source Type: research