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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 10.

Change in the manifestations of asthma and asthma-related traits in childhood: a latent transition analysis
It is known that asthma is a heterogeneous entity whose manifestations vary with age. Our objective was to examine changes in the manifestation of asthma and asthma-related traits in childhood by defining empirically derived childhood asthma phenotypes and examining their transitions over time. To define the phenotypes we used data on respiratory symptoms, healthcare utilisation, medications, spirometry, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), exhaled nitric oxide concentration and atopy from a birth cohort recruited on the basis of having a first-degree relative with asthma. Data were acquired at ages 1.5–11.5 years ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Garden, F. L., Simpson, J. M., Mellis, C. M., Marks, G. B., for the CAPS Investigators Tags: Asthma and allergy, Paediatric pulmonology Original Articles: Paediatric pneumology Source Type: research

Childhood wheezing phenotypes influence asthma, lung function and exhaled nitric oxide fraction in adolescence
The objective of this study was to examine the associations of childhood wheezing phenotypes with asthma, lung function and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) in adolescence. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of 6841 children, we used latent class analysis to identify wheezing phenotypes during the first 7 years of life. Physician-diagnosed asthma, spirometry and FeNO were assessed at 14–15 years. Compared with never/infrequent wheeze, intermediate-onset and persistent wheeze were consistently strongest associated with higher risk of asthma (risk ratio (95% CI) 10.9 (8.97–13.16) and 9....
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Duijts, L., Granell, R., Sterne, J. A. C., Henderson, A. J. Tags: Paediatric pulmonology Original Articles: Paediatric pneumology Source Type: research

Vitamin D represses rhinovirus replication in cystic fibrosis cells by inducing LL-37
Vitamin D has immunomodulatory properties in the defence against pathogens. Its insufficiency is a widespread feature of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, which are repeatedly suffering from rhinovirus (RV)-induced pulmonary exacerbations. To investigate whether vitamin D has antiviral activity, primary bronchial epithelial cells from CF children were pre-treated with vitamin D and infected with RV16. Antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of vitamin D was assessed. RV and LL-37 levels were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of CF children infected with RV. Vitamin D reduced RV16 load in a dose-dependent manner in CF ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schögler, A., Muster, R. J., Kieninger, E., Casaulta, C., Tapparel, C., Jung, A., Moeller, A., Geiser, T., Regamey, N., Alves, M. P. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis, Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research

Sleep apnoea and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in men and women: effects of continuous positive airway pressure
Previous findings on the association of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis are inconsistent, partly due to the confounding effect of obesity and infrequent sampling. Our goal was to examine whether in a relatively nonobese population, OSA is associated with elevated cortisol levels and to assess the effects of a 2-month placebo-controlled continuous positive airway pressure (sham-CPAP) use. 72 subjects (35 middle-aged males and post-menopausal females with OSA, and 37 male and female controls) were studied in the sleep laboratory for four nights. 24-h blood sampling...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kritikou, I., Basta, M., Vgontzas, A. N., Pejovic, S., Fernandez-Mendoza, J., Liao, D., Bixler, E. O., Gaines, J., Chrousos, G. P. Tags: Sleep medicine Original Articles: Sleep Source Type: research

Genetic counselling in a national referral centre for pulmonary hypertension
Genetic causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) have been identified, leading to a growing need for genetic counselling. Between 2003 and 2014, genetic counselling was offered to 529 PAH and 100 PVOD patients at the French Referral Centre for Pulmonary Hypertension. Mutations in PAH-predisposing genes were identified in 72 patients presenting as sporadic PAH (17% of cases; 62 mutations in BMPR2, nine in ACVRL1 (ALK1) and one in ENG) and in 94 patients with a PAH family history (89% of cases; 89 mutations in BMPR2, three in ACVRL1 (ALK1) and two in KCNK3). Bi-allelic mutat...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Girerd, B., Montani, D., Jaïs, X., Eyries, M., Yaici, A., Sztrymf, B., Savale, L., Parent, F., Coulet, F., Godinas, L., Lau, E. M., Tamura, Y., Sitbon, O., Soubrier, F., Simonneau, G., Humbert, M. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Pulmonary vascular diseases Source Type: research

Oestradiol metabolism and androgen receptor genotypes are associated with right ventricular function
Sex hormones are linked to right ventricular (RV) function, but the relationship between genetic variation in these pathways and RV function is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study of 2761 genotyped adults without cardiovascular disease. The relationships between RV measures and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 candidate genes were assessed. Urinary oestradiol (E2) metabolites produced by cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) and serum testosterone were measured in women and men respectively. In African-American (AA) women, the CYP1B1 SNP rs162561 was associated with RV ejection fraction (RVEF), such that each c...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ventetuolo, C. E., Mitra, N., Wan, F., Manichaikul, A., Barr, R. G., Johnson, C., Bluemke, D. A., Lima, J. A. C., Tandri, H., Ouyang, P., Kawut, S. M. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Right ventricle function Source Type: research

Bedaquiline in the treatment of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis
Bedaquiline, a diarylquinoline, improved cure rates when added to a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment regimen in a previous placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial (TMC207-C208; NCT00449644). The current phase 2, multicenter, open-label, single-arm trial (TMC207-C209; NCT00910871) reported here was conducted to confirm the safety and efficacy of bedaquiline. Newly diagnosed or previously treated patients with MDR-TB (including pre-extensively drug-resistant (pre-XDR)-TB or extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB) received bedaquiline for 24 weeks with a background regimen of anti-TB drugs continued according t...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pym, A. S., Diacon, A. H., Tang, S.-J., Conradie, F., Danilovits, M., Chuchottaworn, C., Vasilyeva, I., Andries, K., Bakare, N., De Marez, T., Haxaire-Theeuwes, M., Lounis, N., Meyvisch, P., Van Baelen, B., van Heeswijk, R. P. G., Dannemann, B., on behalf Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Cost-benefit analysis of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis suspects in German hospitals
Our objective was to assess the cost–benefit of enhancing or replacing the conventional sputum smear with the real-time PCR Xpert MTB/RIF method in the inpatient diagnostic schema for tuberculosis (TB). Recent data from published per-case cost studies for TB/multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB and from comparative analyses of sputum microscopy, mycobacterial culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and drug susceptibility testing, performed at the German National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, were used. Potential cost savings of Xpert MTB/RIF, based on test accuracy and multiple cost drivers, were calculated for diagnosing TB/MDR-TB sus...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Diel, R., Nienhaus, A., Hillemann, D., Richter, E. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Predictors of mortality in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common pulmonary manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis. There is lack of clarity around predictors of mortality and disease behaviour over time in these patients. We identified rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) patients evaluated at National Jewish Health (Denver, CO, USA) from 1995 to 2013 whose baseline high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans showed either a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) or a "definite" or "possible" usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern. We used univariate, multivariate and longitudinal analytical methods to ide...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Solomon, J. J., Chung, J. H., Cosgrove, G. P., Demoruelle, M. K., Fernandez-Perez, E. R., Fischer, A., Frankel, S. K., Hobbs, S. B., Huie, T. J., Ketzer, J., Mannina, A., Olson, A. L., Russell, G., Tsuchiya, Y., Yunt, Z. X., Zelarney, P. T., Brown, K. K., Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research

European IPF Patient Charter: unmet needs and a call to action for healthcare policymakers
Patient advocacy groups play an important role in supporting patients with chronic diseases and promoting better care. The aim of this patient–physician initiative was to gather perceptions from European idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patient advocacy groups regarding inequalities and unmet needs in IPF care, in order to develop a Patient Charter to advocate for better care. In total, 11 European patient advocacy groups were interviewed regarding the care of patients with IPF in their countries. Interview feedback was presented to a Working Group including patient advocacy group representatives and IPF specialis...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bonella, F., Wijsenbeek, M., Molina-Molina, M., Duck, A., Mele, R., Geissler, K., Wuyts, W. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research

Sequential multimodality bronchoscopic investigation of peripheral pulmonary lesions
Multiple guidance modalities may be combined during bronchoscopic investigation of peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). The relative contribution of each modality to diagnostic performance remains uncertain. Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) with virtual bronchoscopy (VB) was routinely performed, with electromagnetic navigation (EMN) utilised only where EBUS was unable to locate PPLs or where the probe was adjacent to the lesion and on-site cytologic examination was nondiagnostic. 236 consecutive patients with 245 PPLs had lesion size 22.8±12.4 mm (mean±sd). PPLs were localised using EBUS+VB alone in 188 (...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Steinfort, D. P., Bonney, A., See, K., Irving, L. B. Tags: Lung cancer Original Articles: Lung cancer Source Type: research

Clinical features of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a population-based overview
Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is an orphan disease and few data are available on its clinical characteristics. Therefore, we analysed LCNEC registered in the Netherlands Cancer Registry, and compared data with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) and adenocarcinoma (AdC). Histologically confirmed LCNEC (n=952), SCLC (n=11 844), SqCC (n=19 633) and AdC (n=24 253) cases were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (2003–2012). Patient characteristics, metastasis at diagnosis (2006 or later), overall survival (OS) including multivariate Cox models and first-line ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Derks, J. L., Hendriks, L. E., Buikhuisen, W. A., Groen, H. J. M., Thunnissen, E., van Suylen, R.-J., Houben, R., Damhuis, R. A., Speel, E. J. M., Dingemans, A.-M. C. Tags: Lung cancer Original Articles: Lung cancer Source Type: research

A review of national guidelines for management of COPD in Europe
The quality of care can be improved by the development and implementation of evidence-based treatment guidelines. Different national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exist in Europe and relevant differences may exist among them. This was an evaluation of COPD treatment guidelines published in Europe and Russia in the past 7 years. Each guideline was reviewed in detail and information about the most important aspects of patient diagnosis, risk stratification and pharmacotherapy was extracted following a standardised process. Guidelines were available from the Czech Republic, England and Wales...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Miravitlles, M., Vogelmeier, C., Roche, N., Halpin, D., Cardoso, J., Chuchalin, A. G., Kankaanranta, H., Sandström, T., Sliwinski, P., Zatloukal, J., Blasi, F. Tags: COPD and smoking Review Source Type: research

Inflammatory bowel diseases, chronic liver diseases and the lung
This review is devoted to the distinct associations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and chronic liver disorders with chronic airway diseases, namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma, and other chronic respiratory disorders in the adult population. While there is strong evidence for the association of chronic airway diseases with IBD, the data are much weaker for the interplay between lung and liver multimorbidities. The association of IBD, encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, with pulmonary disorders is underlined by their heterogeneous respiratory manifestations and impact on...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rodriguez-Roisin, R., Bartolome, S. D., Huchon, G., Krowka, M. J. Tags: Mechanisms of lung disease State of the Art Source Type: research

Lung function changes over time following withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with severe COPD
The combination of an inhaled long-acting β2-agonist with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) is widely used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), primarily to prevent exacerbations [1]. Concerns about the increased risk of pneumonia, even with newer ICS [2], have generated interest in whether the ICS can be safely withdrawn from patients with COPD. We recently reported, in the WISDOM (Withdrawal of inhaled steroids during optimized bronchodilator management) study (clinicaltrials.gov identifier number: NCT00975195), that patients who continued treatment with a long-acting β2-agonist plus...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Magnussen, H., Tetzlaff, K., Bateman, E. D., Watz, H., Kirsten, A. M., Wouters, E. F. M., Disse, B., Finnigan, H., Rodriguez-Roisin, R., Calverley, P. M. A. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Bacteraemia in outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 20% of CAP patients require hospital admission [1, 2], leaving a large percentage of patients treated in the community as outpatients. In addition, bacteraemia is associated with worse outcomes, such as a higher prevalence of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and longer length of stay. Current international guidelines [1, 3, 4] do not recommend blood cultures as part of routine microbiological tests in patients managed in the community. However, there is little information regarding the prevalence and clinical impac...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cilloniz, C., Gabarrus, A., Almirall, J., Amaro, R., Rinaudo, M., Travierso, C., Niederman, M., Torres, A. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Improving end-of-life communication between primary and secondary care within respiratory medicine
We read with interest the editorial about "Improving palliative care for patients with COPD" [1] and the subsequent article by Meffet et al. [2]. We would like to highlight the results of our study looking at the impact of initiatives to improve communication with primary care in relation to end-of-life care (EoLC). (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Boland, A. C., Hodgekiss, C., Hicks, F., Edwards, A., Clifton, I. J. Tags: Respiratory clinical practice Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

QuantiFERON-TB performance enhanced by novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens
One of the most significant developments in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection has been the introduction of whole-blood based interferon- release assays (IGRAs) [1–3]. IGRAs, commercially available as QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT) (QIAGEN, Germantown, MD, USA) and T-SPOT.TB (Oxford Immunotec Ltd, Abingdon, UK), are based on the detection of a T-cell immune response towards RD1 antigens (ESAT-6 and CFP-10), with the addition of the TB7.7 antigen for the QFT only [1]. IGRAs are endowed with great specificity, as the antigens used are almost exclusively expressed by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Losi, M., Knights, A. J., Mariani, F., Altieri, A. M., Paone, G., Loxton, A. G., Chegou, N. N., Kenneth, J., Alma, M. G., Colizzi, V., Walzl, G., Saltini, C., Boyle, J., Amicosante, M. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Tuberculosis elimination, patients' lives and rational use of new drugs: revisited
The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently published a framework on tuberculosis (TB) elimination opening debates on elimination and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB [1, 2]. The document highlights MDR-TB as a core area, emphasising the moral duty of preventing the selection of MDR-TB (by treating susceptible cases correctly with first-line drugs) and the necessary efforts to treat it when diagnosed. Unfortunately, treating MDR- and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB is much more onerous, lengthy and terribly expensive; treatment outcomes remain suboptimal, adverse events being frequent and severe [3–6]. The avail...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tiberi, S., D'Ambrosio, L., De Lorenzo, S., Viggiani, P., Centis, R., Migliori, G. B. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Tuberculosis in Germany: a declining trend coming to an end?
In the context of the newly adopted World Health Organization (WHO) End TB strategy, an action framework towards tuberculosis (TB) elimination in low incidence countries has been launched [1, 2]. Its aim is to reach pre-elimination of TB (less than 10 cases per one million inhabitants) by 2035 and TB elimination (less than one case per one million inhabitants) by 2050. Germany belongs to the addressed countries and territories with a TB incidence lower than 10 cases per 100 000 inhabitants. To reach these targets, Germany would have to have an annual reduction in the TB incidence of about 10% [1, 2]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fiebig, L., Hauer, B., Brodhun, B., Altmann, D., Haas, W. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Recruitment challenges for clinical trials with novel regimens for drug-resistant tuberculosis
Drug resistance is a growing public health problem. The World Health Organization reported an estimated 480 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) worldwide in 2013, of which 9% were estimated to be extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. The prevalence of HIV co-infection among TB patients in the African region is high [1]. In South Africa, 65% of TB patients tested for HIV are HIV-positive [2]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Siwendu, S., Mitchell, M., Diacon, A. H., von Groote-Bidlingmaier, F. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Pulmonary artery diameter to predict pulmonary hypertension in pulmonary sarcoidosis
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a known complication of pulmonary sarcoidosis with a prevalence ranging from 5% to 74% [1]. The aetiology of PH in sarcoidosis is not fully understood. Usually, it is attributed to the destruction of the distal capillary bed by lung fibrosis and/or chronic hypoxaemia. However, the severity of PH does not correlate consistently with the degree of pulmonary fibrosis, and PH exists in sarcoidosis patients without fibrosis, suggesting a multifactorial mechanism. The presence of PH is associated with a poor prognosis, and early diagnosis and treatment might improve outcome [1]. Echocardiography sh...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Huitema, M. P., Spee, M., Vorselaars, V. M. M., Boerman, S., Snijder, R. J., van Es, H. W., Reesink, H. J., Grutters, J. C., Post, M. C. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease, Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Pulmonary hypertension associated with ponatinib therapy
Over 50 drugs, including anorexigens, abused substances and recently the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) dasatinib, have been temporally and/or mechanistically related to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in humans (where the evidence base for causality is wide ranging) and in animal models [1–3]. The TKIs imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutinib are available to treat chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. These drugs are associated with distinctive respiratory adverse effects (AEs), including pleural and/or pericardial effusion, PAH (an AE so far almost exc...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Quilot, F.-M., Georges, M., Favrolt, N., Beltramo, G., Foignot, C., Grandvuillemin, A., Montani, D., Bonniaud, P., Camus, P. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

End TB with precision treatment!
We read with interest the recent Perspective paper by Lönnroth et al. [1] describing a framework for tuberculosis (TB) elimination. In our opinion, monitoring drug exposure by measuring blood concentrations over time (therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)) may be helpful in contributing to TB elimination in low- and medium-burden setting. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: van der Burgt, E. P. M., Sturkenboom, M. G. G., Bolhuis, M. S., Akkerman, O. W., Kosterink, J. G. W., de Lange, W. C. M., Cobelens, F. G. J., van der Werf, T. S., Alffenaar, J.-W. C. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Correspondence Source Type: research

{beta}-blockers in pulmonary arterial hypertension: generation might matter
This study adds another piece in the very controversial debate opposing pro- and anti-supporters of β-blockers use in PAH. In this study, patients had idiopathic PAH (IPAH) or connective tissue disease-associated PAH. PAH patients receiving β-blockers had a similar survival and time to clinical worsening events compared with patients not receiving them. Functional outcomes were similar, although β-blocker use was associated with a tendency towards shorter walking distance. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Malenfant, S., Perros, F. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Correspondence Source Type: research