Respiratory Medicine This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.
This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 10.
Traffic-related air pollution and alveolar nitric oxide in southern California children
Mechanisms for the adverse respiratory effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) have yet to be established. We evaluated the acute effects of TRAP exposure on proximal and distal airway inflammation by relating indoor nitric oxide (NO), a marker of TRAP exposure in the indoor microenvironment, to airway and alveolar sources of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). FeNO was collected online at four flow rates in 1635 schoolchildren (aged 12–15 years) in southern California (USA) breathing NO-free air. Indoor NO was sampled hourly and linearly interpolated to the time of the FeNO test. Estimated parameters quantifyi...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Eckel, S. P., Zhang, Z., Habre, R., Rappaport, E. B., Linn, W. S., Berhane, K., Zhang, Y., Bastain, T. M., Gilliland, F. D. Tags: Epidemiology, occupational and environmental lung disease, Paediatric pulmonology Original Articles: Air pollution and asthma Source Type: research
Inflammatory bowel disease and risk of mortality in COPD
Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have higher incidence and prevalence of other chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed whether IBD onset increases mortality risk in patients with COPD or asthma-associated COPD. Two population-based cohorts of COPD and asthma-COPD subjects were identified using the administrative health databases in Québec, Canada, 1990–2007. Death records were retrieved from the death certificate registry. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the impact of newly developed IBD on mortality risk. The COPD and...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vutcovici, M., Bitton, A., Ernst, P., Kezouh, A., Suissa, S., Brassard, P. Tags: COPD and smoking, Asthma and allergy Original Articles: COPD Source Type: research
Circulating desmosine levels do not predict emphysema progression but are associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality in COPD
Elastin degradation is a key feature of emphysema and may have a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Circulating desmosine is a specific biomarker of elastin degradation. We investigated the association between plasma desmosine (pDES) and emphysema severity/progression, coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and mortality. pDES was measured in 1177 COPD patients and 110 healthy control subjects from two independent cohorts. Emphysema was assessed on chest computed tomography scans. Aortic arterial stiffness was measured as the aortic–femoral pulse wa...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rabinovich, R. A., Miller, B. E., Wrobel, K., Ranjit, K., Williams, M. C., Drost, E., Edwards, L. D., Lomas, D. A., Rennard, S. I., Agusti, A., Tal-Singer, R., Vestbo, J., Wouters, E. F. M., John, M., van Beek, E. J. R., Murchison, J. T., Bolton, C. E., M Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: COPD Source Type: research
Blood eosinophils as a marker of response to inhaled corticosteroids in COPD
Identification of a biomarker that predicts response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) would help evaluate the risk/benefit profile of ICS in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and guide treatment. The ISOLDE study randomised 751 patients (mean post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 1.4 L: 50% predicted normal) to fluticasone propionate 500 μg twice daily or placebo for 3 years, finding no difference in FEV1 rate of decline between treatments (p=0.16) and a significant reduction in median exacerbation rate with fluticasone propionate versus placebo (p=0.026). We re-analysed IS...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Barnes, N. C., Sharma, R., Lettis, S., Calverley, P. M. A. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: COPD Source Type: research
Serum periostin in obstructive airways disease
The objectives of this study were to describe: 1) the distribution of serum periostin levels in adults with symptomatic airflow obstruction; 2) its relationship with other variables, including type 2 biomarkers; and 3) the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on periostin levels. Serum periostin levels were measured in a cross-sectional study exploring phenotypes and biomarkers in 386 patients aged 18–75 years who reported wheeze and breathlessness in the past 12 months. In 49 ICS-naïve patients, periostin levels were measured again after 12 weeks of budesonide (800 μg·day–1)....
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fingleton, J., Braithwaite, I., Travers, J., Bowles, D., Strik, R., Siebers, R., Holweg, C., Matthews, J., Weatherall, M., Beasley, R., for the NZRHS Study Group Tags: COPD and smoking, Asthma and allergy Original Articles: COPD and asthma Source Type: research
Pseudomonas infection and mucociliary and absorptive clearance in the cystic fibrosis lung
In this study we evaluated experimental factors affecting measurements of mucociliary clearance (MCC) and small-molecule absorption (ABS) and patient factors associated with abnormal absorption and mucus clearance. Our imaging technique utilises two radiopharmaceutical probes delivered by inhalation. Measurement repeatability was assessed in 10 adult cystic fibrosis subjects. Experimental factors were assessed in 29 adult and paediatric cystic fibrosis subjects (51 scans). Patient factors were assessed in a subgroup with optimal aerosol deposition (37 scans; 24 subjects). Paediatric subjects (n=9) underwent initial and 2-y...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Locke, L. W., Myerburg, M. M., Weiner, D. J., Markovetz, M. R., Parker, R. S., Muthukrishnan, A., Weber, L., Czachowski, M. R., Lacy, R. T., Pilewski, J. M., Corcoran, T. E. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis Original Articles: Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research
Natural history of sleep disordered breathing in prepubertal children transitioning to adolescence
Because there is a lack of agreed upon diagnostic criteria, it is critical to understand the natural history of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in children in order to establish treatment strategies based on objective data. The Penn State Child Cohort is a representative, general-population sample of 700 elementary school children at baseline, of whom 421 were reassessed 8 years later, during adolescence. The remission of childhood apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) ≥2 events per h in adolescence was 52.9%. Using the higher threshold of AHI ≥5 events per h, remission was 100.0%, with 50.0% partially remitting to ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bixler, E. O., Fernandez-Mendoza, J., Liao, D., Calhoun, S., Rodriguez-Colon, S. M., Gaines, J., He, F., Vgontzas, A. N. Tags: Sleep medicine, Paediatric pulmonology Original Articles: Sleep and paediatric pulmonology Source Type: research
Endoscopy evaluation to predict oral appliance outcomes in obstructive sleep apnoea
The objective of this study was to determine the utility of nasoendoscopy of the upper airway as a predictor of the efficacy of oral appliance treatment in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). A total of 61 consecutive patients with moderate-to-severe polysomnographically diagnosed OSA were recruited for this study. Using nasoendoscopy, we prospectively assessed the velopharynx and oro/hypopharynx in each patient while awake and in the supine position. We measured cross-sectional area (CSA), and anteroposterior and lateral diameters of the airway before and after mandibular advancement, and expressed the changes in dimensions a...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Okuno, K., Sasao, Y., Nohara, K., Sakai, T., Pliska, B. T., Lowe, A. A., Ryan, C. F., Almeida, F. R. Tags: Sleep medicine Original Articles: Sleep Source Type: research
Modafinil/armodafinil in obstructive sleep apnoea: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Modafinil is used internationally to treat residual sleepiness despite continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea (res-OSA). In 2011, the European Medicines Agency removed the indication based on an unfavourable risk–benefit profile in two trials for efficacy and all accumulated safety data. We performed a meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials of modafinil (or armodafinil) in res-OSA to quantify efficacy and safety. We systematically searched and assessed studies from major databases, conferences and trials registries to find randomised, placebo-controlled trials of modafinil/armodafi...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chapman, J. L., Vakulin, A., Hedner, J., Yee, B. J., Marshall, N. S. Tags: Sleep medicine Original Articles: Sleep Source Type: research
Duration of anticoagulation after isolated pulmonary embolism
In the D-dimer and ULtrasonography in Combination Italian Study (DULCIS), serial D-dimer measurement in combination with assessment of residual thrombosis (in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT)) identified patients who safely discontinued anticoagulation after an unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE). In this subgroup analysis, the value of D-dimer tests was assessed in patients with isolated pulmonary embolism (PE) compared with those with DVT, with or without PE (DVT/PE). The DULCIS database was reanalysed in relation to this target. 26.8% of the DULCIS patients had isolated PE as the index event; this was more p...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Palareti, G., Cosmi, B., Antonucci, E., Legnani, C., Erba, N., Ghirarduzzi, A., Poli, D., Testa, S., Tosetto, A., Pengo, V., Prandoni, P., for the DULCIS investigators Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Pulmonary vascular diseases Source Type: research
Resting pulmonary artery pressure of 21-24 mmHg predicts abnormal exercise haemodynamics
A resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of 21–24 mmHg is above the upper limit of normal but does not reach criteria for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We sought to determine whether an mPAP of 21–24 mmHg is associated with an increased risk of developing an abnormal pulmonary vascular response during exercise. Consecutive patients (n=290) with resting mPAP <25 mmHg who underwent invasive exercise haemodynamics were analysed. Risk factors for pulmonary vascular disease or left heart disease were present in 63.4% and 43.8% of subjects. An abnormal pulmonary vascular respo...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lau, E. M. T., Godinas, L., Sitbon, O., Montani, D., Savale, L., Jaïs, X., Lador, F., Gunther, S., Celermajer, D. S., Simonneau, G., Humbert, M., Chemla, D., Herve, P. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Pulmonary vascular diseases Source Type: research
Pulmonary artery size as a predictor of outcomes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
IPF patients have heightened propensity for pulmonary hypertension, which portends a worse outcome. Presence of pulmonary hypertension may be reflected in an enlarged pulmonary artery. We investigated pulmonary artery size measured on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) as an outcome predictor in IPF. We retrospectively reviewed all IPF patients evaluated at a tertiary-care centre between 2008 and 2013. Pulmonary artery and ascending aorta diameters were measured from chest HRCT with pulmonary artery:ascending aorta diameter (PA:A) ratio calculations. Outcome analysis defined by either death or lung transplant based...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shin, S., King, C. S., Puri, N., Shlobin, O. A., Brown, A. W., Ahmad, S., Weir, N. A., Nathan, S. D. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease, Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Pulmonary vascular diseases and interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research
Pulmonary rehabilitation in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: a controlled clinical trial
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a cystic lung disease frequently associated with reduced exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in LAM. This controlled clinical trial included 40 patients with LAM and a low physical activity level. The pulmonary rehabilitation programme comprised 24 aerobic and muscle strength training sessions and education. The primary outcome was exercise capacity (endurance time during a constant work rate exercise test). Secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ)), 6-min walk...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Araujo, M. S., Baldi, B. G., Freitas, C. S. G., Albuquerque, A. L. P., Marques da Silva, C. C. B., Kairalla, R. A., Carvalho, C. R. F., Carvalho, C. R. R. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research
Predictors of objective cough frequency in pulmonary sarcoidosis
This study aimed to quantify cough frequency, and investigate its relationship with cough reflex sensitivity, pulmonary function and health status. 32 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis were compared with 40 healthy controls. Cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin, objective 24-h cough counts, cough-specific health status, cough severity and cough triggers were measured. The predictors of cough frequency in sarcoidosis were determined in a multivariate analysis. Objective cough frequency was significantly raised in patients with sarcoidosis compared with healthy controls (p<0.001) and patients with cough had an impaired...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sinha, A., Lee, K. K., Rafferty, G. F., Yousaf, N., Pavord, I. D., Galloway, J., Birring, S. S. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research
The lived experience with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a qualitative study
This study had a qualitative descriptive design using in-depth dyadic interviews with IPF patients (n=25) and family caregivers (n=24). We used the five-step analysis from the framework method and analysed the data on three levels: the patient, the family caregivers and couple level. The following six themes emerged as the main results: information and disclosure, reactional dyssynchrony, perpetual vigilance, emotional ambivalence, gradual and tacit role shift, and adapted coping strategies. Our findings suggest that IPF patients need information at the time of diagnosis, but some issues should be paced as the disease prog...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Overgaard, D., Kaldan, G., Marsaa, K., Nielsen, T. L., Shaker, S. B., Egerod, I. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research
FG-3019 anti-connective tissue growth factor monoclonal antibody: results of an open-label clinical trial in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
FG-3019 is a fully human monoclonal antibody that interferes with the action of connective tissue growth factor, a central mediator in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. This open-label phase 2 trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of two doses of FG-3019 administered by intravenous infusion every 3 weeks for 45 weeks in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Subjects had a diagnosis of IPF within the prior 5 years defined by either usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on a recent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan, or a possible UIP pattern on HRCT scan and a recent surgical lung...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Raghu, G., Scholand, M. B., de Andrade, J., Lancaster, L., Mageto, Y., Goldin, J., Brown, K. K., Flaherty, K. R., Wencel, M., Wanger, J., Neff, T., Valone, F., Stauffer, J., Porter, S. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research
Monitoring latent tuberculosis infection diagnosis and management in the Netherlands
We describe trends in target groups, diagnostic methods and treatment regimens, and explore determinants for treatment initiation, treatment completion and adverse events. In total, 37 729 persons were registered with LTBI from 1993 to 2013, of whom 28 931 (77%) started preventive treatment; 82% of those completed preventive treatment and 8% stopped preventive treatment due to adverse events. Two-thirds of the notified cases were detected through contact investigation. Increasing numbers of persons with immunosuppressive disorders, elderly persons and foreign-born persons were notified in recent years, due to policy change...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Erkens, C. G. M., Slump, E., Verhagen, M., Schimmel, H., de Vries, G., Cobelens, F., van den Hof, S. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Inequalities in lung cancer: a world of EGFR
Epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutation status has emerged as a crucial issue in lung cancer management. Availability and cost of tests and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may vary as a function of country development. We conducted a prospective specialist opinion survey to map EGFR test and EGFR-TKI availability and detect associations with the Human Development Index (HDI). A questionnaire was sent to specialists in thoracic oncology in all United Nations Member States. We obtained responses from 74 countries, comprising 78% of the worldwide population. Nonresponding countries had significantly lower HDI ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Carbonnaux, M., Souquet, P.-J., Meert, A.-P., Scherpereel, A., Peters, M., Couraud, S. Tags: Lung cancer Original Articles: Lung cancer Source Type: research
Outcome of incidentally detected airway nodules
Low-dose chest computed tomography (LDCT) screening increased detection of airway nodules. Most nodules appear to be secretions, but pathological lesions may show similar findings. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends repeating LDCT after 1 month and proceeding to bronchoscopy if the nodules persist. However, no reports exist about incidentally detected airway nodules. We investigated the significance of airway nodules detected by LDCT screening. We screened patients with incidental airway nodules detected by LDCT in the Seoul National University Hospital group. The characteristics of computed t...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kim, H.-J., Kim, D. K., Kim, Y. W., Lee, Y. J., Park, J. S., Cho, Y.-J., Kim, S. J., Yoon, H. I., Lee, J. H., Lee, C.-T. Tags: Lung imaging Original Articles: Lung imaging Source Type: research
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
(PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterised by preferential remodelling of the pulmonary venules. In the current PH classification, PVOD and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) are considered to be a common entity and represent varied expressions of the same disease. The recent discovery of biallelic mutations in the EIF2AK4 gene as the cause of heritable PVOD/PCH represents a major milestone in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of PVOD. Although PVOD and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) share a similar clinical presentation, with features of severe precapillary PH, it is i...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Montani, D., Lau, E. M., Dorfmüller, P., Girerd, B., Jaïs, X., Savale, L., Perros, F., Nossent, E., Garcia, G., Parent, F., Fadel, E., Soubrier, F., Sitbon, O., Simonneau, G., Humbert, M. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Series Source Type: research
Connective tissue diseases, multimorbidity and the ageing lung
Connective tissue diseases encompass a wide range of heterogeneous disorders characterised by immune-mediated chronic inflammation often leading to tissue damage, collagen deposition and possible loss of function of the target organ. Lung involvement is a common complication of connective tissue diseases. Depending on the underlying disease, various thoracic compartments can be involved but interstitial lung disease is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Interstitial lung disease, pulmonary hypertension or both are found most commonly in systemic sclerosis. In the elderly, the prevalence of connective tissue di...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Spagnolo, P., Cordier, J.-F., Cottin, V. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease, Respiratory clinical practice State of the Art Source Type: research
A comparison of COPD patients with and without ACOS in the ECLIPSE study
There is growing interest in asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) [1, 2]. Yet, there is no consensus on the best definition of ACOS [1, 2] and, therefore, it is difficult to appropriately characterise these patients. Here, we compare the main clinical characteristics and outcomes of COPD patients with and without ACOS in the ECLIPSE cohort  according to six different definitions of ACOS. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wurst, K. E., Rheault, T. R., Edwards, L., Tal-Singer, R., Agusti, A., Vestbo, J. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research
Blood eosinophil count to predict bronchial eosinophilic inflammation in COPD
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease of the airways. There is evidence that maintenance treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in COPD results in a reduction in the mean rate of exacerbations, and improvement in quality of life and lung function . However, ICS therapy has been associated with increased risk of oropharyngeal candidiasis, hoarseness and pneumonia . In COPD, ICS are now recommended in cases of frequent exacerbations and severe obstruction . (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schleich, F., Corhay, J.-L., Louis, R. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research
Can health status questionnaires be used as a measure of physical activity in COPD patients?
Acting to address the amount of physical activity of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is recommended as part of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) recommendations . A level lower than approximately 5000 steps for day (sedentary lifestyle index) is associated with significantly increased health risks [2, 3]. Actively screening to identify patients below this threshold could be an important step towards targeting interventions to increase physical activity. Potential screening tools include activity monitors (objective assessment) or self-reported questionnaires (su...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Demeyer, H., Duenas-Espin, I., De Jongh, C., Louvaris, Z., Hornikx, M., Gimeno-Santos, E., Loeckx, M., Vogiatzis, I., Janssens, W., Hopkinson, N. S., Rabinovich, R. A., Karlsson, N., Garcia-Aymerich, J., Troosters, T., on behalf of the PROactive consortiu Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research
Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor polymorphisms and airway remodelling in asthma
In the past decade, several asthma genes have been identified ; however, the key challenge is to determine how these genetic changes contribute to the underlying lung biology. We identified the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (PLAUR) as an asthma susceptibility gene by positional cloning . We showed that the same single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with soluble PLAUR levels in blood, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and accelerated lung function decline in asthma; a clinical feature linked to airway wall remodelling . Therefore, we hypothesised that PLAUR may contribute to structural ch...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ierodiakonou, D., Portelli, M. A., Postma, D. S., Koppelman, G. H., Gerritsen, J., ten Hacken, N. H. T., Timens, W., Boezen, H. M., Vonk, J. M., Sayers, I. Tags: Asthma and allergy Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research