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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 11.

The active identification and management of chronic refractory breathlessness is a human right
Chronic refractory breathlessness is defined as breathlessness at rest or on minimal exertion that will persist chronically despite optimal treatment of the underlying cause(s). At any time, 1% of the population report a modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea score of ≥3 chronically. Despite the prevalence, severity and chronicity of this symptom and an evidence base of affordable and safe interventions, chronic refractory breathlessness remains grossly undertreated. Many patients and clinicians accept the presence of the chronic refractory breathlessness as an inevitable part of an illness, with no thought of treat...
Source: Thorax - March 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Currow, D. C., Abernethy, A. P., Ko, D. N. Tags: Chest clinic Source Type: research

Pleural nodules in a patient with a colonic tumour
Case presentation A 58-year-old woman underwent chest CT to monitor a colonic tumour diagnosed 1 year previously. Axial and coronal CT images showed multiple well-circumscribed pleural-based nodules in the left lower hemithorax, and the absence of the spleen in the left upper quadrant (figure 1). Routine blood work demonstrated no significant laboratory abnormality. The patient also had a history of a gunshot wound that transfixed the thoracoabdominal region 40 years previously. Thoracotomy was performed and disclosed multiple reddish-purple nodules on the pleural surface (figure 2). What is the most probable dia...
Source: Thorax - March 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marchiori, E., Rodrigues, R. S., Reis, M. C. M., Zanetti, G., Menna Barreto, M. Tags: Journalology, Hemoptysis, Drugs: infectious diseases, Respiratory cancer, Histopathology, Cardiothoracic surgery, Ethics Chest clinic Source Type: research

A young girl with apparent treatment-resistant asthma treated at Bambino Gesu children's hospital
Francesca Petreschi (FP): A 9.8 year–old-girl was first admitted in our unit for a persistent bronchospasm, poorly responsive to salbutamol, and progressive onset of respiratory distress after spontaneous expectoration of a bronchial cast (figure 1A). Her clinical history was uneventful until she was 7 years old, when she suffered from two subsequent bouts of pneumonia, but no admission was required. In the following years, she presented few episodes of bronchospasm, clinically diagnosed, with good response to bronchodilator and no limitation on her daily activities. Her family history was positive for allergic ...
Source: Thorax - March 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Petreschi, F., Ullmann, N., Bottero, S., Toma, P., Inserra, A., Francalanci, P., Zicari, A. M., Cutrera, R. Tags: Lung infection, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Child health, Asthma, Bronchitis, Cystic fibrosis, Interstitial lung disease, Drugs: respiratory system, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Cardiothoracic surgery, Radiolo Source Type: research

Congenital thoracic malformation
A 31-year-old man presented with recurrent chest pain. CT coronary arteriography (figure 1) demonstrated a well-defined area of hypertransradiancy at the left lung base supplied by a large artery arising from the thoracic aorta (figure 2) with no normal bronchial or pulmonary artery communication, but normal pulmonary venous drainage. The diagnosis is that of congenital bronchial atresia with a systemic artery supply (also termed intralobar sequestration).1 Congenital pulmonary abnormalities are being detected increasingly frequently as incidental findings during cross-sectional imaging performed for other reasons. Managem...
Source: Thorax - March 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sharp, C., Jackson, J., Hands, G. Tags: Images in Thorax, Journalology, Hemoptysis, Radiology (diagnostics), Ethics Chest clinic Source Type: research

What's hot that the other lot got
Upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnoea In this multicentre, prospective cohort study (N Engl J Med 2014;370:139–49), the clinical safety and efficacy of upper airway stimulation in 126 patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea who had difficulty adhering to CPAP were evaluated. Upper airway pacing of the hypoglossal nerve, coordinated with ventilatory effort, led to significant improvement in subjective and objective measures of the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea. Median apnoea-hypopnoea index at 12 months reduced 68%, from 29.3 events/h to 9.0 events/h (p<0.001). Oxygen d...
Source: Thorax - March 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lee, C. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases, Sleep disorders (neurology), Respiratory cancer, Screening (oncology), Sleep disorders (respiratory medicine), Health education, Smoking, Health effects of tobacco use, Smo Source Type: research

Benefits of whole-body vibration to people with COPD: a community-based efficacy trial
Conclusions: Results showed that WBV did not exacerbate symptoms of COPD that can be associated with physical inactivity. The WBV intervention improved tests to simulate ADLs such as rising from a chair, turning, and walking gait with greater effect than a SWBV intervention. If a placebo effect was systemic to the WBV intervention, the effect was negligible. As a standalone community-based intervention, WBV was an efficacious mode of exercise training for people with stable COPD that did not negatively effect exercise tolerance or exacerbate the disease, while concurrently improving functional performance of the lower limb...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - March 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Trentham FurnessCorey JosephGeraldine NaughtonLiam WelshChristian Lorenzen Source Type: research

Multifocal subdural hematomas as the presenting sign of acquired hemophilia A: a case report
Conclusions: Subdural hematomas as the initial sign of AHA are all but unknown in the medical literature. We bring this entity to the attention of the neurology community because lumbar puncture and/or conventional angiogram are often indicated in the work-up of idiopathic multifocal subdural hematomas, but may be dangerous in patients with AHA. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - March 8, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Mark J BurishAimee AysenneVineeta Singh Source Type: research

[News of the Week] Around the World
In science news around the world, scientists find Middle East respiratory syndrome in camels from Africa; Japan launches a test of a space debris cleanup scheme; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency halts the permit for a large copper mine near Bristol Bay, Alaska; and more. (Source: Science: Current Issue)
Source: Science: Current Issue - March 7, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Stewart Wills (mailto:swills at aaas.org) Source Type: research

[News of the Week] Around the World
In science news around the world, scientists find Middle East respiratory syndrome in camels from Africa; Japan launches a test of a space debris cleanup scheme; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency halts the permit for a large copper mine near Bristol Bay, Alaska; and more. (Source: Science: This Week)
Source: Science: This Week - March 7, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Stewart Wills (mailto:swills at aaas.org) Source Type: research

The relationship between hypotension, cerebral flow and the surgical field during endoscopic sinus surgery
Conclusions: Hypotensive anesthesia is an effective method of controlling intraoperative bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery, however in low MAP ranges the effect is clinically small. In otherwise healthy patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery with general anesthesia, reducing MAP below 60mmHg may increase the risk of cerebral ischemia. (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - March 7, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Thanh Ngoc Ha, Robert Graham Renen, Guy L Ludbrook, Rowan Valentine, Judy Ou, Peter‐John Wormald Tags: Original Report Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of lower respiratory tract infections
Abstract Lower respiratory tract infections in the community lead to considerable morbidity and days off work. Our Drug review considers the assessment of disease severity, when to prescribe antibiotics and recommended management of LRTIs, followed by sources of further information. (Source: Prescriber)
Source: Prescriber - March 7, 2014 Category: Primary Care Authors: Chamira Rodrigo, Wei Shen Lim Tags: Drug Review Source Type: research

Use of sedation and ropivacaine‐morphine epidural for femoral head and neck ostectomy in a dog
A five‐year‐old male German shepherd dog presented with traumatic craniodorsal luxation of the right coxofemoral joint with pre‐existing moderate hip dysplasia. A femoral head and neck ostectomy was performed. The patient was sedated with acepromazine and morphine administered intramuscularly. A lumbosacral epidural was performed using a combination of morphine and ropivacaine. Intraoperatively, an infusion of medetomidine, morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine was administered intravenously, and oxygen was administered via facemask. Heart rate, respiratory rate and oscillometric arterial blood pressures were monitored...
Source: The Journal of Small Animal Practice - March 7, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: T. K. Aarnes, J. A. E. Hubbell, B. E. Hildreth Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

[Recommendations for the use of diagnostic testing in low respiratory infection in children older than 3 months.]
tinot A, Rammaert S, Groupe de recherche sur les avancées en pneumo-pédiatrie (GRAPP) Abstract Recommendations for the use of diagnostic testing in low respiratory infection in children older than 3months were produced by the Groupe de Recherche sur les Avancées en Pneumo-Pédiatrie (GRAPP) under the auspices of the French Paediatric Pulmonology and Allergology Society (SP(2)A). The Haute Autorité de santé (HAS) methodology, based on formalized consensus, was used. A first panel of experts analyzed the English and French literature to provide a second panel of experts with recommendations to validate. Only the...
Source: Archives de Pediatrie - March 7, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Houdouin V, Pouessel G, Angoulvant F, Brouard J, Derelle J, Fayon M, Ferroni A, Gangneux JP, Hau I, Le Bourgeois M, Lorrot M, Menotti J, Nathan N, Vabret A, Wallet F, Bonacorsi S, Cohen R, de Blic J, Deschildre A, Gandemer V, Pin I, Labbe A, Le Roux P, Ma Tags: Arch Pediatr Source Type: research

Motile cilia harbor serum response factor as a mechanism of environment sensing and injury response in the airway.
Abstract Non-motile primary cilia are recognized as important sensory organelles during development and normal biological functioning. For example, recent work demonstrates that transcriptional regulators of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway localize to primary cilia and participate in sensing and transducing signals regarding the cellular environment. In contrast, motile cilia are traditionally viewed as mechanical machinery, vital for the movement of solutes and clearance of bacteria and debris, but not participants in cellular sensing and signaling mechanisms. Recently, motile cilia were found to harbor recep...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - March 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nordgren TM, Wyatt TA, Sweeter J, Bailey KL, Poole JA, Heires AJ, Sisson JH, Romberger DJ Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Surfactant Protein D is a candidate biomarker for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage.
In conclusion, SP-D is phenotypically and genetically associated with lung function measures in interaction with tobacco smoking. The obtained data suggest sSP-D as a candidate biomarker in risk assessments for subclinical tobacco smoke-induced lung damage. The data and derived conclusion warrant confirmation in a longitudinal population following chronic obstructive pulmonary disease initiation and development. PMID: 24610936 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce...)
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - March 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lock Johansson S, Tan Q, Holst R, Christiansen L, Hansen NC, Hojland AT, Wulf-Johansson H, Schlosser A, Titlestad IL, Vestbo J, Holmskov U, Kyvik KO, Sorensen GL Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Absence of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase 1 protects against House Dust Mite-induced pulmonary remodeling but not Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation.
Abstract Chronic allergic asthma leads to airway remodeling and subepithelial fibrosis via mechanisms not fully understood. Airway remodeling is amplified by pro-fibrotic mediators, such as TGF-β1, which plays a cardinal role in various models of fibrosis. We recently have identified a critical role for JNK1 in augmenting the pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-β1, linked to epithelial to mesenchymal transition of airway epithelial cells. To examine the role of JNK1 in HDM-induced airway remodeling, we induced allergic airway inflammation in WT and JNK1-/- mice by administration of HDM extract. WT and JNK1-/- mice were s...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - March 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: van der Velden JL, Hoffman SM, Alcorn JF, Tully JE, Chapman DG, Lahue KG, Guala AS, Lundblad LK, Aliyeva M, Daphtary N, Irvin CG, Janssen-Heininger YM Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Cigarette Smoke-induced Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Dysfunction in Human Airway Smooth Muscle.
Abstract The balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion is crucial for mitochondria to perform its normal cellular functions. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS), disrupts this balance and enhances mitochondrial dysfunction in the airway. In non-asthmatic human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, CS extract (CSE) induced mitochondrial fragmentation and damages their networked morphology in a concentration-dependent fashion, via increased expression of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and decreased fusion protein Mfn2. CSE effects on Drp1 vs. Mfn2 and mitochondrial network morphology involved ROS, activa...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - March 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aravamudan B, Kiel A, Freeman M, Delmotte PF, Thompson MA, Vassallo R, Sieck GC, Pabelick CM, Prakash YS Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Trajectories of Lung Function During Childhood.
Conclusion: Children with persistent wheeze, frequent asthma exacerbations and multiple early atopy have diminished lung function throughout childhood, and are at risk of a progressive loss of lung function from age three to 11 years. These effects are more marked in boys. PMID: 24606581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - March 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Belgrave DC, Buchan I, Bishop C, Lowe L, Simpson A, Custovic A Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Functional Prostacyclin Synthase Promoter Polymorphisms: Impact in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
Conclusions: Prostacyclin synthase promoter sequence variants exhibit a range of transcriptional activities. We discovered a significant bias for more active prostacyclin synthase promoter variants in unaffected carriers as compared to affected PAH patients. PMID: 24605778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - March 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stearman RS, Cornelius AR, Lu X, Conklin DS, Del Rosario MJ, Lowe AM, Elos MT, Fettig LM, Wong RE, Hara N, Cogan JD, Phillips JA, Taylor MR, Graham BB, Tuder RM, Loyd JE, Geraci MW Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Hyperinsulinemia potentiates airway responsiveness to parasympathetic nerve stimulation in obese rats.
Conclusions: It is not obesity per se, but hyperinsulinemia accompanying obesity, that potentiates vagally induced bronchoconstriction by inhibiting neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors and increasing ACh release from airway parasympathetic nerves. PMID: 24605871 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol...)
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nie Z, Jacoby DB, Fryer AD Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

The Integrated Stress Response in Lung Disease.
Abstract Lungs are repeatedly exposed to inhaled toxic insults, such as smoke, diesel exhaust and microbes, which elicit cellular stress responses. The phosphorylation of eIF2α by one of four stress-sensing kinases triggers a pathway called the integrated stress response (ISR) that helps protect cellular reserves of nutrients and prevents the accumulation of toxic proteins. In this review, we will discuss how activation of the ISR has been shown to play an important role in pulmonary pathology and how its study may help in the development of novel therapies for diverse conditions from hypoxia to cancer. PMID: ...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: van 't Wout EF, Hiemstra PS, Marciniak SJ Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Following the path of CCL2 from prostaglandins to periostin in lung fibrosis.
Abstract Without question, the greatest and most humbling honor of my scientific career was to learn that I was nominated for the American Thoracic Society Recognition Award for Scientific Accomplishments. On the occasion of this award, as I look back on the progress made in the last 15 years, I am pleased by the scientific insights; however, I am also saddened that we still have no internationally recognized efficacious therapy. This perspective will highlight the areas my laboratory has addressed regarding the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in hopes of identifying new therapeutic targets. ...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Moore BB Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection mimicking autoimmune hepatitis exacerbation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.
We report a very rare case with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) complicated by CAEBV. A 50-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) complicated by AIH began to suffer from acute respiratory failure and her clinical symptoms improved rapidly in response to steroid treatment. However, during the gradual tapering of the steroid dose, a steady increase of the serum hepatobiliary enzyme levels subsequently was observed and the patient began to have continuous fever. Moreover, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple intractable gastric ulcers. When EBER-ISH was performed on liver biopsy and gastric mucosal bi...
Source: Lupus - March 7, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Yamashita H, Shimizu A, Tsuchiya H, Takahashi Y, Kaneko H, Kano T, Mimori A Tags: Lupus Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Disinfectant Wipe Intervention on Fomite-to-Finger Microbial Transfer.
Abstract Inanimate surfaces, or fomites, can serve as routes of transmission for enteric and respiratory pathogens. No previous studies have evaluated the impact of surface disinfection on the level of pathogen transfer from fomites to fingers. Thus, the present study investigated the change in microbial transfer from contaminated fomites to fingers following disinfecting wipe use. Escherichia coli (10(8)-10(9) CFU/ml), Staphylococcus aureus (10(9) CFU/ml), Bacillus thuringiensis spores (10(7)-10(8) CFU/ml) and poliovirus 1 (10(8) PFU/ml) were seeded on ceramic tile, laminate, and granite in 10-μl drops and allowe...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - March 7, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lopez GU, Kitajima M, Havas A, Gerba CP, Reynolds KA Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research

Off-pump versus on-pump revascularization in females: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
CONCLUSIONS: OPCAB is a safe alternative to ONCAB in the surgical revascularisation of female patients and may reduce post-operative myocardial infarction (MI). However, this does not translate into a reduction in 30-day mortality and OPCAB does not significantly improve other cardiovascular, renal or neurological outcomes. Late outcome data remains lacking and a well-structured, randomized trial is required to answer vital questions regarding the effect of OPCAB on women in the long-term. PMID: 24609839 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Perfusion)
Source: Perfusion - March 7, 2014 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Attaran S, Harling L, Ashrafian H, Moscarelli M, Casula R, Anderson J, Punjabi P, Athanasiou T Tags: Perfusion Source Type: research

Spectral analysis of heart rate variability during trigger point acupuncture.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that acupuncture stimulation of trigger points of the tibialis anterior muscle transiently increases parasympathetic nerve activity. PMID: 24610637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acupuncture in Medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society)
Source: Acupuncture in Medicine : journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society - March 7, 2014 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Kitagawa Y, Kimura K, Yoshida S Tags: Acupunct Med Source Type: research

G‐scores: A method for identifying disease‐causing pathogens with application to lower respiratory tract infections
AbstractLower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are well known for the lack of a good diagnostic method. The main difficulty lies in the fact that there are a variety of pathogens causing LRTIs, and their management and treatment are quite different. The development of quantitative real‐time loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (qrt‐LAMP) made it possible to rapidly amplify and quantify multiple pathogens simultaneously. The question that remains to be answered is how accurate and reliable is this method? More importantly, how are qrt‐LAMP measurements utilized to inform/suggest medical decisions? When does a ...
Source: Statistics in Medicine - March 6, 2014 Category: Statistics Authors: Peng Zhang, Peichao Peng, Lu Wang, Yu Kang Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Acute large-dose exposure to organophosphates in patients with and without diabetes mellitus: analysis of mortality rate and new-onset diabetes mellitus
Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus status might not increase mortality risk following acute large-dose exposure to organophosphates, and the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus also might be minimal in the short term. Larger prospective studies with formal testing for diabetes at later times post-exposure are required. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - March 6, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Shou-Hsuan LiuJa-Liang LinHsin-Lan ShenChih-Chun ChangWen-Hung HuangCheng-Hao WengChing-Wei HsuI-Kuan WangChih-Chia LiangTzung-Hai Yen Source Type: research

Retrieval of various aspirated foreign bodies by flexible cryoprobe: in vitro feasibility study
ConclusionFB retrieval by cryoprobe is feasible for many organic and inorganic aspirated objects. However, the cryoadhesive properties of most inorganic FB and several organic objects is unpredictable, hence, if the nature of the FB is known, an identical object should be used to practice the technique of retrieval in vitro, prior to attempting to perform the procedure in the patient. (Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal)
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - March 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Oren Fruchter, Mordechai R. Kramer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Is age at initiation of extracorporeal life support associated with mortality and intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates with respiratory failure?
Is age at initiation of extracorporeal life support associated with mortality and intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates with respiratory failure? Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, March 6 2014. doi:10.1038/jp.2013.156 Authors: K M Smith, D M McMullan, S L Bratton, P Rycus, J P Kinsella & T V Brogan (Source: Journal of Perinatology)
Source: Journal of Perinatology - March 6, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: K M SmithD M McMullanS L BrattonP RycusJ P KinsellaT V Brogan Tags: neonatal respiratory distress syndrome meconium aspiration syndrome nitric oxide central nervous system hemorrhage Source Type: research

Increased 8‐hydroxy‐2′‐deoxyguanosine in plasma and decreased mRNA expression of human 8‐oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1, anti‐oxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis‐related proteins and glycolytic enzymes in leucocytes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
In conclusion, higher oxidative damage with suboptimal increases in DNA repair, anti‐oxidant capacity, mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose metabolism may be implicated in SLE deterioration, and this impairment might be improved by targeted biological therapy. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - March 6, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: H.‐T. Lee, C.‐S. Lin, C.‐S. Lee, C.‐Y. Tsai, Y.‐H. Wei Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Recurrent laryngeal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor with positive anaplastic lymphoma kinase mimicking recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a case report
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the larynx is an unusual lesion, particularly in the pediatric age group. Laryngeal IMTs in children follow a benign clinical course with reports of only rare recurrences and no metastases. Although anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has been associated with IMTs, there is only one pediatric laryngeal IMT reported to be ALK-positive with immunohistochemical staining. Here, we present a case of a 10-year-old boy with a laryngeal IMT that recurred four times and was misdiagnosed as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis after the initial three operations. ALK positivity was demonstrate...
Source: World Journal of Surgical Oncology - March 6, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Chun-yan HeGe-hong DongHong-gang Liu Source Type: research

Analysis of nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome among the Chinese Han population
Aim: To evaluate the association of NOS1 and NOS3 gene polymorphisms with the risk/severity of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) among preterm infants. Methods: The patient group was 189 preterm infants diagnosed with RDS. The control group was 227 preterm neonates who did not develop RDS. NOS genotyping was performed using an improved multiplex ligation detection reaction (iMLDR) technique based on LDR. Results: It was found that genotype and allele frequencies of rs2682826 of the NOS1 gene and rs1799983 of the NOS3 gene were not significantly different between the RDS group and the control group. However, when...
Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics - March 6, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wei ShenJiang DuBin WangQiyi Zeng Source Type: research

Appropriateness of prescribing in selected healthcare facilities in Papua New Guinea
Conclusion The level of inappropriate prescribing was as high as 53.8% in the selected locations in PNG, which is of great concern with respect to the quality of PNG healthcare delivery. Appropriate interventions such as review/upgrade of the guidelines, supervision/oversight of compliance to guidelines and/or publication of ongoing supervision/audit oversight reports need to occur to address the underlying causes. (Source: Health Policy and Planning)
Source: Health Policy and Planning - March 6, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Joshua, I. B., Passmore, P. R., Parsons, R., Sunderland, V. B. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Small Acute Increases in Serum Creatinine are Associated with Decreased Long Term Survival in the Critically Ill.
Conclusions: Patients with one episode of mild AKI have significantly lower long-term survival rates than critically ill patients with No AKI. Close medical follow-up of these patients may be warranted and mechanistic research is required to understand how AKI influences long-term events. PMID: 24601781 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - March 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Linder A, Fjell C, Levin A, Walley KR, Russell JA, Boyd JH Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E2 reduces Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression in Alveolar Macrophages by Inhibition of Translation.
Abstract Alveolar macrophages (AMs) represent the first line of innate immune defense in the lung, and they utilize pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogens. The best studied PRR is Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which detects lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria. The lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is well-established to dampen AM immune responses by inhibiting the signaling events downstream of PRRs. Here we examined the effect of PGE2 on TLR4 expression itself in rat AMs. Although PGE2 did not reduce the mRNA levels of TLR4, it did decrease TLR4 protein levels. The translation...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Degraaf AJ, Zasłona Z, Bourdonnay E, Peters-Golden M Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Histone deacetylase inhibition promotes fibroblast apoptosis and ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis in mice.
Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal disease, and therapeutic agents have shown only modest efficacy. Epigenetic alterations contribute to the pathogenesis of IPF. The histone deacetylase inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been approved for clinical use in cancer; however, its potential efficacy in modulating fibroblast survival and lung fibrosis has not been extensively investigated.We investigated the effects of SAHA on apoptosis of primary IPF myofibroblasts and on injury-induced lung fibrosis in a murine model. SAHA-induced apoptosis of IPF myofibroblasts, an effect that w...
Source: Respiratory Care - March 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sanders YY, Hagood JS, Liu H, Zhang W, Ambalavanan N, Thannickal VJ Tags: Eur Respir J Source Type: research

Neutrophil extracellular traps in bronchial aspirates: a quantitative analysis.
We examined bronchial aspirates collected from nine intubated patients in an intensive care unit. Samples were collected at the onset of acute respiratory infection (day 0) and on days 1, 3-5, and 6-8. The NET length was visualised by immunohistochemistry and quantified using computer tracing software.The NET length was measured and compared at each time point. The length differed significantly between time points (p<0.001). NETs were significantly longer on day 1 than on day 0 (p<0.001). Neutrophils released NETs abundantly in response to respiratory infection and regression analysis showed that NET length correlate...
Source: Respiratory Care - March 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hamaguchi S, Hirose T, Matsumoto N, Akeda Y, Irisawa T, Seki M, Hosotsubo H, Yamamoto K, Tasaki O, Oishi K, Shimazu T, Tomono K Tags: Eur Respir J Source Type: research

Endosonographic Mediastinal Lymph Node Staging of Lung Cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The combined EBUS/EUS procedure can replace surgical mediastinal staging in patients with potentially resectable NSCLC. Additionally, endosonography leads to improved staging compared to SMS due to its ability to biopsy lymph nodes and metastases unattainable with SMS techniques. (Funded by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the Society of University Surgeons, and the Fonds de Recherche en Santé du Québec). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01011595. PMID: 24603902 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - March 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Liberman M, Sampalis J, Duranceau A, Thiffault V, Hadjeres R, Ferraro P Tags: Chest Source Type: research