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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 11.

Positive end-expiratory airway pressure does not aggravate ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction in rabbits
IntroductionImmobilization of hindlimb muscles in a shortened position results in an accelerated rate of inactivity-induced muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Similarly, prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) results in diaphragm inactivity and induces diaphragm muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Further, the application of positive end-expiratory airway pressure (PEEP) during mechanical ventilation would result in shortened diaphragm muscle fibers throughout the respiratory cycle. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that compared to CMV without PEEP; the combination of PEEP and CMV would accel...
Source: Critical Care - September 12, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Catherine SassoonErcheng ZhuLiwei FangGary SieckScott Powers Source Type: research

Anesthetic considerations in myofibrillar myopathy
This study is the first report of anesthetic management of a patient with MFM. We report multiple anesthetic encounters of a child with genetically confirmed BAG3‐myopathy, a subtype of MFM with severe childhood disease onset. A review of the anesthetic implications of the disease is provided, with specific exploration of possible susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and sensitivity to other anesthetic agents. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 12, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gregory J. Latham, Grace Lopez Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

How to use: bacterial cultures in diagnosing lower respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis
Respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis. Certain bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are associated with a worse clinical outcome than others, but can be completely eradicated if identified and treated early. The diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections can be challenging in the non-expectorating patient, in whom upper airway samples, such as cough swabs, are a surrogate for lower airway sampling. However, the results of these often do not fit with the clinical picture, presenting a management dilemma. Frequently, clinicians are faced with a negative culture r...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ahmed, B., Bush, A., Davies, J. C. Tags: Pancreas and biliary tract, Epidemiologic studies, Influenza, TB and other respiratory infections, Child health, Cystic fibrosis Interpretations Source Type: research

Unusual chest radiographic findings in children
A 9-year-old British Asian girl with asthma was referred by her general practitioner to outpatients with a 12-month history of dry cough and an abnormal chest radiograph. There was no history of recent travel, tuberculosis (TB) exposure or clinical features to suggest TB such as weight loss and night sweating. She received courses of antibiotics without improvement. She was fully immunised including BCG vaccine. She had chickenpox (varicella) infection aged 3 years. On assessment, she was found to have worsening nocturnal cough, frequent use of inhaled salbutamol, and dyspnoea, wheeze and cough on exertion. Systemic e...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elemraid, M. A., Wacogne, I., Williams, H. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: infectious diseases, Child health, Radiology, Asthma, Drugs: respiratory system, Clinical diagnostic tests, Radiology (diagnostics) Epilogue Source Type: research

Paediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines
Information about current guidelines Gastroesophageal reflux (GOR) symptoms in infants are a common reason for consulting medical professionals, with a reported prevalence of 4.3% at 6 months which decreases to 2% by 18 months of age.1 In May 2009, the North American Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) jointly published clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis and management of GOR in children.2 The aim was to develop ‘an international consensus on the diagnosis and manag...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Onyeador, N., Paul, S. P., Sandhu, B. K. Tags: Endoscopy, Surgery, Oesophagus, Editor's choice, Stomach and duodenum, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Childhood nutrition, Childhood nutrition (paediatrics), Child health, Infant health, Infant nutrition (including br Source Type: research

Early adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea improved quality of life and symptoms but not attention or executive function
Design: Multicentre, single-blind randomised trial. Allocation: Concealed (web-based randomisation) Blinding: Study investigators (other than surgeons) were blinded. Families were not blinded. Study question Setting: Seven academic sleep centres in the USA. Patients: Children 5–9 years with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Without recurrent tonsillitis, body mass index z-score >3 and medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Intervention: Tonsillectomy within 4 weeks or watchful waiting. Outcomes: Change in attention and executive-function score caregiver and teacher rating of beh...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Schilder, A. G. M. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), TB and other respiratory infections, Sleep disorders (neurology), Child and adolescent psychiatry (paedatrics), Child health, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Sleep disorders, Airway biology, Sleep disorders (respi Source Type: research

Unusual chest radiographic findings in children
Answers From questions on page 189 Figure 1 shows multiple dense 2–3 mm nodules. Figure 2 demonstrates an arrowed zoomed up image of a nodule. The radiologist's initial report suggested excluding tuberculosis (TB) infection. Subsequently, she had been investigated for TB and had a negative Mantoux test. A second radiology opinion concluded that the nodules were the benign sequel of previous varicella infection. Varicella pneumonitis can be a fulminant condition but is often asymptomatic. Scattered nodular lung opacities measuring up to 1 cm associated with varicella pneumonitis have been recognise...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elemraid, M. A., Wacogne, I., Williams, H. Tags: Journalology, Immunology (including allergy), Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Child health, Asthma, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Competing interests (ethics) Epilogue Source Type: research

ECG and navigator‐free four‐dimensional whole‐heart coronary MRA for simultaneous visualization of cardiac anatomy and function
ConclusionA fully self‐gated 4D whole‐heart imaging technique was developed, potentially allowing cardiac anatomy and function assessment from a single measurement. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - September 12, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Jianing Pang, Behzad Sharif, Zhaoyang Fan, Xiaoming Bi, Reza Arsanjani, Daniel S. Berman, Debiao Li Tags: Rapid Communication Source Type: research

Renal surgery for kidney cancer in Germany 2005-2006: length of stay, risk of postoperative complications and in-hospital death
Conclusions: In this representative population-based analysis, we found that the surgical approach is associated with the risk of complications and length of hospital stay. Furthermore, in the era of ageing populations, renal cancer patients with comorbidities should be counseled about their increased in-hospital mortality risk. (Source: BMC Urology - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Urology - Latest articles - September 12, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andreas StangChristian Büchel Source Type: research

Effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiorespiratory regulation in spontaneously breathing newborn rats.
CONCLUSION: In spontaneously breathing immature rats, dexmedetomidine administration significantly reduced HR and V'E . Because atipamezole fully reversed decreases in fR and therefore V'E , dexmedetomidine-related respiratory suppression occurs predominantly through α2 -adrenoceptor-related suppression of fR . PMID: 25216395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia)
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - September 12, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tamiya J, Ide R, Takahashi M, Saiki C Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

Anesthetic considerations in myofibrillar myopathy.
This study is the first report of anesthetic management of a patient with MFM. We report multiple anesthetic encounters of a child with genetically confirmed BAG3-myopathy, a subtype of MFM with severe childhood disease onset. A review of the anesthetic implications of the disease is provided, with specific exploration of possible susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and sensitivity to other anesthetic agents. PMID: 25216331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia)
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - September 12, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Latham GJ, Lopez G Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

ECG and navigator-free four-dimensional whole-heart coronary MRA for simultaneous visualization of cardiac anatomy and function.
CONCLUSION: A fully self-gated 4D whole-heart imaging technique was developed, potentially allowing cardiac anatomy and function assessment from a single measurement. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 25216287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - September 12, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Pang J, Sharif B, Fan Z, Bi X, Arsanjani R, Berman DS, Li D Tags: Magn Reson Med Source Type: research

MicroRNA-146a and microRNA-146b expression and anti-inflammatory function in human airway smooth muscle.
Abstract MicroRNA(miR)-146a and miR-146b are negative regulators of inflammatory gene expression in lung fibroblasts, epithelial cells, monocytes, and endothelial cells. The abundance of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and IL-1β is negatively regulated by the miR-146 family, suggesting miR-146a and/or miR-146b might modulate inflammatory mediator expression in airway smooth muscle thereby contributing to pathogenesis of asthma. To test this idea we compared miR-146a and miR-146b expression in human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMCs) from non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects treated with cytomix (IL-1β, TNFα, and IFNγ...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Comer BS, Camoretti-Mercado B, Kogut PC, Halayko AJ, Solway J, Gerthoffer WT Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Chronic exposure to perfluorinated compounds: impact on airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation.
Abstract Emerging epidemiological evidence reveals a link between lung disease and exposure to indoor pollutants such as perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). PFC exposure during critical developmental stages may increase asthma susceptibility. Thus, in a murine model we tested the hypothesis that early life and continued exposure to two ubiquitous household PFCs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perflurooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), can induce lung dysfunction that exacerbates allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. Balb/c mice were exposed to PFOA or PFOS (4 mg/kg chow) from gestation day-2 ...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ryu MH, Jha A, Ojo OO, Mahood TH, Basu S, Detillieux KA, Nikoobakht N, Wong CS, Loewen M, Becker AB, Halayko AJ Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Cell-Cell Interactions and Bronchoconstrictor Eicosanoid Reduction With Inhaled Carbon Monoxide and Resolvin D1.
Abstract Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) mediated acute lung injury from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critical care medicine. Here, we report that inhaled low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) and i.v. resolvin D1 (RvD1) in mice each reduced PMN-mediated acute lung injury from I/R. Inhaled CO (125-250ppm) and RvD1 (250-500ng) each reduced PMN lung infiltration, and gave additive lung protection. In mouse whole blood, CO and RvD1 attenuated PMN-platelet aggregates reducing leukotrienes (LTs) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in I/R lungs. With human whole blood, CO (125-250 ppm) d...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shinohara M, Kibi M, Riley IR, Chiang N, Dalli J, Kraft BD, Piantadosi CA, Choi AM, Serhan CN Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Epidermal growth factor receptor activity is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation.
Conclusions: EGF and EGFR are necessary for basal cell proliferation. The EGFR/EGFR homo- and the EGFR/ERB-B2 hetero-dimer account for ~34% and 66% of basal cell proliferation in vitro. Active EGFR is necessary for basal cell proliferation after NA injury. We conclude that EGFR activation is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation and normal epithelial repair. PMID: 25217659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce...)
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brechbuhl HM, Li B, Smith RW, Reynolds SD Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Severe respiratory illness associated with enterovirus d68 - missouri and illinois, 2014.
Abstract On August 19, 2014, CDC was notified by Children's Mercy Hospital in Kansas City, Missouri, of an increase (relative to the same period in previous years) in patients examined and hospitalized with severe respiratory illness, including some admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. An increase also was noted in detections of rhinovirus/enterovirus by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay in nasopharyngeal specimens obtained during August 5-19. On August 23, CDC was notified by the University of Chicago Medicine Comer Children's Hospital in Illinois of an increase in patients similar to those see...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - September 12, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Midgley CM, Jackson MA, Selvarangan R, Turabelidze G, Obringer E, Johnson D, Giles BL, Patel A, Echols F, Oberste MS, Nix WA, Watson JT, Gerber SI Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Healthy humans with a narrow upper airway maintain patency during quiet breathing by dilating the airway during inspiration.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25217376 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Journal of Physiology - September 12, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Cheng S, Brown EC, Hatt A, Butler JE, Gandevia SC, Bilston LE Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

Description of Algoriphagus taiwanensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic bacterium isolated from surface seawater, and emended descriptions of Algoriphagus mannitolivorans, Algoriphagus olei, Algoriphagus aquatilis and Algoriphagus ratkowskyi.
Abstract A novel, Gram-stain negative, strictly aerobic, oval or rod-shaped, red-pigmented, non-spore-forming xylanolytic bacterial strain, designated CC-PR-82(T), was isolated from surface seawater of Pingtung coast, Taiwan, and characterized by polyphasic taxonomy. Strain CC-PR-82(T) shared highest pairwise 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Algoriphagus mannitolivorans IMSNU 14012(T) (97.0 %) followed by 'A. boseongensis' BS-R1(T) (96.5 %) and A. olei CC-Hsuan-617(T) (95.6 %), whereas other (n = 26) Algoriphapus species shared 95.6-92.6 % sequence similarities. The novel strain further established a dist...
Source: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek - September 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shahina M, Hameed A, Lin SY, Lai WA, Hsu YH, Young CC Tags: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of virulence of a novel, avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus in various host species.
Abstract A novel avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza A virus (CIV) that showed high sequence similarities in hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes with those of non-pathogenic avian influenza viruses was isolated in our routine surveillance program in South Korea. We previously reported that the pathogenicity of this strain could be reproduced in dogs and cats. In the present study, the host tropism of H3N2 CIV was examined by experimental inoculation into several host species, including chickens, pigs, mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. The CIV infection resulted in no overt symptoms of disease in these host species. ...
Source: Virus Research - September 12, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Lyoo KS, Kim JK, Kang B, Moon H, Kim J, Song M, Park B, Kim SH, Webster RG, Song D Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Host miR-26a suppresses replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by upregulating type I interferons.
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in viral infections, especially by modulating the expression of cellular factors essential to viral replication or the host innate immune response to infection. To identify host miRNAs important to controlling porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we screened 15 miRNAs that were previously implicated in innate immunity or antiviral functions. Over-expression of the miR-26 family strongly inhibited PRRSV replication in vitro, as shown by virus titer assays, Western blotting, and qRT-PCR assays. MiR-26a inhibited the replication of both...
Source: Virus Research - September 12, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Li L, Wei Z, Zhou Y, Gao F, Jiang Y, Yu L, Zheng H, Tong W, Yang S, Zheng H, Shan T, Liu F, Xia T, Tong G Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Recent advance in investigation of gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.
Abstract Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is a complex clinical syndrome characterised by severe asthmatic attack upon treatment with aspirin and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Genetic predisposition has been considered as a crucial determinant and candidate genes have concentrated especially on cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTs)-related genes as the inhibitory action of aspirin and NSAIDs on cyclooxygenase activity may cause overproduction of cysteinyl LTs. However, conflicting results have been reported, in parallel with replication studies in different ethnic groups. Thus, future area...
Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia - September 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kurosawa M, Yukawa T, Hozawa S, Mochizuki H Tags: Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) Source Type: research

CD8(+) T cell immunity against human respiratory syncytial virus.
Abstract Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) was first discovered in the 1950s, but despite decades of research, a licensed vaccine against it is not available. Epidemiological studies indicate that antibodies directed against the fusion protein (F) partially correlate with protection. In addition, an F-specific monoclonal antibody is licensed as a prophylactic treatment in children who are at high risk of developing complications following HRSV infection. Therefore, most HRSV-oriented vaccination strategies focus on inducing a humoral immune response against F. In the quest for the development of a safe HRSV ...
Source: Vaccine - September 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Rossey I, Sedeyn K, De Baets S, Schepens B, Saelens X Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Renal surgery for kidney cancer in Germany 2005¿2006: length of stay, risk of postoperative complications and in-hospital death
Conclusions: In this representative population-based analysis, we found that the surgical approach is associated with the risk of complications and length of hospital stay. Furthermore, in the era of ageing populations, renal cancer patients with comorbidities should be counseled about their increased in-hospital mortality risk. (Source: BMC Urology - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Urology - Latest articles - September 12, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andreas StangChristian Büchel Source Type: research

A perspective on biological monitoring guidance values.
Abstract Biological monitoring (BM) is a useful tool for exposure assessment of substances that can be absorbed through the skin or where control relies on respiratory protection. This commentary briefly describes the various types of biological monitoring guidance values (BMGVs) that are available to help interpret BM results. Population background, reference and biological equivalent values are available to help interpret BM data in a public health context and occupational guidance values are available for common workplace substances to help interpret results in terms of exposure rather than health. There is a cl...
Source: Toxicology Letters - September 12, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Cocker J Tags: Toxicol Lett Source Type: research

Exposure to particular matter increases susceptibility to respiratory Staphylococcus aureus infection in rats via reducing pulmonary natural killer cells.
Abstract Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between exposure to fine particular matter (PM2.5) and increased respiratory infection, but the mechanisms have remained poorly defined. By using an experimental system we evaluated the effect of PM2.5 exposure on susceptibility to subsequent pulmonary Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection and its potential mechanisms. Rats were intratracheally instilled with a single dose of PM2.5 sample or PBS followed by an intratracheal inoculation with bacteria S. aureus at 24h after PM2.5 exposure. The rats were examined at 24h post infection. We found that expos...
Source: Toxicology - September 12, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zhao H, Li W, Gao Y, Li J, Wang H Tags: Toxicology Source Type: research

Cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis in endotoxemia is not accompanied by mitochondrial function recovery.
Abstract Mitochondrial biogenesis emerges as a compensatory mechanism involved in the recovery process in endotoxemia and sepsis. The aim of this work was to analyze the time course of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis process occurring during endotoxemia, with emphasis in the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial function. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (45 days old) were ip injected with LPS (10mg/kg). Measurements were performed at 0-24h after LPS administration. PGC-1α and mtTFA expression for biogenesis, and p62 and LC3 expression for autophagy, were analyzed by western blot; mitochondrial DNA levels by qPCR, and...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - September 12, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: Vanasco V, Saez T, Magnani ND, Pereyra L, Marchini T, Corach A, Inés Vaccaro M, Corach D, Evelson P, Alvarez S Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

The Acute Management of Asthma
Abstract Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) or clinic with acute exacerbation of asthma (AEA) can be very challenging varying in both severity and response to therapy. High-dose, frequent or continuous nebulized short-acting beta2 agonist (SABA) therapy that can be combined with a short-acting muscarinic antagonist (SAMA) is the backbone of treatment. When patients do not rapidly clinically respond to SABA/SAMA inhalation, the early use of oral or parenteral corticosteroids should be considered and has been shown to impact the immediate need for ICU admission or even the need for hospital admissi...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - September 12, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Murine CLCA5 is uniquely expressed in distinct niches of airway epithelial cells
Abstract The murine mCLCA5 protein is a member of the chloride channel regulators, calcium-activated (CLCA) family and is suspected to play a role in airway mucus cell differentiation. Although mCLCA5 mRNA was previously found in total lung extracts, the expressing cells and functions in the naive murine respiratory tract are unknown. Therefore, mCLCA5 protein expression was identified by immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy using entire lung sections of naive mice. Moreover, we determined mRNA levels of functionally related genes (mClca3, mClca5, Muc5ac and Muc5b) and quantified mCLCA5-, mC...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 12, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Update on Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Lung Transplantation
Abstract Lung transplantation has become an important therapeutic option for patients with end-stage organ dysfunction; however, its clinical usefulness has been limited by the relatively early onset of chronic allograft dysfunction and progressive clinical decline. Obliterative bronchiolitis is characterized histologically by luminal fibrosis of the respiratory bronchioles and clinically by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) which is defined by a measured decline in lung function based on forced expiratory volume (FEV1). Since its earliest description, a number of risk factors have been associated with the d...
Source: Current Transplantation Reports - September 12, 2014 Category: Transplant Surgery Source Type: research

Pneumoconiosis and respiratory problems in dental laboratory technicians: Analysis of 893 dental technicians
Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, it was the largest DTP case series (N = 893/90) in the literature in English. Health screenings should be performed regularly for the early diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, which is an important occupational disease for dental technicians. (Source: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health)
Source: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health - September 12, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Enterovirus may not be in Oregon but health officials are on the lookout
So far, enterovirus D68, a respiratory infection affecting children in the Midwest and Southeast, hasn’t emerged in Oregon. Even though the Oregon Health Authority knows of no cases yet, it may be a matter of time. Legacy Health is taking precautions at its six hospitals. Regence BlueCross BlueShield of Oregon posted information on its website. Dr. Csaba Mera, a pediatrician and Regence’s executive medical director, said the virus will likely reach Oregon “because we’re a very mobile society… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - September 11, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Elizabeth Hayes Source Type: research

Enterovirus may not be in Oregon but health officials are on the lookout
So far, enterovirus D68, a respiratory infection affecting children in the Midwest and Southeast, hasn’t emerged in Oregon. Even though the Oregon Health Authority knows of no cases yet, it may be a matter of time. Legacy Health is taking precautions at its six hospitals. Regence BlueCross BlueShield of Oregon posted information on its website. Dr. Csaba Mera, a pediatrician and Regence’s executive medical director, said the virus will likely reach Oregon “because we’re a very mobile society… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines - September 11, 2014 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Elizabeth Hayes Source Type: research

Tissue tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of enterovirus infection
Abstract Enteroviruses are very common and cause infections with a diverse array of clinical features. Enteroviruses are most frequently considered by practicing pathologists in cases of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and disseminated infections in neonates and infants. Congenital infections have been reported, and transplacental transmission is thought to occur. Although skin biopsies during hand foot and mouth disease are infrequently obtained, characteristic dermatopathological findings can be seen. Enteroviruses have been implicated in lower respiratory tract infections. This review will highlight histo...
Source: The Journal of Pathology - September 11, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Atis Muehlenbachs, Julu Bhatnagar, Sherif R. Zaki Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Duly Noted: Hospital restrictions, Digby's new deal and birds flying the Chicago coop for good (Video)
In the midst of an outbreak of respiratory disease spreading through the Midwest, several area hospitals are restricting visitors under the age of 18, or who show any flu-like symptoms. The disease, enterovirus D68, has led to hundreds of hospitalizations, with concentrations in Kansas City and Chicago. -- Chicago Tribune and Time National Football League Commissioner Roger Goodell may be facing a growing chorus of media members calling for him to either resign or be fired after his handling… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines - September 11, 2014 Category: Pharmaceuticals Authors: David A. Arnott Source Type: research

Is an Unusual Virus Spreading in the Midwest?
The CDC is closely monitoring the outbreak of a rare respiratory infection afflicting people in Illinois and Missouri. Just how bad is it, and what can be done to stop the spread? -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - September 11, 2014 Category: Science Tags: Biology Society & Policy Health Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

No reported cases of virus in NYS, but officials remain vigilant
As a respiratory illness continues to spread in some Midwestern and Southern states, state and local health officials insist there’s no cause for alarm here in New York. The news media has been abuzz in recent days with reports about dozens of children affected with EV-D68, an enterovirus that causes respiratory illness. In Cincinnati, a record 540 children were admitted http://www.bizjournals.com/Cincinnati/news/2014/09/09/viral-outbreak-leads-to-record-number-of.html to hospitals Friday night… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - September 11, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tracey Drury Source Type: research

Can non‐invasive positive pressure ventilation prevent endotracheal intubation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome? A meta‐analysis
In conclusion, the early use of NIPPV can decrease the endotracheal intubation rate in patients with ALI/ARDS, but does not change the mortality of these patients. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - September 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jian Luo, Mao‐yun Wang, Hui Zhu, Bin‐miao Liang, Dan Liu, Xia‐ying Peng, Rong‐chun Wang, Chun‐tao Li, Chen‐yun He, Zong‐an Liang Tags: Review Source Type: research

Response of airway epithelial cells to double-stranded RNA in an allergic environment
Conclusion: The Th2 cytokine environment appears to promote increased production of pro-inflammatory chemokines by AEC in response to double-stranded RNA, which could help explain the exaggerated inflammatory response to respiratory viral infection in allergic asthmatics. However, any impairment of anti-viral host defences in asthmatics appears unlikely to be a consequence of Th2 cytokine-induced downregulation of the expression of viral response genes by AEC. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - September 11, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Cristan HerbertQing-Xiang ZengRamesh ShanmugasundaramLinda GarthwaiteBrian G OliverRakesh K Kumar Source Type: research

Quantification of left ventricular functional parameter values using 3D spiral bSSFP and through-time Non-Cartesian GRAPPA
This study combines the encoding efficiency of a six-fold undersampled 3D stack of spirals balanced SSFP sequence with 3D through-time spiral GRAPPA parallel imaging reconstruction. This 3D spiral method requires only one breathhold to collect the dynamic data. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers were recruited for imaging at 3 T. The 3D spiral technique was compared against 2D imaging in terms of systolic left ventricular functional parameter values (Bland-Altman plots), total scan time (Welch’s t-test) and qualitative image rating scores (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Results: Systolic left ventricular functional values wer...
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - September 11, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Kestutis J BarkauskasPrabhakar RajiahRavi AshwathJesse I HamiltonYong ChenDan MaKatherine L WrightVikas GulaniMark A GriswoldNicole Seiberlich Source Type: research

An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen
Summary An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV‐free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspic...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - September 11, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: C. Nathues, L. Perler, S. Bruhn, D. Suter, L. Eichhorn, M. Hofmann, H. Nathues, C. Baechlein, M. Ritzmann, A. Palzer, K. Grossmann, G. Schüpbach‐Regula, B. Thür Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A study of use of fixed dose combinations in Ahmedabad, India
Conclusion: FDCs are widely prescribed with seasonal influence in their use. FDCs containing banned or controversial ingredients are prescribed widely. (Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology - September 11, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jayeshbhai Dineshchandra BalatAnuradha M GandhiPrakruti P PatelRam K Dikshit Source Type: research

Female community health volunteers service utilization for childhood illness- improving quality of health services only is not enough: a cross-sectional study in mid-western region, Nepal
Conclusions: Caregivers can gain benefit by using FCHV's health services, but a majority of the caregivers did not seek care from FCHVs due to its limited quality. Raising caregivers' awareness on FCHV is equally important at community level. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Source: BMC Health Services Research - September 11, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Moe MiyaguchiJunko YasuokaAmod PoudyalRam SilwalMasamine Jimba Source Type: research

Respiratory‐induced venous blood flow effects using flexible retrospective double‐gating
ConclusionWith a radial acquisition, this pilot study demonstrates feasibility of simultaneous retrospective cardiorespiratory gating in IJV flow. Greatest differences in flow occur between active respiration phases, increasing in magnitude more proximal to the chest.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Source: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging - September 11, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Eric M. Schrauben, Ashley G. Anderson, Kevin M. Johnson, Oliver Wieben Tags: Technical Note Source Type: research

Pneumonia and bronchiolitis in developing countries
The WHO has recently updated its guidelines for the management of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children. These guidelines include the differential diagnosis of cough and difficult breathing, and separate guidelines for the management of pneumonia, bronchiolitis and asthma. This recognises the core issue behind the study in this edition of Archives by Dr Vishwanath Gowraiah and colleagues from four hospitals in India; that many children who fulfil WHO's traditional criteria for pneumonia (cough and difficult breathing with or without chest in-drawing) have wheezy viral infections.1 The WHO guideline, contained in ...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - September 11, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Duke, T. Tags: Bronchiolitis, Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: infectious diseases, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Child health, Airway biology, Asthma, Bronchitis, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine) Leading article Source Type: research

Can we distinguish pneumonia from wheezy diseases in tachypnoeic children under low-resource conditions? A prospective observational study in four Indian hospitals
Background Acute respiratory infections are the commonest cause of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide. A quarter of all deaths occur in India alone. In order to reduce this disease burden, there is a need for better diagnostic criteria, particularly ones allowing early detection of high-risk children. Methods We enrolled 516 under 5 year olds, in four Indian hospitals, who met WHO age-dependent tachypnoea criteria for pneumonia at presentation. Patients underwent a protocolised examination assessing 29 items, including history, examination, O2 saturation, plus scores for chest X-ray, auscultation and conscious ...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - September 11, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Gowraiah, V., Awasthi, S., Kapoor, R., Sahana, D., Venkatesh, P., Gangadhar, B., Awasthi, A., Verma, A., Pai, N., Seear, M. Tags: Eye Diseases, Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Ophthalmology, Radiology, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Clinical diagnostic tests, Radiology (diagnostics) Original Source Type: research

Six-year follow-up study on the effect of combined anterior and posterior spinal fusion on lung function and quality of life in young people with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
Conclusions Long-term follow-up of patients with AIS suggests no deficit in pulmonary function, while QoL shows incremental improvement and patient satisfaction is high over 6 years after A/PSF. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - September 11, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Urquhart, D. S., Gallella, S., Gidaris, D., Brady, E., Blacklock, S., Tsirikos, A. I. Tags: Patients, Epidemiologic studies, Airway biology, Rheumatology Original article Source Type: research

Pertussis in schoolchildren
We often see school-age children in our clinics who continue to cough, but are well in themselves, and who have no evidence of asthma or continuing infection. We may suspect mild pertussis, but usually would not investigate for this specifically, as the cough is likely to resolve without treatment. The worrying morbidity and mortality from pertussis is all in younger infants. Researchers working in primary care in Oxford, UK, identified about 280 children aged 5–15 who had presented to their GP with persistent cough lasting 2 to 8 weeks (Wang K and colleagues. BMJ 2014;348:g3668). Each gave an oral fluid (saliva) sam...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - September 11, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research

Fever in the returning child traveller: approach to diagnosis and management
During the last half century there has been an exponential increase in international travel including to more exotic and long-haul destinations. The assessment of febrile returning child travellers presents diagnostic challenges and is often performed poorly. A detailed travel and medical history, clinical examination and appropriate first-line investigations are essential. While the majority of children will have a common self-limiting or easily treatable infection, it is important to consider other causes, including imported infections, which may be life-threatening or highly contagious. In this article, we provide guida...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - September 11, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Halbert, J., Shingadia, D., Zuckerman, J. N. Tags: Diarrhoea, ADC Global child health, TB and other respiratory infections, Travel medicine, Tropical medicine (infectious diseases), Child health Source Type: research