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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 11.

Impact of Retrieval, Distance Traveled, and Referral Center on Outcomes in Unplanned Admissions to a National PICU
Conclusions: Children retrieved to the national PICU in New Zealand have greater predicted mortality risk and PICU-specific resource use than nontransported patients. There is no significant difference in risk-adjusted mortality between retrieved and the same institution admissions. Critically ill pediatric patients can be transported long distances by specially trained and equipped transport teams, without an increase in risk-adjusted PICU mortality. (Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

Auscultation of Velcro Crackles is Associated With Usual Interstitial Pneumonia
Abstract: Auscultation of Velcro crackles has been proposed as a key finding in physical lung examination in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), especially in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, no studies have been carried out to assess the association of Velcro crackles with other clinical variables. We evaluated a cohort of 132 patients, prospectively and consecutively included in our ILD diagnostic program at a tertiary referral center. All patients were auscultated during the physical examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups: “presence” or “nonpresence” of bilateral Velcro c...
Source: Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research

Vertebral Compression Fracture Related to Pancreatic Cancer With Osteoblastic Metastasis: A Case Report and Literature Review
We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man suffering from severe lower back pain and intermittent abdominal fullness. He came to our clinic, where muscle power was normal, but could not stand up or change posture because of severe back pain. Plain film and magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine both revealed osteoblastic lesion at L2 spine. Abdomen computed tomography showed a mass at the pancreatic body. The pancreatic cancer with osteoblastic metastasis was diagnosed. After receiving multimodality therapy such as percutaneous vertebroplasty and pain controlling, we provided effective palliation of symptoms, aggressiv...
Source: Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Unraveling chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and keeping up with new and avatars of old occupational lung diseases
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Disease phenotyping in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the neutrophilic endotype
Purpose of review: Despite decades of scientific attention, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major cause of both morbidity and mortality worldwide with strikingly few effective drug classes available. This may be in part because COPD is actually a syndrome composed of distinct diseases with varying pathophysiology (endotypes), and therapies have not been designed to target the causal pathological processes specific to an endotype. Recent findings: Recent work has begun to clarify the nature of these endotypes and characterize them. One promising field focuses on the central role of the neutrophil and...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Understanding the pathophysiology of the asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome
Purpose of review: The review will provide an update on the pathophysiology and studies of inflammation associated with the asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) and the mechanism(s) responsible for persistent expiratory airflow limitation in never-smoked asthma patients who develop loss of lung elastic recoil consistent with an asthma–COPD clinical phenotype (ACOS in nonsmokers). Recent findings: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of ACOS have more frequent respiratory exacerbations and hospitalizations than COPD patients without ACOS. ACOS patients should be treated with inhaled...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

How to reduce hospital readmissions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
This article examines factors associated with readmission for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interventions that may decrease readmissions. Recent findings: The literature on this topic is relatively sparse. Drug therapy revolves around appropriate use of bronchodilators, antibiotics, and steroids. Patient education and participation and a multidisciplinary approach to the transition out of hospital can lead to decreased rehospitalizations. Patients who cannot participate in self-care may do better in skilled nursing facilities. Summary: We must optimize in-hospital care and see that patients receive a continuu...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comorbidities
Purpose of review: Classic descriptions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) centered on its impact on respiratory function. It is currently recognized that comorbidities contribute to the severity of symptoms and COPD progression. Understanding COPD-comorbidities associations could provide innovative treatment strategies and identify new mechanistic pathways to be targeted. Recent findings: Some comorbidities are clustered with specific COPD phenotypes. There are stronger associations between airway-predominant disease and cardio-metabolic comorbidities, whereas in emphysema-predominant COPD sarcopenia and ost...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

An update on pharmacologic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Purpose of review: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a widespread disease process with important clinical and economic implications. This review will summarize new pharmacotherapy for the treatment of COPD. Recent findings: Several recent clinical trials have led to the approval of new inhaler therapies for COPD. Many of these are specifically targeting combination long-acting β-agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists for late stage COPD. Summary: Several new bronchodilators are available on the market, especially in combination form. The new drug combinations have positive data though clinical rel...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Quality of life changes over time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Purpose of review: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often considered to be a disease in which an inevitable decline in lung function results in increasing dyspnea and deteriorating quality of life. This review summarizes recent data that calls this classic paradigm into question. Studies evaluating the effects of chronic sputum production, physical activity, and inhaled medications on quality of life and prognosis are also discussed. Recent findings: Chronic sputum production and level of dyspnea contribute at least as much to impairment of quality of life and prognosis as does abnormal lung function. An ac...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Long-term noninvasive ventilation in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure: assisting the diaphragm, but threatening the heart?
Purpose of review: To summarize and discuss the available studies on the effects of long-term noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on cardiac function in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Recent findings: A total of nine studies investigated the acute and long-term effects of NIV on cardiac performance in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. Summary: Both the application of expiratory airway pressure and (higher) inspiratory pressures may acutely decrease cardiac output during the initiation of NIV. However, the meaning of this effect in the long term is not clear. Apparently, natriuretic ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Pulmonary health effects of air pollution
Purpose of the review: Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and respiratory infection. Recent findings: A total of 52 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Pulmonary health effects of agriculture
Purpose of review: Occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are associated with numerous lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung cancer, and interstitial lung diseases. Efforts are ongoing to ascertain contributing factors to these negative respiratory outcomes and improve monitoring of environmental factors leading to disease. In this review, recently published studies investigating the deleterious effects of occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are discussed. Recent findings: Occupational exposures to numerous agricultural envir...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Biomass smoke exposure and chronic lung disease
Purpose of review: Approximately 3 billion people worldwide rely on coal and biomass fuel for cooking and heating. Biomass smoke exposure is associated with several chronic lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma-COPD overlap syndrome, usual interstitial pneumonitis, hut lung, and bronchial anthracofibrosis. Household air pollution primarily from biomass smoke is the biggest risk factor for COPD worldwide. Despite the significant burden of biomass smoke-related respiratory disease, the exposure is still underappreciated worldwide, especially in high-income countries. Recent findings: ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Update on flavoring-induced lung disease
This article reviews recent flavoring exposures and data on the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and surveillance of flavoring-induced lung disease. Recent findings: Diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione exposures have occurred in food production facilities that make cookies, cereal, chocolate, and coffee. Airborne levels often exceed proposed occupational exposure limits. Cases of biopsy-proven bronchiolitis obliterans in heavy popcorn consumers have also been reported. New data demonstrate the presence of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione in flavored nicotine liquids used in electronic nicotine delivery systems. Summary: Di...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Denim production and silicosis
Purpose of review: Silicosis because of denim sandblasting emerged as a new cause of silicosis in Turkey in the mid-2000s, and the following years have brought new cases constituting an epidemic with fatal outcomes. Because silicosis is a preventable disease, all efforts should be focused on preventing exposure to crystalline silica and thus development of the disease. Recent findings: Denim sandblasters are at a high risk of silicosis. Patients with silicosis because of denim sandblasting exhibit rapid disease progression, and many of the complications associated with silicosis, including death, appear to be unavoidable....
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Lung disease and coal mining: what pulmonologists need to know
Purpose of review: Coal mine workers are at risk for a range of chronic respiratory diseases including coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, diffuse dust-related fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The purpose of this review is to describe coal mining processes and associated exposures to inform the diagnostic evaluation of miners with respiratory symptoms. Recent findings: Although rates of coal workers’ pneumoconiosis declined after regulations were enacted in the 1970s, more recent data shows a reversal in this downward trend. Rapidly progressive pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (complicate...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: OBSTRUCTIVE, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES: Edited by Basil Varkey and Craig S. Glazer Source Type: research

Lung volume reduction of pulmonary emphysema: the radiologist task
Purpose of review: Several lung volume reduction (LVR) techniques have been increasingly evaluated in patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema, especially in the last decade. Radiologist plays a pivotal role in the characterization of parenchymal damage and, thus, assessment of eligibility criteria. This review aims to discuss the most common LVR techniques, namely LVR surgery, endobronchial valves, and coils LVR, with emphasis on the role of computed tomography (CT). Recent findings: Several trials have recently highlighted the importance of regional quantification of emphysema by computerized CT-based segmentation of ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: IMAGING: Edited by Johny Verschakelen Source Type: research

The psychological burden of cystic fibrosis
Purpose of review: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic, life-shortening illness among white populations. Management of the disease requires a complex, time-consuming treatment regimen. The purpose of this review is to highlight current research examining the psychological burden of CF, including psychological distress, social challenges, treatment burden, and adherence to daily treatments. Recent findings: Individuals with CF and their parent caregivers report elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety. Recent international guidelines (Cystic Fibrosis Foundation and European Cystic Fibrosis Society) recommend...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Special Commentary Source Type: research

Acknowledgement of Reviewers 2015
Research journals could not exist without the generous support from scientists willing to be peer reviewers. Respiratory Medicine gratefully acknowledges the time and effort contributed by the following experts, for refereeing the work of their fellow researchers during 2015. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Parents' experiences of having a child undergoing congenital heart surgery: An emotional rollercoaster from shocking to blessing
Conclusions The ups and downs of parents' emotions reflected their child's changing condition and parents' adjustment to the condition. (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A systematic review of transitional-care strategies to reduce rehospitalization in patients with heart failure
The objective of this review was to evaluate existing transition-of-care models and identify common themes that may minimize exacerbation and rehospitalization, and improve quality of life for patients with heart failure (HF). HF is a significant burden in the United States and a common reason for recurrent hospitalizations. When multidisciplinary health care providers function as liaisons and educators during transition from hospital to home, they help prepare patients for life with chronic HF and mitigate the need for readmission. Systematic literature searches were performed to identify research papers relevant to trans...
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Can we engage caregiver spouses of patients with heart failure with a low-intensity, symptom-guided intervention?
Conclusions Future interventions should evaluate dyadic relationship dynamics, match the timing and content of the intervention to the patient population, and enroll patients with perceived control over their illness to maximize intervention acceptability and feasibility. (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Erratum to: Asbestos-Related Lung Cancer and Malignant Mesothelioma of the Pleura: Selected Current Issues (Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2015;36(3):334-346).
PMID: 26820281 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Markowitz S Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Early Psychological Therapy in Critical Illness.
Abstract Survivors of critical illness often experience long-lasting impairments in mental, cognitive, and physical functioning. Acute stress reactions and delusional memories appear to play an important role in psychological morbidity following critical illness, and few interventions exist to address these symptoms. This review elucidates acute psychological stressors experienced by the critically ill. The effects of psychological stress and state of mind on disease are discussed using examples from the non-intensive care unit (ICU) literature, including a review of placebo and nocebo effects. After reviewing the ...
Source: Respiratory Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Karnatovskaia LV, Philbrick KL, Parker AM, Needham DM Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Adapting the ABCDEF Bundle to Meet the Needs of Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in the Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Setting: Historical Perspectives and Practical Implications.
This article is about such an extrapolation from the intensive care unit (ICU) to the long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting. Chronic critical illness is an emerging, disabling, costly, and yet relatively silent epidemic that is central to both of these settings. The number of chronically critically ill patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation is expected to reach unprecedented levels over the next decade. Despite the prevalence, numerous distressing symptoms, and exceptionally poor outcomes associated with chronic critical illness, to date there is very limited scientific evidence available to guide the ...
Source: Respiratory Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Balas MC, Devlin JW, Verceles AC, Morris P, Ely EW Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Who Should Be at the Bedside 24/7: Doctors, Families, Nurses?
Abstract Critical illness does not keep to regular, daytime business hours; we must provide high-quality care and support for intensive care unit (ICU) patients 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Whether this mandates the presence of similar numbers and types of personnel throughout all hours of the day, however, has been the subject of much debate and substantial research. In this article, we review the available literature on the consequences of having three groups of care providers at a patient's bedside overnight: physicians, visitors, and nurses. Though few of the studies on this topic are randomized and prosp...
Source: Respiratory Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gershengorn HB, Garland A Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Improving the Patient Handoff Process in the Intensive Care Unit: Keys to Reducing Errors and Improving Outcomes.
Abstract Patient handoffs are highly variable and error prone. They have been recognized as a major health care challenge. Patients in the intensive care unit are particularly vulnerable due to their complex clinical history and the critical nature of their condition. Given a general movement from traditional long call to shift schedules, the number of patient handoffs will likely continue to increase. Optimization of the handoff process has become even more critical to ensure patient safety. In this review, we reflect on the importance of the handoff process, review common errors, identify barriers and challenges,...
Source: Respiratory Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Colvin MO, Eisen LA, Gong MN Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Early Warning/Track-and-Trigger Systems to Detect Deterioration and Improve Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients.
Abstract As a global effort toward improving patient safety, a specific area of focus has been the early recognition and rapid intervention in deteriorating ward patients. This focus on "failure to rescue" has led to the construction of early warning/track-and-trigger systems. In this review article, we present a description of the data behind the creation and implementation of such systems, including multiple algorithms and strategies for deployment. Additionally, the strengths and weaknesses of the various systems and their evaluation in the literature are emphasized. Despite the limitations of the current litera...
Source: Respiratory Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shiloh AL, Lominadze G, Gong MN, Savel RH Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Sweet Spot: Glucose Control in the Intensive Care Unit.
Abstract Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability are all independently associated with morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. A strategy aiming at normoglycemia (so-called tight glycemic control) could improve outcomes of critically ill patients, but results from randomized controlled trials of tight glycemic control are conflicting. Strict glycemic control is associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia, which could offset the benefit of this intervention. Notably, the risk of hypoglycemia is not necessarily removed with less tight glucose control regimens. The best targets of blood...
Source: Respiratory Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: van Hooijdonk RT, Mesotten D, Krinsley JS, Schultz MJ Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

What Is the Evidence for Harm of Neuromuscular Blockade and Corticosteroid Use in the Intensive Care Unit?
Abstract Neuromuscular blocking agents and corticosteroids are widely used in medicine and in particular in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to ease tracheal intubation, to optimize mechanical ventilation and oxygenation in acute respiratory disorders such as status asthmaticus and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), to prevent shivering during therapeutic hypothermia, and also in patients with elevated intracranial pressure. In the ICU, patients with sepsis, ARDS, community-acquired pneumonia, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe asthma, or tra...
Source: Respiratory Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Annane D Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Balance between Hyperinflammation and Immunosuppression in Sepsis.
Abstract Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients and the leading cause of death among patients admitted to intensive care units. The immune response in sepsis is characterized by the activation of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. These pathways are concurrent, starting early in the course of sepsis. Given the high burden of morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis, there is an increasing interest in immunomodulatory therapies targeted at improving outcomes in sepsis. This review will summarize current understanding about the balance between hyperinfla...
Source: Respiratory Care - February 1, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yadav H, Cartin-Ceba R Tags: Semin Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research