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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 12.

Impact of air pollution on respiratory diseases in children with recurrent wheezing or asthma
Conclusions: There is a significant association between traffic-related pollution and the development of asthma exacerbations and respiratory infections in children born to atopic parents and in those suffering from recurrent wheezing or asthma. These findings suggest that environmental control may be crucial for respiratory health in children with underlying respiratory disease. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - August 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Susanna EspositoCarlotta GaleoneMara LeliiBenedetta LonghiBeatrice AscoleseLaura SenatoreElisabetta PradaValentina MontinaroStefano MalerbaMaria Francesca PatriaNicola Principi Source Type: research

Seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations is greater in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis
Conclusion: HP should be considered in ILD with greater seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - August 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hiroshi OhnishiShintaro MiyamotoShigeo KawaseTetsuya KubotaAkihito Yokoyama Source Type: research

The CCR5Delta32 allele is not a major predisposing factor for severe H1N1pdm09 infection
Conclusions: The CCR5Delta32 allele was not found to be associated with the risk of H1N1pdm09 infection or with a severe disease course. (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Source: BMC Research Notes - August 7, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Manuela SironiRachele CaglianiChiara PontremoliMarianna RossiGuglielmo MigliorinoMario ClericiAndrea Gori Source Type: research

Application of Good Practices as Described by the NEPSI Agreement Coincides With a Strong Decline in the Exposure to Respiratory Crystalline Silica in Finnish Workplaces
To protect the health of those occupationally exposed to respirable crystalline silica, the main industries in European Union associated with exposure to respirable silica, agreed on appropriate measures for the improvement of working conditions through the application of good practices, as part of ‘The Agreement on Workers Health Protection through the Good Handling and Use of Crystalline Silica and Products Containing it’ (NEPSI agreement), signed in April 2006. The present paper examines trends in exposure to respirable crystalline silica in Finland prior to and following the implementation of the NEPSI agre...
Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene - August 7, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Tuomi, T., Linnainmaa, M., Vaananen, V., Reijula, K. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Characterization of Occupational Exposure to Air Contaminants in Modern Tunnelling Operations
Conclusions: Findings from this study show significant differences between job groups with shaft drilling as the highest exposed job to air concentrations for all measured contaminants. Technical interventions in this job should be implemented to reduce exposure levels. Overall, diesel exhaust air concentrations seem to be lower than previously assessed (as EC). (Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene)
Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene - August 7, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bakke, B., Ulvestad, B., Thomassen, Y., Woldbaek, T., Ellingsen, D. G. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Airborne Exposures to Monoethanolamine, Glycol Ethers, and Benzyl Alcohol During Professional Cleaning: A Pilot Study
Conclusions: Professional cleaners were found to be exposed to multiple airborne irritants at low concentrations, thus these substances should be considered in investigations of respiratory dysfunctions in the cleaning industry; especially in specialized cleaning tasks such as intensive floor cleaning. (Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene)
Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene - August 7, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Melchior Gerster, F., Brenna Hopf, N., Pierre Wild, P., Vernez, D. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A New Theoretical Framework for Modeling Respiratory Protection Based on the Beta Distribution
The problem of modeling respiratory protection is well known and has been dealt with extensively in the literature. Often the efficiency of respiratory protection is quantified in terms of penetration, defined as the proportion of an ambient contaminant concentration that penetrates the respiratory protection equipment. Typically, the penetration modeling framework in the literature is based on the assumption that penetration measurements follow the lognormal distribution. However, the analysis in this study leads to the conclusion that the lognormal assumption is not always valid, making it less adequate for analyzing res...
Source: Annals of Occupational Hygiene - August 7, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Klausner, Z., Fattal, E. Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Severe respiratory insufficiency during pandemic H1N1 infection: prognostic value and therapeutic potential of pulmonary surfactant protein A
For almost two decades, studies have shown collectins to be critical for effective antimicrobial defense of the airways. Members of this protein family, which includes surfactant proteins (SP)-A and D, provide broad-spectrum protection through promoting the aggregation and clearance of pathogens. Interestingly, these proteins may also modulate the immune response, and growing evidence has shown collectins to be protective against several markers of inflammation and injury. In a recent study by Herrera-Ramos and colleagues, genetic variants of collectins were examined in Spanish patients with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenz...
Source: Critical Care - August 7, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Monica TolosaNades Palaniyar Source Type: research

SQ HDM SLIT-tablet (ALK) in Treatment of Asthma – results from a randomised trial
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (EudraCT identifier: 2006-001795-20), the standardised quality (SQ) house dust mite (HDM) sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)-tablet (ALK, Denmark) was investigated. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - August 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: F. de Blay, P. Kuna, L. Prieto, T. Ginko, D. Seitzberg, B. Riis, G.W. Canonica Source Type: research

The Growing Epidemic of Water Pipe Smoking: Health Effects and Future Needs
Water pipe smoking (WPS), an old method of tobacco smoking, is re-gaining widespread popularity all over the world and among various populations. Smoking machine studies have shown that the water pipe (WP) mainstream smoke (MSS) contains a wide array of chemical substances, many of which are highly toxic and carcinogenic for humans. The concentrations of some substances exceed those present in MSS of cigarettes. Despite being of low grade, current evidence indicates that WPS is associated with different adverse health effects, not only on the respiratory system but also on the cardiovascular, hematological, and reproductiv...
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - August 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hisham M. Bou Fakhreddine, Amjad N. Kanj, Nadim A. Kanj Source Type: research

'Hot topic' Editorials and EPICOH 2014
In recognition of 2014 marking 70 years since the British Journal of Occupational Medicine (the original name for Occupational Environmental Medicine (OEM)) was established in 1944, we have decided to commission a series of guest ‘Hot topic’ Editorials to highlight current and emerging issues in occupational and environmental health. These Editorials will demonstrate how far topics in these fields have moved on from those which were prominent in the early days of the journal. The first of these Editorials, written by Neil Pearce and Hans Kromhout, is published in this edition of OEM1. It brings to our atte...
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - August 7, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sim, M. R. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Perinatal exposure to solvents and wheezing, eczema and food allergies at age 2
Conclusions Postnatal exposure to solvent-containing products in the home may increase the risk of wheezing in early childhood. Follow-up studies are needed to determine if the health effects observed at age 2 persist at later ages. (Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - August 7, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bajeux, E., Cordier, S., Garlantezec, R., Monfort, C., Rouget, F., Pele, F. Tags: Environment Source Type: research

Nasal high¿flow oxygen therapy in patients with hypoxic respiratory failure: effect on functional and subjective respiratory parameters compared to conventional oxygen therapy and non-invasive ventilation (NIV)
Background: Aim of the study was to compare the short-term effects of oxygen therapy via a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on functional and subjective respiratory parameters in patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure in comparison to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and standard treatment via a Venturi mask. Methods: Fourteen patients with acute hypoxic respiratory failure were treated with HFNC (FiO2 0.6, gas flow 55 l/min), NIV (FiO2 0.6, PEEP 5 cm H2O Hg, tidal volume 6–8 ml/kg ideal body weight,) and Venturi mask (FiO2 0.6, oxygen flow 15 l/min,) in a randomized order for 30 min each. Data collection included o...
Source: BMC Anesthesiology - August 7, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Norbert SchwabbauerBjörn BergGunnar BlumenstockMichael HaapJürgen HetzelReimer Riessen Source Type: research

Efficacy of short-term intrapulmonary percussive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Conclusions: This study provides evidence that a short-term combination of IPV and CPT improves PO2, SpO2 and perceived dyspnea than a traditional standard CPT in patients with COPD and productive cough. Implications for Rehabilitation We suggest that it could improve the oxygenation level on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Beyond that, the intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) is a safety non-pharmacologic airway clearance therapy that can be used on patients with different sorts of respiratory diseases, and there are still questions to be answered, especially concerning the volume of secretio...
Source: Disability and Rehabilitation - August 7, 2014 Category: Rehabilitation Authors: Testa A, Galeri S, Villafañe JH, Corbellini C, Pillastrini P, Negrini S Tags: Disabil Rehabil Source Type: research

Repair and Regeneration of the Respiratory System: Complexity, Plasticity, and Mechanisms of Lung Stem Cell Function.
Abstract Respiratory disease is the third leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Consequently, the trachea, lungs, and cardiopulmonary vasculature have been the focus of extensive investigations. Recent studies have provided new information about the mechanisms driving lung development and differentiation. However, there is still much to learn about the ability of the adult respiratory system to undergo repair and to replace cells lost in response to injury and disease. This Review highlights the multiple stem/progenitor populations in different regions of the adult lung, the plasticity of their behavi...
Source: Cell Stem Cell - August 7, 2014 Category: Stem Cells Authors: Hogan BL, Barkauskas CE, Chapman HA, Epstein JA, Jain R, Hsia CC, Niklason L, Calle E, Le A, Randell SH, Rock J, Snitow M, Krummel M, Stripp BR, Vu T, White ES, Whitsett JA, Morrisey EE Tags: Cell Stem Cell Source Type: research

Artificial Nutritional Support in Cancer Patients after Esophagectomy: 11 Years of Experience.
This study determines the association of artificial nutrition with morbidity, mortality, and survival and studies clinical situations that determine the choice between enteral (EN) and parenteral support (PN). This retrospective single-center study compared 2 periods: 1) treatment centered in surgical process with discretionary demand of support, and 2) elective therapeutic and nutritional interventions were systematized. Risks factors that determined use of PN and survival were included in 4 multivariate regression models: 2 logistic, 1 multinomial, and a survival Cox analysis. Significance determined with 95% confidence ...
Source: Nutrition and Cancer - August 7, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Llop-Talaveron JM, Farran-Teixidor L, Badia-Tahull MB, Virgili-Casas M, Leiva-Badosa E, Galán-Guzmán MC, Miró-Martin M, Aranda-Danso H Tags: Nutr Cancer Source Type: research

Recurrent takotsubo syndrome in a patient with myotonic dystrophy 1.
Conclusions: TTS may also occur in patients with myotonic dystrophy-1 induced by stress from surgery, respiratory insufficiency, or infection. In patients with myotonic dystrophy-1, takotsubo-syndrome may recur and may represent a previously unreported feature of cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy-1. PMID: 25101654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acute Cardiac Care)
Source: Acute Cardiac Care - August 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Finsterer J, Stöllberger C, Demirtas D, Gencik M, Ohnutek I, Hornykewycz A Tags: Acute Card Care Source Type: research

Extrapleural Pneumonectomy After Induction Chemotherapy: Perioperative Outcome in 251 Mesothelioma Patients From Three High-Volume Institutions.
CONCLUSIONS: EPP after induction chemotherapy is a demanding procedure but can be performed with acceptable morbidity and mortality if patients are well selected and treated at dedicated high-volume MPM centers. PMID: 25110339 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - August 7, 2014 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Lauk O, Hoda MA, de Perrot M, Friess M, Klikovits T, Klepetko W, Keshavjee S, Weder W, Opitz I Tags: Ann Thorac Surg Source Type: research

Relationship between whole-body macronutrient oxidative partitioning and pancreatic insulin secretion/β-cell function in non-diabetic humans
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion correlates inversely with the degree of whole-body insulin sensitivity suggesting a crosstalk between peripheral organs and pancreas. Such sensing mechanism could be mediated by changes in glucose flux (uptake, oxidation or storage) in peripheral tissues that may drive insulin secretion.AimTo relate whole-body non-protein respiratory quotient (npRQ), an index of macronutrient oxidative partitioning, with insulin secretion and β-cell function in non-diabetic individuals. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)
Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental - August 7, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: J.E. Galgani, M.L. Mizgier, A. Mari, E. Ravussin Source Type: research

Validation of a scoring system to predict recurrence of resected solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura.
CONCLUSIONS:The proposed scoring system, that combines common clinical and histologic features of resected SFTPs, remains predictive of recurrence in a separate patient population. The simple score may guide the postoperative surveillance of this uncommon tumor. BACKGROUND: Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura (SFTP) are infrequent neoplasms with no standardized criteria to predict risk of recurrence after curative surgery. The aim of the present study is to validate a recently proposed recurrence score in a large European cohort of SFTP patients. METHODS: Validation of a previously published scoring system was as...
Source: Chest - August 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tapias LF, Mercier O, Ghigna MR, Lahon B, Lee H, Mathisen DJ, Dartevelle P, Lanuti M Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Family Satisfaction with End-of-Life Care in the ICU: A Systematic Review.
Conclusions:Good quality communication, support for shared decision-making, and specific patient care measures were associated with increased satisfaction with end-of-life care. Assessing the family's desire to participate in shared decision-making may also be an important factor. Few interventions increased satisfaction. Future research is needed to further define optimal communication strategies, understand effective integration of palliative care into the ICU and to define significant score changes in survey instruments. Background: Family satisfaction with end-of-life care in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has not p...
Source: Chest - August 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hinkle LJ, Bosslet GT, Torke AM Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Association between pathogens detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction with airway inflammation in COPD at stable state and exacerbations.
Conclusions:At stable state H. influenzae is associated with increased airway inflammation in COPD. The relationship between bacterial load changes of specific pathogens and airway inflammation at exacerbation and recovery warrants further investigation. Background: Relationships between airway inflammation and respiratory potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in subjects with COPD are unclear. Our aim was to evaluate mediators of airway inflammation and their association with PPMs in COPD subjects at stable state and during exacerbations. Method...
Source: Chest - August 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Barker BL, Haldar K, Patel H, Pavord ID, Barer MR, Brightling CE, Bafadhel M Tags: Chest Source Type: research

The genetic variability of glycoproteins among respiratory syncytial virus subtype A in China between 2009 and 2013.
In this study, 312 (12%) RSV-A strains were isolated from 2601 nasopharyngeal aspirates, and partial G gene was sequenced successfully in 250 isolates. Of the sequenced Chongqing RSV-A isolates, 237 (94.8%) strains were the NA1 genotype, 4 (1.6%) strains were the NA3 genotype, 4 (1.6%) strains were the NA4 genotype, 1 (0.4%) strain was the GA1 genotype, and 4 (1.6%) strains were identified as the ON1 genotype. Analysis of the distribution, phylogeny, and evolution of the ON1 strains that were collected globally until December 2013 revealed that the ON1 genotype has rapidly disseminated across the world under positive selec...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - August 7, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ren L, Xia Q, Xiao Q, Zhou L, Zang N, Long X, Xie X, Deng Y, Wang L, Fu Z, Tian D, Zhao Y, Zhao X, Li T, Huang A, Liu E Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Acute and subchronic toxicities of QX100626, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, in rodents and Beagle dogs.
The objective of the present study was to identify possible target organs of toxicity and propose a non-toxic dose of QX100626 for clinical usage. After single lethal dose oral and intravenous testing in rodents, some signs indicative of adverse CNS effects were observed. The minimum toxic dose of QX100626 for a single oral administration for dogs was 90.0mg/kgb.w., and the severe toxic dose was more than 300mg/kgb.w. The No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) of QX100626 by daily oral administration for rats and dogs was 20mg/kg and 10mg/kg, respectively, whereas the minimum toxic dosages were 67 and 30mg/kg, respective...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP - August 7, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Zhang X, Yuan B, Mao Y, Dai X, Zhang X, Lu G Tags: Regul Toxicol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Residential exposure to volatile organic compounds and lung function: Results from a population-based cross-sectional survey.
Abstract Exposure to residential volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is ubiquitous in homes, and may influence respiratory health with important public health implications. To investigate the association between VOCs measured in residential indoor air and lung function in the Canadian population Cycle 2 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey - a population based cross-sectional survey designed to be representative of the Canadian population - was carried out between 2009 and 2011. Of the 84 VOCs measured, 47 were detectable in at least 50% of homes and ten were negatively associated with lung function: decanal, 2-fur...
Source: Environmental Pollution - August 7, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Cakmak S, Dales RE, Liu L, Kauri LM, Lemieux CL, Hebbern C, Zhu J Tags: Environ Pollut Source Type: research

Corticosteroid use is associated with a reduced incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: A retrospective cohort study.
Abstract The impact of corticosteroid use on the incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) was examined retrospectively in 532 patients receiving antibiotic treatment for respiratory infections. As determined by logistic regression, corticosteroids were associated with a decreased incidence of CDAD (Odds Ratio 0.12, 95% Confidence Interval 0.006-0.95). PMID: 25108272 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anaerobe)
Source: Anaerobe - August 7, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wojciechowski AL, Parameswaran GI, Mattappallil A, Mergenhagen KA Tags: Anaerobe Source Type: research

Co-immunization with virus-like particle and DNA vaccines induces protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection and bronchiolitis.
This study demonstrates that immunization with non-replicating virus-like particle (FFG VLP) containing RSV F and G glycoproteins together with RSV F DNA induced T helper type 1 antibody responses to RSV F similar to live RSV infection. Upon RSV challenge 21weeks after immunization, FFG VLP vaccination induced protection against RSV infection as shown by clearance of lung viral loads, and the absence of eosinophil infiltrates, and did not cause lung pathology. In contrast, formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV) vaccination showed significant pulmonary eosinophilia, severe mucus production, and extensive histopathology resulting...
Source: Antiviral Research - August 7, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Hwang HS, Kwon YM, Lee JS, Yoo SE, Lee YN, Ko EJ, Kim MC, Cho MK, Lee YT, Jung YJ, Lee JY, Li JD, Kang SM Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Nitazoxanide: A first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent.
Abstract Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral drug and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. A Phase 2b/3 clinical trial recently published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases found that oral administration of nitazoxanide 600mg twice daily for five days reduced the duration of clinical symptoms and reduced viral shedding compared to placebo in persons with laboratory-confirmed influenza. The same study also suggested a potential benefit for subjects with influenza-like illness who did not have i...
Source: Antiviral Research - August 7, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Rossignol JF Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Identification of cellular proteins that interact with Newcastle Disease Virus and human Respiratory Syncytial Virus by a two-dimensional virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA).
Abstract Although it is well documented that the initial attachment receptors for Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are sialic acid-containing molecules and glycosaminoglycans respectively, the exact nature of the receptors for both viruses remains to be deciphered. Moreover, additional molecules at the host cell surface might be involved in the entry mechanism. With the aim of identifying the cellular proteins that interact with NDV and RSV at the cell surface, we performed a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA). Cell membrane lysates were separated by two dimensional (2D) ...
Source: Virus Research - August 7, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Holguera J, Villar E, Muñoz-Barroso I Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

Assessing the Interaction of Respiration and Heart Rate in Heart Failure and Controls Using Ambulatory Holter Recordings
In this study we introduce a myogram signal derived from 12-lead, high frequency Holter as a means of detecting respiratory effort. Using the combined myogram and ECG signal, four novel variables were created: total number of Cheyne-Stokes episodes; the BWRatio, the ratio of power (above baseline) measured one second after peak-to-peak respiratory power, an assessment of the “shape” of the respiratory effort; DRR, the change in RR interval centering around peak inspiration; and minutes of synchronized breathing, a fixed ratio of heart beats to respiratory cycles. (Source: Journal of Electrocardiology)
Source: Journal of Electrocardiology - August 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mark Haigney, Wojceich Zareba, Maria Teresa La Rovere, Ian Grasso, David Mortara, GISSI HF M2Risk Investigators Source Type: research

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia in Chagas disease.
Abstract We applied the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) quantification algorithm to 24-hour ECG recordings of Chagas disease (ChD) patients with (G1, n=148) and without left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) (G2, n=33), and in control subjects (G0, n=28). Both ChD groups displayed a reduced RSA index; G1=299 (144-812); G2=335 (162-667), p=0.011, which was correlated with vagal indexes of heart rate variability analysis. RSA index is a marker of vagal modulation in ChD patients. PMID: 25130950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - August 7, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Neves VR, Peltola M, Huikuri H, Rocha MO, Ribeiro AL Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Dual registration of abdominal motion for motility assessment in free-breathing data sets acquired using dynamic MRI.
Abstract At present, registration-based quantification of bowel motility from dynamic MRI is limited to breath-hold studies. Here we validate a dual-registration technique robust to respiratory motion for the assessment of small bowel and colonic motility. Small bowel datasets were acquired in breath-hold and free-breathing in 20 healthy individuals. A pre-processing step using an iterative registration of the low rank component of the data was applied to remove respiratory motion from the free breathing data. Motility was then quantified with an existing optic-flow (OF) based registration technique to form a dual-...
Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology - August 6, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Menys A, Hamy V, Makanyanga J, Hoad C, Gowland P, Odille F, Taylor SA, Atkinson D Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research

Veno-venous ECMO: a synopsis of nine key potential challenges, considerations, and controversies
DiscussionHere we present a synopsis of the challenges, considerations, and potential controversies regarding veno-venous ECMO that will be of benefit to anesthesiologists, surgeons, and intensivists, especially those newly confronted care of the ECMO patient. We outline a number of points related to ECMO, particularly regarding cannulation, pump/oxygenator design, anticoagulation, and intravascular fluid management of patients. We then address these challenges/considerations/controversies in the context of their potential future implications on clinical approaches to ECMO patients, focusing on the development and advancem...
Source: BMC Anesthesiology - August 6, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: David TulmanStanislaw StawickiBryan WhitsonSaarik GuptaRavi TripathiMichael FirstenbergDon HayesXuzhong XuThomas Papadimos Source Type: research

Effect of human movement on airborne disease transmission in an airplane cabin: study using numerical modeling and quantitative risk analysis
Conclusions: The infection risk distribution in the airplane cabin highly depends on the movement behaviors of the passengers and the index patient. The walking activities of the crew members and the seated passengers can significantly increase their personal infection risks. Taking the influence of the movement of the seated passengers and the index patient into consideration is necessary and important. For future studies, investigations on the behaviors characteristics of the passengers during flight will be useful and helpful for infection control. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - August 6, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhuyang HanGin Sze ToSau FuChristopher ChaoWenguo WengQuanyi Huang Source Type: research

Breastfeeding duration and asthma in Puerto Rican children
ConclusionsOur results suggest that breastfeeding for up to 6 months (as assessed by parental recall) is associated with decreased odds of asthma in Puerto Rican children, and that there is no additional beneficial effect of breastfeeding for over 6 months. These results support current recommendations on the duration of breastfeeding in an ethnic group at risk for asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - August 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Christian Rosas‐Salazar, Erick Forno, John M. Brehm, Yueh‐Ying Han, Edna Acosta‐Pérez, Michelle M. Cloutier, Dorothy B. Wakefield, María Alvarez, Angel Colón‐Semidey, Glorisa Canino, Juan C. Celedón Tags: Original Article: Asthma Source Type: research

Epidemiology, genetics, and subtyping of preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm) in COPDGene
Background: Preserved Ratio Impaired Spirometry (PRISm), defined as a reduced FEV1 in the setting of a preserved FEV1/FVC ratio, is highly prevalent and is associated with increased respiratory symptoms, systemic inflammation, and mortality. Studies investigating quantitative chest tomographic features, genetic associations, and subtypes in PRISm subjects have not been reported. Methods: Data from current and former smokers enrolled in COPDGene (n?=?10,192), an observational, cross-sectional study which recruited subjects aged 45?80 with ?10 pack years of smoking, were analyzed. To identify epidemiological and radiographic...
Source: Respiratory Research - August 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Emily WanPeter CastaldiMichael ChoJohn HokansonElizabeth ReganBarry MakeTerri BeatyMeiLan HanJeffrey CurtisDouglas Curran-EverettDavid LynchDawn DeMeoJames CrapoEdwin Silverman Source Type: research

Chlorate reduction in Shewanella algae ACDC is a recently acquired metabolism characterized by gene loss, suboptimal regulation, and oxidative stress
Summary Previous work on respiratory chlorate reduction has biochemically identified the terminal reductase ClrABC and the chlorite detoxifying enzyme Cld. In Shewanella algae ACDC, genes encoding these enzymes reside on composite transposons whose core we refer to as the chlorate reduction composite transposon interior (CRI). To better understand this metabolism in ACDC, we used RNA‐seq and proteomics to predict carbon and electron flow during chlorate reduction and posit that formate is an important electron carrier with lactate as the electron donor, but that NADH predominates on acetate. Chlorate‐specific transcrip...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - August 6, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Iain C. Clark, Ryan A. Melnyk, Anthony T. Iavarone, Pavel S. Novichkov, John D. Coates Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Novel cofilin-2 (CFL2) four base pair deletion causing nemaline myopathy
This study was approved by The University of Western Australia Human Research Ethics Committee with written consent from patients. After an uneventful birth the proband was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with respiratory distress, although he did not require mechanical ventilation and was discharged after 5 days. A few weeks later he was readmitted following recurrent episodes of apnoea lasting seconds, associated with cyanosis. Most episodes presented after feeding and were aborted by stimulation. Upon admission to ICU, hypotension and respiratory acidosis were detected and orotracheal intubation and mecha...
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - August 6, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Ong, R. W., AlSaman, A., Selcen, D., Arabshahi, A., Yau, K. S., Ravenscroft, G., Duff, R. M., Atkinson, V., Allcock, R. J., Laing, N. G. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Exercise tolerance in obese vs. lean adolescents: a systematic review and meta‐analysis
In conclusion, a trend was found for lowered VO2peak (mL min−1 kg−1 lean tissue mass) in obese vs. lean adolescents. Whether cardiopulmonary anomalies during maximal exercise testing would occur in obese adolescents remains uncertain. Studies are therefore warranted to examine the cardiopulmonary response during maximal exercise testing in obese adolescents. (Source: Obesity Reviews)
Source: Obesity Reviews - August 6, 2014 Category: Eating Disorders and Weight Management Authors: D. Hansen, N. Marinus, M. Remans, I. Courtois, F. Cools, J. Calsius, G. Massa, T. Takken Tags: Obesity Review Source Type: research

A community-based exercise programme in copd self-management: Two years follow-up of the cope-ii study
We present the long-term effects of a community-based exercise programme incorporated in a self-management programme, compared to a self-management programme only in patients with COPD. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - August 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marlies Zwerink, Job van der Palen, Huib A.M. Kerstjens, Paul van der Valk, Marjolein Brusse-Keizer, Gerhard Zielhuis, Tanja Effing Source Type: research

Reduced dynamic hyperinflation after LVRS is associated with improved exercise tolerance
Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) after lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) has not been well studied. It is not known if reductions in DH correlate with improvements in exercise performance post-LVRS. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - August 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Matthew R. Lammi, Nathaniel Marchetti, Gerard J. Criner Source Type: research

Persistent systemic inflammation and symptoms of depression among patients with copd in the eclipse cohort
The objective of this observational study was to compare depression scores at baseline and after 36 months follow-up between COPD patients with persistent systemic inflammation (PSI) and never inflamed patients (NI) in the ECLIPSE cohort. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - August 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Daisy J.A. Janssen, Hana Müllerova, Alvar Agusti, Julie C. Yates, Ruth Tal-Singer, Stephen I. Rennard, Jørgen Vestbo, Emiel F.M. Wouters, Eclipse investigators Source Type: research