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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 13.

Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteome of Cybrid Cells Harbouring a Truncative Mitochondrial DNA Mutation in Respiratory Complex I
Mol. BioSyst., 2014, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C3MB70542K, PaperClara Musicco, Antonella Cormio, Maria Antonietta Calvaruso, Luisa Iommarini, Giuseppe Gasparre, Anna Maria Porcelli, Anna Maria Timperio, Lello Zolla, Maria Nicola GadaletaTransmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids) are a well established model system to reveal the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations on cell metabolism excluding the interferences of a different nuclear background....The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Mol. BioSyst. latest articles)
Source: RSC - Mol. BioSyst. latest articles - March 3, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Clara Musicco Source Type: research

Development and antimicrobial susceptibility studies of in vitro monomicrobial and polymicrobial biofilm models with Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Conclusions: Simultaneous static coculture of A. fumigatus sporelings grown for 12 h or longer was superior to ungerminated conidia with P. aeruginosa for the development of A. fumigatus-P. aeruginosa biofilm. P. aeruginosa-A. fumigatus polymicrobial biofilm shows differential susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs whereas the susceptibility of A. fumigatus to antimicrobial drugs was unchanged. (Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles - March 3, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Elias ManavathuDora VagerJose Vazquez Source Type: research

Characterization of Nasal Cavity‐Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Ducks
This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist)
Source: The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist - March 3, 2014 Category: Anatomy Authors: Haihong Kang, Mengfei Yan, Qinghua Yu, Qian Yang Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Prevention and treatment of influenza in the primary care office
Influenza, a common respiratory infection, is a source of significant rates of illness, death, and loss of productivity. Annual vaccination is safe and effective in preventing disease and in reducing its severity. Yet a majority of eligible US adults do not receive the annual vaccine, at least in part because of misunderstandings about adverse reactions and clinical effectiveness. (Source: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine)
Source: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine - March 3, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: GOLOVYAN, D. M., MOSSAD, S. B. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Bronchial thermoplasty for moderate or severe persistent asthma in adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Bronchial thermoplasty for patients with moderate to severe asthma provides a modest clinical benefit in quality of life and lower rates of asthma exacerbation, but no significant difference in asthma control scores. The quality of life findings are at risk of bias, as the main benefits were seen in the two studies that did not include a sham treatment arm. This procedure increases the risk of adverse events during treatment but has a reasonable safety profile after completion of the bronchoscopies. The overall quality of evidence regarding this procedure is moderate. For clinical practice, it would be advisab...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - March 3, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Torrego A, Solà I, Munoz AM, Roqué I Figuls M, Yepes-Nuñez JJ, Alonso-Coello P, Plaza V Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Th2-type cytokine induced mucous metaplasia decreases susceptibility of human bronchial epithelium to rhinovirus infection.
Abstract Human rhinoviruses (RVs) are a major cause of exacerbations in asthma and other chronic airway diseases. A characteristic feature of asthmatic epithelium is goblet cell metaplasia and mucus hypersecretion. Bronchial epithelium is also an important source of lipid mediators, including pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. By using air-liquid interface cultures of airway epithelium from asthma patients and control subjects, we compared RV16-replication induced changes in mRNA expression of asthma candidate genes and eicosanoid production in the epithelium with or without IL-13-induced mucous metaplasia. Mu...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jakiela B, Gielicz A, Plutecka H, Hubalewska-Mazgaj M, Mastalerz L, Bochenek G, Soja J, Januszek R, Aab A, Musial J, Akdis M, Akdis CA, Sanak M Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Activation of P2RY11 and ATP Release by LXA4 Restores the Airway Surface Liquid Layer and Epithelial Repair in Cystic Fibrosis.
Abstract In cystic fibrosis (CF), the airway surface liquid (ASL) height is reduced as a result of impaired ion transport, which favours bacterial colonisation and inflammation of the airway and leads to progressive lung destruction. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) which promotes resolution of inflammation, is inadequately produced in the airways of CF patients. We previously demonstrated that LXA4 stimulates an ASL height increase and epithelial repair. Here we report the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes. We found that LXA4 (1nM) induced an apical ATP release from non-CF (NuLi-1) and CF (CuFi-1) airway epithelia...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Higgins G, Buchanan P, Perriere M, Al-Alawi M, Costello R, Verriere V, McNally P, Harvey BJ, Urbach V Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

A Novel Benzenediamine Derivate Rescued Mice from Experimental Sepsis by Attenuating Pro-inflammatory Mediators via IRAK4.
Abstract We designed and synthesized a novel benzenediamine derivate, FC-99, that was tested for its ability to protect mice from experimental sepsis. Moreover, we sought to determine whether FC-99 could control a bacterial infection and to clarify the mechanism by which FC-99 inhibited LPS-activated macrophages. The effects of FC-99 on inflammation were evaluated in 2 experimental sepsis models and in cultured macrophages. Microarrays and both docking and molecular dynamics simulations were utilized to determine the target of FC-99. Surface plasmon resonance and molecular detection were performed to confirm the di...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dou H, Song Y, Liu X, Yang L, Jiang N, Chen D, Li E, Tan R, Hou Y Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Dectin-2 promotes house dust mite-induced Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation and allergic airway inflammation in mice.
Conclusion: Dectin-2 expressed on CD11b+ DCs promotes HDM-induced Th2 and Th17 cell differentiation and allergic airway inflammation. PMID: 24588637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol...)
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Norimoto A, Hirose K, Iwata A, Tamachi T, Yokota M, Takahashi K, Saijo S, Iwakura Y, Nakajima H Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitor is a novel therapeutic candidate in murine models of inflammatory lung injury.
Abstract We previously identified the intracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (iNAMPT, aka pre-B cell colony enhancing factor, PBEF), as a candidate gene promoting both acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) with circulating NAMPT potently inducing NFkB signaling in lung endothelium. Intracellular NAMPT also synthesizes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (iNAD) in response to extracellular oxidative stress, contributing to the inhibition of apoptosis via ill-defined mechanisms. We now further define the role of iNAMPT activity in the pathogenesis of ARDS/VIL...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Moreno-Vinasco L, Quijada H, Sammani S, Siegler J, Letsiou E, Deaton R, Saadat L, Zaidi RS, Messana J, Gann PH, Machado RF, Ma W, Camp SM, Wang T, Garcia JG Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Knockout mice reveal key roles for claudin 18 in alveolar barrier properties and fluid homeostasis.
Abstract Claudin proteins are major constituents of epithelial and endothelial tight junctions (TJ) that regulate paracellular permeability to ions and solutes. Claudin 18, a member of the large claudin family, is highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelium. To elucidate the role of claudin 18 in alveolar epithelial barrier function, we generated claudin 18 knockout (C18 KO) mice. C18 KO mice exhibited increased solute permeability and alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) compared to wild type (WT) controls. Increased AFC in C18 KO mice was associated with increased β-adrenergic receptor signaling together with activat...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - March 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Li G, Flodby P, Luo J, Kage H, Sipos A, Gao D, Ji Y, Beard LL, Marconett CN, Demaio L, Kim YH, Kim KJ, Laird-Offringa IA, Minoo P, Liebler JM, Zhou B, Crandall ED, Borok Z Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Melaminivora alkalimesophila gen. nov. sp. nov., a novel melamine-degrading Betaproteobacterium , isolated from a melamine-producing factory in Fujian Province, China.
Abstract A taxonomic study was carried out on strain CY1T, which is a novel bacterium isolated from wastewater sludge of a melamine-producing factory in Sanming city, Fujian, China. Strain CY1T was shown to rapidly and completely degrade melamine to NH3 and CO2 under aerobic conditions. The isolate is Gram-negative, short-rod shaped, motile by one unipolar flagellum. Growth was observed at salinities from 0 to 7 % (optimum, 0.1 %), at temperatures from 15 to 50 (optimum, 40-45 ) and in pH value from 7 to 9.5 (optimum pH 9.5). Quinone-8 was detected as the major respiratory quinone. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - March 3, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wang H, Li J, Hu A, Qin D, Xu H, Yu CP Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Trends and seasonal variation in outpatient antibiotic prescription rates in the United States, 2006-2010.
Conclusions: The mean outpatient antibiotic prescription rate decreased in the United States from 2006 to 2010. More antibiotic prescribing in the outpatient setting was observed in the winter months, predominately driven by the macrolide and penicillin classes. Understanding annual variability in antibiotic use can assist with designing interventions to improve the judicious use of antibiotics. PMID: 24590486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - March 3, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Suda KJ, Hicks LA, Roberts RM, Hunkler RJ, Taylor TH Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research

Prophylactic erythropoietin exacerbates ventilation-induced lung inflammation and injury in preterm lambs.
Conclusions: Prophylactic EPO exacerbates VILI, which may increase the incidence and severity of long-term respiratory disease. More studies are required before EPO is used for lung protection in preterm infants. PMID: 24591575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Journal of Physiology - March 3, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Polglase GR, Barton SK, Melville JM, Zahra V, Wallace MJ, Siew ML, Tolcos M, Moss TJ Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

Emergence of sigh rhythmogenesis in the embryonic mouse.
Abstract In mammals, eupneic breathing is periodically interrupted by spontaneous augmented breaths (sighs) that include a larger-amplitude inspiratory effort, typically followed by a post-sigh apnea. Previous in vitro studies in newborn rodents have demonstrated that the respiratory oscillator of the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) can generate the distinct inspiratory motor patterns for both eupnea- and sigh-related behaviour. During mouse embryonic development, the preBötC begins to generate eupneic rhythmicity at embryonic day (E) 15.5, but the network's ability to also generate sigh-like activity remains un...
Source: The Journal of Physiology - March 3, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Chapuis C, Autran S, Fortin G, Simmers J, Thoby-Brisson M Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

Characterization of Nasal Cavity-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Ducks.
This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 24585532 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anatomical Record)
Source: Anatomical Record - March 3, 2014 Category: Anatomy Authors: Kang H, Yan M, Yu Q, Yang Q Tags: Anat Rec (Hoboken) Source Type: research

Visualisation of time-varying respiratory system elastance in experimental ARDS animal models
Conclusions: Real-time continuous monitoring of in-breath mechanics provides further insight into lung physiology. Therefore, there is potential for this new monitoring method to aid clinicians in guiding MV treatment. These are the first such maps generated and they thus show unique results in high resolution. The model is limited to a constant respiratory resistance throughout inspiration which may not be valid in some cases. However, trends match clinical expectation and the results highlight both the subject-specificity of the model, as well as significant inter-subject variability. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - March 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Erwin van DrunenYeong ChiewChristopher PrettyGeoffrey ShawBernard LambermontNathalie JanssenJ ChaseThomas Desaive Source Type: research

Pbx1 activates Fgf10 in the mesenchyme of developing lungs
Abstract Insufficiency of surfactants is a core factor in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which causes apnea and neonatal death, particularly in preterm infants. Surfactant proteins are secreted by alveolar type II cells in the lung epithelium, the differentiation of which is regulated by Fgf10 elaborated by the adjacent mesenchyme. However, the molecular regulation of mesenchymal Fgf10 during lung development has not been fully understood. Here we show that Pbx1, a homeodomain transcription factor, is required in the lung mesenchyme for the expression of Fgf10. Mouse embryos lacking Pbx1 in the lung mesenchyme show c...
Source: genesis - March 2, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Wei Li, Chieh‐Yu Lin, Ching Shang, Pei Han, Yiqin Xiong, Chien‐Jung Lin, Jing Yang, Licia Selleri, Ching‐Pin Chang Tags: Letter Source Type: research

[Awake ECMO therapy in airway stenosis : Bronchoscopic treatment using laser resection.]
This article presents the case of a 62-year-old patient with cancer in the left upper pulmonary lobe who underwent lobe resection with postoperative respiratory insufficiency. The right upper lobe had already been resected 5 years earlier because of an adenocarcinoma. Prior to the present surgery a computed tomography scan detected a narrow stenosis at the former resection site; however, both pulmonary lobes beyond this stenosis appeared to be sufficiently ventilated. After resection of the left upper lobe attempted extubation was unsuccessful due to insufficient global gas exchange as the stenosis prevented ventilation of...
Source: Der Anaesthesist - March 2, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Duru JA, Menges T, Bodner J, Degen ME, Greifenberg D, Gehron J, Weigand MA, Henrich M Tags: Anaesthesist Source Type: research

Determinants of inspiratory muscle strength in healthy humans.
In conclusion, baseline PI,max and the contribution of the chest wall inspiratory muscles relative to the diaphragm affect, in part, baseline and IMT-induced ΔPI,max. Great care should be taken when designing future IMT studies to ensure parity in the between-subject baseline PI,max. PMID: 24598814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - March 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brown PI, Johnson MA, Sharpe GR Tags: Respir Physiol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Navigating through the maze of TLR2 mediated signaling network for better mycobacterium infection control.
Abstract Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a member of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) abundant on macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and respiratory epithelial cells lining the lung, plays critical role in host immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. TLR2-mediated elimination of MTB involves multiple pathways such as promoting DCs maturation, generating biased Th1, Th2, Th17 type response, regulating the macrophage activation and cytokine secretion. MTB can also hijack the TLR2 signaling to subvert the host immunity by dampening the macrophages response to IFN-γ, suppressing the proces...
Source: Biochimie - March 2, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Yu X, Zeng J, Xie J Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Cardioprotective Effect of VEGF and Venom VEGF-like Protein in Acute Myocardial Ischemia in Mice: Effect on Mitochondrial Function
We examined whether VEGF or ICPP can influence IR outcome in vivo in mice. Dosages of VEGF and ICPP were determined by preliminary blood pressure study. In IR, both the proteins administered intravenously at reperfusion reduced infarct size (IS) by 57% for VEGF and 52% for ICPP (P < 0.01). Pretreatment with a selective VEGFR2 receptor antagonist abolished the reduction in IS. VEGF and ICPP induced ERK phosphorylation in the myocardium. IR triggered mitochondrial pore opening and impaired mitochondrial respiratory function. These effects of IR were prevented by VEGF or ICPP, which increased mitochondrial calcium retention c...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology - March 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Experimental Measurements and Computational Predictions of Regional Particle Deposition in a Sectional Nasal Model
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Respiratory-Related Leg Movements and Their Relationship with Periodic Leg Movements During Sleep
Conclusion:The time structure of leg movements occurring in conjunction with respiratory events exhibit features of periodic leg movements in sleep occurring alone, only with a different and longer period. This brings into question the validity, both biologic and clinical, of scoring conventions with their a priori exclusion from consideration as periodic leg movements in sleep.Citation:Manconi M; Zavalko I; Bassetti CL; Colamartino E; Pons M; Ferri R. Respiratory-related leg movements and their relationship with periodic leg movements during sleep. SLEEP 2014;37(3):497-504. (Source: Sleep)
Source: Sleep - March 1, 2014 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Potential prognostic value of biomarkers in lavage, sputum and serum in a five year clinical follow-up of smokers with and without COPD
Conclusions: Our data suggests that inter-individual and group differences are maintained over a five year period. Despite the large panel of markers available for this analysis, a potential prognostic value appears to exist only for some sputum inflammatory markers. If these data can be confirmed in larger COPD cohorts, it would emphasize the value of sputum markers in clinical trials and support the assumption that an anti-inflammatory treatment can have long term benefits in COPD. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Olaf HolzBenjamin WaschkiStefan RoepckeHenrik WatzGereon LauerCornelia FaulenbachJens Hohlfeld Source Type: research

A genomic perspective on a new bacterial genus and species from the Alcaligenaceae family, Basilea psittacipulmonis
Conclusions: Classification of this organism in the current taxonomy system requires the formation of a new genus and species. We designate the new genus Basilea and the new species psittacipulmonis. The type strain of Basilea psittacipulmonis is DSM 24701 (= CIP 110308 T, 16S rDNA gene sequence Genbank accession number JX412111 and GI 406042063). (Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Genomics - Latest articles - March 1, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Katrine WhitesonDavid HernandezVladimir LazarevicNadia GaiaLaurent FarinelliPatrice FrançoisPaola PiloJoachim FreyJacques Schrenzel Source Type: research

Cancer as a metabolic disease: implications for novel therapeutics
Emerging evidence indicates that cancer is primarily a metabolic disease involving disturbances in energy production through respiration and fermentation. The genomic instability observed in tumor cells and all other recognized hallmarks of cancer are considered downstream epiphenomena of the initial disturbance of cellular energy metabolism. The disturbances in tumor cell energy metabolism can be linked to abnormalities in the structure and function of the mitochondria. When viewed as a mitochondrial metabolic disease, the evolutionary theory of Lamarck can better explain cancer progression than can the evolutionary theor...
Source: Carcinogenesis - March 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Seyfried, T. N., Flores, R. E., Poff, A. M., D'Agostino, D. P. Tags: Review Source Type: research

Carbon ion radiotherapy for oligo-recurrent lung metastases from colorectal cancer: a feasibility study
Conclusions: CIRT is one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for colorectal lung metastases, which are relatively resistant to stereotactic body radiotherapy. CIRT is considered to be the least invasive approach even in patients who have undergone repeated prior thoracic metastasectomies. (Source: Radiation Oncology)
Source: Radiation Oncology - March 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Wataru TakahashiMio NakajimaNaoyoshi YamamotoShigeru YamadaHideomi YamashitaKeiichi NakagawaHiroshi TsujiTadashi Kamada Source Type: research

Inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of acrolein, nicotine, acetylaldehyde and cigarette smoke extract on human nasal epithelial cells
Conclusions: Acrolein is pro-inflammatory and nicotine anti-inflammatory in PNEC cultures. CSE induces cell death predominantly by apoptotic mechanisms. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: David ComerJoseph ElbornMadeleine Ennis Source Type: research

Possible molecular mechanisms linking air pollution and asthma in children
Conclusions: Air pollution has many negative effects on pediatric health and it is recognised as a serious health hazard. There seems to be an association of air pollution with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations and acute respiratory infections. However, further studies are needed in order to clarify the specific mechanism of action of different air pollutants, identify genetic polymorphisms that modify airway responses to pollution, and investigate the effectiveness of new preventive and/or therapeutic approaches for subjects with low antioxidant enzyme levels. Moreover, as that epigenetic changes are inheritable d...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Susanna EspositoRossana TenconiMara LeliiValentina PretiErica NazzariSilvia ConsoloMaria Francesca Patria Source Type: research

Vulnerability of neonatal respiratory neural control to sustained hypoxia during a uniquely sensitive window of development
The first postnatal weeks represent a period of development in the rat during which the respiratory neural control system may be vulnerable to aberrant environmental stressors. In the present study, we investigated whether sustained hypoxia (SH; 11% O2) exposure starting at different postnatal ages differentially modifies the acute hypoxic (HVR) and hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). Three different groups of rat pups were exposed to 5 days of SH, starting at either postnatal age 1 (SH1–5), 11 (SH11–15), or 21 (SH21–25) days. Whole body plethysmography was used to assess the HVR and HCVR the day aft...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Mayer, C. A., Di Fiore, J. M., Martin, R. J., MacFarlane, P. M. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Physiological mechanisms of dyspnea during exercise with external thoracic restriction: Role of increased neural respiratory drive
In conclusion, the increased intensity and unpleasantness of dyspnea during exercise with CWS could not be readily explained by increased neuromechanical uncoupling but likely reflected the awareness of increased neural respiratory drive (EMGdi) needed to achieve any given VE during exercise in the setting of "abnormal" restrictive constraints on tidal volume expansion. (Source: Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Mendonca, C. T., Schaeffer, M. R., Riley, P., Jensen, D. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Fine temporal structure of cardiorespiratory synchronization
Cardiac and respiratory rhythms are known to exhibit a modest degree of phase synchronization, which is affected by age, diseases, and other factors. We study the fine temporal structure of this synchrony in healthy young, healthy elderly, and elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. We employ novel time-series analysis to explore how phases of oscillations go in and out of the phase-locked state at each cycle of oscillations. For the first time we show that cardiorespiratory system is engaged in weakly synchronized dynamics with a very specific temporal pattern of synchrony: the oscillations go out of synchrony freq...
Source: AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ahn, S., Solfest, J., Rubchinsky, L. L. Tags: INTEGRATIVE CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Source Type: research

Skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling drives endocrine cross-talk through the induction of FGF21 as a myokine
UCP1-Tg mice with ectopic expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in skeletal muscle (SM) are a model of improved substrate metabolism and increased longevity. Analysis of myokine expression showed an induction of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in SM, resulting in approximately fivefold elevated circulating FGF21 in UCP1-Tg mice. Despite a reduced muscle mass, UCP1-Tg mice showed no evidence for a myopathy or muscle autophagy deficiency but an activation of integrated stress response (ISR; eIF2α/ATF4) in SM. Targeting mitochondrial function in vitro by treating C2C12 myoblasts with the uncoupler FCCP resulted ...
Source: AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 1, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Keipert, S., Ost, M., Johann, K., Imber, F., Jastroch, M., van Schothorst, E. M., Keijer, J., Klaus, S. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Exercise training boosts eNOS-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis in mouse heart: role in adaptation of glucose metabolism
Endurance exercise training increases cardiac energy metabolism through poorly understood mechanisms. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cardiomyocytes contributes to cardiac adaptation. Here we demonstrate that the NO donor diethylenetriamine-NO (DETA-NO) activated mitochondrial biogenesis and function, as assessed by upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) expression, and by increased mitochondrial DNA content and citrate synthase activity in primary mouse cardiom...
Source: AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 1, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Vettor, R., Valerio, A., Ragni, M., Trevellin, E., Granzotto, M., Olivieri, M., Tedesco, L., Ruocco, C., Fossati, A., Fabris, R., Serra, R., Carruba, M. O., Nisoli, E. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Chorioamnionitis-induced fetal gut injury is mediated by direct gut exposure of inflammatory mediators or by lung inflammation
Intra-amniotic exposure to proinflammatory agonists causes chorioamnionitis and fetal gut inflammation. Fetal gut inflammation is associated with mucosal injury and impaired gut development. We tested whether this detrimental inflammatory response of the fetal gut results from a direct local (gut derived) or an indirect inflammatory response mediated by the chorioamnion/skin or lung, since these organs are also in direct contact with the amniotic fluid. The gastrointestinal tract was isolated from the respiratory tract and the amnion/skin epithelia by fetal surgery in time-mated ewes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline (co...
Source: AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Wolfs, T. G. A. M., Kramer, B. W., Thuijls, G., Kemp, M. W., Saito, M., Willems, M. G. M., Senthamarai-Kannan, P., Newnham, J. P., Jobe, A. H., Kallapur, S. G. Tags: INFLAMMATION/IMMUNITY/MEDIATORS Source Type: research

Effect of body position on intra-abdominal pressures and abdominal perfusion pressures measured at three sites in horses anesthetized with short-term total intravenous anesthesia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Body position affected IAP and APP in healthy anesthetized horses. These effects should be considered when developing IAP acquisition methods for use in horses with abdominal disease. PMID: 24564317 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - March 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Scott VH, Williams JM, Mudge MC, Hurcombe SD Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid following subcutaneous administration of a single dose to sheep.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that adequate therapeutic serum concentrations of CFAE for treatment of disease caused by M haemolytica and P multocida were achieved in sheep following SC administration of a single dose (6.6 mg/kg) of CCFA. Thus, CCFA might be useful for the treatment of common respiratory tract pathogens in sheep. PMID: 24564315 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - March 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Rivera-Garcia S, Angelos JA, Rowe JD, Byrne BA, Wetzlich SE, Van Liew DB, Tell LA Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Stochastic model of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus control strategies on a swine farm in the United States.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Repeated mass immunization with a PRRS modified-live virus vaccine with herd closure or gilt acclimitization was the scenario most likely to achieve a stabilized status. Estimation of the cost of various PRRS control strategies is necessary. PMID: 24564311 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - March 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Jeong J, Aly SS, Cano JP, Polson D, Kass PH, Perez AM Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Nanoparticles and the lung: friend or foe?
Nanomedicine is a rapidly evolving field with high potential for developing novel research, diagnosis, and/or therapeutic approaches for lung diseases. However, for engineered nanomaterials to reach their true potential, there are still a number of unanswered questions regarding nanomaterial vs. tissue properties that dictate lung cellular uptake, distribution, and intracellular effects, and particle vs. tissue factors that determine toxicity vs. beneficial effects in the lung. Some of these key questions are highlighted in this Perspectives. Addressing these important issues will help improve nanoparticle design and enhan...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Prakash, Y. S., Matalon, S. Tags: PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

Enhanced lysis and accelerated establishment of viscoelastic properties of fibrin clots are associated with pulmonary embolism
The factors that contribute to pulmonary embolism (PE), a potentially fatal complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), remain poorly understood. Whereas fibrin clot structure and functional properties have been implicated in the pathology of venous thromboembolism and the risk for cardiovascular complications, their significance in PE remains uncertain. Therefore, we systematically compared and quantified clot formation and lysis time, plasminogen levels, viscoelastic properties, activated factor XIII cross-linking, and fibrin clot structure in isolated DVT and PE subjects. Clots made from plasma of PE subjects showed fas...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Martinez, M. R., Cuker, A., Mills, A. M., Crichlow, A., Lightfoot, R. T., Chernysh, I. N., Nagaswami, C., Weisel, J. W., Ischiropoulos, H. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

Grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) distribution reveals novel pathophysiological differences between human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and mouse models of pulmonary fibrosis
Chronic injury of alveolar lung epithelium leads to epithelial disintegrity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We had reported earlier that Grhl2, a transcriptional factor, maintains alveolar epithelial cell integrity by directly regulating components of adherens and tight junctions and thus hypothesized an important role of GRHL2 in pathogenesis of IPF. Comparison of GRHL2 distribution at different stages of human lung development showed its abundance in developing lung epithelium and in adult lung epithelium. However, GRHL2 is detected in normal human lung mesenchyme only at early fetal stage (week 9). Similar mesen...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Varma, S., Mahavadi, P., Sasikumar, S., Cushing, L., Hyland, T., Rosser, A. E., Riccardi, D., Lu, J., Kalin, T. V., Kalinichenko, V. V., Guenther, A., Ramirez, M. I., Pardo, A., Selman, M., Warburton, D. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

Vitamin D treatment improves survival and infant lung structure after intra-amniotic endotoxin exposure in rats: potential role for the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Vitamin D (vit D) has anti-inflammatory properties and modulates lung growth, but whether vit D can prevent lung injury after exposure to antenatal inflammation is unknown. We hypothesized that early and sustained vit D treatment could improve survival and preserve lung growth in an experimental model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia induced by antenatal exposure to endotoxin (ETX). Fetal rats (E20) were exposed to ETX (10 μg), ETX + Vit D (1 ng/ml), or saline (control) via intra-amniotic (IA) injections and delivered 2 days later. Newborn pups exposed to IA ETX received daily intraperitoneal injections of vit D (1 ng/g) o...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mandell, E., Seedorf, G., Gien, J., Abman, S. H. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Glutathione attenuates ethanol-induced alveolar macrophage oxidative stress and dysfunction by downregulating NADPH oxidases
Chronic alcohol abuse increases lung oxidative stress and susceptibility to respiratory infections by impairing alveolar macrophage (AM) function. NADPH oxidases (Nox) are major sources of reactive oxygen species in AMs. We hypothesized that treatment with the critical antioxidant glutathione (GSH) attenuates chronic alcohol-induced oxidative stress by downregulating Noxes and restores AM phagocytic function. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and AMs were isolated from male C57BL/6J mice (8–10 wk) treated ± ethanol in drinking water (20% wt/vol, 12 wk) ± orally gavaged GSH in methylcellulose vehicle (3...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yeligar, S. M., Harris, F. L., Hart, C. M., Brown, L. A. S. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Pulmonary vasoconstrictor influence of endothelin in exercising swine depends critically on phosphodiesterase 5 activity
In conclusion, in healthy swine, either at rest or during exercise, PDE5 inhibition and the associated increase in cGMP produce pulmonary vasodilation that is mediated in part through inhibition of the ET pathway, thereby precluding an additional vasodilator effect of ETA/ETB receptor blockade in the presence of PDE5 inhibition. (Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - March 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Zhou, Z., de Beer, V. J., Wijs-Meijler, D. d., Bender, S. B., Hoekstra, M., Laughlin, M. H., Duncker, D. J., Merkus, D. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research