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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 13.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart rate variability: a literature update
Conclusion: The studies indicate a need for further investigations to guide future therapies to improve the treatment of cardiovascular system in the respiratory diseases. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - October 3, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Adriano L RoqueVitor E ValentiThais MassettiTalita Dias da SilvaCarlos Bandeira MonteiroFernando R OliveiraÁlvaro Dantas de Almeida JuniorSheylla Nadjane LacerdaGustavo Carreiro PinascoViviane Gabriela NascimentoLuiz Gonzaga Granja FilhoLuiz Carlos de Ab Source Type: research

Bioenergetic differences between MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells and their regulation by estradiol and tamoxifen
Estrogen receptor α (ERα+) breast tumors rely on mitochondria (mt) to generate ATP. The goal of this study was to determine how estradiol (E2) and 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) affect cellular bioenergetic function in MCF-7 and T47D ERα+ breast cancer cells in serum-replete versus dextran-coated charcoal (DCC)-stripped fetal bovine serum (FBS)-containing medium (‘serum-starved’). Serum-starvation reduced oxygen consumption rate (OCR), extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), ATP-linked OCR, and maximum mt capacity, reflecting lower ATP demand and mt respiration. Cellular respir...
Source: BJ Energy - October 3, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: B N Radde, M M Ivanova, H Xuan Mai, J K Salabei, B G Hill, C M Klinge Tags: BJ Metabolism Source Type: research

The Anatomy of the Dog Soft Palate. III. Histological Evaluation of the Caudal Soft Palate in Brachycephalic Neonates
ABSTRACT A thickened and abnormally long soft palate is mostly involved in the pathogenesis of both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal narrowing, affecting the respiratory activity in virtually all of the brachycephalic dogs suffering from Brachycephalic Airway Obstructive Syndrome (BAOS). The morphology of the soft palate in adult mesaticephalic and brachycephalic dogs has been previously described. In this article specimens from brachycephalic dog neonates (N = 10) dead from one to 3 hr after birth of unrelated conditions were collected and histologically evaluated at three transverse levels to describe the microscopic...
Source: The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology - October 3, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Michela Pichetto, Silvana Arrighi, Matteo Gobbetti, Stefano Romussi Tags: Full Length Article Source Type: research

Natural history of angiomyolipoma in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: implications for screening and surveillance
Conclusions: Patients with LAM have a high prevalence of symptomatic angiomyolipoma which can present at any time. Angiomyolipoma in sporadic-LAM have a similar risk of bleeding to those with TSC. All patients should be screened for angiomyolipoma at diagnosis of lung disease by MRI scanning and the tumours require continuous monitoring. (Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases)
Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases - October 3, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Zhao YeohVidya NavaratnamRupesh BhattIan McCaffertyRichard HubbardSimon Johnson Source Type: research

Postoperative intubation time is associated with acute kidney injury in cardiac surgical patients
IntroductionAcute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after cardiac surgery and is associated with a poor prognosis. Mechanical ventilation is an important risk factor for developing AKI in critically ill patients. Ventilation with high tidal volumes has been associated with postoperative organ dysfunction in cardiac surgical patients. No data are available about the effects of the duration of postoperative respiratory support in the immediate postoperative period on the incidence of AKI in patients after cardiac surgery.MethodWe performed a secondary analysis of 584 elective cardiac surgical patients enrolled i...
Source: Critical Care - October 3, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Matthias HeringlakeYvonne NowakJulika SchönJens TrautmannAstrid BerggreenEfstratios CharitosHauke Paarmann Source Type: research

Leukemia inhibitory factor protects the lung during respiratory syncytial viral infection
Conclusions: RSV infection in the epithelium induces a network of immune factors to counter infection, primarily in a RIG-I dependent manner. Expression of LIF protects the lung from lung injury and enhanced pathology during RSV infection. (Source: BMC Immunology)
Source: BMC Immunology - October 3, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Robert ForonjyAbdoulaye DaboNeville CumminsPatrick Geraghty Source Type: research

Thromboxane-Induced Actin Polymerization in Hypoxic Neonatal Pulmonary Arterial Myocytes Involves Cdc42 Signaling.
Abstract In hypoxic pulmonary arterial (PA) myocytes, challenge with thromboxane mimetic U46619 induces marked actin polymerization and contraction, phenotypic features of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Rho GTPases regulate the actin cytoskeleton. We previously reported U46619-induced actin polymerization in hypoxic PA myocytes occurs independently of the RhoA pathway, and hypothesized involvement of the Cdc42 pathway. PA myocytes grown in normoxia or hypoxia for 72 hrs were stimulated with U46619, then analyzed for Rac/Cdc42 activation by affinity precipitation, PI3K activity by phospho-A...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - October 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fediuk J, Sikarwar AS, Nolette N, Dakshinamurti S Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Animal models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. V: The preterm baboon models.
Abstract Much of the progress in improved neonatal care, particularly management of under-developed preterm lungs, has been aided by investigations of multiple animal models, including the neonatal baboon (Papio species). In this chapter we highlight how the preterm baboon model at both140d and 125 d gestation (term equivalent 185d) has advanced our understanding and management of the immature human infant with neonatal lung disease. Not only is the 125-d baboon model extremely relevant to the condition of BPD but there are also critical neurodevelopmental and other end-organ pathological features associated with t...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - October 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yoder BA, Coalson JJ Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Carl Wilhelm Scheele, the discoverer of oxygen, and a very productive chemist.
Abstract Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) has an important place in the history of the discovery of respiratory gases because he was undoubtedly the first person to prepare oxygen and describe some of its properties. In spite of this, his contributions have often been overshadowed by those of Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier who also played critical roles in preparing the gas and understanding its nature. Sadly, Scheele was slow to publish his discovery and therefore Priestley is rightly recognized as the first person to report the preparation of oxygen. Having said this, the thinking of both Scheele and Prie...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - October 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: West JB Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

TRPV4: an exciting new target to promote alveolo-capillary barrier function.
Abstract Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are emerging as important players and drug targets in respiratory disease. Amongst the vanilloid-type TRP channels (which includes the six member of the TRPV family), target diseases include cough, asthma, cancer, and more recently, pulmonary edema associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Here, we critically evaluate a recent report that addresses TRPV4 as a candidate target for the management of acute lung injury that develops as a consequence of aspiration of gastric contents, or acute chlorine gas exposure. Using two new TRPV4 inhibitors (GSK222069...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - October 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Morty RE, Kuebler WM Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Sleep-disordered breathing, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.
Abstract Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) encompasses a spectrum of conditions that can lead to altered sleep homeostasis. In particular, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common form of SDB and is associated with adverse cardiometabolic manifestations including hypertension, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, ultimately increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. The pathophysiological basis of these associations may relate to repeated intermittent hypoxia and fragmented sleep episodes that characterize OSA which drive further mechanisms with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences. The ...
Source: Chronic Respiratory Disease - October 3, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Seetho IW, Wilding JP Tags: Chron Respir Dis Source Type: research

Sleep Duration and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in a Large US Cohort: Interrelationships With Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Body Mass Index.
Abstract Both short and long durations of sleep are associated with higher mortality, but little is known about the interrelationship between sleep and other modifiable factors in relation to mortality. In the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995-1996), we examined associations between sleep duration and total, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality among 239,896 US men and women aged 51-72 years who were free of cancer, CVD, and respiratory disease. We evaluated the influence of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, television viewing, and body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/h...
Source: Am J Epidemiol - October 3, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Xiao Q, Keadle SK, Hollenbeck AR, Matthews CE Tags: Am J Epidemiol Source Type: research

Gryllotalpicola reticulitermitis sp. nov. isolated from a termite gut.
Abstract Strain TS-56T was isolated from the gut of a wood-feeding termite, Reticulitermes chinensis Snyder. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain belonged to the genus Gryllotalpicola of the family Microbacteriaceae, with sequence similarities ranging from 96.6% to 97.8%. The isolate was Gram-stain- positive, non-motile, light yellow, irregular short rod-shaped (0.4-0.6 μm in diameter, 0.6-1.0 μm in length). Growth of strain TS-56T occurred at 20-35℃ (optimum, 30℃), and at pH 4.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 5.0). The peptidoglycan of strain TS-56T contained ornithine, glutamic ...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - October 3, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fang H, Lv W, Huang Z, Liu SJ, Yang H Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Sequencing Human Rhinoviruses: Direct sequencing versus plasmid cloning.
This study formally compares and contrasts the sequencing results obtained from plasmid-cloning and direct Sanger sequencing of a 500 base pair PCR product covering the VP4/VP2 region of RV. A slightly longer sequence (by 65 base pairs on average) was obtained when specimens were plasmid-cloned, and the sequences were 86% similar. After trimming the extra base pairs from the cloned sequences, the sequences were 99.7% identical. Overall success of directly sequencing samples was similar to that of cloning, 5% on average failed for each technique. Therefore, in many instances, directly sequencing samples may be considered in...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - October 3, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Linder JE, Plachco TE, Libster R, Miller EK Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Efficacy of Type 2 PRRSV vaccine against Chinese and Vietnamese HP-PRRSV challenge in pigs.
Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant reproductive losses in the sow herd and respiratory disease in growing pigs. The virus belongs to the family Arteriviridae and there are two major genotypes. Type 1 is represented by Lelystad virus, the European prototype virus, and Type 2 is represented by the North American prototype virus, VR-2332. Depending on husbandry, immune status of the herd, and virulence of the isolate, the severity of disease and magnitude of economic loss can be variable. Vaccine use is not always successful indicating a lack of cross-protection bet...
Source: Vaccine - October 3, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Lager KM, Schlink SN, Brockmeier SL, Miller LC, Henningson JN, Kappes MA, Kehrli ME, Loving CL, Guo B, Swenson SL, Yang HC, Faaberg KS Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

Impact of poor compliance with levofloxacin and moxifloxacin on respiratory tract infection antimicrobial efficacy: A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic simulation study
A major problem in antimicrobial therapy is non-compliance with the treatment regimen [1]. Neglecting to take medication as prescribed is a major cause of variability in drug exposure and has been associated with the failure of many treatments. Efforts to improve patient adherence to medication regimens would include multidisciplinary patient interventions. Dimensions such as patient-related factors and therapy-related factors need be considered [2]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - October 3, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: N. Carral, J.C. Lukas, I. Oteo, E. Suarez Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Pulmonary rehabilitation during induction therapy for lung cancer improves pulmonary function
A perioperative intensive pulmonary rehabilitation program improved respiratory function in patients undergoing induction chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Although the majority of patients experienced improvement, it was most marked in those with respiratory impairment. The benefit was also observed in current or former smokers. (Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - October 3, 2014 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Shintaro Tarumi, Hiroyasu Yokomise, Masashi Gotoh, Yoshitaka Kasai, Natsumi Matsuura, Sung Soo Chang, Tetsuhiko Go Source Type: research

Discharge patterning in rat olfactory bulb mitral cells in vivo
Abstract Here we present a detailed statistical analysis of the discharge characteristics of mitral cells of the main olfactory bulb of urethane‐anesthetized rats. Neurons were recorded from the mitral cell layer, and antidromically identified by stimuli applied to the lateral olfactory tract. All mitral cells displayed repeated, prolonged bursts of action potentials typically lasting >100 sec and separated by similarly long intervals; about half were completely silent between bursts. No such bursting was observed in nonmitral cells recorded in close proximity to mitral cells. Bursts were asynchronous among even adja...
Source: Physiological Reports - October 3, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Gareth Leng, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Chiharu Tsuji, Nancy Sabatier, Mike Ludwig Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Children's Hospital confirms first case of enterovirus in Birmingham
Children’s of Alabama confirmed Wednesday that there is one case of enterovirus in Birmingham. The respiratory virus, or EV-D68, has reportedly killed four patients around the county who tested positive, according to a report from Fox 6. However, the report cited doctors who claimed that incidences of enterovirus were on the decline. This makes five cases in Alabama, Fox 6 reported, with four deaths in different parts of the U.S. attributed to EV-D68 Following the virus becoming a household… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - October 2, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Ryan Phillips Source Type: research

1 case of enterovirus D68 confirmed in southwestern Pennsylvania
Enterovirus D68, the upper respiratory virus that has led to serious illnesses among youth nationwide, has been confirmed in southwestern Pennsylvania. The Pittsburgh Tribune-Review reported on the confirmation of one case of the virus somewhere in the region, one of six in Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Department of Health did not announce which county nor how the patient is doing. More than 470 people in 41 states have been sickened by the Enterovirus D68. The death of a 10-year-old Rhode Island… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - October 2, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Paul J. Gough Source Type: research

Management of the upper airway in cystic fibrosis
Purpose of reviewUpper airway disease engenders significant morbidity for patients with cystic fibrosis and is increasingly recognized as having a much greater role in pulmonary outcomes and quality of life than originally believed. Widespread disparate therapeutic strategies for cystic fibrosis chronic rhinosinusitis underscore the absence of a standardized treatment paradigm. This review outlines the most recent evidence-based trends in the management of upper airway disease in cystic fibrosis. Recent findingsThe unified airway theory proposes that the sinuses are a focus of initial bacterial colonization which seeds the...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas J. Simmonds Source Type: research

Aspergillus and cystic fibrosis: old disease – new classifications
Purpose of reviewAspergillus pulmonary infection has traditionally been recognized as a clinical spectrum of increasing pathogenicity, encompassing saprophytic airways colonization historically regarded of doubtful clinical significance, to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, chronic cavitatory and life-threatening invasive disease in the immunocompromised host. Whilst the latter two categories are rarely encountered in cystic fibrosis (CF), there is recognition of an extending spectrum of disease yet to be reflected in consensus management guidelines. The purpose of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas J. Simmonds Source Type: research

Physiotherapy and cystic fibrosis: what is the evidence base?
Purpose of reviewTo provide a comprehensive overview and evidence to support the role of physiotherapy in the management of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) including airway clearance, exercise, and musculoskeletal concerns which can affect activities of daily living and respiratory health. Recent findingsSeveral long-term studies have looked at the efficacy of airway clearance techniques, including active cycle of breathing techniques, autogenic drainage, high frequency chest wall oscillation, postural drainage, positive expiratory pressure (PEP), and oscillating PEP. Each of these studies reported some efficacy of a...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas J. Simmonds Source Type: research

What is the role of noninvasive ventilation in cystic fibrosis?
Purpose of reviewThe use of noninvasive ventilatory support in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has increased exponentially over the past 2 decades. This review examines the current knowledge and considers potential future directions for use of noninvasive ventilation in CF patients. Recent findingsNoninvasive ventilation was originally reported as a bridge to transplantation in CF patients with severe respiratory failure but is now used as a long-term treatment modality for patients with respiratory failure independent of transplant status. In 2013 to 2014, over 400 publications on noninvasive ventilation demonstrate it...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas J. Simmonds Source Type: research

The expanding armamentarium of drugs to aid sputum clearance: how should they be used to optimize care?
Purpose of reviewThis review examines the evidence for use of agents that improve sputum clearance in cystic fibrosis. Recent findingsThe basic defect in cystic fibrosis causes abnormal airway surface liquid leading to mucus plugging and subsequent infection and inflammation in the airways. Agents that improve clearance of secretions should improve lung function, reduce infective exacerbations and may enhance survival. There are two main varieties of mucoactive therapy, namely mucolytic therapy, which reduces viscosity in order to improve clearance, and hyperosmolar therapy, which increases the airway surface liquid volume...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas J. Simmonds Source Type: research

Dry powder inhalers in cystic fibrosis: same old drugs but different benefits?
Purpose of reviewNewer ‘innovative’ formulations of antibiotics for Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis include colistimethate sodium and tobramycin in the form of dry powders for inhalation (DPIs). Whilst these DPIs are anticipated to improve patient adherence because of increased convenience and ease of administration, questions remain concerning whether they are as clinically effective, safe and cost-effective as nebulized antibiotics. Recent findingsThis review describes the recent findings of a health technology assessment of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of c...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas J. Simmonds Source Type: research

Out of synch with society: an update on delayed sleep phase disorder
Purpose of reviewDelayed sleep phase disorder is the most common of the circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Its treatment involves exploiting the intrinsic biological properties of the circadian pacemaker to advance biological rhythms, most notably the sleep–wake cycle, to a time which affords the individual an appropriate sleep opportunity compatible with normal societal functioning. This review highlights several new studies published in the last 18 months concerning sleep and circadian physiology relevant to the disorder and its management. Recent findingsIn addition to new information regarding the epidemiology and ass...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Obstructive sleep apnea, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia: a review of the literature
In this study, age and BMI have been identified as independent predictors of gestational obstructive sleep apnea. SummaryAn association between sleep-disordered breathing, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia has been demonstrated. However, there is a lack of evidence on the effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment during pregnancy on hypertension and preeclampsia. Further studies are required to ascertain whether continuous positive airway pressure can be a useful adjunct treatment for pregnant women at risk of preeclampsia. (Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Alternatives to continuous positive airway pressure 2: mandibular advancement devices compared
Purpose of reviewAlthough mandibular advancement devices (MADs) provide an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), their effectiveness and role remain unclear. Several recent studies and an updated meta-analysis have attempted to address these uncertainties. This review examines their contribution to the existing evidence and discusses the future priorities for MAD research. Recent findingsRecent work has examined the impact of MAD design on clinical and cost-effectiveness in milder disease. A robust comparison of CPAP and MADs in more severe OSA has reported equi...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

The impact of sleep and hypoxia on the brain: potential mechanisms for the effects of obstructive sleep apnea
Purpose of reviewObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic, highly prevalent, multisystem disease, which is still largely underdiagnosed. Its most prominent risk factors, obesity and older age, are on the rise, and its prevalence is expected to grow further. The last few years have seen an exponential increase in studies to determine the impact of OSA on the central nervous system. OSA-induced brain injury is now a recognized clinical entity, although its possible dual relationship with several other neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders is debated. The putative neuromechanisms behind some of the effects of OSA...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Update on hypersomnias of central origin
Purpose of reviewTo describe the multiple clinical aspects of hypersomnias of central origin. Emphasis is given to the new pathophysiological pathways and treatment options described in the current literature. Recent findingsNarcolepsy is the most recognized of the hypersomnias of central origin. Hypocretin deficiency appears to underlie narcolepsy with cataplexy, and infections and vaccinations have been associated with disease onset. Targeted therapeutic approaches are currently underway. A putative naturally occurring constituent in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with non-narcoleptic primary hypersomnias, able to s...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Adaptive servo-ventilation for the treatment of central sleep apnea in congestive heart failure: what have we learned?
Purpose of reviewPositive airway pressure devices for the noninvasive treatment of sleep-disordered breathing are being marketed that have substantially expanded capabilities. Most recently, adaptive servo-ventilation devices have become available that are capable of measuring patient ventilation continuously and use that information to adjust expiratory positive airway pressure and pressure support levels to abolish central and obstructive apneas and hypopneas, including central sleep-disordered breathing of the Hunter–Cheyne–Stokes variety. Patients with congestive heart failure are particularly prone to developing c...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Bidirectional relationship of hypertension with obstructive sleep apnea
Purpose of reviewHypertension (HTN) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are coexistent in millions of people, and both have been associated with heart disease, stroke, and premature death. OSA is an important risk factor for HTN. However, the relationship between OSA and HTN may be bidirectional, with high blood pressure (BP) contributing to an increased risk and severity of OSA. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature supporting a bidirectional relationship of sleep apnea and HTN. Recent findingsThe treatment of HTN to a lower BP target may improve sleep apnea by improving upper airway tone, by targeti...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Cyclic alternating pattern in polysomnography: what is it and what does it mean?
This article reviews the scoring, significance, and clinical applications of CAP. (Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Sleep disorders in adults with epilepsy: past, present, and future directions
Purpose of reviewTo summarize recent studies on the complex relationships between sleep disorders, sleep, and epilepsy. Recent findingsInsomnia in adults with epilepsy (AWE) warrants consideration of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. Daytime sleepiness in AWE is more often due to undiagnosed sleep disorders. Sleep deprivation is an important provoker of seizures in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Abnormalities in frontal lobe executive function with difficulties making advantageous decisions may explain failure of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy patients to adhere to treatment recommendations and regulate their sleep ha...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Mechanisms of REM sleep in health and disease
Purpose of reviewOur understanding of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and how it is generated remains a topic of debate. Understanding REM sleep mechanisms is important because several sleep disorders result from disturbances in the neural circuits that control REM sleep and its characteristics. This review highlights recent work concerning how the central nervous system regulates REM sleep, and how the make up and breakdown of these REM sleep-generating circuits contribute to narcolepsy, REM sleep behaviour disorder and sleep apnea. Recent findingsA complex interaction between brainstem REM sleep core circuits and forebrai...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - October 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research