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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 14.

Mitochondrial-targeted Antioxidant Therapy Decreases TGFβ Mediated Collagen Production in a Murine Asthma Model.
Conclusions Our findings suggest that mitochondria are a critical source of ROS for promoting TGFβ activity that contributes to airway remodeling in allergic asthma. Mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants may be a novel approach for future asthma therapies. PMID: 24988374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol...)
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - July 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jaffer OA, Carter AB, Sanders PN, Dibbern ME, Winters CJ, Murthy S, Ryan AJ, Rokita AG, Prasad AM, Zabner J, Kline JN, Grumbach IM, Anderson ME Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

The NLRP3 Inflammasome/IL-1RI Axis Mediates Innate Immune but Not Adaptive Immune Responses Following PM10 Exposure.
Conclusions: We demonstrate the importance of the lung NLRP3 inflammasome in mediating PM10-exposure associated innate but not adaptive immune responses. Our study highlights a mechanism by which PM10 exposure can contribute to the exacerbation of airway disease but not PM10-facilitated allergic sensitization. PMID: 24988285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol...)
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - July 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hirota JA, Gold MJ, Hiebert PR, Parkinson LG, Wee T, Smith D, Hansbro PM, Carlsten C, VanEeden S, Sin DD, McNagny KM, Knight DA Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Cross-talk Between Human Mast Cells and Bronchial Epithelial Cells in PAI-1 Production via TGF-β1.
Abstract Previous reports suggest that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promotes airway remodeling and that human and mouse mast cells (MC) are an important source of PAI-1. In the present study we investigated MC-epithelial cell (EC) interactions in the production of PAI-1. We stimulated the human MC line, LAD2, with IgE-receptor cross-linking and collected the supernatants. We incubated the human bronchial EC line, BEAS-2B with the LAD2 supernatants and measured the level of PAI-1. When the supernatants from IgE-stimulated LAD2 were added to BEAS-2B, there was a significant enhancement of PAI-1 productio...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - July 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cho SH, Lee SH, Kato A, Takabayashi T, Shin SC, Schleimer RP Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Association Between Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Helicobacter pylori: A Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the overall analysis and subgroup analyzed suggest a significant association between H.pylori and CRDs. Further studies are needed to clarify the pathogenetic mechanisms involved. PMID: 24998026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - July 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wang L, Guan Y, Li Y, Liu X, Zhang Y, Wang F, Kong L, Guo Q Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Clinical Research in Pulmonary Hypertension Comes of Age.
PMID: 24998025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - July 2, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Barberà JA Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

The Early Effects of Ageing on the Mechanical Performance of Isolated Locomotory (EDL) and Respiratory (diaphragm) Skeletal Muscle Using the Work Loop Technique.
Abstract Previous isolated muscle studies examining the effects of ageing on contractility have used isometric protocols which have shown to have poor relevance to dynamic muscle performance that occurs in vivo. The present study uniquely uses the work loop technique to obtain a more realistic estimation of in vivo muscle function in order to examine changes in mammalian skeletal muscle mechanical properties with age. Measurements of maximal isometric stress, activation and relaxation time, maximal power output, sustained power output during repetitive activation and recovery are compared in locomotory EDL and core...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - July 2, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Tallis J, James RS, Little AG, Cox VM, Duncan MJ, Seebacher F Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research

Intrafetal glucose infusion alters glucocorticoid signalling and reduces surfactant protein mRNA expression in the lung of the late gestation sheep fetus.
In this study, we examined the effect of intrafetal glucose infusion on mRNA expression of glucose transporters, insulin-like growth factor signalling, glucocorticoid regulatory genes and surfactant proteins in the lung of the late gestation sheep fetus. The numerical density of the cells responsible for producing surfactant was determined using immunohistochemistry. Glucose infusion for 10d did not affect mRNA expression of glucose transporters or insulin like growth factors (IGF), but did decrease IGF-1R expression. There was reduced mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid converting enzyme HSD11B-1 and the glucocorticoid ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - July 2, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: McGillick EV, Morrison JL, McMillen IC, Orgeig S Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research

Viral disruption of olfactory progenitors is exacerbated in allergic mice.
Abstract Upper airway viral infection in patients with airway allergy often exacerbates olfactory dysfunction, but the mechanism for this exacerbation remains unclear. Here, we examined the effects of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, in the presence or absence of airway allergy, on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and their progenitors in mice. Immunohistological analyses revealed that cockroach allergen (CRA)-induced airway allergy alone did not affect the number of OMP(+) mature ORNs and SOX2(+) ORN progenitors. Intranasal RSV line 19 infection in allergy-free mice resulted in a transient decrease in...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - July 2, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ueha R, Mukherjee S, Ueha S, de Almeida Nagata DE, Sakamoto T, Kondo K, Yamasoba T, Lukacs NW, Kunkel SL Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research

Inhaled budesonide protects against chronic asthma-induced neuroinflammation in mouse brain
Abstract: Chronic asthma is one of the most common respiratory diseases, characterized by airway inflammation. However, little is known whether asthma-induced airway inflammation might influence the brain. We found that chronic asthma not only resulted in peripheral inflammation, but also induced neuroinflammation which was characterized by microglial activations and increased levels of TNFα and IL-1β in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Simultaneously, we found that there was significant neuronal loss in the asthmatic mouse brain. Inhaled budesonide, the classic therapeutic drug for chronic asthma, could inhibit as...
Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology - July 2, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Ming-Xu Xia, Xu Ding, Jun Qi, Jun Gu, Gang Hu, Xiu-Lan Sun Tags: Research Papers Source Type: research

Treatment adherence and health outcomes in patients with bronchiectasis
Conclusions: Treatment adherence is low in bronchiectasis and affects important health outcomes including pulmonary exacerbations. Adherence should be measured as part of bronchiectasis management and future research should evaluate bronchiectasis-specific adherence strategies. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - July 1, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Amanda R McCulloughMichael M TunneyAlexandra L QuittnerJ Stuart ElbornJudy M BradleyCarmel M Hughes Source Type: research

A case of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
We report a case of severe OHSS with very large ovaries in a 35 year old case of embryo transfer. The patient presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, massive ascites, respiratory distress and amenorrhea. The patient was managed symptomatically with no complications. Although ovarian hyperstimulation is a rare entity, it is important that the physician recognizes this condition. Prompt diagnosis and successful management is likely to avoid serious and rapid development of complications. PMID: 24966492 [PubMed] (Source: Pain Physician)
Source: Pain Physician - July 1, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Lodh M, Mukhopadhyay J, Sharma V Tags: Indian J Clin Biochem Source Type: research

Noninvasive radiofrequency treatment effect on mitochondria in pancreatic cancer cells
CONCLUSIONRF treatment impaired the function of mitochondria in cancer cells. Therefore, mitochondria can represent one of the targets of the RF treatment. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society. (Source: Cancer)
Source: Cancer - July 1, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Steven A. Curley, Flavio Palalon, Xiaolin Lu, Nadezhda V. Koshkina Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Triple‐layered polyurethane prosthesis with wrinkles for repairing partial tracheal defects
ConclusionsA wrinkled, triple‐layered PU scaffold can be used as a ready‐made scaffold for reconstruction of partial tracheal defects. Level of EvidenceNA Laryngoscope, 2014 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - July 1, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ja Hyun Lee, Hae Sang Park, Se Heang Oh, Jin Ho Lee, Jin Rae Kim, Hyun Ji Kim, Soo Yeon Jung, Sung Min Chung, Hong‐Shik Choi, Han Su Kim Tags: Head and Neck Source Type: research

Rostral spinal cord segments are sufficient to generate a rhythm for both locomotion and scratching but affect their hip extensor phases differently
Rostral segments of the spinal cord hindlimb enlargement are more important than caudal segments for generating locomotion and scratching rhythms in limbed vertebrates, but the adequacy of rostral segments has not been directly compared between locomotion and scratching. We separated caudal segments from immobilized low-spinal turtles by sequential spinal cord transections. After separation of the caudal four segments of the five-segment hindlimb enlargement, the remaining enlargement segment and five preenlargement segments still produced rhythms for forward swimming and both rostral and pocket scratching. The swimming rh...
Source: Journal of Neurophysiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Hao, Z.-Z., Meier, M. L., Berkowitz, A. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Assessment of Musculoskeletal Toxicity 5 Years After Therapy With Levofloxacin
Animal studies document dose-dependent and duration-of-therapy-dependent fluoroquinolone cartilage toxicity in weight-bearing joints. Preliminary pediatric data collected after fluoroquinolone treatment and up to 1 year posttreatment in blinded and unblinded studies suggest the possibility of cartilage toxicity in children. These are the first prospectively collected data on fluoroquinolone musculoskeletal safety collected posttherapy from randomized, comparative studies of respiratory tract infections and analyzed at 5 years. Long-term musculoskeletal adverse events occurred with equal frequency in both levofloxacin and c...
Source: PEDIATRICS - July 1, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Pediatrics Digest Summary Source Type: research

Translational Research in Pediatrics III: Bronchoalveolar Lavage
The role of flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for the care of children with airway and pulmonary diseases is well established, with collected BAL fluid most often used clinically for microbiologic pathogen identification and cellular analyses. More recently, powerful analytic research methods have been used to investigate BAL samples to better understand the pathophysiological basis of pediatric respiratory disease. Investigations have focused on the cellular components contained in BAL fluid, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells, as well as the noncellular compone...
Source: PEDIATRICS - July 1, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Radhakrishnan, D., Yamashita, C., Gillio-Meina, C., Fraser, D. D. Tags: State-of-the-Art Review Article Source Type: research

Stridor in Asphyxiated Neonates Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia
We report 5 cases of transient respiratory stridor in 51 infants, occurring at different time points in the cooling process, which appeared to be unrelated to the intubation procedure. Therapeutic hypothermia was associated with transient stridor in this case series. Formal laryngoscopy is required to determine the underlying pathologic etiology. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - July 1, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Orme, J., Kissack, C., Becher, J.-C. Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Subcutaneous Treprostinil for Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Lung Disease of Infancy
We present a series of 5 infants who were successfully treated with a continuous infusion of subcutaneous treprostinil, which is a longer-acting prostanoid with similar hemodynamic effects. There were improvements in echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular function and estimated pulmonary hypertension, and in respiratory support required within weeks of therapy. Unlike commonly in adults, these 5 infants had no instances of severe site erythema, bleeding, bruising, or infection. In our experience with 5 former extremely preterm infants who had PAH associated with chronic lung disease, subcutaneous treprostinil wa...
Source: PEDIATRICS - July 1, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ferdman, D. J., Rosenzweig, E. B., Zuckerman, W. A., Krishnan, U. Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Oxygen requirements and surfactant therapy in preterm infants after delivery
ConclusionsPreterm infants who need FiO2 ≥ 0.6 in the delivery room appear to be at high risk of surfactant insufficiency and would benefit from surfactant therapy. Surfactant therapy would provide a more effective resuscitation method for preterm infants, and thus a larger prospective study is needed to confirm these results. (Source: Pediatrics International)
Source: Pediatrics International - July 1, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Mihiro Toriyama, Akio Ishiguro, Yukiko Motojima, Keiji Yamana, Hisanori Sobajima, Masanori Tamura Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Henry Cavendish (1731-1810): hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water, and weighing the world
Henry Cavendish (1731–1810) was an outstanding chemist and physicist. Although he was not a major figure in the history of respiratory physiology he made important discoveries concerning hydrogen, carbon dioxide, atmospheric air, and water. Hydrogen had been prepared earlier by Boyle but its properties had not been recognized; Cavendish described these in detail, including the density of the gas. Carbon dioxide had also previously been studied by Black, but Cavendish clarified its properties and measured its density. He was the first person to accurately analyze atmospheric air and reported an oxygen concentration ve...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: West, J. B. Tags: PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research

Progress in solving the sex hormone paradox in pulmonary hypertension
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating and progressive disease with marked morbidity and mortality. Even though being female represents one of the most powerful risk factors for PAH, multiple questions about the underlying mechanisms remain, and two "estrogen paradoxes" in PAH exist. First, it is puzzling why estrogens have been found to be protective in various animal models of PAH, whereas PAH registries uniformly demonstrate a female susceptibility to the disease. Second, despite the pronounced tendency for the disease to develop in women, female PAH patients exhibit better survival than men. Recent mech...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lahm, T., Tuder, R. M., Petrache, I. Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Mechanical ventilation causes airway distension with proinflammatory sequelae in mice
The pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury has predominantly been attributed to overdistension or mechanical opening and collapse of alveoli, whereas mechanical strain on the airways is rarely taken into consideration. Here, we hypothesized that mechanical ventilation may cause significant airway distension, which may contribute to the pathological features of ventilator-induced lung injury. C57BL/6J mice were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated at tidal volumes of 6, 10, or 15 ml/kg body wt. Mice were imaged by flat-panel volume computer tomography, and central airways were segmented and rendered in 3D for qu...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nickles, H. T., Sumkauskaite, M., Wang, X., Wegner, I., Puderbach, M., Kuebler, W. M. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

Human airway smooth muscle maintain in situ cell orientation and phenotype when cultured on aligned electrospun scaffolds
Human airway smooth muscle (HASM) contraction plays a central role in regulating airway resistance in both healthy and asthmatic bronchioles. In vitro studies that investigate the intricate mechanisms that regulate this contractile process are predominantly conducted on tissue culture plastic, a rigid, 2D geometry, unlike the 3D microenvironment smooth muscle cells are exposed to in situ. It is increasingly apparent that cellular characteristics and responses are altered between cells cultured on 2D substrates compared with 3D topographies. Electrospinning is an attractive method to produce 3D topographies for cell culturi...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Morris, G. E., Bridge, J. C., Eltboli, O. M. I., Knox, A. J., Aylott, J. W., Brightling, C. E., Ghaemmaghami, A. M., Rose, F. R. A. J. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Trimethylangelicin promotes the functional rescue of mutant F508del CFTR protein in cystic fibrosis airway cells
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) carrying the F508del mutation is retained in endoplasmic reticulum and fails to traffic to the cell surface where it functions as a protein kinase A (PKA)-activated chloride channel. Pharmacological correctors that rescue the trafficking of F508del CFTR may overcome this defect; however, the rescued F508del CFTR still displays reduced chloride permeability. Therefore, a combined administration of correctors and potentiators of the gating defect is ideal. We recently found that 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin (TMA), besides inhibiting the expression of the IL-8 gene in ai...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Favia, M., Mancini, M. T., Bezzerri, V., Guerra, L., Laselva, O., Abbattiscianni, A. C., Debellis, L., Reshkin, S. J., Gambari, R., Cabrini, G., Casavola, V. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Fas ligand-expressing lymphocytes enhance alveolar macrophage apoptosis in the resolution of acute pulmonary inflammation
Apoptosis of alveolar macrophages and their subsequent clearance by neighboring phagocytes are necessary steps in the resolution of acute pulmonary inflammation. We have recently identified that activation of the Fas death receptor on the cell surface of macrophages drives macrophage apoptosis. However, the source of the cognate ligand for Fas (FasL) responsible for induction of alveolar macrophage apoptosis is not defined. Given their known role in the resolution of inflammation and ability to induce macrophage apoptosis ex vivo, we hypothesized that T lymphocytes represented a critical source of FasL. To address this hyp...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kearns, M. T., Barthel, L., Bednarek, J. M., Yunt, Z. X., Henson, P. M., Janssen, W. J. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

NOX2 protects against progressive lung injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common clinical condition in patients in intensive care units that can lead to complications, including multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). MODS carries a high mortality rate, and it is unclear why some patients resolve SIRS, whereas others develop MODS. Although oxidant stress has been implicated in the development of MODS, several recent studies have demonstrated a requirement for NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2)-derived oxidants in limiting inflammation. We recently demonstrated that NOX2 protects against lung injury and mortality in a murine model of SIRS. In the presen...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Whitmore, L. C., Goss, K. L., Newell, E. A., Hilkin, B. M., Hook, J. S., Moreland, J. G. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Mucociliary clearance and submucosal gland secretion in the ex vivo ferret trachea
In many species submucosal glands are an important source of tracheal mucus, but the extent to which mucociliary clearance (MCC) depends on gland secretion is unknown. To explore this relationship, we measured basal and agonist-stimulated MCC velocities in ex vivo tracheas from adult ferrets and compared the velocities with previously measured rates of ferret glandular mucus secretion (Cho HJ, Joo NS, Wine JJ. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 299: L124–L136, 2010). Stimulated MCC velocities (mm/min, means ± SE for 10- to 35-min period poststimulation) were as follows: 1 μM carbachol: 19.1 ± 3.3 >...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jeong, J. H., Joo, N. S., Hwang, P. H., Wine, J. J. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Lung fibroblasts accelerate wound closure in human alveolar epithelial cells through hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met signaling
There are 190,600 cases of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) each year in the United States, and the incidence and mortality of ALI/ARDS increase dramatically with age. Patients with ALI/ARDS have alveolar epithelial injury, which may be worsened by high-pressure mechanical ventilation. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells are the progenitor cells for the alveolar epithelium and are required to reestablish the alveolar epithelium during the recovery process from ALI/ARDS. Lung fibroblasts (FBs) migrate and proliferate early after lung injury and likely are an important source of growth factors for e...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ito, Y., Correll, K., Schiel, J. A., Finigan, J. H., Prekeris, R., Mason, R. J. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

An 11-nt sequence polymorphism at the 3'UTR of human SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 gene variants differentially affect gene expression levels and miRNA regulation in cell culture
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a vital role in maintaining normal lung function and in host defense. Two genes encode SP-A in humans (SFTPA1, SFTPA2), and several gene variants have been identified for these. We have previously shown that sequence elements of SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) differentially affect translation efficiency in vitro. Polymorphisms at the 3'UTRs of mRNA variants may account for differential binding of miRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression. In this work, we generated 3'UTR reporter constructs of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 variants most frequently foun...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Silveyra, P., DiAngelo, S. L., Floros, J. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Effects of sex hormones on bronchial reactivity during the menstrual cycle
Conclusions: In conclusion, our data show that PC20FEV1.0 was decreased in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in about 30% of women and was associated with lower cAMP levels in sputum samples, which may contribute to bronchoconstriction. Our results also suggest a link between PMA and testosterone levels. However, whether these findings are of clinical significance in terms of the management of asthma or asthma worsening during the menstrual cycle needs further investigation. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Maria MatteisFrancesca PolverinoGiuseppe SpazianoFiorentina RoviezzoCarlo SantorielloNikol SulloMaria BucciFrancesco RossiMario PolverinoCaroline OwenBruno D¿Agostino Source Type: research

Mindfulness meditation lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure in African-American males with chronic kidney disease
Mindfulness meditation (MM) is a stress-reduction technique that may have real biological effects on hemodynamics but has never previously been tested in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the potential blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects of MM are unknown. We sought to determine whether MM acutely lowers BP in CKD patients, and whether these hemodynamic changes are mediated by a reduction in sympathetic nerve activity. In 15 hypertensive African-American (AA) males with CKD, we conducted a randomized, crossover study in which participants underwent 14 min of MM or 14 min of BP e...
Source: AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Park, J., Lyles, R. H., Bauer-Wu, S. Tags: Neural Control Source Type: research

Effect of abdominal binding on respiratory mechanics during exercise in athletes with cervical spinal cord injury
We asked whether elastic binding of the abdomen influences respiratory mechanics during wheelchair propulsion in athletes with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Eight Paralympic wheelchair rugby players with motor-complete SCI (C5-C7) performed submaximal and maximal incremental exercise tests on a treadmill, both with and without abdominal binding. Measurements included pulmonary function, pressure-derived indices of respiratory mechanics, operating lung volumes, tidal flow-volume data, gas exchange, blood lactate, and symptoms. Residual volume and functional residual capacity were reduced with binding (77 ± 18 an...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - July 1, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: West, C. R., Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L., Campbell, I. G., Romer, L. M. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Both linoleic and {alpha}-linolenic acid prevent insulin resistance but have divergent impacts on skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in obese Zucker rats
The therapeutic use of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in preserving insulin sensitivity has gained interest in recent decades; however, the roles of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) remain poorly understood. We investigated the efficacy of diets enriched with either LA or ALA on attenuating the development of insulin resistance (IR) in obesity. Following a 12-wk intervention, LA and ALA both prevented the shift toward an IR phenotype and maintained muscle-specific insulin sensitivity otherwise lost in obese control animals. The beneficial effects of ALA were independent of changes in skeletal muscle ...
Source: AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 1, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Matravadia, S., Herbst, E. A. F., Jain, S. S., Mutch, D. M., Holloway, G. P. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Clinical implications of initial peripheral eosinophilia in acute eosinophilic pneumonia
ConclusionsInitial PEC may be related to a milder disease status on admission, compared with normal PEC in patients with AEP. This may help to stratify disease severity in AEP. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Byung Woo Jhun, Se Jin Kim, Kang Kim, Ji Eun Lee Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The effect of vitamin D on airway reactivity and inflammation in asthmatic children: A double‐blind placebo‐controlled trial
ConclusionsIn our small group of children with mild asthma, no difference could be demonstrated between the effect of vitamin D and placebo, despite significant increases in vitamin D blood levels. Larger interventional studies are needed to fully explore the possible effect of vitamin D in asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ronen Bar Yoseph, Galit Livnat, Zeev Schnapp, Fahed Hakim, Husein Dabbah, Aviv Goldbart, Lea Bentur Tags: Original Article: Asthma Source Type: research

Red cell distribution width is increased in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
ConclusionIncreased RDW level may be an acceptable diagnostic parameter for CTEPH. (Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal)
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wang Wang, Jie Liu, Yuan‐hua Yang, Zhen‐guo Zhai, Chen Wang, Jun Wang Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Pulmonary function impairment in patients with chronic heart failure: Lower limit of normal versus conventional cutoff values
Conclusion: Pulmonary function abnormalities, especially diffusion impairment and airway obstruction, were highly prevalent in patients with chronic HF. Conventional cutoff values classified more patients with diffusion impairment, airway obstruction, or a mixed category compared to the LLN. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - July 1, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Armine G. Minasian, Frank J.J. van den Elshout, P.N. Richard Dekhuijzen, Petra J.E. Vos, Frank F. Willems, Paul J.P.C. van den Bergh, Yvonne F. Heijdra Tags: Care of Patients with Heart Failure or Pulmonary Hypertension Source Type: research

Variation in daily median respiratory rate identifies patients at higher risk of worsening HF in 30 days
This study evaluated the ability of variation in RR to predict HF events in ambulatory HF patients. (Source: Heart and Lung)
Source: Heart and Lung - July 1, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: John Boehmer, Qi An, Yi Zhang Tags: 2014 AAHFN 10th Annual Conference Source Type: research

Comparison of intranasal and intramuscular ketamine‐midazolam combination in cats
ConclusionsThe results substantiated that INS ketamine‐midazolam can produce effective sedation in cats. Clinical relevanceIntranasal (INS) administration of ketamine‐midazolam is atraumatic, and its use may avoid the pain of injection of ketamine combinations when this drug is used to induce sedation in cats. (Source: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia)
Source: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia - July 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Mehdi Marjani, Vahid Akbarinejad, Mohsen Bagheri Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

A comparison of low dose tiletamine‐zolazepam or acepromazine combined with methadone for pre‐anaesthetic medication in cats
Conclusion and clinical relevanceLow dose tiletamine‐zolazepam combined with methadone provided superior sedation to ACE. Recovery quality was similar, although time to standing was longer. (Source: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia)
Source: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia - July 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Alastair Mair, Heide Kloeppel, Kim Ticehurst Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Comparison of respiratory function during TIVA and isoflurane anaesthesia in ponies Part II: breathing patterns and transdiaphragmatic pressure
Conclusion and clinical relevanceMarked differences in breathing pattern and transdiaphragmatic pressure exist during inhalation‐ and TIVA and these should be taken into account for clinical estimation of anaesthetic depth. (Source: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia)
Source: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia - July 1, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Lidia Kowalczyk, Barbara Steblaj, Stijn Schauvliege, Johannes Peter Schramel, Kiriaki Pavlidou, Ioannis Savvas, Luc Duchateau, Frank Gasthuys, Yves Moens Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Greater fear reactivity and psychophysiological hyperactivity among infants with later conduct problems and callous‐unemotional traits
ConclusionsThe discrepancy between the biobehavioral correlates of conduct problems with callous‐unemotional traits in infancy and those reported from studies of older children and adults suggests that the etiology of this behavioral phenotype may be more complex than a simple genetic maturation model. (Source: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry)
Source: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry - July 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Authors: William R. Mills‐Koonce, Nicholas J. Wagner, Michael T. Willoughby, Cynthia Stifter, Clancy Blair, Douglas A. Granger, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of human rhinoviruses in South Africa
ConclusionAll three type of RV were identified in South Africa, although RV‐A and RV‐C were more common than RV‐B. RV was associated with symptomatic respiratory illness; however, there was no association between RV type and disease severity. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - July 1, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Marthi A. Pretorius, Stefano Tempia, Florette K. Treurnicht, Sibongile Walaza, Adam L. Cohen, Jocelyn Moyes, Orienka Hellferscee, Ebrahim Variava, Halima Dawood, Meera Chhagan, Sumayya Haffjee, Shabir A. Madhi, Cheryl Cohen, Marietjie Venter Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A 9-month-old boy with respiratory distress and a unilateral dysplastic kidney.
PMID: 24977671 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pediatric Annals)
Source: Pediatric Annals - July 1, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Listernick R Tags: Pediatr Ann Source Type: research

Trends in wheeze in Dutch school children and the role of medication use
ConclusionAn increasing trend of Dutch school children with “no wheeze,” and decreasing trends of children with “discontinued” and “continued” wheeze between 1989 and 2005 could not be explained by (increased) medication use. This suggests that wheeze prevalence is not masked by medication use, but is truly declining. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - July 1, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dianne de Korte‐de Boer, Monique Mommers, Cindy M.L. Gielkens‐Sijstermans, Huub M.H. Creemers, Frans J.M. Feron, Onno C.P. van Schayck Tags: Original Article: Epidemiology Source Type: research