Respiratory Medicine research This is an OPML file. It can be used to export all the MedWorm RSS feeds on this topic into your personal RSS reader (usually you have to save this file to your own computer before clicking on an Import OPML command in your own feed reader to upload the file which will then import all the feeds) or it can be used by webmasters to integrate MedWorm feeds with their own website. This is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader, such as GoogleReader, or to display this data on your own website or blog. Subscribe to this data using MyMedWorm.Subscribe to this data using GoogleReader.Subscribe to this data using Bloglines.Subscribe to this data using MyYahoo.
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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 14.
Year in review 2012: Critical Care - respiratory infections
Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of disease mechanisms and infection control strategies related to infections, and particularly pneumonia, in critically ill patients. Patient centered and preventative strategies assume paramount importance in this era of limited health care resources, where effective targeted therapy is required to achieve the best outcomes. Risk stratification, using severity scores and inflammatory biomarkers, is a promising strategy for identifying sick patients early during their hospital stay. The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens is becoming...
Source: Critical Care - November 22, 2013 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Michael NiedermanGirish Nair Source Type: research
Selection of mutants tolerant of oxidative stress from respiratory cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum C17
ConclusionsThis work confirms that, in Lact. plantarum, respiration and low growth rates confer physiological metabolic advantages compared to anaerobic cultivation. Significance and Impact of the StudyOur strategy of natural selection successfully provides a rapid and inexpensive screening for a large number of strains and represents a food‐grade approach of practical relevance in the production of starter and probiotic cultures.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Applied Microbiology - November 22, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: T. Zotta, R.G. Ianniello, A. Guidone, E. Parente, A. Ricciardi Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
New technologies to trace infection
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection)
Source: Clinical Microbiology and Infection - November 22, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Philippe Brouqui Tags: Invited Editorial Source Type: research
Niacin supplementation induces type II to type I muscle fiber transition in skeletal muscle of sheep
Conclusions: The study shows that niacin supplementation induces muscle fiber transition from type II to type I, and thereby an oxidative metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle in sheep as a model for ruminants. The enhanced capacity of skeletal muscle to utilize fatty acids in ruminants might be particularly useful during metabolic states in which fatty acids are excessively mobilized from adipose tissue, such as during the early lactating period in high producing cows. (Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica)
Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica - November 22, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Muckta KhanAline CouturierJohanna KubensErika MostFrank-Christoph MoorenKarsten KrügerRobert RingseisKlaus Eder Source Type: research
Pathophysiology of tobacco smoke exposure: Recent insights from comparative and redox proteomics.
Abstract First-hand and second-hand tobacco smoke are causally linked to a huge number of deaths and are responsible for a broad spectrum of pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, and eye diseases as well as adverse effects on female reproductive function. Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of thousands of different chemical species, which exert their negative effects on macromolecules and biochemical pathways, both directly and indirectly. Many compounds can act as oxidants, pro-inflammatory agents, carcinogens, or a combination of these. The redox behavior of cigarette smoke has many implicati...
Source: Mass Spectrometry Reviews - November 22, 2013 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Colombo G, Clerici M, Giustarini D, Portinaro NM, Aldini G, Rossi R, Milzani A, Dalle-Donne I Tags: Mass Spectrom Rev Source Type: research
Genomic and non-genomic regulation of PGC1 isoforms by estrogen to increase cerebral vascular mitochondrial biogenesis and reactive oxygen species protection.
We examined a downstream target of PGC-1β, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione synthesis. In vivo estrogen increased protein levels of both GCL subunits and total glutathione levels. Together these data show estrogen differentially regulates PGC-1 isoforms in brain vasculature, underscoring the importance of these coactivators in adapting mitochondria in specific tissues. By upregulating PGC-1β and/or PRC, estrogen appears to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis, function and reactive oxygen species protection. PMID: 24275351 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - November 22, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kemper MF, Stirone C, Krause DN, Duckles SP, Procaccio V Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research
Epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections among patients from a hemodialysis unit in southeastern Brazil.
We present data from prospective surveillance carried out from March 2010 through May 2012. Rates were compared (mid-p exact test) and temporally analyzed in Shewhart control charts for Poisson distributions. The overall incidence of BSI was 1.12 per 1000 access-days. The rate was higher for patients performing dialysis through central venous catheters (CVC), either temporary (RR=13.35, 95% CI=6.68-26.95) or permanent (RR=2.10, 95% CI=1.09-4.13), as compared to those with arteriovenous fistula. Control charts identified a BSI outbreak caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in April 2010. LAI incidence was 3.80 per 1000 access-da...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - November 22, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Albuquerque SE, Cavalcante RD, Ponce D, Fortaleza CM Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research
Microbiology of the middle meatus compared to sputum in young patients with cystic fibrosis from Bahia - Brazil.
This study aimed to determine the microbiological profile of the anterior paranasal sinuses outflow tract (middle meatus) of cystic fibrosis outpatients. The microbiological profile was defined using endoscopically directed middle meatal cultures. Paired middle meatal and sputum specimens were collected from 56 outpatients for aerobic cultures. A semi-quantitative leukocyte count of the middle meatal samples was performed. The median age of patients was nine years (3-20 years). Staphylococcus aureus (37%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (25%), Neisseriac (14%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - November 22, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tunes A, Reis JN, Terse R, Santana MA, Diniz AL, Barros TF, Leal AK, Paixão V, Grassi MF Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research
Desert dust and human health disorders.
Abstract Dust storms may originate in many of the world's drylands and have an effect not only on human health in the drylands themselves but also in downwind environments, including some major urban centres, such as Phoenix, Kano, Athens, Madrid, Dubai, Jedda, Tehran, Jaipur, Beijing, Shanghai, Seoul, Taipei, Tokyo, Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne. In some parts of the world dust storms occur frequently throughout the year. They can transport particulate material, pollutants, and potential allergens over thousands of km from source. The main sources include the Sahara, central and eastern Asia, the Middle East, and...
Source: Environment International - November 22, 2013 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Goudie AS Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research
Assessing the Progression of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury in Mice
Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving mechanical ventilation typically experience repetitive closure (derecruitment) and subsequent reopening (recruitment) of airways and alveoli. This can lead, over time, to further ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) thus reflect both the current level of lung injury and the risk for sustaining further injury. Accordingly, we investigated how the dynamics of R/D are altered as VILI develops following application of high tidal volume ventilation in initially healthy mice. R/D occurring on subsecond timescales was assessed from t...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - November 21, 2013 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research
Deformable motion reconstruction for scanned proton beam therapy using on-line x-ray imaging.
This study has demonstrated that on-line deformable motion reconstruction from sparse surrogate motions is feasible, even when using only a monoscopic imaging system. In addition, it has also been found that diaphragm motion can be considered as a good predictor for respiratory deformable liver motion prediction, implying that fiducial markers might not be compulsory if used in conjunction with a patient specific PCA based model. PMID: 24256693 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology)
Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology - November 21, 2013 Category: Physics Authors: Zhang Y, Knopf A, Tanner C, Boye D, Lomax AJ Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research
Amnioinfusion in very early preterm premature rupture of membranes – pregnancy, neonatal and maternal outcomes in the AMIPROM randomised controlled pilot study
ConclusionsThis pilot study found no major differences in maternal, perinatal or pregnancy outcomes. The study was not designed to show a difference between the groups and the number of survivors too small to draw any conclusions about long –term outcomes. It does signal however that a larger definitive study to evaluate amnioinfusion for improvement in healthy survival is needed. The pilot suggests that with appropriate funding such a study is feasible. (Source: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology - November 21, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Devender Roberts, Sarah Vause, William Martin, Pauline Green, Stephen Walkinshaw, Leanne Bricker, Caroline Beardsmore, N Shaw, Andrew McKay, Gaynor Skotny, Paula Williamson, Zarko Alfirevic Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Efficacy of cineole in patients suffering from acute bronchitis: a placebo-controlled double-blind trial
Conclusions: The effects of Cineole in the treatment of acute bronchitis were clearly measurable and could be proven after a treatment period of merely 4 days. This study corroborates the fact that Cineole actively and significantly reduces cough frequency after four days. Therefore it has been shown to have a great socioeconomic impact.Trial registration: ISRCTN: ISRCTN37784439 (Source: Cough)
Source: Cough - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Juergen FischerUwe Dethlefsen Source Type: research
Multiscale Modeling of Influenza A Virus Infection Supports the Development of Direct-Acting Antivirals
by Frank S. Heldt, Timo Frensing, Antje Pflugmacher, Robin Gröpler, Britta Peschel, Udo Reichl Influenza A viruses are respiratory pathogens that cause seasonal epidemics with up to 500,000 deaths each year. Yet there are currently only two classes of antivirals licensed for treatment and drug-resistant strains are on the rise. A major challenge for the discovery of new anti-influenza agents is the identification of drug targets that efficiently interfere with viral replication. To support this step, we developed a multiscale model of influenza A virus infection which comprises both the intracellular level where the viru...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - November 21, 2013 Category: Biology Authors: Frank S. Heldt et al. Source Type: research
Variety of non‐invasive continuous monitoring methodologies including electrical impedance tomography provides novel insights into the physiology of lung collapse and recruitment – case report of an anaesthetized horse
ConclusionThe novel non‐invasive monitoring technologies used in this study provided unprecedented insights into the physiology of lung collapse and recruitment. The synergic information of these techniques holds promise to be useful when developing and evaluating new ventilatory strategies in horses. (Source: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia)
Source: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia - November 21, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Yves Moens, Johannes P Schramel, Gerardo Tusman, Tamas D Ambrisko, Josep Solà, Josef X Brunner, Lidia Kowalczyk, Stephan H Böhm Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone added to corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for preventing neonatal respiratory disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal TRH in addition to corticosteroids, given to women at risk of preterm birth, does not improve infant outcomes and can cause maternal side effects. PMID: 24265169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - November 21, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Crowther CA, Alfirevic Z, Han S, Haslam RR Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Determinants of Procedural Pain Intensity in the Intensive Care Unit: The Europain Study.
CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of risk factors for greater procedural pain intensity identified in this study may help clinicians select interventions that are needed to minimize procedural pain. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01070082). PMID: 24262016 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Puntillo KA, Max A, Timsit JF, Vignoud L, Chanques G, Robleda G, Roche-Campo F, Mancebo J, Divatia JV, Soares M, Ionescu DC, Grintescu IM, Vasiliu IL, Maggiore SM, Rusinova K, Owczuk R, Egerod I, Papathanassoglou ED, Kyranou M, Joynt GM, Burghi G, Freebai Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Attenuated Bordetella Pertussis Vaccine Protects against RSV Disease via an IL-17-dependent Mechanism.
Conclusions: Rather than enhancing RSV disease, BPZE1 protected against viral infection, modified viral responses and enhanced natural mucosal resistance. Prevention of RSV infection by BPZE1 appears in part to be due to induction of IL-17. PMID: 24261996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schnoeller C, Roux X, Sawant D, Raze D, Olszewska W, Locht C, Openshaw PJ Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Estimates of the Need for Palliative Care Consultation across United States ICUs Using a Trigger-based Model.
Conclusions: Approximately one in seven ICU admissions met triggers for palliative care consultation using a single set of triggers, with an upper estimate of one in five patients using multiple sets of triggers; these estimates were consistent across different types of ICUs and individual units. These results may inform staffing requirements for providers to ensure delivery of specialized palliative care to ICU patients nationally. PMID: 24261961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hua M, Li G, Blinderman C, Wunsch H Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Lung Inhomogeneity in Patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
Conclusions: Lung inhomogeneities are associated with overall disease severity and mortality. Increasing the airway pressures decreased but not abolished the extent of lung inhomogeneities. PMID: 24261322 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cressoni M, Cadringher P, Chiurazzi C, Amini M, Gallazzi E, Marino A, Brioni M, Carlesso E, Chiumello D, Quintel M, Bugedo G, Gattinoni L Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research
Amnioinfusion in very early preterm premature rupture of membranes - pregnancy, neonatal and maternal outcomes in the AMIPROM randomised controlled pilot study.
CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study found no major differences in maternal, perinatal or pregnancy outcomes. The study was not designed to show a difference between the groups and the number of survivors too small to draw any conclusions about long -term outcomes. It does signal however that a larger definitive study to evaluate amnioinfusion for improvement in healthy survival is needed. The pilot suggests that with appropriate funding such a study is feasible. PMID: 24265189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Ultrasound Review of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: The Ultrasound Review of Obstetrics and Gynecology - November 21, 2013 Category: Radiology Authors: Roberts D, Vause S, Martin W, Green P, Walkinshaw S, Bricker L, Beardsmore C, Shaw N, McKay A, Skotny G, Williamson P, Alfirevic Z Tags: Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research
A clinical score (RAPID) to identify those at risk of poor outcome at presentation in patients with pleural infection.
CONCLUSION: The RAPID score may permit risk-stratification of patients with pleural infection at presentation and may be usefu0l in guiding initial management. PMID: 24264558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rahman NM, Kahan BC, Miller RF, Gleeson FV, Nunn AJ, Maskell NA Tags: Chest Source Type: research
Occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts and fumes and mortality in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Swedish construction workers - a longitudinal cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to airborne pollution increases the mortality risk for COPD, especially among never-smokers. PMID: 24264472 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Torén K, Järvholm B Tags: Chest Source Type: research
Perception of bronchoconstriction following Methacholine and Eucapnic Voluntary Hyperpnea challenges in elite athletes.
CONCLUSION: Minimal differences in bronchoconstriction-related symptoms' perception between athletes and non-athletes were observed. Among athletes, the presence of an exercise-induced bronchoconstriction/airway hyperresponsiveness, an older age and female gender were associated with slightly higher perception scores. PMID: 24264387 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Couillard S, Bougault V, Turmel J, Boulet LP Tags: Chest Source Type: research
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nocturnal hypoxia and endothelial function in sleep apnea patients.
CONCLUSION: In a large unselected OSA population, the severity of nocturnal hypoxia was independently associated with steatosis. Pre-existing obesity exacerbated the effects of nocturnal hypoxemia. NAFLD is a potential mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in OSA. PMID: 24264333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Minville C, Hilleret MN, Tamisier R, Aron-Wisnewsky J, Clement K, Trocme C, Borel JC, Levy P, Zarski JP, Pepin JL Tags: Chest Source Type: research
Distribution of T cell subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with mild to moderate COPD is dependent on current smoking status and not airway obstruction.
CONCLUSIONS Current smoking status has a greater impact than airway obstruction on the distribution of T cell subsets in BAL of patients with mild to moderate COPD. This must be considered when the role of T cells in COPD is evaluated. Our results stress the importance of subgrouping COPD patients in terms of smoking. PMID: 24264182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Forsslund H, Mikko M, Karimi R, Grunewald J, Wheelock AM, Wahlström J, Sköld CM Tags: Chest Source Type: research
Concordance and discriminatory power of cough measurement devices for individuals with Parkinson's Disease.
CONCLUSIONS: The analog and digital peak airflow meters are suitable alternatives to the gold standard pneumotachograph due to their low cost, portability, ease of use, and high sensitivity relative to normative peak cough airflows. Voluntary cough airflow measures may serve as a noninvasive means of screening for aspiration risk in target populations. Additionally, quantification of cough strength through use of predetermined limens for "weak," "moderate" and "strong" cough may assist clinicians in better describing and tracking cough strength as a contributing factor to aspiration risk. PMID: 24264124 [PubMed - as su...
Source: Chest - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Silverman EP, Carnaby-Mann G, Pitts T, Davenport P, Okun MS, Sapienza C Tags: Chest Source Type: research
Delivery of inhalation drugs to children for asthma and other respiratory diseases.
Abstract Infants and children constitute a patient group that have unique requirements in pulmonary drug delivery. Since their lungs develop continuously until they reach adulthood, the airways undergo changes in dimensions and number. Computational models have been devised on the growth dynamics of the airways during childhood, as well as the particle deposition mechanisms in these growing lungs. The models indicate that total aerosol deposition in the body decreases with age, while deposition in the lungs increases with age. This has been observed on paediatric subjects in in vivo studies. Issues unique to childr...
Source: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews - November 21, 2013 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kwok PC, Chan HK Tags: Adv Drug Deliv Rev Source Type: research
Comparable improvements achieved in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through pulmonary rehabilitation with and without a structured educational intervention: A randomized controlled trial
ConclusionsThe results of this investigation suggest that disease‐specific group education is not an essential component of pulmonary rehabilitation. Pulmonary rehabilitation based on exercise training is an effective option in the management of patients with COPD if multidisciplinary education cannot be offered. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Felicity C. Blackstock, Kate E. Webster, Christine F. McDonald, Catherine J. Hill Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Reporting of exercise attendance rates for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review
Abstract While recommendations for the duration, frequency, mode and intensity of exercise programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are specified in consensus statements, criteria for exercise session attendance are less clear. The review questions were: (i) how commonly are a priori criteria and attendance rates reported for people with COPD participating in exercise programmes and (ii) what is the strength of association between attendance and improvements in functional exercise capacity. Database searches identified primary studies of people with COPD participating in exercise or pulmonary...
Source: Respirology - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marie T. Williams, Lucy K. Lewis, Zoe McKeough, Anne E. Holland, Annemarie Lee, Renae McNamara, Anna Phillips, Louise Wiles, Leona Knapman, Sally Wootton, Maree Milross, Tanja Effing Tags: Review Source Type: research
Lack of efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the lower limbs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: A meta‐analysis
Abstract Randomized controlled trials (RCT) were carried out to investigate the role of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, these studies have small sample size and different measures for evaluating outcomes, and convey inconclusive results. We carried out a meta‐analysis to assess the effects of NMES to COPD patients.A computerized search was performed through PubMed and Embase databases (up to December 2012) for relevant RCT. Two investigators independently screened the articles. The primary outcome measures were quadriceps strength and exe...
Source: Respirology - November 21, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lei Pan, YongZhong Guo, Xunchao Liu, Junhong Yan Tags: Review Source Type: research
Synthesis, modification and docking studies of 5-sulfonyl isatin derivatives as SARS-CoV 3C-like protease inhibitors.
Abstract The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a serious life-threatening and strikingly mortal respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV which contains a chymotrypsin-like main protease analogous to that of the main picornavirus protease, 3CL(pro). 3CL(pro) plays a pivotal role in the viral replication cycle and is a potential target for SARS inhibitor development. A series of isatin derivatives as possible SARS-CoV 3CL(pro) inhibitors was designed, synthesized, and evaluated by in vitro protease assay using fluorogenic substrate peptide, in which several showed potent inhibition against the 3CL(p...
Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry - November 21, 2013 Category: Chemistry Authors: Liu W, Zhu HM, Niu GJ, Shi EZ, Chen J, Sun B, Chen WQ, Zhou HG, Yang C Tags: Bioorg Med Chem Source Type: research
Encapsulation into PEG-Liposomes Does Not Improve the Bioavailability of Pulmonary Delivered Salmon Calcitonin
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery - November 20, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research
Influenza and ischaemic heart disease: research challenges and future directions
Observational evidence is mounting that influenza and acute respiratory infections can precipitate major adverse cardiovascular events such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in vulnerable groups. Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics. Around 50% of infections are asymptomatic1; clinically apparent influenza infection is usually mild and self-limiting, with severe systemic illness affecting a small proportion of people. Deaths typically occur in people at the extremes of age or in those with underlying medical conditions.2 Cardiac pathology in acute influenza infection is thought to result either from direct effects...
Source: Heart - November 20, 2013 Category: Cardiology Authors: Warren-Gash, C. Tags: Drugs: cardiovascular system, Acute coronary syndromes, Venous thromboembolism, Epidemiology, Tobacco use Editorials Source Type: research
State of the evidence: mechanical ventilation with PEEP in patients with cardiogenic shock
The need to provide invasive mechanical ventilatory support to patients with myocardial infarction and acute left heart failure is common. Despite the large number of patients requiring mechanical ventilation in this setting, there are remarkably few data addressing the ideal mode of respiratory support in such patients. Although there is near universal acceptance regarding the use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with acute pulmonary oedema, there is more concern with invasive positive pressure ventilation owing to its more significant haemodynamic impact. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) i...
Source: Heart - November 20, 2013 Category: Cardiology Authors: Wiesen, J., Ornstein, M., Tonelli, A. R., Menon, V., Ashton, R. W. Tags: Reviews Source Type: research
Ischaemic heart disease, influenza and influenza vaccination: a prospective case control study
Conclusions Recent influenza infection was an unrecognised comorbidity in almost 10% of hospital patients. Influenza did not predict AMI, but vaccination was significantly protective but underused. The potential population health impact of influenza vaccination, particularly in the age group 50–64 years, who are at risk for AMI but not targeted for vaccination, should be further explored. Our data should inform vaccination policy and cardiologists should be aware of missed opportunities to vaccinate individuals with ischaemic heart disease against influenza. (Source: Heart)
Source: Heart - November 20, 2013 Category: Cardiology Authors: MacIntyre, C. R., Heywood, A. E., Kovoor, P., Ridda, I., Seale, H., Tan, T., Gao, Z., Katelaris, A. L., Siu, H. W. D., Lo, V., Lindley, R., Dwyer, D. E. Tags: Open access, Editor's choice, Drugs: cardiovascular system, Acute coronary syndromes, Epidemiology Source Type: research
Vaccines for measles, mumps and rubella in children
Abstract BackgroundMumps, measles and rubella (MMR) are serious diseases that can lead to potentially fatal illness, disability and death. However, public debate over the safety of the trivalent MMR vaccine and the resultant drop in vaccination coverage in several countries persists, despite its almost universal use and accepted effectiveness. ObjectivesTo assess the effectiveness and adverse effects associated with the MMR vaccine in children up to 15 years of age. Search methodsFor this update we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), which includes the...
Source: Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal - November 20, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Vittorio Demicheli, Alessandro Rivetti, Maria Grazia Debalini, Carlo Di Pietrantonj Tags: Intervention Review Source Type: research
Monoclonal antibody for reducing the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children
Abstract BackgroundRespiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens causing acute respiratory infections, resulting in about 3.4 million hospitalisations annually in children under five. Palivizumab is the only product approved for prevention of serious RSV disease, as motavizumab is no longer being developed for this condition. The efficacy and safety of palivizumab has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and a large number of economic evaluations (EEs) have tested its cost‐effectiveness. ObjectivesTo assess the effectiveness and safety of palivizumab prophylaxis in reduci...
Source: Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal - November 20, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tea Andabaka, Jason W Nickerson, Maria Ximena Rojas‐Reyes, Juan David Rueda, Vesna Bacic Vrca, Bruno Barsic Tags: Intervention Review Source Type: research
Cochrane in context: Monoclonal antibody for reducing the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children
Abstract Cochrane Review: Monoclonal antibody for reducing the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children Andabaka T, Nickerson JW, Rojas‐Reyes MX, Rueda JD, Bacic Vrca V, Barsic B. Monoclonal antibody for reducing the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006602. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006602.pub4 This companion piece to the review, “Monoclonal antibody for reducing the risk of respiratory syncytial virus infection in children,” contains the following pieces: The abstract of the review A commentary from one or...
Source: Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal - November 20, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tea Andabaka, Maria Ximena Rojas‐Reyes Tags: Commentary Source Type: research
The diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion and plasma samples versus tumour tissue for detection of EGFR mutation in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: comparison of methodologies
Conclusions MPE and plasma are valid surrogates for NSCLC tumour EGFR mutation detection when tissue is not available. ARMS is most suitable for mutation detection in tissue and MPE cell blocks; however, mutant-specific IHC could be a complementary method when DNA-based molecular testing is unavailable. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - November 20, 2013 Category: Pathology Authors: Liu, X., Lu, Y., Zhu, G., Lei, Y., Zheng, L., Qin, H., Tang, C., Ellison, G., McCormack, R., Ji, Q. Tags: Open access, Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine) Original article Source Type: research
The lateral habenular nucleus mediates signal transduction from the insular cortex in OSA rats.
CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates the mechanism by which an animal model of OSA is created by stimulating the Ic and promotes understanding of OSA pathogenesis. PMID: 24254575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - November 20, 2013 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Wang J, Wang M, Wei Z, Li M, Huang M, Wang S Tags: Sleep Breath Source Type: research
Negative regulation of mitochondrial transcription by mitochondrial topoisomerase I
In conclusion, mitochondrial topoisomerase I dampens mitochondrial transcription and thereby alters respiratory capacity. The mechanism involves selective association of the active enzyme with transcriptionally active nucleoids and a direct interaction with mitochondrial RNA polymerase. The inhibitory role of topoisomerase I in mitochondrial transcription is strikingly different from the stimulatory role of topoisomerase I in nuclear transcription. (Source: Nucleic Acids Research)
Source: Nucleic Acids Research - November 20, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Sobek, S., Dalla Rosa, I., Pommier, Y., Bornholz, B., Kalfalah, F., Zhang, H., Wiesner, R. J., von Kleist-Retzow, J.-C., Hillebrand, F., Schaal, H., Mielke, C., Christensen, M. O., Boege, F. Tags: Nucleic Acid Enzymes Source Type: research
The effects of exogenous surfactant administration on ventilation-induced inflammation in mouse models of lung injury
Conclusions: The data indicates that exogenous surfactant did not mitigate ventilation-induced systemic inflammation in our models. Future studies will focus on altering surfactant composition to improve its immuno-modulating activity. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - November 20, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Valeria PuntorieriJosh Qua HiansenLynda McCaigLi-Juan YaoRuud VeldhuizenJames Lewis Source Type: research
Serum heat shock protein 47 levels in patients with drug-induced lung disease
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that serum HSP47 levels were elevated in patients with DILD with a DAD pattern who had the worst outcomes among the different subgroups, and that this was correlated with P/F ratio and A-a DO2. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - November 20, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tomoyuki KakugawaShin-ichi YokotaYuji IshimatsuTomayoshi HayashiShota NakashimaShintaro HaraNoriho SakamotoYasuhiro MatsuokaHiroshi KubotaMariko MineHiroshi MukaeKazuhiro NagataShigeru Kohno Source Type: research