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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 14.

Maintenance of Phagosomal Proteolytic Activity by GILT [Cell Biology]
Although it is known that lysosomal cysteine cathepsins require a reducing environment for optimal activity, it is not firmly established how these enzymes are maintained in their reduced-active state in the acidic and occasionally oxidative environment within phagosomes and lysosomes. γ-Interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) has been the only enzyme described in the endosomes, lysosomes, and phagosomes with the potential to catalyze the reduction of cysteine cathepsins. Our goal in the current study was to assess the effect of GILT on major phagosomal functions with an emphasis on proteolytic efficiency in...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - November 13, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Balce, D. R., Allan, E. R. O., McKenna, N., Yates, R. M. Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Metabolism and water loss rate of the haematophagous insect, Rhodnius prolixus: effect of starvation and temperature [Research Article]
Carmen Rolandi, Monica S. Iglesias, and Pablo E. SchilmanHaematophagous insects suffer big changes in water needs under different levels of starvation. Rhodnius prolixus is the most important haematophagous vector of Chagas disease in the north of South America and a model organism in insect physiology. Although, there are some studies on patterns of gas exchange and metabolic rates, there is little information regarding water loss in R. prolixus. We investigated if there is any modulation of water loss and metabolic rates under different requirements for saving water. We measured simultaneously CO2 production, water emiss...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - November 13, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: Rolandi, C., Iglesias, M. S., Schilman, P. E. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) [Research Article]
Sjannie Lefevre, Christian Damsgaard, Goran E. Nilsson, Desirae R. Pascale, and Jonathan A. W. StecykThe Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand this species’ respiratory physiology under these conditions, and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake (SMO2) in normoxia (19.8 kPa PO2)...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - November 13, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: Lefevre, S., Damsgaard, C., Nilsson, G. E., Pascale, D. R., Stecyk, J. A. W. Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Anaemia only causes a small reduction in the upper critical temperature of sea bass: is oxygen delivery the limiting factor for tolerance of acute warming in fishes? [Short Communication]
Tobias Wang, Sjannie Lefevre, Nina K. Iversen, Inge Findorf, Rasmus Buchanan, and David J. McKenzieTo address how capacity for oxygen transport influences tolerance of acute warming in fishes, we investigated whether a reduction in haematocrit, by means of intra-peritoneal injection of the haemolytic agent phenylhydrazine, lowered upper critical temperature of sea bass. A reduction in haematocrit from 42±2 to 20±3% (mean ± s.e.m.) caused a significant but minor reduction in upper critical temperature, from 35.8 ± 0.1 to 35.1±0.2°C, with no correlation between individual values for hae...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - November 13, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: Wang, T., Lefevre, S., Iversen, N. K., Findorf, I., Buchanan, R., McKenzie, D. J. Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

POCS-based reconstruction of multiplexed sensitivity encoded MRI (POCSMUSE): A general algorithm for reducing motion-related artifacts.
CONCLUSION: POCSMUSE is a general post-processing algorithm for reduction of motion-related artifacts. It is compatible with different pulse sequences, and can also be used to further reduce residual artifacts in data produced by existing motion artifact reduction methods. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 25394325 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - November 13, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Chu ML, Chang HC, Chung HW, Truong TK, Bashir MR, Chen NK Tags: Magn Reson Med Source Type: research

Correction
Laramée P, Brodtkorb T-H, Rahhali N, et al. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcoholdependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model. BMJ Open 2014;4:e005376. The 95% confidence intervals published in the ‘Lower respiratory tract infections’ row of table 9 are incorrect. The correct table 9 is below. Table 9Number of patients experiencing modelled harmful events at one year and five years per 100 000 patients for nalmefene plus psychosocial support, psychosocia...
Source: BMJ Open - November 13, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Intermittent Antibiotic Therapy for Nodular Bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease.
Conclusions: These results suggest that intermittent three-times-weekly therapy with a macrolide, rifampin, and ethambutol is a reasonable initial treatment regimen for patients with non-cavitary nodular bronchiectatic MAC lung disease. Clinical trial registration can be found at www. clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT00970801. PMID: 25393520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jeong BH, Jeon K, Park HY, Kim SY, Lee KS, Huh HJ, Ki CS, Lee NY, Shin SJ, Daley CL, Koh WJ Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

CT Measurement of Airway Remodeling and Emphysema in Advanced COPD: Correlation to Pulmonary Hypertension.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates for the first time an association between structural alteration of bronchi and PH in COPD. Unlike quantification of emphysema, CT measurement of airway remodeling correlates to PAPm and could estimate the severity of PH in COPD. Airway remodeling burden is not limited to airflow limitation to explain COPD severity and mortality. PMID: 25393421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dournes G, Laurent F, Coste F, Dromer C, Blanchard E, Picard F, Baldacci F, Montaudon M, Girodet PO, Marthan R, Berger P Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

The Association Between ARDS, Delirium, and In-hospital Mortality in ICU Patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ARDS is associated with a greater risk for ICU delirium than mechanical ventilation alone, and that the association between ARDS and in-hospital mortality is weakened after adjusting for delirium and coma. Future studies are needed to determine if prevention and reduction of delirium in ARDS patients can improve outcomes. PMID: 25393331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hsieh SJ, Soto GJ, Hope AA, Ponea A, Gong MN Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Riociguat for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a long-term extension study (CHEST-2).
Abstract Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for the treatment of inoperable and persistent/recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). In the 16-week CHEST-1 study, riociguat showed a favourable benefit-risk profile and improved several clinically relevant end-points in patients with CTEPH. The CHEST-2 open-label extension evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of riociguat. Eligible patients from CHEST-1 received riociguat individually adjusted up to a maximum dose of 2.5 mg three-times daily. The primary objective was the safety and tolerability of riociguat; ex...
Source: Respiratory Care - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Simonneau G, D'Armini AM, Ghofrani HA, Grimminger F, Hoeper MM, Jansa P, Kim NH, Wang C, Wilkins M, Fritsch A, Davie N, Colorado P, Mayer E Tags: Eur Respir J Source Type: research

A contemporary survival analysis of individuals with cystic fibrosis: a cohort study.
Abstract Previously established predictors of survival may no longer apply in the current era of cystic fibrosis (CF) care. Our objective was to identify risk factors associated with survival in a contemporary CF population. We used the Canadian CF Registry, a population-based cohort, to calculate median age of survival and summarise patient characteristics from 1990 to 2012. Clinical, demographic and geographical factors, and survival were estimated for a contemporary cohort (2000-2012) using Cox proportional hazards models. There were 5787 individuals in the registry between 1990 and 2012. Median survival age inc...
Source: Respiratory Care - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stephenson AL, Tom M, Berthiaume Y, Singer LG, Aaron SD, Whitmore GA, Stanojevic S Tags: Eur Respir J Source Type: research

Spirometric reference values for Malagasy adults aged 18-73 years.
The objectives of this study were to establish prediction equations for healthy Malagasy adults, and then compare Malagasy measurements with published prediction equations. We enrolled 2491 healthy Malagasy subjects aged 18-73 years (1428 males) from June 2006 to April 2008. The subjects attempted to meet the ATS/ERS 2005 guidelines when performing forced expiratory spirograms. We compared Malagasy measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC with predictions from the European Community for Steel and Coal (ECSC), the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ...
Source: Respiratory Care - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ratomaharo J, Linares Perdomo O, Collingridge DS, Andriamihaja R, Hegewald M, Jensen RL, Hankinson J, Morris AH Tags: Eur Respir J Source Type: research

Dead space: the physiology of wasted ventilation.
Abstract An elevated physiological dead space, calculated from measurements of arterial CO2 and mixed expired CO2, has proven to be a useful clinical marker of prognosis both for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and for patients with severe heart failure. Although a frequently cited explanation for an elevated dead space measurement has been the development of alveolar regions receiving no perfusion, evidence for this mechanism is lacking in both of these disease settings. For the range of physiological abnormalities associated with an increased physiological dead space measurement, increased alveo...
Source: Respiratory Care - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Robertson HT Tags: Eur Respir J Source Type: research

Short telomeres, telomeropathy and subclinical extra-pulmonary organ damage in patients with interstitial lung disease.
Conclusion: Subclinical bone marrow and liver abnormalities can be seen in patients with ILD and short telomeres, in some cases in the absence of clinically significant abnormalities in peripheral blood counts and liver function tests. A larger study examining the implication of these findings on the outcome of patients with ILD and short telomeres is needed. PMID: 25393420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: George G, Rosas IO, Cui Y, McKane C, Hunninghake GM, Camp PC, Raby BA, Goldberg HJ, El-Chemaly S Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Safety of Flexible Bronchoscopy, Rigid Bronchoscopy, and Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in Patients with Malignant Space-Occupying Brain Lesions.
Conclusion: On the basis of our findings, we recommend that procedures such as flexible or rigid bronchoscopy or EBUS-TBNA in patients with malignant space-occupying brain lesions should be considered reasonably safe in patients with space-occupying brain lesions as long as neurologic findings are stable. PMID: 25393333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Grosu HB, Morice RC, Sarkiss M, Bashoura L, Eapen GA, Jimenez CA, Faiz S, Lazarus DR, Casal RF, Ost DE Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Physiological Characterization of the Chronic Bronchitis Phenotype in GOLD Grade 1B COPD.
Conclusion: Patients with CB reported greater chronic dyspnea and activity restriction than non-CB patients with similar mild airway obstruction. The CB group had greater dynamic respiratory mechanical impairment and dyspnea during exercise than non-CB patients, which may help explain some differences in important patient-centered outcomes between the groups. PMID: 25393126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Elbehairy AF, Raghavan N, Cheng S, Yang L, Webb KA, Neder JA, Guenette JA, Mahmoud MI, O'Donnell DE, on behalf of the Canadian Respiratory Research Network Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Assessing the utility of ICU readmissions as a quality metric: An analysis of changes mediated by residency work-hour reforms.
Conclusions: The changes in ICU readmission rates after reform, without corresponding changes in mortality, suggest that ICU readmissions are not causally related to other untoward patient outcomes. Instead, ICU readmission rates likely reflect operational aspects of care that are not patient-centered, making them less useful indicators of ICU quality. PMID: 25393027 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brown SE, Ratcliffe SJ, Halpern SD Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Exhaled air dispersion during non-invasive ventilation via helmets and a total facemask.
Conclusion: Helmet with a good seal around the neck is needed to prevent nosocomial infection during non-invasive ventilation for patients with respiratory infections. PMID: 25392954 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - November 13, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hui DS, Chow BK, Lo T, Ng S, Ko FW, Gin T, Chan MT Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Ex Vivo Expanded Allogeneic Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Bone Marrow Transplantation Improved Osteogenesis in Infants with Severe Hypophosphatasia.
Abstract Patients with severe hypophosphatasia (HPP) develop osteogenic impairment with extremely low alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, resulting in a fatal course during infancy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into various mesenchymal lineages, including bone and cartilage. The efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for congenital skeletal and storage disorders is limited, and therefore, we focused on MSCs for the treatment of HPP. To determine the effect of MSCs on osteogenesis, we performed multiple infusions of ex vivo expanded allogeneic MSCs for 2 patients with severe H...
Source: Cell Transplantation - November 13, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Taketani T, Oyama C, Mihara A, Tanabe Y, Abe M, Hirade T, Yamamoto S, Bo R, Kanai R, Tadenuma T, Michibata Y, Yamamoto S, Hattori M, Katsube Y, Ohnishi H, Sasao M, Oda Y, Hattori K, Yuba S, Ohgushi H, Yamaguchi S Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research

PK PD of apixaban and rivaroxaban in healthy subjects
Frost C, Song Y, Barrett YC, Wang J, Pursley J, Boyd RA, LaCreta F (Source: International Journal of COPD)
Source: International Journal of COPD - November 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The role of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of infections in child day-care centres
Infants and children attending day-care centres demonstrate a notably higher risk of gastrointestinal as well as of respiratory tract infections. The present short review evaluates various well-controlled clinical trials analysing the effect of probiotics and prebiotics in the prevention of such infections. In most of the 12 studies identified, probiotic supplementation was found to be a safe and effective therapeutic tool in preventing gastrointestinal and respiratory infection in this population. Content Type Journal ArticleIssue Title Prebiotics and probiotics in paediatricsCategory Review-ArticlePages 1-3DOI 10.3920/B...
Source: Beneficial Microbes - November 12, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Beneficial Microbes Source Type: research

European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012.
Authors: Fokkens WJ, Lund VJ, Mullol J, Bachert C, Alobid I, Baroody F, Cohen N, Cervin A, Douglas R, Gevaert P, Georgalas C, Goossens H, Harvey R, Hellings P, Hopkins C, Jones N, Joos G, Kalogjera L, Kern B, Kowalski M, Price D, Riechelmann H, Schlosser R, Senior B, Thomas M, Toskala E, Voegels R, Wang de Y, Wormald PJ Abstract The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, co...
Source: Rhinology. Supplement - November 12, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Rhinol Suppl Source Type: research

4-Phase-Rhinomanometry (4PR)--basics and practice 2010.
Authors: Vogt K, Jalowayski AA, Althaus W, Cao C, Han D, Hasse W, Hoffrichter H, Mösges R, Pallanch J, Shah-Hosseini K, Peksis K, Wernecke KD, Zhang L, Zaporoshenko P Abstract The last comprehensive publications about the theory and practice of rhinomanometry appeared more than 20 years ago. Since the 1980's, the general progress of sensor techniques, fluid physics and data processing was accompanied by the permanent work of the authors to analyze the errors of rhinomanometry and to create a fundament for a contemporary and practical method that can be used in functional diagnostics of the nasal air stream. In thi...
Source: Rhinology. Supplement - November 12, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Rhinol Suppl Source Type: research

Respecting nasal mucosa during turbinate surgery: end of the dogma?
CONCLUSION: Total removal of the inferior turbinate mucosa with the microdebrider in patients suffering from hypertrophic chronic rhinitis allows the perfect regeneration of physiological respiratory tissue and doesn`t have a negative impact on healing time and offsets any adverse postoperative event. PMID: 24260771 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Rhinology)
Source: Rhinology - November 12, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Rhinology Source Type: research

Aspirin and salicylate in respiratory disease.
This article describes the natural history, pathogenesis and diagnosis of Aspirin Exacerbated Respiratory Disease. The evidence base for the role of oral aspirin and nasal L-Lysine-aspirin desensitisation is reviewed. Evidence for the role of dietary salicylic acid and its avoidance is also reviewed. PMID: 23943725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Rhinology)
Source: Rhinology - November 12, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Tags: Rhinology Source Type: research

Inhibition of murine cardiomyocyte respiration by amine local anesthetics
Abstract The hydrophobic amino acyl amide-linked local anesthetics (e.g., lidocaine and bupivacaine) impose potent cardiac toxicity and direct mitochondrial dysfunction. To investigate these adverse events, an in vitro system was employed to measure their effects on O2 consumption (cellular respiration) by murine myocardium. Specimens were collected from the ventricular myocardium and immediately immersed in ice-cold Krebs–Henseleit buffer saturated with 95 % O2:5 % CO2. O2 concentration was determined as a function of time from the phosphorescence decay rates of Pd(II)-meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-tetraben...
Source: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics - November 12, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among U.S. youth aged 12-15 years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012.
This report presents the most recent national data on the percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are based on standards that are age- and sex-specific and established based on how fit children need to be for good health. PMID: 24871993 [PubMed - in process] (Source: NCHS data brief)
Source: NCHS data brief - November 12, 2014 Category: American Health Tags: NCHS Data Brief Source Type: research

Trends in allergic conditions among children: United States, 1997-2011.
This report presents recent trends in the prevalence of allergies and differences by selected sociodemographic characteristics for children under age 18 years. PMID: 23742874 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: NCHS data brief)
Source: NCHS data brief - November 12, 2014 Category: American Health Tags: NCHS Data Brief Source Type: research

Death in the United States, 2010.
Authors: Minino AM, Murphy SL Abstract Data from the National Vital Statistics System (Mortality) Life expectancy at birth is 78.7 years. Hispanic females have the longest life expectancy (83.8 years) followed by non-Hispanic white females (81.1 years). The largest decrease in mortality between the years 2000 and 2010 occurred in the age group under age 25 years (15.8 percent), followed by those aged 65 years and over (13.3 percent). States in the southeast region generally have higher death rates than those in other regions of the country. In 2010, the five leading causes of death were: heart disease, cancer, chro...
Source: NCHS data brief - November 12, 2014 Category: American Health Tags: NCHS Data Brief Source Type: research

75 years of mortality in the United States, 1935-2010.
Authors: Hoyert DL Abstract While the overall risk of mortality decreased 60 percent over this 75-year period, there were fluctuations in the rate of decline most likely associated with changes in the broader environment. For example, the 29 percent decline in age-adjusted mortality in the earlier period from 1935 to 1954 was probably influenced by the introduction of various drugs such as antibiotics (2). In contrast, in the period 1955 to 1968, age-adjusted death rates decreased by only 2 percent, influenced in part by increases in diseases linked to tobacco use such as cancer and chronic lower respiratory diseas...
Source: NCHS data brief - November 12, 2014 Category: American Health Tags: NCHS Data Brief Source Type: research

Linkage of the 1999-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to traffic indicators from the National Highway Planning Network.
CONCLUSIONS: These data may be a resource for understanding relationships between traffic exposure and adverse health, and for identifying subgroups that may be at increased risk. The NHANES-traffic data are restricted use and available to data users in the Research Data Center at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. PMID: 22803222 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: National health statistics reports)
Source: National health statistics reports - November 12, 2014 Category: American Health Tags: Natl Health Stat Report Source Type: research

National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2007 summary.
This report presents national estimates of hospital inpatient care in the United States during 2007 and selected trend data. Numbers and rates of discharges, diagnoses, and procedures are shown by age and sex. Average lengths of stay are presented for all discharges and for selected diagnostic categories by age and by sex. METHODS: The estimates are based on data collected through the 2007 National Hospital Discharge Survey, an annual national probability sample survey of discharges from nonfederal, general, and short-stay hospitals. Sample data are weighted to produce annual estimates of inpatient care, excluding newb...
Source: National health statistics reports - November 12, 2014 Category: American Health Tags: Natl Health Stat Report Source Type: research

Childhood health: trends and consequences over the life course.
Conclusions about rapidly rising rates of childhood physical health problems over time are premature at best, especially concerning the magnitude of trends. Documenting real changes in the prevalence of specific diseases is a high-priority research topic. In contrast, the evidence is much stronger that childhood mental health problems are becoming worse. The authors next present new evidence on the effects of early childhood physical and mental problems on health and economic status in adulthood. They find that both childhood physical and mental health problems contribute significantly to poorer adult health. However, they...
Source: Future of Children - November 12, 2014 Category: Child Development Tags: Future Child Source Type: research

The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure
Research Articles Elisabeth Conradt, David Degarmo, Phil Fisher, Beau Abar, Barry M. Lester, Linda L. Lagasse, Seetha Shankaran, Henrietta Bada, Charles R. Bauer, Toni M. Whitaker, Jane A. Hammond, Development and Psychopathology, Volume 26 Issue 4pt1, pp 901-916Abstract (Source: Development and Psychopathology)
Source: Development and Psychopathology - November 12, 2014 Category: Child Development Source Type: research

The role of cytokine responses during influenza virus pathogenesis and potential therapeutic options.
Authors: Teijaro JR Abstract Aberrant pulmonary immune responses are linked to the pathogenesis of multiple human respiratory viral infections. Elevated cytokine and chemokine production "cytokine storm" has been continuously associated with poor clinical outcome and pathogenesis during influenza virus infection in humans and animal models. Initial trials using global immune suppression with corticosteroids or targeted neutralization of single inflammatory mediators proved ineffective to ameliorate pathology during pathogenic influenza virus infection. Thus, it was believed that cytokine storm was either chemically...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

B cell responses to influenza infection and vaccination.
Authors: Chiu C, Ellebedy AH, Wrammert J, Ahmed R Abstract Although vaccines against influenza are widely available, control of the disease remains elusive. In part, this is due to the inability of current vaccines to induce durable, broadly protective immune responses. Prevention of influenza depends primarily on effective antibody responses that block virus entry. Following infection, high-affinity IgA antibodies are generated in the respiratory tract that lead to immune exclusion, while IgG prevents systemic spread. These are effective and long-lasting but also exert immune pressure. Mutation of the antigenic de...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Avian influenza virus transmission to mammals.
Authors: Herfst S, Imai M, Kawaoka Y, Fouchier RA Abstract Influenza A viruses cause yearly epidemics and occasional pandemics. In addition, zoonotic influenza A viruses sporadically infect humans and may cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Fortunately, most of these viruses do not have the ability to be efficiently spread among humans via aerosols or respiratory droplets (airborne transmission) and to subsequently cause a pandemic. However, adaptation of these zoonotic viruses to humans by mutation or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in airborne transmissible viruses with pandemi...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

The effector T cell response to influenza infection.
Authors: Hufford MM, Kim TS, Sun J, Braciale TJ Abstract Influenza virus infection induces a potent initial innate immune response, which serves to limit the extent of viral replication and virus spread. However, efficient (and eventual) viral clearance within the respiratory tract requires the subsequent activation, rapid proliferation, recruitment, and expression of effector activities by the adaptive immune system, consisting of antibody producing B cells and influenza-specific T lymphocytes with diverse functions. The ensuing effector activities of these T lymphocytes ultimately determine (along with antibodies...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Pathogenesis and vaccination of influenza a virus in Swine.
Authors: Rajao DS, Anderson TK, Gauger PC, Vincent AL Abstract Swine influenza is an acute respiratory disease of pigs caused by influenza A virus (IAV) and characterized by fever followed by lethargy, anorexia, and serous nasal discharge. The disease progresses rapidly and may be complicated when associated with other respiratory pathogens. IAV is one of the most prevalent respiratory pathogens of swine, resulting in substantial economic burden to pork producers. In the past 10-15 years, a dramatic evolution of the IAV in U.S. swine has occurred, resulting in the co-circulation of many antigenically distinct IAV ...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

The hemagglutinin: a determinant of pathogenicity.
Authors: Böttcher-Friebertshäuser E, Garten W, Matrosovich M, Klenk HD Abstract The hemagglutinin (HA) is a prime determinant of the pathogenicity of influenza A viruses. It initiates infection by binding to cell surface receptors and by inducing membrane fusion. The fusion capacity of HA depends on cleavage activation by host proteases, and it has long been known that highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses displaying a multibasic cleavage site differ in protease sensitivity from low pathogenic avian and mammalian influenza viruses with a monobasic cleavage site. Evidence is increasing that there are also vari...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Mucosal Immunization and Adjuvants.
Authors: Hasegawa H, van Reit E, Kida H Abstract The goal of the influenza vaccine is to prevent influenzaInfluenza virus infection and control the yearly seasonal epidemic and pandemic. However, the presently available parenteral influenza vaccine induces only systemic humoral immunity, which does not prevent influenza virus infection on the mucosal surface. Secretary IgA antibodiesIgA antibodies play an important role in preventing natural infection. Moreover, the IgA antibody response mediates cross-protectionCross-protection against variant viruses in animal models. Thus, a mucosal influenza vaccine that induce...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - November 12, 2014 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research