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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 15.

Implementing systems medicine within healthcare
Editorial summary The cause of a complex disease cannot be pinpointed to a single origin; rather, a highly complex network of many factors that interact on different levels over time and space is disturbed. This complexity requires novel approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. To foster the necessary shift to a pro-active systems medicine, proof-of-concept studies are needed. Here, we highlight several systems approaches that have been shown to work within the field of respiratory medicine, and we propose the next steps for broader implementation. (Source: Genome Medicine)
Source: Genome Medicine - September 29, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Physiological and transcriptional responses of nitrifying bacteria exposed to copper in activated sludge
In this study, the transcription of amoA (for AOB) and nxrB (for NOB), nitrification efficiencies, AOB and NOB respiratory rates, and Cu distribution were simultaneously investigated. Modeling the relationships among the aforementioned parameters revealed that in complex activated sludge systems, nitrification efficiency was an insensitive parameter for showing Cu inhibition. Respiration activities and gene transcription were sensitive to Cu and positively correlated with each other. The transcription of amoA and nxrB genes indicated that the Cu had different inhibitory effects on AOB and NOB. AOB were more susceptible to ...
Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - September 29, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Structure of subcomplex I{beta} of mammalian complex I [Biochemistry]
Mitochondrial complex I (proton-pumping NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is an essential respiratory enzyme. Mammalian complex I contains 45 subunits: 14 conserved “core” subunits and 31 “supernumerary” subunits. The structure of Bos taurus complex I, determined to 5-Å resolution by electron cryomicroscopy, described the structure of the mammalian core enzyme and allowed the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 29, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Zhu, J., King, M. S., Yu, M., Klipcan, L., Leslie, A. G. W., Hirst, J. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Partition, orientation and mobility of ubiquinones in a lipid bilayer
Publication date: December 2015 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics, Volume 1847, Issue 12 Author(s): Vanesa Viviana Galassi, Guilherme Menegon Arantes Ubiquinone is the universal mobile charge carrier involved in biological electron transfer processes. Its redox properties and biological function depend on the molecular partition and lateral diffusion over biological membranes. However, ubiquinone localization and dynamics within lipid bilayers are long debated and still uncertain. Here we present molecular dynamics simulations of several ubiquinone homologs with variable isoprenoid tail lengths...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Bioenergetics - September 29, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Design of the remedē System Pivotal Trial: A Prospective, Randomized Study in the Use of Respiratory Rhythm Management to Treat Central Sleep Apnea
Central sleep apnea is common in patients with cardiovascular disease and worsens outcomes. There is a lack of established therapies for central sleep apnea, and those available are limited by poor patient adherence and potentially adverse cardiovascular effects, at least in a subset of patients. The remedē® System (Respicardia, Inc., Minnetonka, Minnesota) is a new physiological treatment that uses transvenous phrenic nerve stimulation to contract the diaphragm thereby stabilizing gas exchange and restoring normal breathing throughout the sleep period. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 29, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Maria Rosa Costanzo, Ralph Augostini, Lee R. Goldberg, Piotr Ponikowski, Christoph Stellbrink, Shahrokh Javaheri Tags: Clinical Trials Methods and Design Source Type: research

Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Abnormalities in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
Despite advances in the care of preterm infants, these infants remain at risk bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which results in prolonged need for supplemental oxygen, recurrent respiratory exacerbations, and exercise intolerance. Recent investigations have highlighted the important contribution of the developing pulmonary circulation to lung development, showing that these infants are also at risk for pulmonary vascular disease (PVD), including pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary vascular abnormalities. Several epidemiologic studies have delineated the incidence of PH in preterm infants and the impact on outcomes. ...
Source: Clinics in Perinatology - September 29, 2015 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Peter M. Mourani, Steven H. Abman Source Type: research

Labor induction in the patient with preterm premature rupture of membranes
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) affects up to one-third of all preterm births and confers serious maternal risks, including intra-amniotic infection, and an increased risk of neonatal complications, including respiratory distress and intraventricular hemorrhage. Management of PPROM is a highly individualized process that requires an accurate determination of gestational age and causal factors, as well as the balancing of maternal and fetal risks. In this review of the existing literature on induction of labor in PPROM, we examine the differences in appropriate management of patients with early (32 weeks 0 da...
Source: Seminars in Perinatology - September 29, 2015 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Roger Everett Packard, Awathif Dhanya Mackeen Source Type: research

PD-L1 expression is increased in monocyte derived dendritic cells in response to porcine circovirus type 2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infections
In this study, porcine monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDC) were infected with different combinations of PCV2 and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and evaluated for expression levels of PD-L1, as well as the expression levels of swine major histocompatibility complexes 1 and 2 (SLA-1 and SLA-2) as a measure of MoDC stimulatory capacity. PD-L1 expression levels were also tested in MoDCs after treatment with interferon alpha (IFN-α) and beta (IFN-β). The results showed that the expression levels of PD-L1 were increased in PCV2-infected MoDCs, as well as in PCV2 and PRRSV co-infected MoDCs. The...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - September 29, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The relationship between perioperative administration of inhaled corticosteroid and postoperative respiratory complications after pulmonary resection for non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusion There was no relationship between perioperative ICS administration and the incidences of postoperative respiratory complications after surgical resection for NSCLC in COPD patients. (Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - September 29, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Antibiotic prescribing practices for patients with fever in the transition from presumptive treatment of malaria to ‘confirm and treat’ in Zambia: a cross‐sectional study
ConclusionsTesting positive for malaria or receiving a malaria diagnosis was associated with reduced antibiotic prescribing, while testing negative, not being tested or a diagnosis of URTI resulted in higher rates of antibiotic prescribing. There is a need for improving diagnostic capacity for non‐malaria causes of febrile illness at healthcare delivery points and limiting antibiotic use to patients with definite bacterial infections. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health - September 29, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Micky Ndhlovu, Emmy Nkhama, John M. Miller, Davidson H. Hamer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Regulation and Function of the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Lung Disease.
Abstract Inflammasomes are specialized inflammatory signaling platforms that govern the maturation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 through the regulation of caspase-1-dependent proteolytic processing. Several NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members (i.e., NLRP1, NLRP3, and NLRC4) as well as the PYHIN family member AIM2 can form inflammasome complexes in human cells. In particular, the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in response to cellular stresses through a two component pathway, involving TLR4-ligand interaction (priming) followed by a second signal such as AT...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - September 29, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Lee S, Suh GY, Ryter SW, Choi AM Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Transfusion Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI): A Single Institution Experience of 15 Years
We present a 15 year single institution experience of TRALI, during which we observed 9 cases among 170,871 transfusions, giving an incidence of 1:19,000. We did not encounter cases of haematological malignancy or cardiac surgery in our TRALI patients. Among the blood products, that could be related to TRALI in our patients included solitary cases receiving cryoprecipitate, IVIg, and recombinant Factor VII apart from platelets and FFP. All patients were treated with oxygen support. Six patients required mechanical ventilation. Off label hydrocortisone was given to all patients. There were no cases of fatality among our pa...
Source: Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion - September 29, 2015 Category: Hematology Source Type: research

Conservation of nucleotide sequences for molecular diagnosis of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus, 2015
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 29, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuki Furuse, Michiko Okamoto, Hitoshi Oshitani Source Type: research

Quantization accuracy of short-duration respiratory-gated PET/CT acquisitions
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a widely applied imaging modality (notably for the diagnosis, staging and follow-up of lung and abdominal cancers). The standardized uptake value (SUV) is a semi-quantitative index that reflects tissue glucose metabolism. It is used as a clinical criterion for differentiating between benign and malignant lesions and for evaluating the treatment response in lung cancer [1]. In PET, the accuracy of quantification depends closely on the accuracy of several corrections, of which attenuation correction is one of the most important. (Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics)
Source: Physica Medica: European Journal of Medical Physics - September 29, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Joël Daouk, Pascal Bailly, Marc-Etienne Meyer Tags: Technical Notes Source Type: research

TPM3 deletions cause a hypercontractile congenital muscle stiffness phenotype
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Annals of Neurology)
Source: Annals of Neurology - September 29, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: S. Donkervoort, M. Papadaki, J.M. de Winter, M.B. Neu, J. Kirschner, V. Bolduc, M.L. Yang, M.A. Gibbons, Y. Hu, J. Dastgir, M.E. Leach, A. Rutkowski, A.R. Foley, M. Krüger, E.P. Wartchow, E. McNamara, R. Ong, K.J. Nowak, N.G. Laing, N.F. Clarke, C.A.C. O Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Severe Sarcoidosis
In sarcoidosis, reduction in mortality and the prevention of disability due to major organ involvement are treatment goals. Thus, it is important to recognize severe disease and identify patients at higher risk of progression to severe disease. In this article, fibrotic lung disease and cardiac sarcoidosis are reviewed as the major contributors to sarcoidosis mortality and morbidity. In the absence of a standardized definition of severe pulmonary disease, a multidisciplinary approach to clinical staging is suggested, based on symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and imaging findings at presentation, integrated with the dura...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - September 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vasileios Kouranos, Joe Jacob, Athol U. Wells Source Type: research

Genetics of Sarcoidosis
Sarcoidosis is a disease with highly variable presentation and progression; although it is hypothesized that disease phenotype is related to genetic variation, how much of this variability is driven by genetic factors is not known. The HLA region is the most strongly and consistently associated genetic risk factor for sarcoidosis, supporting the notion that sarcoidosis is an exposure-mediated immunologic disease. Most of the genetic etiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown in terms of the specific variants that increase risk in various populations, their biologic functions, and how they interact with environmental exposures...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - September 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tasha E. Fingerlin, Nabeel Hamzeh, Lisa A. Maier Source Type: research

Immune parameters differentiating active from latent tuberculosis infection in humans
Tuberculosis remains a highly prevalent infectious disease worldwide. Identification of the immune parameters that differentiate active disease from latent infection will facilitate the development of efficient control measures as well as new diagnostic modalities for tuberculosis. Here, we investigated the cytokine production profiles of monocytes and CD4+ T lymphocytes upon encountering mycobacterial antigens. In addition, cytokines and lipid mediators with immune-modulating activities were examined in plasma samples ex vivo. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - September 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ji Yeon Lee, Young Won Jung, Ina Jeong, Joon-Sung Joh, Soo Yeon Sim, Boram Choi, Hyeon-Gun Jee, Dong-Gyun Lim Tags: Immunological Aspects Source Type: research

The effect of HIV coinfection, HAART and TB treatment on cytokine/chemokine responses to antigens in active TB patients and latently infected individuals
Identification of Mtb specific induced cytokine/chemokine host biomarkers could assist in developing novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools for TB.Levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, IL-10, IP-10 and MIP-1α were measured in supernatants of whole blood stimulated with Mtb specific fusion protein ESAT-6/CFP-10 using xMAP technology. The study groups were HIV positive TB patients (HIV+TB+), HIV negative TB patients (HIV-TB+), HIV positive tuberculin skin test positive (TST+) (HIV+TST+), HIV negative TST+ (HIV-TST+), and HIV-TST- individuals. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - September 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Desta Kassa, Wilco de Jager, Gebremedhin Gebremichael, Yodit Alemayehu, Leonie Ran, Justin Fransen, Dawit Wolday, Tsehaynesh Messele, Belete Tegbaru, Tom H.M. Ottenhoff, Debbie van Baarle Tags: Immunological Aspects Source Type: research

New developments in inhaler devices within pharmaceutical companies: A systematic review of the impact on clinical outcomes and patient preferences
Pharmaceutical companies offer an increasing number of inhaler devices, whether or not together with new substances, for maintenance treatment of patients with COPD or asthma. However, well-designed studies to support these developments are scarce. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - September 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vincent Ninane, Jan Vandevoorde, Didier Cataldo, E. Derom, G. Liistro, Evert Munghen, Rudi Peché, M. Schlesser, G. Verleden, Walter Vincken Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Efficacy and safety of umeclidinium added to fluticasone furoate/vilanterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Results of two randomized studies” [Respir. Med. 109 (2015) 1155–1163]
The authors regret that in the Abbreviations the following term, ‘long-acting muscarinic agonist’, should appear as ‘long-acting muscarinic antagonist’. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - September 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Thomas M. Siler, Edward Kerwin, Ana R. Sousa, Alison Donald, Rehan Ali, Alison Church Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

WITHDRAWN: Adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.
CONCLUSIONS: One small study failed to find a difference between two surgical techniques, although return to normal diet was more frequent in the group treated by temperature controlled radiofrequency tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. At present there is still debate as to the criteria required to diagnose significant obstructive sleep apnoea in children. Also the natural history of the condition has not been fully delineated. There is an absence of randomised controlled trials investigating the efficacy of treatment of confirmed obstructive sleep apnoea with adenotonsillectomy in children. Research is required before recom...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - September 29, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Lim J, McKean MC, Hearne BJ Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Stereotactic body radiotherapy for second pulmonary nodules after operation for an initial lung cancer
Conclusions Even though the subjects were medically inoperable, the survival outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy were favorable. Furthermore, having acceptable toxicity, stereotactic body radiation therapy is feasible and could be an option for multiple primary lung cancer and pulmonary metastasis after surgical resection for the index cancer. (Source: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology - September 29, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Nishiyama, K., Kodama, K., Teshima, T., Tada, H. Tags: Thoracic Medicine, Original Articles Source Type: research

Association between NOx exposure and deaths caused by respiratory diseases in a medium-sized Brazilian city.
Abstract Exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted by burning fossil fuels has been associated with respiratory diseases. We aimed to estimate the effects of NOx exposure on mortality owing to respiratory diseases in residents of Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil, of all ages and both sexes. This time-series ecological study from August 1, 2011 to July 31, 2012 used information on deaths caused by respiratory diseases obtained from the Health Department of Taubaté. Estimated daily levels of pollutants (NOx, particulate matter, ozone, carbon monoxide) were obtained from the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climát...
Source: Braz J Med Biol Res - September 29, 2015 Category: Research Authors: César AC, Carvalho JA, Nascimento LF Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Post-stem Cell Transplant.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest blockade of the PGE2-EP2 or EP4 signaling pathway restores NETosis post-transplantation. Furthermore, these data provide the first description of a physiologic inhibitor of NETosis. PMID: 26417909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - September 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Domingo-Gonzalez R, Martínez-Colón GJ, Smith AJ, Smith CK, Ballinger MN, Xia M, Murray S, Kaplan MJ, Yanik GA, Moore BB Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Paenibacillus ripae sp. nov., isolated from the bank side soil.
Abstract A Gram-stain-variable, rod shaped, non-motile and endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain HZ1T, was isolated from a bank side soil sample of Hangzhou city, Zhejiang province, China. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain HZ1T was closely related to members of the genus Paenibacillus, sharing the highest levels of sequence similarity with Paenibacillus agarexedens DSM 1327T (94.4 %), Paenibacillus sputi KIT00200-70066-1T (94.4 %), Growth occurred at 15-42 °C (optimum, 30-37 °C), pH 5.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-8.0)and NaCl concentrations up to 6.0% (w/v) were tolerated (optimum 0.5%). ...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - September 29, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sun Y, Guo Z, Zhao Q, Gao Q, Xie Q, Yang R, Liu R, Wu Z, Chen P, Li Y, Wang X, Li H Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Emergency percutaneous, bicaval double-lumen, ECMO cannulation in neonates and infants: insights from three consecutive cases.
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data suggest that, with the described precautions, percutaneous, echo-guided, bicaval double-lumen cannulation in neonates and infants could be effective and free from major complications. Further evaluation should be warranted in the neonatal population. PMID: 26428509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The International Journal of Artificial Organs)
Source: The International Journal of Artificial Organs - September 29, 2015 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Moscatelli A, Buratti S, Gregoretti C, Lampugnani E, Salvati P, Marasini M, Ribera E, Fulcheri E, Tuo P Tags: Int J Artif Organs Source Type: research

Cancer Screening via Infrared Spectral Cytopathology (SCP): Results for the Upper Respiratory and Digestive Tracts
Analyst, 2015, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C5AN01751C, MinireviewM Diem, Milos Miljkovic, Benjamin Bird, Antonella I. Mazur, Jennifer M Schubert, Douglas Townsend, Nora Laver, Max Almond, Oliver OldInstrumental advances in infrared micro-spectroscopy have made possible the observation of individ-ual human cells and even subcellular structures. The observed spectra represent a snapshot of the biochemical composition of a...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles)
Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles - September 28, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: M Diem Source Type: research

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer: a clinical and pathogenesis update
Purpose of review: About one out of 10 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) develop lung cancer. This review provides an epidemiology and clinical update of the association of these two lethal diseases. In addition, we focus on the emerging overlapping epigenetic mechanisms in both diseases. Recent findings: In a vast majority of cases, lung cancer is diagnosed during the clinical and radiological follow-up for the fibrosis. The risk of development of lung cancer in IPF is higher for older male smokers and there is a significantly higher prevalence of lung cancer in the combined IPF and emphysema syndrome comp...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY: Edited by Francesco Bonella and Steven Nathan Source Type: research

Drug interactions and treatment burden as survival improves
Purpose of review: With our growing understanding of the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis, the pace of drug discovery is accelerating. Newer agents and therapies have traditionally been added to available medications, given the urgency in treating the disease. As the cystic fibrosis population ages, the number of associated comorbidities increases, requiring additional therapeutic approaches. Thus, while current management strategies have dramatically extended projected life expectancy, the treatment burden of the disease in adulthood has become onerous, and there is increasing concern over unintended effects and drug−...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas Simmonds Source Type: research

Imaging modalities in cystic fibrosis: emerging role of MRI
Purpose of review: MRI has emerged as radiation-free imaging modality for assessment of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Here, we review the current status and new developments of MRI in cystic fibrosis. Recent findings: MRI is sensitive to detect abnormalities in lung structure and perfusion, even in preschool children with cystic fibrosis with early lung disease. Further, MRI is sensitive to detect changes associated with pulmonary exacerbations and response to antibiotic therapy in this challenging age group. Summary: MRI is sensitive to detect hallmarks of cystic fibrosis lung disease such as bronchial wall thickening, br...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas Simmonds Source Type: research

Evolution of cystic fibrosis lung function in the early years
Purpose of review: Most treatment of newborn screening-diagnosed cystic fibrosis is not evidence-based; there are very few randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, the advent of novel molecular therapies, which could be started at diagnosis, mandates performing RCTs in very young children. However, unless the natural history of early cystic fibrosis lung disease is known, RCTs are impossible. Here, we review the results of two large prospective cohorts of these infants – London Cystic Fibrosis Collaboration (LCFC) (London, UK) and Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST-CF) (Aus...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas Simmonds Source Type: research

Inhaled antibiotics: the new era of personalized medicine?
Purpose of review: Treatment options for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have improved survival significantly over the past two decades. One important treatment modality is inhaled antibiotics to treat chronic infection of the airways. This review includes those antibiotics that are currently in use, those that are in clinical trials. It also includes review of nonantibiotic antimicrobials, a growing area of investigation in CF. Recent findings: There are currently three inhaled antibiotics that are approved for use in patients with cystic fibrosis: tobramycin, aztreonam, and colistimethate. Tobramycin and colistimet...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas Simmonds Source Type: research

Exercise for all cystic fibrosis patients: is the evidence strengthening?
Purpose of review: Regular physical activity and exercise have become important components of cystic fibrosis care. This review summarizes the recent evidence in favour of regular exercise in cystic fibrosis that has accumulated over the past years. Recent findings: Several recently published small randomized-controlled trials and observational studies have added to our knowledge on positive effects of exercise training on pulmonary function and aerobic fitness in cystic fibrosis. Relevant outcomes, such as body posture, health-related quality of life and rate of hospitalization, are increasingly studied. Findings from the...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas Simmonds Source Type: research

Country to country variation: what can be learnt from national cystic fibrosis registries
Purpose of review: This review will address the evolving science involving international comparisons of populations of persons living with cystic fibrosis. Understanding the current clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis is critical prior to assessing such comparisons. Countries that differ in clinical approaches provide natural experiments to assess those approaches. Recent findings: Recent studies have highlighted that the population of persons with cystic fibrosis is changing; estimates predict a continued growth of cystic fibrosis populations with substantial increases in persons with cystic fibrosis who are adults. Addi...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas Simmonds Source Type: research

The future of CFTR modulating therapies for cystic fibrosis
Purpose of review: Huge progress has been made over the last few years in the field of small molecule therapies targeting cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the protein defective in patients with cystic fibrosis. This review describes the progress and areas of future research. Recent findings: Ivacaftor is the first drug of its kind to be licensed for clinical use in patients with a number of mutations resulting in defective gating (opening). For patients with more common mutations, characterized by misfolding, a combination approach is required with both corrector drugs which allow the protein to ...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: CYSTIC FIBROSIS: Edited by James Yankaskas and Nicholas Simmonds Source Type: research

Home sleep testing for the diagnosis of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea: the times they are a changing …!
Purpose of review: The current paradigm shift in the diagnosis of sleep apnea in adults has further emphasized the urgent need for the development and validation of less inconvenient and laborious approaches than the in-laboratory nocturnal polysomnography for evaluation of children. Recent findings: These efforts have been primarily centered around the following: first, refinements and validation of questionnaires; second, single-channel recordings such as oximetry, airflow, or ECG; third, home-based polysomnography and polygraphy; and fourth, biomarkers. The major overall findings emanating from such studies indicate tha...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Significance of obstructive sleep apnea in the patient with pulmonary hypertension
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the consequence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pulmonary hypertension by reviewing the current literature and understanding potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Recent findings: Small studies have suggested a high prevalence of comorbid OSA in those with known pulmonary hypertension. Pathophysiological mechanisms are highly suggestive of potential deleterious effect of OSA on pulmonary hemodynamics. Summary: Clearly, current research work on comorbid OSA and pulmonary hypertension is still in its infancy and the field is ripe for future investigation. T...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: current theories of pathogenesis
Purpose of review: To summarize recent primary publications and discuss the impact these finding have on current understanding on the development of hypoventilation in obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), also known as Pickwickian syndrome. Recent findings: As a result of the significant morbidity and mortality associated with OHS, evidence is building for pre-OHS intermediate states that can be identified earlier and treated sooner, with the goal of modifying disease course. Findings of alterations in respiratory mechanics with obesity remain unchanged; however, elevated metabolism and CO2 production may be instrumenta...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

Autoimmune rheumatic disease and sleep: a review
Purpose of review: Sleep has an important role to play in the human immune system and it is critical in the restoration and maintenance of homeostasis. Sleep deprivation and disorders may have a profound impact on health, well being and the ability to resist infection. Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are multisystem disorders that involve complicated hormonal and immunological pathophysiology. Previous studies have suggested that sleep deprivation may lead to immunological disturbance in experimental mouse models. Recent findings: Sleep disorders may trigger immune system abnormalities inducing autoantibody production, possi...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research

The value of mindfulness meditation in the treatment of insomnia
This article reviews mindfulness meditation as an additional therapy for insomnia. Recent findings: Both mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia (MBTI) have been studied in the treatment of insomnia. Randomized controlled studies of MBSR and MBTI have shown overall reduction in sleep latency and total wake time and increase in total sleep time after mindfulness therapy using both patient reported outcome and quantitative measures of sleep. Mindfulness techniques have been shown to be well accepted by patients with long-lasting effects. A three-arm randomized study with MBSR, MBT...
Source: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine - September 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: SLEEP AND RESPIRATORY NEUROBIOLOGY: Edited by Lee K. Brown and Adrian Williams Source Type: research