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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 15.

Optimal dosing regimen of biapenem in Chinese patients with lower respiratory tract infections based on population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling and Monte Carlo simulation
Biapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria [1]. It is more stable than imipenem and thus can be administered independently without the enzyme inhibitor of renal dehydropeptidase-I [2]. Biapenem has been clinically used in Japan to treat moderate and severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), septicaemia, urinary tract infections, intra-abdominal infections and other disorders [3]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - January 29, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jing Dong, Wei Xiong, Yuancheng Chen, Yunfeng Zhao, Yang Lu, Di Zhao, Wenyan Li, Yanhui Liu, Xijing Chen Source Type: research

Loss of the smallest subunit of cytochrome c oxidase, COX8A, causes Leigh-like syndrome and epilepsy
Isolated cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) deficiency is one of the most frequent respiratory chain defects in humans and is usually caused by mutations in proteins required for assembly of the complex. Mutations in nuclear-encoded structural subunits are very rare. In a patient with Leigh-like syndrome presenting with leukodystrophy and severe epilepsy, we identified a homozygous splice site mutation in COX8A, which codes for the ubiquitously expressed isoform of subunit VIII, the smallest nuclear-encoded subunit of complex IV. The mutation, affecting the last nucleotide of intron 1, leads to aberrant splicing, a frame-sh...
Source: Brain - January 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hallmann, K., Kudin, A. P., Zsurka, G., Kornblum, C., Reimann, J., Stüve, B., Waltz, S., Hattingen, E., Thiele, H., Nürnberg, P., Rüb, C., Voos, W., Kopatz, J., Neumann, H., Kunz, W. S. Tags: Genetics Reports Source Type: research

Bronchiolitis – Rationale for current recommendations for diagnosis and management
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2016 Source:Pediatric Infectious Disease Author(s): Sumitha Nayak Bronchiolitis is a lower respiratory infection caused commonly by RSV in the initial 2 years of life. It is responsible for a large number of hospitalizations. Pulse oximetry plays an important role in monitoring the progression of disease. Supplemental oxygen administration is not recommended at saturation levels above 90%. (Source: Pediatric Infectious Disease)
Source: Pediatric Infectious Disease - January 29, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Surgical versus non-surgical treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis.
CONCLUSIONS: We have very little confidence to conclude whether surgical treatment or a conservative approach is better for lumbar spinal stenosis, and we can provide no new recommendations to guide clinical practice. However, it should be noted that the rate of side effects ranged from 10% to 24% in surgical cases, and no side effects were reported for any conservative treatment. No clear benefits were observed with surgery versus non-surgical treatment. These findings suggest that clinicians should be very careful in informing patients about possible treatment options, especially given that conservative treatment options...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - January 29, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Zaina F, Tomkins-Lane C, Carragee E, Negrini S Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

FXR and Kidney Injury [Metabolism]
Activation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has indicated a therapeutic potential for this nuclear bile acid receptor in the prevention of diabetic nephropathy and obesity-induced renal damage. Here, we investigated the protective role of FXR against kidney damage induced by obesity in mice that had undergone uninephrectomy, a model resembling the clinical situation of kidney donation by obese individuals. Mice fed a high-fat diet developed the core features of metabolic syndrome, with subsequent renal lipid accumulation and renal injury, including glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis, and albuminuria. The effects we...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - January 29, 2016 Category: Chemistry Authors: Gai, Z., Gui, T., Hiller, C., Kullak-Ublick, G. A. Tags: Molecular Bases of Disease Source Type: research

Region-Specific Defects of Respiratory Capacities in the Ndufs4(KO) Mouse Brain
Conclusion Our data suggests that locally insufficient respiration capacity of the nerve terminals may drive focal neurodegeneration. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - January 29, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ernst-Bernhard Kayser et al. Source Type: research

Surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections in Southern Arizona, 2010–2014
ConclusionInfluenza viruses were a frequent cause of SARI in hospitalized patients in Southern Arizona. Monitoring respiratory illness in border populations will help better understand the etiologies. Improving influenza vaccination coverage may help prevent some SARI cases. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - January 29, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Zimy Wansaula, Sonja J. Olsen, Mariana G. Casal, Catherine Golenko, Laura M. Erhart, Peter Kammerer, Natalie Whitfield, Orion Z. McCotter Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cost‐effectiveness analysis of antiviral treatment in the management of seasonal influenza A: point‐of‐care rapid test versus clinical judgment
ConclusionThe influenza antiviral treatment based on POCRT could be cost‐effective in specific conditions of performance, price and disease prevalence. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - January 29, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Léon Nshimyumukiza, Xavier Douville, Diane Fournier, Julie Duplantie, Rana K. Daher, Isabelle Charlebois, Jean Longtin, Jesse Papenburg, Maryse Guay, Maurice Boissinot, Michel G. Bergeron, Denis Boudreau, Christian Gagné, François Rousseau, Daniel Rein Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A population‐based estimate of the economic burden of influenza in Peru, 2009–2010
ConclusionInfluenza virus infection causes an important economic burden, particularly among the poorest families and those hospitalized. Prevention strategies such as annual influenza vaccination program targeting SAGE population at risk could reduce the overall economic impact of seasonal influenza. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - January 29, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Yeny O. Tinoco, Eduardo Azziz‐Baumgartner, Hugo Rázuri, Matthew R. Kasper, Candice Romero, Ernesto Ortiz, Jorge Gomez, Marc‐Alain Widdowson, Timothy M. Uyeki, Robert H. Gilman, Daniel G. Bausch, Joel M. Montgomery, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Survey of influenza and other respiratory viruses diagnostic testing in US hospitals, 2012–2013
ConclusionReliance on insensitive assays to detect influenza may detract from optimal clinical management of influenza infections in hospitals. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - January 29, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Su Su, Alicia M. Fry, Pam Daily Kirley, Deborah Aragon, Kimberly Yousey‐Hindes, James Meek, Kyle Openo, Oluwakemi Oni, Ruta Sharangpani, Craig Morin, Gary Hollick, Krista Lung, Matt Laidler, Mary Lou Lindegren, William Schaffner, Annette Atkinson, Sandr Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Rhinovirus‐associated pulmonary exacerbations show a lack of FEV1 improvement in children with cystic fibrosis
ConclusionsRhinovirus infection seems to play a role in the FEV1 recovery after pulmonary exacerbation treatment in children with cystic fibrosis. Such an association needs to be confirmed by a large‐scale study because this finding may have important implications for pulmonary exacerbation management. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - January 29, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Mathias Cousin, Nicolas Molinari, Vincent Foulongne, Davide Caimmi, Isabelle Vachier, Michel Abely, Raphael Chiron Tags: Short Article Source Type: research

The air they breathe
BackgroundWhile all living creatures share Earth's atmosphere, they have adapted respiration to unique environments with the capacity to outperform anything humanly possible. AimsTo describe tissue oxygenation strategies used by different animal species. MethodsPublished research on the respiratory physiology of deep‐diving mammals and high‐flying migratory birds. ResultsThe oxygen‐binding characteristics of haemoglobin are relatively constant across broad species of animals on Earth, but available oxygen is remarkably different in different environments. Deep‐diving marine mammals reach depths of 1 mile where pre...
Source: ISBT Science Series - January 29, 2016 Category: Hematology Authors: W. Dzik Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Breathless at the point of a sword
Conclusion: Scimitar syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of pulmonary venous return. It is usually diagnosed in early childhood but the diagnosis may be delayed until later in adulthood. The consequences are pulmonary hypertension, right-sided heart failure, and frequent pulmonary infections resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and frequent doctor visits for otherwise healthy young patients. (Source: North American Journal of Medical Sciences)
Source: North American Journal of Medical Sciences - January 29, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Pooja SethiZia Ur RahmanTerry ForestTimir Paul Source Type: research

Feasibility of self-administered sleep assessment in older women in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)
Conclusions These studies demonstrated that home-based self-administered assessments of SDB are feasible in older adults with and without cognitive impairment using wrist-worn oximetry. These data support the feasibility of using simple oximetry measurements to provide indices of overnight intermittent hypoxemia in large observational studies and clinical trials. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - January 29, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pulmonary Kaposi’s Sarcoma and Its Complications in the HAART Era: A Contemporary Case-Based Review
Abstract The early years of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic introduced the global medical community to Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a heretofore seldom encountered angiosarcomatous neoplasm associated with human herpesvirus-8. At that time, clinicians treating these KS patients were routinely exposed to the pulmonary manifestations of this malignancy, including characteristic airway lesions, peribronchovascular opacities, and the typically hemorrhagic pleural effusions. They also witnessed uncommon complications of pulmonary KS such as chylous effusions, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, and immune r...
Source: Lung - January 29, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Peri-operative management of neonates with oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula
Oesphageal atresia is a relatively common congenital anomaly that requires urgent diagnosis, transfer to a neonatal surgical centre and management by a multidisciplinary team. Peri-operative management requires vigilant monitoring for the many possible associated morbidities. There are unique anaesthetic, airway and ventilatory considerations for this group of patients. Beyond the perinatal period, systematic neurodevelopmental follow-up is recommended to better understand the longer term outcomes for these children. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - January 29, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rod W Hunt, Elizabeth J Perkins, Sebastian King Source Type: research

The generalizability of bronchiectasis randomized controlled trials: A multicentre cohort study
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for bronchiectasis have experienced difficulties with recruitment and in reaching their efficacy end-points. To estimate the generalizability of such studies we applied the eligibility criteria for major RCTs in bronchiectasis to 6 representative observational European Bronchiectasis cohorts. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - January 29, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: James D. Chalmers, Melissa J. McDonnell, Robert Rutherford, John Davidson, Simon Finch, Megan Crichton, Lieven Dupont, Adam T. Hill, Thomas C. Fardon, Anthony De Soyza, Stefano Aliberti, Pieter Goeminne Source Type: research

Exercise Training Improves Vascular Mitochondrial Function.
Abstract Exercise training is recognized to improve cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity, however the impact of chronic exercise on vascular mitochondrial respiratory function is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise training concomitantly increases both vascular mitochondrial respiratory capacity and vascular function. Arteries from both sedentary (SED) and swim trained (EX, 5 weeks) mice were compared in terms of mitochondrial respiratory function, mitochondrial content, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, redox balance, nitric oxide (NO) signaling, and vessel function. Mitochondrial c...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - January 29, 2016 Category: Physiology Authors: Park SY, Rossman MJ, Gifford JR, Bharath LP, Bauersachs J, Richardson RS, Abel ED, Symons JD, Riehle C Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research

Children with health impairments by heavy metals in an e-waste recycling area.
Abstract E-waste recycling has become a global environmental health issue. Pernicious chemicals escape into the environment due to informal and nonstandard e-waste recycling activities involving manual dismantling, open burning to recover heavy metals and open dumping of residual fractions. Heavy metals derived from electronic waste (e-waste), such as, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, distribution, metabolism, excretion and biological trans...
Source: Chemosphere - January 29, 2016 Category: Chemistry Authors: Zeng X, Xu X, Boezen HM, Huo X Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research

3B11-N, a monoclonal antibody against MERS-CoV, reduces lung pathology in rhesus monkeys following intratracheal inoculation of MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012.
In this report, we describe the clinical and radiographic changes of rhesus monkeys following infection with 5×10(6) PFU MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012. Two groups of NHPs were treated with either a human anti-MERS monoclonal antibody 3B11-N or E410-N, an anti-HIV antibody. MERS-CoV Jordan-n3/2012 infection resulted in quantifiable changes by computed tomography, but limited other clinical signs of disease. 3B11-N treated subjects developed significantly reduced lung pathology when compared to infected, untreated subjects, indicating that this antibody may be a suitable MERS-CoV treatment. PMID: 26828465 [PubMed - as supplie...
Source: Virology - January 29, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Johnson RF, Bagci U, Keith L, Tang X, Mollura DJ, Zeitlin L, Qin J, Huzella L, Bartos CJ, Bohorova N, Bohorov O, Goodman C, Kim DH, Paulty MH, Velasco J, Whaley KJ, Johnson JC, Pettitt J, Ork BL, Solomon J, Oberlander N, Zhu Q, Sun J, Holbrook MR, Olinger Tags: Virology Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, α-Methylbenzyl acetate, CAS Registry Number 93-92-5.
Abstract This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Developmental toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 100 mg/kg/day. A gavage developmental toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in aMOE of 3571 while considering 78.7% absorption from skin contact and 100% from inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable. PMID: 26829616 [PubMed - as suppl...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - January 29, 2016 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Bhatia S, Bruze M, Calow P, Dagli ML, Dekant W, Fryer AD, Kromidas L, La Cava S, Lalko JF, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, Politano VT, Ritacco G, Salvito D, Schultz TW, Shen J, Sipes IG, Wall B, Wilcox DK Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Identification and functional characterization of TNF receptor associated factor 3 in the sea cucumber Apostichopusjaponicus.
In this study, we identified a novel TRAF3 gene in Apostichopusjaponicus by transcriptome sequencing and RACE approaches (designated as AjTRAF3). The full-length of AjTRAF3 was of 2796 bp including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 83 bp, a 3' UTR of 1066 bp and a putative open reading frame of 1647 bp encoding a polypeptide of 548 amino acid residues. The representative domains such as a RING finger domain (residues 54-96), two TRAF domains with zinc finger structure (residues 141-228), a coiled coil and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain (residues 396-522) were all detected in the deduced amino acids of AjTRAF3. Aj...
Source: Developmental and Comparative Immunology - January 29, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Yang L, Chang Y, Wang Y, Wei J, Ge C, Song J Tags: Dev Comp Immunol Source Type: research

Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus mono- and co-cultures based on volatile biomarker combinations
Volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis in exhaled breath is proposed as a non-invasive method to detect respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Since polymicrobial infections are common, we assessed whether we could distinguish Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus fumigatus mono- and co-cultures using the VOC emissions. We took headspace samples of P. aeruginosa , A. fumigatus and co-cultures at 16, 24 and 48 h after inoculation, in which VOCs were identified by thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. Using multivariate analysis by Partial Least Squares Discriminan...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - January 29, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: A H Neerincx, B P Geurts, M F J Habets, J A Booij, J van Loon, J J Jansen, L M C Buydens, J van Ingen, J W Mouton, F J M Harren, R A Wevers, P J F M Merkus, S M Cristescu and L A J Kluijtmans Source Type: research

A holistic view of cancer bioenergetics: mitochondrial function and respiration play fundamental roles in the development and progression of diverse tumors.
Abstract Since Otto Warburg made the first observation that tumor cells exhibit altered metabolism and bioenergetics in the 1920s, many scientists have tried to further the understanding of tumor bioenergetics. Particularly, in the past decade, the application of the state-of the-art metabolomics and genomics technologies has revealed the remarkable plasticity of tumor metabolism and bioenergetics. Firstly, a wide array of tumor cells have been shown to be able to use not only glucose, but also glutamine for generating cellular energy, reducing power, and metabolic building blocks for biosynthesis. Secondly, many t...
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - January 28, 2016 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Alam MM, Lal S, FitzGerald KE, Zhang L Tags: Clin Transl Med Source Type: research

[Cardiac arrest after spinal anesthesia for aesthetic plastic surgery: a case report].
Authors: Pinheiro LC, Carmona BM, de Nazareth Chaves Fascio M, de Souza IS, de Azevedo RA, Barbosa FT Abstract Cardiac arrest during neuraxial anesthesia is a serious adverse event, which may lead to significant neurological damage and death if not treated promptly. The associated mechanisms are neglected respiratory failure, extensive sympathetic block, local anesthetic toxicity, total spinal block, in addition to the growing awareness of the vagal predominance as a predisposing factor. In the case reported, the patient was 25 years old, ASA I, scheduled for aesthetic lipoplasty. After sedation with midazolam and ...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia - January 28, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Rev Bras Anestesiol Source Type: research

In errata.
Abstract In Response: The Cause of Fatal Respiratory Depression Is Combination of Clindamycin and Fentanyl, Rather than TramadolHanbin Wu, MM, and Gao Wu, MMDepartment of Clinical Pharmacy150 Jimo RoadShanghai 200120, China.E362CRPS: Early Lumbar Sympathetic Block is Better Compared to Other Interventions"Shikha Awal MD, Rajashree Madabushi MD, Anil Agarwal MD, and Varun Singla MDDepartment of AnaesthesiologySanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences,Rae Bareilly Road, LucknowE363There was a typo in the names of the authors in Coxib Safety in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Meta-analysis ...
Source: Pain Physician - January 28, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Pain Physician Journal J Tags: Pain Physician Source Type: research

In Response: The Cause of Fatal Respiratory Depression Is Combination of Clindamycin and Fentanyl, Rather than Tramadol.
PMID: 26815267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pain Physician)
Source: Pain Physician - January 28, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Wu H, Wu G Tags: Pain Physician Source Type: research

Tramadol Ultra Rapid Metabolizers at Risk for Respiratory Depression.
PMID: 26815266 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pain Physician)
Source: Pain Physician - January 28, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Dhaliwal G, Hsu D Tags: Pain Physician Source Type: research

The Many Facets of Lipooligosaccharide as a Virulence Factor for Histophilus somni.
Authors: Inzana TJ Abstract The lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of Histophilus somni is a multifaceted molecule that provides critical protection to the bacterium against host defenses, may act as an adhesin, and like similar molecules of gram-negative bacteria, is an endotoxin that signals through toll-like receptor 4 and NF-κB to cause inflammation. The lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic and apoptotic activity of the LOS. The H. somni LOS lacks O-side chains typically characteristic of gram-negative bacteria that have lipopolysaccharide, but has a complex, microheterogeneous outer core. The LOS of dise...
Source: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - January 28, 2016 Category: Microbiology Tags: Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Source Type: research

Predictors of Delayed Postoperative Respiratory Depression Assessed From Naloxone Administration
No abstract available (Source: Survey of Anesthesiology)
Source: Survey of Anesthesiology - January 28, 2016 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Perioperative Complications Source Type: research

The Heterogeneity Hidden in Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Co-Existing Asthma in Adults: A Population-Based Survey
Conclusions: The diagnosis of AR in the epidemiological setting includes heterogeneous upper airway diseases that affect the clinical features of AR and its interactions with asthma.Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2015;168:205-212 (Source: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology)
Source: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology - January 28, 2016 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

The pharmacokinetics of DPH after the administration of a single intravenous or intramuscular dose in healthy dogs
The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of diphenhydramine (DPH) in healthy dogs following a single i.v. or i.m. dose. Dogs were randomly allocated in two treatment groups and received DPH at 1 mg/kg, i.v., or 2 mg/kg, i.m. Blood samples were collected serially over 24 h. Plasma concentrations of DPH were determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with the commercially available software. Cardio‐respiratory parameters, rectal temperature and effects on behaviour, such as sedation or excitement, were recorded. Diphenhydra...
Source: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 28, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: A. Sanchez, A. Valverde, M. Sinclair, C. Mosley, A. Singh, A. J. Mutsaers, B. Hanna, Y. Gu, R. Johnson Tags: Scientific Paper Source Type: research

Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).
This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data. PMID: 26810865 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Twin Research and Human Genetics)
Source: Twin Research and Human Genetics - January 28, 2016 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Moayyeri A, Hart DJ, Snieder H, Hammond CJ, Spector TD, Steves CJ Tags: Twin Res Hum Genet Source Type: research

A cluster of three cases of botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F, France, August 2015
A cluster of three cases of food-borne botulism due to Clostridium baratii type F occurred in France in August 2015. All cases required respiratory assistance. Consumption of a Bolognese sauce at the same restaurant was the likely source of contamination. Clostridium baratii was isolated both from stool specimens from the three patients and ground meat used to prepare the sauce. This is the second episode reported in France caused by this rare pathogen. (Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Cluster of atypical adult Guillain-Barré syndrome temporally associated with neurological illness due to EV-D68 in children, South Wales, United Kingdom, October 2015 to January 2016
We report a cluster of atypical Guillain-Barré syndrome in 10 adults temporally related to a cluster of four children with acute flaccid paralysis, over a 3-month period in South Wales, United Kingdom. All adult cases were male, aged between 24 and 77 years. Seven had prominent facial diplegia at onset. Available electrophysiological studies showed axonal involvement in five adults. Seven reported various forms of respiratory disease before onset of neurological symptoms. The ages of children ranged from one to 13 years, three of the four were two years old or younger. Enterovirus testing is available for three children; ...
Source: Eurosurveillance - January 28, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Understanding nurses' decision‐making when managing weaning from mechanical ventilation: a study of novice and experienced critical care nurses in Scotland and Greece
ConclusionsNurses used patient‐centred information to make a judgment about the patients' ability to wean. Decision‐making strategies that involve categorisation of patient‐centred information can be taught in bespoke educational programmes for mechanical ventilation and weaning. Relevance to clinical practiceAdvanced clinical reasoning skills and accurate detection of cues in respiratory assessment by critical care nurses will ensure optimum patient management in weaning mechanical ventilation. (Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing)
Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing - January 28, 2016 Category: Nursing Authors: Kalliopi Kydonaki, Guro Huby, Jennifer Tocher, Leanne M Aitken Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Ellis–van Creveld syndrome associated with chronic intestinal pseudo‐obstruction
Abstract Ellis–van Creveld (EVC) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypoplastic nails, polydactyly, and achondroplasia. Patients usually exhibit normal cognitive function and no remarkable developmental delay. We herein present an unusual case of EVC syndrome. A Japanese 2‐year‐old boy was born at term, but immediately developed severe respiratory failure due to thorax deformity, postaxial polydactyly and nail hypoplasia. We identified a novel pattern of germinal compound heterozygous nonsense EVC2 mutations of c.1814C > A (p. S605X) and c.2653C > T (p. R885X), leading to the diagn...
Source: Pediatrics International - January 28, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hideo Iwakura, Katsunori Fujii, Yoshiyuki Furutani, Tomozumi Takatani, Ryota Ebata, Toshio Nakanishi, Tetsuya Mitsunaga, Takeshi Saito, Takashi Kishimoto, Hideo Yoshida, Naoki Shimojo Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research

Abstracts from the Fifth American Cough Conference
(Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - January 28, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Case report: Subjective loss of performance after pulmonary embolism in an athlete– beyond normal values
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease. For patients with operable CTEPH, there is a clear recommendation for surgical removal of persistent thrombi by pulmonary endarte... (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - January 28, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Daniel Dumitrescu, Felix Gerhardt, Thomas Viethen, Matthias Schmidt, Eckhard Mayer and Stephan Rosenkranz Source Type: research

Controversies and Evolving Concepts in Critical Care
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2016; 37: 001-002DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570360Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - January 28, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cartin-Ceba, RodrigoPannu, SonalGajic, Ognjen Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Too Little Oxygen: Ventilation, Prone Positioning, and Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Hypoxemia
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2016; 37: 003-015DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570366Severe hypoxemia is associated with untoward outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Nevertheless, in and of itself, correction of hypoxemia is not an adequate surrogate outcome for mortality and clear evidence-based targets for correction of hypoxemia remain to be determined. At present, clinical management is directed toward achieving sufficient oxygenation while minimizing toxicity of ventilator-induced lung injury. The gold standard remains lung-protective mechanical ventilation, using lower-tidal volumes and pressure-limited venti...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - January 28, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Park, Pauline K. Source Type: research

Too Much Oxygen: Hyperoxia and Oxygen Management in Mechanically Ventilated Patients
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2016; 37: 016-022DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570359Hyperoxia, or excess oxygen supplementation, prevails in the intensive care unit (ICU) without a beneficial effect and, in some instances, may cause harm. Recent interest and surge in clinical studies in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients has brought this to the attention of clinicians and researchers. Hyperoxia can cause alveolar injury, pulmonary edema, and subsequent systemic inflammatory response and is known to augment ventilator-associated lung injury. Liberal oxygenation practices are also associated with increased mortality in subse...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - January 28, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pannu, Sonal R. Source Type: research

Less Is More in the ICU: Resuscitation, Oxygenation and Routine Tests
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2016; 37: 023-033DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570358The intensive care unit (ICU) was initially developed in the 1950s to treat patients who required invasive respiratory support and hemodynamic resuscitation. Since the beginning, ICU medicine has focused on maintaining sufficient arterial blood flow and oxygenation to provide adequate tissue oxygen delivery to forestall or reverse organ failure. Over time, ICU medicine became more intensive, with the administration of many diagnostic tests and monitors, invasive procedures, and treatments, often with scant evidence of benefit associated with them. An al...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - January 28, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gopalratnam, KavithaForde, Inga C.O'Connor, Jaclyn V.Kaufman, David A. Source Type: research

How Cool It Is: Targeted Temperature Management for Brain Protection Post–Cardiac Arrest
This article reviews the neuroprotective mechanisms of hypothermia, the evidence supporting targeted temperature management after cardiac resuscitation, areas of persistent uncertainty and controversy, and future research directions.[...]Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - January 28, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rabinstein, Alejandro A. Source Type: research