Medicine RSS Search Engine

Respiratory Medicine Respiratory Medicine RSS feedThis is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 15.

Tahibacter caeni sp. nov., isolated from the activated sludge.
Abstract A Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterial strain, designated BUT-6T, was isolated from activated sludge of a wastewater-treatment facility. The strain grew at 15-35 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 4.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0), and 0 %-3.0 % of NaCl (optimum 1.0 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences showed that strain BUT-6T was most closely related to Tahibacter aquaticus PYM5-11T (98.6 % similarity). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain BUT-6T and T. aquaticus PYM5-11T was 47.1%. The major fatty acids (>10 % of total fatty acids) of strain BUT-6T wer...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - November 19, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Wu YD, Deng SK, Shi C, Zhu JC, He J, Li SP Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Pseudomonas granadensis sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Granada, Spain.
Abstract During the course of a screening of bacterial isolates as source of yet unknown bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical applications, a chemoorganotrophic Gram-negative bacterium was isolated from a soil sample taken from the Tejeda, Almijara and Alhama Natural Park, Granada, Spain. Strain F-278,770T is oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic, having a respiratory type of metabolism with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, non-spore-forming and motile by one polar flagellum, although some cells have two polar flagella. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD genes revealed that str...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - November 19, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Pascual J, García-López M, Bills G, Genilloud O Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

LSM14A inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication by activating IFN-β signaling pathway in Marc-145.
Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered as a significant contributor to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, one of the most economically important diseases for the pig industry worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that pattern recognition receptors play key roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a novel pattern recognition receptor LSM14A in regulating PRRSV replication. Results in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) indicated that overexpression of porcine LSM14A eff...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry - November 19, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Li Z, Chen R, Zhao J, Qi Z, Ji L, Zhen Y, Liu B Tags: Mol Cell Biochem Source Type: research

Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Cohort of US Blood Donors: A 20-Year Study.
This study describes the epidemiology of cancer in a cohort of blood donors up to 20 years after blood donation. Records from donors who participated in the Retroviral Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS, 1991-2002) at Blood Centers of the Pacific (BCP), San Francisco, were linked to the California Cancer Registry (CCR, 1991-2010). Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated using standard US 2000 population, and survival analysis used to compare all-cause mortality among donors and a random sample of nondonors with cancer from CCR. Of 55,158 eligible allogeneic blood donors followed-up for 863,902 person-years, 4,236 (7...
Source: Journal of Cancer Epidemiology - November 18, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Tags: J Cancer Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Human Rhinovirus Infection in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Heart Surgery
Abstract Human rhinovirus (HRV), the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in children, can present as bronchiolitis, pneumonia, or asthma exacerbations. The impact of HRV in infants and toddlers with congenital heart disease is poorly defined. A case–control study was performed to compare the clinical course for 19 young children with respiratory symptoms who tested positive for rhinovirus after heart surgery with that of 56 matched control subjects. The control subjects were matched by surgical repair, age, weight, and time of the year. Patients with known HRVs before surgery and control subjects w...
Source: Mammalian Genome - November 18, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The findings of a clinical surveillance bronchoalveolar lavage programme in pre‐school patients with cystic fibrosis
ConclusionsThis study suggests that, in young non‐expectorating children with CF, routine surveillance bronchoscopy allows the detection of significant lower airway pathogens and provides the opportunity for targeted treatment of sub‐clinical infection. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Barry Linnane, Shashi Vaish, Donna Clarke, Niamh O'Sullivan, Paul McNally Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The changing epidemiology of asthma in Shanghai, China
Journal of Asthma, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Asthma)
Source: Journal of Asthma - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Effect of acute intermittent hypoxia treatment on ventilatory load compensation and magnitude estimation of inspiratory resistive loads in an individual with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.
This study evaluated the effect of ten days of AIH treatment on ventilatory load compensation and respiratory perceptual sensitivity to inspiratory resistive loads (IRL), in an individual with chronic, incomplete cervical SCI. Methods Case report and literature review. Findings We report a case of a 55-year-old female with a C4 chronic, incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale D). The subject underwent evaluation at four time-points: Baseline, Post Sham, AIH Day 1 and AIH Day 10. Significant improvements in airflow generated in response to applied IRL were found after AIH treatment compared to Ba...
Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Spinal Cord Med Source Type: research

Medical and infectious complications associated with pyelonephritis among pregnant women at delivery.
CONCLUSIONS: Pyelonephritis at delivery admissions is associated with significant medical and infectious morbidity. PMID: 24194632 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology - November 18, 2014 Category: OBGYN Tags: Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research

Status epilepticus in the setting of acute encephalitis.
Authors: Lowenstein DH, Walker M, Waterhouse E Abstract Ms. Q, a 29-year-old woman, began to behave strangely, claiming to see and hear imaginary people. The following day, she was confused and somnolent in the morning. In the late morning, she had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and was transported to the hospital. Her past medical and developmental histories were unremarkable. She took a daily oral contraceptive and had no drug allergies. She worked as a teacher and had been married for one year. On initial examination, blood pressure was 129/82, pulse 88, respiratory rate 16, temperature 37.5 °C. She was stu...
Source: Epilepsy Currents - November 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Serotonin: The Anti-SuddenDeathAmine?
Authors: Richerson GB Abstract Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is an exceptionally difficult condition to study in humans. Therefore, translational research in animal models has been very important in defining pathophysiological mechanisms of death and identifying potential treatments. These models are helping define whether the primary mechanism of death is cardiac or respiratory. They have also identified a link to the serotonergic system of the brainstem; this, in turn, led to recognition that SUDEP and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may share a common final pathway in the sequence of events tha...
Source: Epilepsy Currents - November 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage.
We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 in...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Etiology and Outcome of Patients with HIV Infection and Respiratory Failure Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit.
Conclusions. Noninfectious etiologies of respiratory failure account for majority of HIV-infected patients admitted to ICU. Increased mortality was observed among patients with sepsis as etiology of respiratory failure (HIV related and non-AIDS related), in those receiving mechanical ventilation, and in patients with decreased CD4 cell count. Survival was not associated with the use of HAART. Complementary studies are warranted to address the impact of HAART on outcomes of HIV-infected patients with respiratory failure admitted to ICU. PMID: 24065988 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Global fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology and implictions for clinical use.
Authors: Dalhoff A Abstract This paper on the fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology stratifies the data according to the different prescription patterns by either primary or tertiary caregivers and by indication. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone resistance rates increased in the past years in almost all bacterial species except S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections. However, 10 to 30% of these isolates harbored first-step mutations conferring low level fluoroquinolone resistance. Fluoroquinolone resistance increased in Enterobacteriace...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Use of Albuterol in Young Infants Hospitalized with Acute RSV Bronchiolitis.
Conclusions. The use of albuterol does not appear to be useful in the treatment of young infants with RSV bronchiolitis and may actually be harmful, in regards to increased supplemental oxygen need. PMID: 22966227 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Intensive Care Usage by HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era.
Authors: Turtle L, Vyakernam R, Menon-Johansson A, Nelson MR, Soni N Abstract In the 1980s the outlook for patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and critical illness was poor. Since then several studies of outcome of HIV+ patients on ICU have shown improving prognosis, with anti-retroviral therapy playing a large part. We retrospectively examined intensive care (ICU) admissions in a large HIV unit in London. Between April 2001 and April 2006 43 patients were admitted to the ICU. The mean age of patients was 44 years and 74% were male. Fifty-six percent of admissions were receiving anti-retrovi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Immune Modulation as Adjunctive Therapy for Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Authors: Wang J, Wright TW, Gigliotti F Abstract Pneumocystis is an opportunistic fungal respiratory pathogen that causes life-threatening pneumonia (Pcp) in patients suffering from defects in cell-mediated immunity, including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunosuppression secondary to chemotherapy or organ transplantation. Despite major advances in health care, the mortality associated with Pcp has changed little over the past 25  years. Pcp remains a leading cause of death among HIV infected patients, with mortality rates of 50% or higher for patients developing severe Pcp. In additi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

[Review] Antiviral combinations for severe influenza
Observational data suggest that the treatment of influenza infection with neuraminidase inhibitors decreases progression to more severe illness, especially when treatment is started soon after symptom onset. However, even early treatment might fail to prevent complications in some patients, particularly those infected with novel viruses such as the 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1, avian influenza A H5N1 virus subtype, or the avian influenza A H7N9 virus subtype. Furthermore, treatment with one antiviral drug might promote the development of antiviral resistance, especially in immunocompromised hosts and critically ill patie...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jake Dunning, J Kenneth Baillie, Bin Cao, Frederick G Hayden, on behalf of the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) Tags: Review Source Type: research

[Review] Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, an under-recognised pathogen
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major cause of mucosal infections such as otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In some regions, a strong causal relation links this pathogen with infections of the lower respiratory tract. In the past 20 years, a steady but constant increase has occurred in invasive NTHi worldwide, with perinatal infants, young children, and elderly people most at risk. Individuals with underlying comorbidities are most susceptible and infection is associated with high mortality. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Johan Van Eldere, Mary P E Slack, Shamez Ladhani, Allan W Cripps Tags: Review Source Type: research

[Newsdesk] Infectious disease surveillance update
The National International Health Regulations Focal Point (NIHRFP) of Saudi Arabia notified WHO of 12 cases (nine men; median age 54 years, range 17–75) of infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus ( MERS-CoV) between Oct 18 and Oct 26. These individuals are from Riyadh, Madinah, Skaka, and Taif. Ten patients are Saudi nationals, ten have at least one comorbidity, and eight had been in contact with individuals with laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV. Two of the patients live in areas with a dense camel population, but none of the 12 cases has a history of contact with camels or their raw products. (Sourc...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Farhat Yaqub Tags: Newsdesk Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Antibiotic use worldwide
We applaud Ann Versporten and colleagues for drawing attention to the important issue of antibiotic use in eastern Europe and hope that this spurs more work to be done in this area. As a USAID-supported team working to improve the management of paediatric respiratory infections in clinics and hospitals in Georgia, we are encouraged to see that the findings from Versporten and colleagues for proportionally high use of co-amoxiclav (42%) in Georgia accord with our results from a chart audit of treatment for paediatric respiratory tract infections in outpatient clinics and hospitals (Broughton E I, unpublished). (Source: The ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Edward Ivor Broughton, Tamar Chitashvili, Kathleen Hill, Ekaterine Cherkezishvili, Nato Shengelia Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Corrections] Corrections
Dunning J, Baillie JK, Cao B, Hayden FG and on behalf of the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC). Antiviral combinations for severe influenza. Lancet Infect Dis 2014;14: 1259–70—In this Review, the second paragraph of the Introduction should begin with “A second wave of avian influenza”. Additionally, “H1N1 pandemic” should be “pandemic H1N1” and “H1N1 2009 pandemic virus” should be “2009 pandemic H1N1 virus” throughout the text. In the Adamantanes subsection, “H10N8” should be “avian H10N8” and “H3N2” should be “seasonal H3N2”. (Source: ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Tidal Volume and Mortality in Mechanically Ventilated Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies*
Conclusions: A relationship between tidal volume and mortality in mechanically ventilated children could not be identified, irrespective of the severity of disease. The significant heterogeneity observed in the pooled analyses necessitates future studies in well-defined patient populations to understand the effects of tidal volume on patient outcome. (Source: Critical Care Medicine)
Source: Critical Care Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Feature Articles Source Type: research

Management of Hazardous Material Emergencies
As this issue of Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America goes to press, the United States is extraordinarily preoccupied with a number of health concerns indirectly related to the topic of this tome, hazardous materials preparedness. The nation has recently suffered its first death due to Ebola and observed the first case of transmission of the disease in this country. Pediatric intensive care units throughout the country are struggling with respiratory illness caused by Enterovirus D 68. Unrest in the Middle East has raised the specter of a domestic terrorist attack by sympathizers of the so-called Islamic State. Each...
Source: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America - November 18, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Stephen W. Borron, Ziad Kazzi Source Type: research

The verapamil transporter expressed in human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) does not interact with β2-receptor agonists.
Authors: Salomon JJ, Ehrhardt C, Hosoya K Abstract   Affinity of different organs for verapamil is highly variable and organ-specific. For example, the drug exhibits high levels of accumulation in lung tissues. A transporter recognising verapamil as a substrate has previously been identified in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and in rat retinal capillary endothelial (TR-iBRB2) cells. This transporter is distinct from any of the cloned organic cation transporters. Therefore, we hypothesised that the verapamil transporter is also functionally expressed in the human respiratory mucosa. Moreover, we tested the...
Source: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics - November 18, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Metab Pharmacokinet Source Type: research

Population pharmacokinetics of laninamivir and its prodrug laninamivir octanoate in healthy subjects and in adult and pediatric patients with influenza virus infection.
The objectives of this study were to model the population pharmacokinetics of LO and its active metabolite laninamivir after inhaled administration of LO using a pooled population of healthy subjects, and adult and pediatric patients with influenza virus infection from 8 clinical studies, and to evaluate covariate effects on pharmacokinetics. The pharmacokinetics of LO and laninamivir in plasma and urine are well-described by structural models that consist of a 2-compartment model for LO with instantaneous bolus input and first-order elimination; and a 1-compartment model for laninamivir with formation of laninamivir via t...
Source: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics - November 18, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Drug Metab Pharmacokinet Source Type: research

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Deep Brain Stimulation in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence
Alcohol dependence is a major social, economic, and public health problem. Alcoholism can lead to damage of the gastrointestinal, nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems and it can be lethal, costing hundreds of billions to the health care system. Despite the existence of cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychosocial interventions, and spiritually integrated treatment to treat it, alcohol dependence has a high relapse rate and poor prognosis, albeit with high interindividual variability. In this review, we discuss the use of 2 neuromodulation techniques, namely repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and deep br...
Source: Addictive Disorders and Their Treatment - November 18, 2014 Category: Addiction Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Variation in Cardiac Pulse Frequencies Modulates vSMC Phenotype Switching During Vascular Remodeling
Abstract In vitro perfusion systems have exposed vascular constructs to mechanical conditions that emulate physiological pulse pressure and found significant improvements in graft development. However, current models maintain constant, or set pulse/shear mechanics that do not account for the natural temporal variation in frequency. With an aim to develop clinically relevant small diameter vascular grafts, these investigations detail a perfusion culture model that incorporates temporal pulse pressure variation. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that short-term variation in heart rate, such as chan...
Source: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology - November 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Role of respondents' education as a mediator and moderator in the association between childhood socio-economic status and later health and wellbeing
Conclusions: Childhood financial conditions have a unique direct effect on a wide range of health and wellbeing measures. These findings apply to both men and women. Generally, parental education has an indirect effect on later health, but mothers' education may also have a long-term direct effect on later health. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - November 18, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Mashhood Ahmed SheikhBirgit AbelsenJan Abel Olsen Source Type: research

Alternative diagnoses in patients in whom the GP considered the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism
Conclusion. In primary care patients suspected of PE, the most common clinically relevant diagnosis other than PE was pneumonia. A positive Wells rule or a positive d-dimer test are not only positively associated with PE, but also with a high probability of other clinically relevant disease. (Source: Family Practice)
Source: Family Practice - November 18, 2014 Category: Primary Care Authors: Erkens, P. M. G., Lucassen, W. A. M., Geersing, G.-J., van Weert, H. C. P. M., Kuijs-Augustijn, M., van Heugten, M., Rietjens, L., ten Cate, H., Prins, M. H., Buller, H. R., Hoes, A. W., Moons, K. G. M., Oudega, R., Stoffers, H. E. J. H. Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Analysis of the bacterial community in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease sputum samples by denaturing gradient Gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR
Conclusion: This study revealed strong relationship between alterations of sputum microbiota and COPD. By determining the content of several types of bacteria, we can provide evidence to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of COPD. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dachang WuChenxia HouYanxia LiZinan ZhaoJianjun LiuXin LuXueqi ShangYi Xin Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate fixed-dose combinations compared with individual components and placebo in patients with COPD (ACLIFORM-COPD): a multicentre, randomised study
Background: Aclidinium/formoterol is a twice-daily (BID) fixed-dose combination (FDC) in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The efficacy and safety of aclidinium/formoterol versus monotherapy and placebo in patients with COPD was assessed. Methods: In this 24-week double-blind, parallel-group, active- and placebo-controlled, multicentre Phase III study, patients (>=40 years, post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity =30% but (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dave SinghPaul JonesEric BatemanStephanie KornCristina SerraEduard MolinsCynthia CaractaEsther GilAnne Leselbaum Source Type: research

The prognostic significance of troponin elevation in patients with sepsis: A meta-analysis
Conclusions Troponin elevation in patients with sepsis confers poorer prognosis and is a predictor of mortality. Further studies are needed to see if more aggressive treatment of this subset of patients, or utilizing new therapeutic approaches will improve mortality. (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Utility of animal and in vivo experimental infection of humans with rhinoviruses in the development of therapeutic agents for viral exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2014 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Alfred M. Del Vecchio , Patrick J. Branigan , Elliot S. Barnathan , Susan K. Flavin , Philip E. Silkoff , Ronald B. Turner There is an association with acute viral infection of the respiratory tract and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although these exacerbations are associated with several types of viruses, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are associated with the vast majority of disease exacerbations. Due to the lack of an animal species that is naturally permissive for ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

CT screening for lung cancer shown to be cost-effective
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): Michael Granovetter (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Laparoscopic Nissen Rossetti fundoplication in situs inversus totalis–A Blessing in Disguise
Conclusion We recommend relook into the Laparoscopic Nissen Rossetti fundoplication as an effective procedure in GERD especially with rare anomalies like SIT. Graphical abstract (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - November 18, 2014 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes. Part 7: The impact of ingredients added to kretek cigarettes on inhalation toxicity
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2014 Source:Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): H. Schramke , E. Roemer , R. Dempsey , J. Hirter , K. Meurrens , A. Berges , H. Weiler , P. Vanscheeuwijck , M.K. Schorp The biological activity of mainstream smoke from experimental kretek cigarettes with and without three mixes of ingredients was assessed in a 90-day rat inhalation study and in a 4-day in vivo micronucleus assay. 350 ingredients, commonly used in various combinations and in a limited number in a given brand in the manufacture of marketed kretek cigarettes, were applied at a low and a high target ...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 18, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Integrating asthma hazard characterization methods for consumer products
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 70, Issue 1 Author(s): A. Maier , M.J. Vincent , B. Gadagbui , J. Patterson , W. Beckett , P. Dalton , I. Kimber , M.J.K. Selgrade Despite extensive study, definitive conclusions regarding the relationship between asthma and consumer products remain elusive. Uncertainties reflect the multi-faceted nature of asthma (i.e., contributions of immunologic and non-immunologic mechanisms). Many substances used in consumer products are associated with occupational asthma or asthma-like syndromes. However, risk assessment methods do not adequately...
Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 18, 2014 Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

Maresin 1 biosynthesis in lung injury [Medical Sciences]
Unregulated acute inflammation can lead to collateral tissue injury in vital organs, such as the lung during the acute respiratory distress syndrome. In response to tissue injury, circulating platelet–neutrophil aggregates form to augment neutrophil tissue entry. These early cellular events in acute inflammation are pivotal to timely resolution by mechanisms... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - November 18, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Abdulnour, R.-E. E., Dalli, J., Colby, J. K., Krishnamoorthy, N., Timmons, J. Y., Tan, S. H., Colas, R. A., Petasis, N. A., Serhan, C. N., Levy, B. D. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The FTO gene polymorphism (rs9939609) is associated with metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese subjects from southern Italy
Publication date: August 2014 Source:Molecular and Cellular Probes, Volume 28, Issue 4 Author(s): Rosario Liguori , Giuseppe Labruna , Andreina Alfieri , Domenico Martone , Eduardo Farinaro , Franco Contaldo , Lucia Sacchetti , Fabrizio Pasanisi , Pasqualina Buono Gene variants in MC4R, SIRT1 and FTO are associated with severe obesity and metabolic impairment in Caucasians. We investigated whether common variants in these genes are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large group of morbidly obese young adults from southern Italy. One thousand morbidly obese subjects (62% women, mean body mass index 46.5 kg/m2...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - November 18, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

A sensitive multiplex real-time PCR panel for rapid diagnosis of viruses associated with porcine respiratory and reproductive disorders
The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex real-time PCR panel using TaqMan probes for the detection and differentiation of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus North American type (PRRSV-NA), pseudorabies virus (PRV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Specific primer and probe combinations for PCV2, PRRSV, PRV, CSFV, PPV1 and JEV were selected within the conserved region of each viral genome. The multiplex real-time PCR panel which was run in two separate tubes was capable of specific dete...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Probes - November 18, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Controlling for localised spatio-temporal autocorrelation in long-term air pollution and health studies
Estimating the long-term health impact of air pollution using an ecological spatio-temporal study design is a challenging task, due to the presence of residual spatio-temporal autocorrelation in the health counts after adjusting for the covariate effects. This autocorrelation is commonly modelled by a set of random effects represented by a Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) prior distribution, as part of a hierarchical Bayesian model. However, GMRF models typically assume the random effects are globally smooth in space and time, and thus are likely to be collinear to any spatially and temporally smooth covariates such as ...
Source: Statistical Methods in Medical Research - November 18, 2014 Category: Statistics Authors: Lee, D., Mitchell, R. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

NICeSim: An open-source simulator based on machine learning techniques to support medical research on prenatal and perinatal care decision making
Conclusions The significant accuracy demonstrated by our predictive model shows that NICeSim might be used for hypothesis testing to minimize in vivo experiments. We observed that the model delivers predictions that are in very good agreement with the literature, demonstrating that NICeSim might be an important tool for supporting decision making in medical practice. Other very important characteristics of NICeSim are its flexibility and dynamism. NICeSim is flexible because it allows the inclusion and deletion of variables according to the requirements of a particular study. It is also dynamic because it trains a just-in-...
Source: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Bioinformatics Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 6, Pages 4437-4446: Molecular Markers of Influenza B Lineages and Clades
Co-circulation of two influenza B virus lineages, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria, has been recognized since the late 1980s. The assessment of the prevalent lineage and the group of viruses in circulation is of importance in order to decide on the vaccine composition and evaluate its efficacy. The molecular characterization of influenza B viruses in circulation has been the aim of this study; this was approached by identifying and locating nucleotide substitutions in the influenza B virus hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), specific for the lineage and/or clade. By the alignment of 3456 sequences from the influenza GISAID...
Source: Viruses - November 18, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Rosaria ArviaFabiana CorcioliFederica PierucciAlberta Azzi Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Lobar and sub-lobar lung resection in octogenarians with early stage non-small cell lung cancer: factors affecting surgical outcomes and long-term results
Conclusions In our experience, surgery is a safe and justifiable option for octogenarian patients with early stage NSCLC. Sublobar resection provides an equivalent in-hospital mortality and long-term survival in comparison with open lobectomy but with less postoperative morbidity. Further large-scale randomized studies are necessary to confirm our results. (Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Source: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery - November 18, 2014 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Randomized trial to evaluate azithromycin's effects on serum and upper airway IL-8 levels and recurrent wheezing in infants with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)–induced bronchiolitis in infancy is a major risk factor for recurrent wheezing and asthma. Because azithromycin attenuated neutrophilic airway inflammation in a murine viral bronchiolitis model, demonstration of similar effects in human subjects might provide a strategy for the prevention of postbronchiolitis recurrent wheezing. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - November 18, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Avraham Beigelman, Megan Isaacson-Schmid, Geneline Sajol, Jack Baty, Oscar M. Rodriguez, Erin Leege, Kevin Lyons, Toni L. Schweiger, Jie Zheng, Kenneth B. Schechtman, Mario Castro, Leonard B. Bacharier Source Type: research

Longitudinal trends in asthma health care use in Southern Nevada
Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, affects nearly 300 million people worldwide.1,2 Nationwide, 25.7 million people were estimated to have asthma in 2010, increasing from 20.3 million in 2001.3 Approximately 10.6 million physician office visits, 2.1 million emergency department (ED) visits, and 479,300 hospitalizations associated with asthma occurred in the United States during 2009.3 National costs of asthma in 2007 were estimated at $56 billion.4 (Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology)
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - November 18, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Sheniz Moonie, Joram S. Seggev, Guogen Shan, Brianna Pergola, Masaru Teramoto Tags: Letter Source Type: research

The TNFα converting enzyme (TACE) from ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) exhibits TNFα shedding activity
In conclusion, we report for the first time the TNFα-converting activity of TACE from a teleost. More investigation is needed to illustrate PaTACE-shedding activity in other immune regulators. (Source: Molecular Immunology)
Source: Molecular Immunology - November 18, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research