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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 16.

Deficiency Mutations of α1-antitrypsin Differentially Affect Folding, Function and Polymerization.
Abstract Misfolding, polymerisation and defective secretion of functional α1-antitrypsin underlies the predisposition to severe liver and lung disease in α1-antitrypsin deficiency. We have identified a novel (Ala336Pro, Baghdad) deficiency variant and characterised it relative to the wild-type (M) and Glu342Lys (Z) alleles. The index case is a homozygous individual of consanguineous parentage, with levels of circulating α1-antitrypsin in the moderate deficiency range, but a biochemical phenotype that could not be classified by standard methods. The majority of the protein was present as functionally inactive pol...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - June 19, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Haq I, Irving JA, Saleh AD, Dron L, Regan-Mochrie GL, Motamedi-Shad N, Hurst JR, Gooptu B, Lomas DA Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Opioid Overdose Prevention Programs Providing Naloxone to Laypersons - United States, 2014.
Abstract Drug overdose deaths in the United States have more than doubled since 1999. During 2013, 43,982 drug overdose deaths (unintentional, intentional [suicide or homicide], or undetermined intent) were reported. Among these, 16,235 (37%) were associated with prescription opioid analgesics (e.g., oxycodone and hydrocodone) and 8,257 (19%) with heroin. For many years, community-based programs have offered opioid overdose prevention services to laypersons who might witness an overdose, including persons who use drugs, their families and friends, and service providers. Since 1996, an increasing number of programs ...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - June 19, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Wheeler E, Jones TS, Gilbert MK, Davidson PJ Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research

Linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate variability in the process of exposure to 3600 m in 10 min.
Abstract Acute hypoxia activates several autonomic mechanisms, mainly in cardiovascular system and respiratory system. The influence of acute hypoxia on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied, but the parameters in the process of hypoxia are still unclear. Although the changes of HRV in frequency domain are related to autonomic responses, how nonlinear dynamics change with the decrease of ambient atmospheric pressure is unknown either. Eight healthy male subjects were exposed to simulated altitude from sea level to 3600 m in 10 min. HRV parameters in frequency domain were analyzed by w...
Source: Physica Medica - June 19, 2015 Category: Physics Authors: Zhang D, She J, Yang J, Yu M Tags: Australas Phys Eng Sci Med Source Type: research

Identification of a short interspersed repetitive element insertion polymorphism in the porcine MX1 promoter associated with resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.
In this study, we demonstrate that positive elements are present in the two promoter regions of -2713 to -2565 and -688 to -431 in the porcine MX1 gene. Sequencing and alignment of the amplified porcine MX1 gene promoter region identified a short interspersed repetitive element (SINE) insertion of 275 bp at site -547. At this site, allele B (an insertion of 275 bp) is dominant in Chinese indigenous pig breeds but has a workable minor allele frequency in western lean-type pig breeds. Luciferase activity was compared between promoters with and without the insertion of the 275-bp fragment in transiently transfected MARC-145...
Source: Animal Genetics - June 19, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Li Y, Liang S, Liu H, Sun Y, Kang L, Jiang Y Tags: Anim Genet Source Type: research

Respiratory infection with a bacterial pathogen attenuates CNS autoimmunity through IL-10 induction.
Abstract Infection with viral or bacterial pathogens has been linked with the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), while infection with helminth parasites has been associated protection against MS and other autoimmune diseases. Here we have used a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), to examine the effect of infection with the respiratory pathogen Bordetella pertussis infection on development of CNS inflammation. The data demonstrate that infection of mice with B. pertussis significantly attenuates the clinical course of EAE induced by active immunization or cell transfer. This wa...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - June 19, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Edwards SC, Higgins SC, Mills KH Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research

Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis: Is it Also an Idiopathic Entity?
Abstract Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare disease that has been recently included in the updated consensus on idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. It shares some clinical features with other chronic interstitial pneumonias (dyspnea, dry cough), and is radiologically characterized by pleural and subpleural parenchymal fibrosis and elastosis, mainly in the upper lobes. The main histological findings include pleural fibrosis and prominent subpleural and parenchymal fibroelastosis. Its characterization is based on the increasing number of cases reported in the literature, so several aspects of the etiol...
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - June 19, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Portillo K, Guasch Arriaga I, Ruiz-Manzano J Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Validation and clinical application of a nested PCR for paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis in clinical samples from Colombian patients.
Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic and endemic mycosis, restricted to tropical and subtropical areas of Latin America. The infection is caused by the thermal dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii. The diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis is usually performed by microscopic examination, culture and immunodiagnostic tests to respiratory specimens, body fluids and/or biopsies; however these methods require laboratory personnel with experience and several days to produce a result. In the present study, we have validated and evaluated a nested PCR assay targeting the gene e...
Source: Braz J Infect Dis - June 19, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gaviria M, Rivera V, Muñoz-Cadavid C, Cano LE, Naranjo TW Tags: Braz J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Augmented Carbohydrate Oxidation under Moderate Hypobaric Hypoxia Equivalent to Simulated Altitude of 2500 m.
In conclusion, acute exposure to moderate hypobaric hypoxia significantly augmented carbohydrate oxidation following the glucose load, without affecting glucose or insulin responses. Thus, a short-time exposure to moderate hypobaric hypoxia may be beneficial for people with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID: 26072915 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine)
Source: The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine - June 18, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Goto K, Morishima T, Kurobe K, Huang Z, Ogita F Tags: Tohoku J Exp Med Source Type: research

Home Oxygen Program review: Regionalization in Vancouver Coastal Health and British Columbia.
Abstract Since its inception in the 1980s, the Home Oxygen Program in British Columbia was centrally managed by the Ministry of Health. Initially a small program with few clients across the province, it soon became a large program with many clients and increasing expenditures. A pilot program started in Victoria (British Columbia) in 1996 demonstrated that managing the program locally could offer better client care, better contract management and significant cost savings. In 2002, the pilot's model and recommendations were implemented in British Columbia's five health authorities. The present review details the exp...
Source: Respiratory Care - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sandberg D Tags: Can J Respir Ther Source Type: research

Medical marijuana.
PMID: 26078622 [PubMed] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Melvin D, Markham AW Tags: Can J Respir Ther Source Type: research

Potential Treatment for the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections (HRSV)
ACS Medicinal Chemistry LettersDOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00233 (Source: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters)
Source: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters - June 18, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Ahmed F. Abdel-Magid Source Type: research

Optimal timing for introducing enteral nutrition in the neonatal intensive care unit.
CONCLUSIONS: Early enteral nutrition initiation (<24 hours) is recommended. Neonates with mechanical ventilation should be monitored with particular attention. PMID: 26078238 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition)
Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition - June 18, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Liu J, Kong K, Tao Y, Cai W Tags: Asia Pac J Clin Nutr Source Type: research

Risk of regurgitation and aspiration in patients infused with different volumes of enteral nutrition.
CONCLUSIONS: During EN therapy for patients with stroke, using feeding pump with a continuous infusion for 20 hours and adjusting infusion rate based on GRV could reduce the incidence of respiratory complications. PMID: 26078237 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition)
Source: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition - June 18, 2015 Category: Nutrition Authors: Chen S, Xian W, Cheng S, Zhou C, Zhou H, Feng J, Liu L, Chen L Tags: Asia Pac J Clin Nutr Source Type: research

Molecular Analysis by Gene Expression of Mitochondrial ATPase Subunits in Papillary Thyroid Cancer: Is ATP5E Transcript a Possible Early Tumor Marker?
CONCLUSIONS Relative down-expression of ATP5E transcript was highly associated with PTC diagnosis. This transcript alteration may be used as a tumoral marker in papillary thyroid cancer. PMID: 26079849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - June 18, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Mild to Moderate, but Not Minimal or Severe, Acute Histologic Chorioamnionitis or Intra-Amniotic Inflammation Is Associated with a Decrease in Respiratory Distress Syndrome of Preterm Newborns without Fetal Growth Restriction
Conclusions: Mild to moderate, but not minimal or severe, acute-HCA or IAI is associated with a significant decrease in RDS among preterm neonates due to PTL or preterm-PROM without FGR.Neonatology 2015;108:115-123 (Source: Neonatology)
Source: Neonatology - June 18, 2015 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Source Type: research

Efficacy of an Acute Pain Titration Protocol Driven by Patient Response to a Simple Query: Do You Want More Pain Medication?
Conclusion A pain protocol, based on titration of 1 mg intravenous hydromorphone, driven solely by patient response to a simple standardized question repeated at intervals, resulted in achievement of satisfactory analgesia on at least 1 occasion in 99% of patients. (Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine)
Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine - June 18, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Ambient air pollution and lung disease in China: health effects, study design approaches and future research
Abstract Ambient air pollution in China has worsened following dramatic increases in industrialization, automobile use and energy consumption. Particularly bothersome is the increase in the PM2.5 fraction of pollutants. This fraction has been associated with increasing rates of cardio-respiratory disease in China and elsewhere. Ambient pollutant levels have been described in many of China’s cities and are comparable to previous levels in southern California. Lung cancer mortality in China has increased since the 1970s and has been higher in men and in urban areas, the exact explanation for which has not been det...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - June 18, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: A Global Health Challenge
This Viewpoint discusses the importance of a well-trained and well-prepared health workforce in controlling outbreaks such as Middle East respiratory syndrome. (Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association)
Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association - June 18, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Transient anti-NMDAR encephalitis in a newborn infant due to transplacental transmission
A 20-year-old woman developed anti–NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis with psychosis, dysphagia, hemiparesis, generalized dystonia, cortical blindness, and status epilepticus. IgG NMDAR antibodies were present in serum and CSF (figure). She was successfully treated with IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), plasmapheresis, and carbamazepine. She relapsed 1.5 years later and was treated regularly with IVIg and carbamazepine since that time. She became pregnant 2.5 years after the relapse. There were some remaining cognitive deficits, but she had been stable since the relapse. At 37 weeks of gestation a boy was born, weighing 2.5 ...
Source: Neurology Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation - June 18, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Hilderink, M., Titulaer, M. J., Schreurs, M. W. J., Keizer, K., Bunt, J. E. H. Tags: Clinical neurology examination, All Immunology, Autoimmune diseases, All Pediatric Clinical/Scientific Notes Source Type: research

Fatal Isolated Cervical Spine Injury in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report
Conclusion Isolated cervical spine injuries in patients with ankylosing spondylitis can be fatal. A high degree of clinical suspicion, thorough imaging with computed tomography, and meticulous handling are required in this patient population.[...]Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text (Source: Global Spine Journal)
Source: Global Spine Journal - June 18, 2015 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Gelalis, Ioannis D.Lykissas, Marios G.Dimou, Apostolos A.Giannoulis, Dionysios K.Beris, Alexandros E. Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Whole-heart four-dimensional flow can be acquired with preserved quality without respiratory gating, facilitating clinical use: a head-to-head comparison
Background: Respiratory gating is often used in 4D-flow acquisition to reduce motion artifacts. However, gating increases scan time. The aim of this study was to investigate if respiratory gating can be excluded from 4D flow acquisitions without affecting quantitative intracardiac parameters. Methods: Eight volunteers underwent CMR at 1.5 T with a 5-channel coil (5ch). Imaging included 2D flow measurements and whole-heart 4D flow with and without respiratory gating (Resp(+), Resp(−)). Stroke volume (SV), particle-trace volumes, kinetic energy, and vortex-ring volume were obtained from 4D flow-data. These parameters were...
Source: BMC Medical Imaging - June 18, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Mikael KanskiJohannes TögerKatarina Steding-EhrenborgChristos XanthisKarin BlochEinar HeibergMarcus CarlssonHåkan Arheden Source Type: research

Renal functions in obstructive sleep apnea patients
Conclusions GFR values were lower in sleep apneic patients with MetS as well as in patients with hypertension and LVH. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Exhaled nitric oxide from the central airway and alveoli in OSAHS patients: the potential correlations and clinical implications
Conclusions NO exchange model provides us with more information of eNO derived from different areas. eNO is not only confirmed to be an effective method for airway inflammation evaluation in the follow-up of OSAHS, CANO may also serve as a useful marker in monitoring endothelial function, resistance of pulmonary circulation, and right ventricular function for clinical implication. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effects and relationship of intermittent hypoxia on serum lipid levels, hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α
Conclusions IH caused dyslipidemia and elevated LRP1 and HIF-1α. Elevated LRP1 expression was caused by HIF-1α. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Positional OSA part 2: retrospective cohort analysis with a new classification system (APOC)
Conclusion We are of opinion that APOC is a suitable tool to identify patients who will or will not benefit from PT, thus resulting in more cost-efficient treatment. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Elevation of one hour plasma glucose during oral glucose tolerance testing
ConclusionThe risk of CFRD increases with PG1 > 160 mg/dl. No statistically significant evidence of an association between elevated PG1 and pulmonary function was found, yet our results do not exclude the possibility that in males, elevated PG1 may signal adverse changes in FEV1% predicted over time. This possibility requires further study with a larger sample size. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Saba Sheikh, Mary E. Putt, Kimberly A. Forde, Ronald C. Rubenstein, Andrea Kelly Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS): Circadian temperature variation
ConclusionsPST alterations in CCHS likely reflect altered autonomic control of peripheral vascular tone. These alterations represent a previously unreported manifestation of CCHS and may provide an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. The relationship between temperature dysregulation and CCHS may also offer insight into basic mechanisms underlying thermoregulation. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rehan Saiyed, Casey M. Rand, Michael S. Carroll, Cynthia M. Koliboski, Tracey M. Stewart, Cindy D. Brogadir, Anna S. Kenny, Emily K.E. Petersen, David W. Carley, Debra E. Weese‐Mayer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Decline in lung function does not predict future decline in lung function in cystic fibrosis patients
ConclusionsContrary to our hypothesis, rate of lung function decline did not predict future rate of decline either within or across spirometric variables. In contrast, FEV1 slope did have moderate predictive ability for subsequent FEV1 level. These findings are relevant for clinical care and for clinical trial design. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Margaret Rosenfeld, Donald R. VanDevanter, Clement L. Ren, Eric P. Elkin, David J. Pasta, Michael W. Konstan, Wayne J. Morgan, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Fibroblast-epithelial cell interactions drive epithelial-mesenchymal transition differently in cells from normal and COPD patients
Conclusions: Our results suggest that DHBE cells have partially undergone EMT under baseline conditions. DHLF-CM promoted EMT in NHBE, suggesting that interactions between fibroblast and epithelial cells may play an important role in the EMT process in COPD. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michiyoshi NishiokaNarayanan VenkatesanKevin DessalleAndrea MogasShigenori KyohTing-Yu LinParameswaran NairCarolyn BagloleDavid EidelmanMara LudwigQutayba Hamid Source Type: research

GSTM1, GSTT1 and EPHX1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to COPD in a sample of Egyptian population
Conclusions EPHX1 exon 3 His allele in addition to the coexistence of other genetic variants, were significant risk factors in susceptibility to COPD in the Egyptian population. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis)
Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Late onset congenital cystic adenomatous malformation associated with intra-lobar pulmonary sequestration
Publication date: Available online 18 June 2015 Source:Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia (English Edition) Author(s): E. Silva , J. Vale , A. Reis (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - June 18, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical and biochemical characterization of four patients with mutations in ECHS1
Conclusions: Despite its activity towards substrates from different metabolic pathways, SCEH appears to be only crucial in valine metabolism, but not in isoleucine metabolism, and only of limited importance for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. In severely affected patients SCEH deficiency can cause a secondary pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency contributing to the clinical presentation. (Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases)
Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases - June 18, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Sacha FerdinandusseMarisa FriederichAlberto BurlinaJos RuiterCurtis CoughlinMegan DishopRenata GallagherJirair BedoyanFrédéric VazHans WaterhamKatherine GowanKathryn ChatfieldKaitlyn BloomMichael BennettOrly ElpelegJohan Van HoveRonald Wanders Source Type: research

Increased autophagy and apoptosis contribute to muscle atrophy in a myotonic dystrophy type 1 Drosophila model [RESEARCH ARTICLE]
ABSTRACT Muscle mass wasting is one of the most debilitating symptoms of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) disease, ultimately leading to immobility, respiratory defects, dysarthria, dysphagia and death in advanced stages of the disease. In order to study the molecular mechanisms leading to the degenerative loss of adult muscle tissue in DM1, we generated an inducible Drosophila model of expanded CTG trinucleotide repeat toxicity that resembles an adult-onset form of the disease. Heat-shock induced expression of 480 CUG repeats in adult flies resulted in a reduction in the area of the indirect flight muscles. In these model ...
Source: DMM Disease Models and Mechanisms - June 18, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bargiela, A., Cerro-Herreros, E., Fernandez-Costa, J. M., Vilchez, J. J., Llamusi, B., Artero, R. Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

The lung clearance index in young infants: impact of tidal volume and dead space
This study was designed to investigate the effect of lung volumes on LCI in young infants. The dependence of LCI on dead space volume ( V D ), tidal volume ( V T ) and functional residual capacity (FRC) was investigated by mathematical modeling and by MBW measurements using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) as a tracer gas. MBW was performed in 150 infants, of median postmenstrual age 46.7?weeks, followed up after neonatal intensive care. Wheezing was assessed in 90 of these infants by computerized respiratory sound analysis during quiet sleep. The strongest correlation was observed between LCI and the volume ratios V T /F...
Source: Physiological Measurement - June 18, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: Gerd Schmalisch, Silke Wilitzki, Christoph B?hrer and Hendrik S Fischer Source Type: research

Assessing Airway Microbiota in Cystic Fibrosis: What More Should Be Done? [Commentary]
The use of culture-independent methods has deepened our appreciation of the complexity of the bacterial communities that typically reside in the airways of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). New insights into how changes in the structure of these communities relate to lung disease progression will likely raise expectations for more in-depth microbiologic analysis of CF respiratory specimens. An article in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (W. G. Flight, A. Smith, C. Paisey, J. R. Marchesi, M. J. Bull, P. J. Norville, K. J. Mutton, A. K. Webb, R. J. Bright-Thomas, A. M. Jones, and E. Mahenthiralingam, J Cli...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - June 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: LiPuma, J. J. Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Rapid Detection of Emerging Pathogens and Loss of Microbial Diversity Associated with Severe Lung Disease in Cystic Fibrosis [Bacteriology]
Respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is polymicrobial, but standard sputum microbiology does not account for the lung microbiome or detect changes in microbial diversity associated with disease. As a clinically applicable CF microbiome surveillance scheme, total sputum nucleic acids isolated by a standard high-throughput robotic method for accredited viral diagnosis were profiled for bacterial diversity using ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) PCR. Conventional culture and RISA were performed on 200 paired sputum samples from 93 CF adults; pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was applied to 59 patients to ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - June 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Flight, W. G., Smith, A., Paisey, C., Marchesi, J. R., Bull, M. J., Norville, P. J., Mutton, K. J., Webb, A. K., Bright-Thomas, R. J., Jones, A. M., Mahenthiralingam, E. Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Detection of Group A Streptococcus from Pharyngeal Swab Samples by Bacterial Culture Is Challenged by a Novel mariPOC Point-of-Care Test [Immunoassays]
mariPOC is a novel point-of-care test system for rapid detection of respiratory tract infections. We compared the performance of the mariPOC test to that of bacterial culture for detecting group A streptococcus (GAS) in 219 pharyngitis patients (ages 1–64 years) and 109 healthy asymptomatic controls (ages 19–69 years). In addition, 42 patient samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Of the 219 pharyngeal patient samples, 32 were positive in a GAS bacterial culture (prevalence 15%) and 65 (30%) in the mariPOC test. The amount of GAS in samples reported positive by the mariPOC test and negative by cultur...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - June 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vakkila, J., Koskinen, J. O., Brandt, A., Muotiala, A., Liukko, V., Soittu, S., Meriluoto, S., Vesalainen, M., Huovinen, P., Irjala, K. Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research

Comparative Profile of Heme Acquisition Genes in Disease-Causing and Colonizing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus [Bacteriology]
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are Gram-negative bacteria that colonize the human pharynx and can cause respiratory tract infections, such as acute otitis media (AOM). Since NTHI require iron from their hosts for aerobic growth, the heme acquisition genes may play a significant role in avoiding host nutritional immunity and determining virulence. Therefore, we employed a hybridization-based technique to compare the prevalence of five heme acquisition genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, hemR, and hup) between 514 middle ear strains from children with AOM and 235 throat strains from healthy children. We also investigated the...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - June 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Hariadi, N. I., Zhang, L., Patel, M., Sandstedt, S. A., Davis, G. S., Marrs, C. F., Gilsdorf, J. R. Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Unbiased Next-Generation Sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) as a Diagnostic Method in Influenza Virus-Positive Respiratory Samples [Virology]
Unbiased nontargeted metagenomic RNA sequencing (UMERS) has the advantage to detect known as well as unknown pathogens and, thus, can significantly improve the detection of viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal sequences in public health settings. In particular, conventional diagnostic methods successfully identify the putative pathogenic agent in only 30% to 40% of respiratory specimens from patients with acute respiratory illness. Here, we applied UMERS to 24 diagnostic respiratory specimens (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL] fluid, sputum samples, and a swab) from patients with seasonal influenza infection and 5 BAL fluid ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - June 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Fischer, N., Indenbirken, D., Meyer, T., Lutgehetmann, M., Lellek, H., Spohn, M., Aepfelbacher, M., Alawi, M., Grundhoff, A. Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Direct Detection of Influenza A and B Viruses in Less Than 20 Minutes Using a Commercially Available Rapid PCR Assay [Virology]
We compared an FDA-cleared rapid (<20 min) PCR assay (Cobas Liat; Roche Diagnostics) to our routine influenza A and B real-time PCR assay (Simplexa Flu A/B & RSV Direct; Focus Diagnostics) using respiratory swabs (n = 197). The Cobas Liat influenza A and B assays demonstrated sensitivities of 99.2% (123/124) and 100% (23/23), respectively, while showing a specificity of 100% for each target. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - June 18, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Binnicker, M. J., Espy, M. J., Irish, C. L., Vetter, E. A. Tags: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular viral epidemiology and clinical characterization of acute febrile respiratory infections in hospitalized children in Taiwan
In conclusion, Rhinovirus/enterovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus were prevalent in this study by adopting RVP assay. The viral detection rate is influenced by sampling time, especially if the tests are performed during the first three days of hospitalization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - June 18, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Chun‐Yi Lee, Yu‐Fen Chang, Chia‐Lin Lee, Meng‐Che Wu, Chi‐Lin Ho, Yu‐Chuan Chang, Yu‐Jiun Chan Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Human metapneumovirus-associated severe acute respiratory illness hospitalisation in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children and adults
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has been implicated as an etiologic agent of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among both healthy and immunocompromised individuals across age groups [1]. The burden of disease is greatest in young children with the majority of infections occurring in children without underlying medical conditions [2,3]. Rates of HMPV infection are lower in adults than children, and severe disease occurs predominantly in the immunocompromised and elderly, who are at increased risk of hospitalisation [4–7]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - June 18, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Michelle J. Groome, Jocelyn Moyes, Cheryl Cohen, Sibongile Walaza, Stefano Tempia, Marthi Pretorius, Orienka Hellferscee, Meera Chhagan, Sumayya Haffejee, Halima Dawood, Kathleen Kahn, Ebrahim Variava, Adam L Cohen, Anne von Gottberg, Nicole Wolter, Marie Source Type: research

The use of Next Generation Sequencing in the diagnosis and typing of respiratory infections
Virus specific molecular assays such as real-time PCR (RT-PCR) are now considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections. They are rapid, relatively inexpensive and offer increased sensitivity and specificity over prior techniques such as virus culture and direct immunofluorescence. Assays can be developed quickly to detect novel / emerging pathogens and can be combined to identify multiple microbiological pathogens in a single test. Yet there is a limit to the number of targets, usually up to four, which can be included in an in-house test before compromising test sensitivity. (Source: Jo...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - June 18, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Authors Fiona Thorburn, Susan Bennett, Sejal Modha, David Murdoch, Rory Gunson, Pablo R. Murcia Source Type: research

Pollen-induced Innate Recruitment of Neutrophils Facilitates Induction of Allergic Sensitization and Airway Inflammation.
Abstract Neutrophil recruitment is a hallmark of rapid innate immune responses. Exposure of airways of naïve mice to pollens rapidly induces neutrophil recruitment. The innate mechanisms that regulate pollen-induced neutrophil recruitment, and the contribution of this neutrophilic response to subsequent induction of allergic sensitization and inflammation needs to be elucidated. Here we show that ragweed pollen extract (RWPE)-challenge in naïve mice induces CXCL chemokine synthesis that stimulates CXCR2-dependent recruitment of neutrophils into the airways. Deletion of TLR4 abolishes CXCL chemokine secretion and ...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - June 18, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Hosoki K, Aguilera-Aguirre L, Brasier AR, Kurosky A, Boldogh I, Sur S Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

ApolipoproteinA-1 Overexpression Attenuates Cigarette Smoke Induced Emphysema in Mice.
In this study, the ApoA1 levels were significantly decreased in the lungs of patients with COPD, as well as in the lungs of mice exposed to CS. ApoA1 TG mice did not develop emphysema when chronically exposed to CS. Compared to the control TG mice, ApoA1 overexpression attenuated lung inflammation, oxidative stress, metalloprotease activation, and apoptosis in CS-exposed mouse lungs. To explore a plausible mechanism of anti-apoptotic activity of ApoA1, alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). ApoA1 prevented CSE-induced translocation of Fas and downstream death inducing signaling co...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - June 18, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Kim C, Lee JM, Park SW, Kim KS, Lee MW, Paik S, Jang AS, Kim DJ, Uh S, Kim Y, Park C Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection Differentially Modulates Human Dendritic Cell Line (MUTZ) Differentiation and Activation
Abstract Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae are important human pathogens that infect the urogenital/anorectal and respiratory tracts, respectively. Whilst the ability of these bacteria to infect epithelia is well defined, there is also considerable evidence of infection of leucocytes, including dendritic cells (DCs). Using a human dendritic cell line (MUTZ), we demonstrate that the infection and replication of chlamydiae inside DCs is species and serovar specific and that live infection with C. pneumoniae is required to upregulate costimulatory markers CD80, CD83 and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)‐DR on MUTZ...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology - June 18, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: C. W. Armitage, C. P. O'Meara, K. W. Beagley Tags: Human Immunology Source Type: research

Prediction of fluid responsiveness using a non-invasive cardiac output monitor in children undergoing cardiac surgery
Conclusions The SVVNICOM did not predict fluid responsiveness in paediatric patients during cardiac surgery. In addition, there was no correlation between CITOE and CINICOM. Fluid management guided by NICOM should be performed carefully. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01996956. (Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia - June 18, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Lee, J.- H., No, H.- J., Song, I.- K., Kim, H.- S., Kim, C.- S., Kim, J.- T. Tags: Cardiovascular Source Type: research