Respiratory Medicine Respiratory Medicine RSS feedThis is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 16.

Biomechanical and biochemical characterization of porcine tracheal cartilage
ConclusionThis study presents a comprehensive characterization of the relevant biochemical and mechanical properties of porcine tracheal cartilage, which is considered an excellent candidate for xenogenic tracheal graft and a source for tissue‐engineered tracheal reconstruction. The range of parameters characterized in this study agrees with those reported for hyaline cartilage of the airway in other species. These characteristics can be used as quantitative benchmarks for tissue‐engineering approaches to treat tracheal disease. Level of EvidenceNA. Laryngoscope, 2015 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - January 31, 2016 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Benjamin Hoffman, Matthew Martin, Bryan N. Brown, Lawrence J. Bonassar, Jonathan Cheetham Tags: Head and Neck Source Type: research

The PI3Kδ inhibitor idelalisib suppresses liver and lung cellular respiration.
Authors: Hammadi SA, Almarzooqi S, Abdul-Kader HM, Saraswathiamma D, Souid AK Abstract Idelalisib (an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-delta) is approved for treatment of B-cell malignancies, with a Boxed Warning concerning potentially fatal hepatic, lung, and intestinal toxicities. The mechanisms of these tissue-specific adverse events have yet to be elucidated. This in vitro study investigated whether these effects could be attributed, at least in part, to altered cellular bioenergetics. A phosphorescence analyzer was used to measure cellular mitochondrial O2 consumption (kc , µM O2 min(-1) mg(-1)) in ...
Source: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology - January 31, 2016 Category: Physiology Tags: Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Influenza in Brazil: surveillance pathways
This article presents the structuring of influenza surveillance in Brazil and highlights virological surveillance and the role of diagnostic laboratories as well as the expansion of actions to improve detection and expedite responses. The model set corresponds to sentinel surveillance complemented by the universal notification of severe acute respiratory syndrome investigating outbreaks, deaths, and unusual events and monitoring hospitalization and mortality in an expanded surveillance. In this review, we address aspects of influenza surveillance in animals, the need for interagency integration, and the sharing of informat...
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - January 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusions:There is moderate evidence that OSA is associated with DKD in patients with T2DM. Large prospective studies with long-term follow up are needed to assess the possible bi-directional mechanisms between OSA and DKD.Citation:Leong WB, Jadhakhan F, Taheri S, Thomas GN, Adab P. The association between obstructive sleep apnea on diabetic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. SLEEP 2016;39(2):301–308. (Source: Sleep)
Source: Sleep - January 31, 2016 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Tube Law of the Pharyngeal Airway in Sleeping Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Conclusions: The pharyngeal tube law is concave (airway gets stiffer as luminal pressure decreases) during respiratory cycles under inspiratory flow limitation. Citation: Genta PR, Edwards BA, Sands SA, Owens RL, Butler JP, Loring SH, White DP, Wellman A. Tube law of the pharyngeal airway in sleeping patients with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2016;39(2):337–343. (Source: Sleep)
Source: Sleep - January 31, 2016 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Cross host transmission in the emergence of MERS coronavirus
Publication date: February 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 16 Author(s): Chantal BEM Reusken, V Stalin Raj, Marion P Koopmans, Bart L Haagmans Coronaviruses (CoVs) able to infect humans emerge through cross-host transmission from animals. There is substantial evidence that the recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV outbreak is fueled by zoonotic transmission from dromedary camels. This is largely based on the fact that closely related viruses have been isolated from this but not any other animal species. Given the widespread geographical distribution of dromedaries found seropositive for M...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - January 31, 2016 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Risk based in vitro performance assessment of extended release abuse deterrent formulations
Publication date: 16 March 2016 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 500, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Xiaoming Xu, Abhay Gupta, Manar Al-Ghabeish, Silvia N. Calderon, Mansoor A. Khan High strength extended release opioid products, which are indispensable tools in the management of pain, are associated with serious risks of unintentional and potentially fatal overdose, as well as of misuse and abuse that might lead to addiction. The issue of drug abuse becomes increasingly prominent when the dosage forms can be readily manipulated to release a high amount of opioid or to extract the drug in certain produ...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - January 31, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Targeting the IL-33/IL-13 Axis for Respiratory Viral Infections
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016 Source:Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Author(s): Chantal Donovan, Jane E. Bourke, Ross Vlahos Lung diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are highly prevalent worldwide. One of the major factors that limits the efficacy of current medication in these patients are viral infections, leading to exacerbations of symptoms and decreased quality of life. Current pharmacological strategies targeting virus-induced lung disease are problematic due to antiviral resistance and the requirement for strain-specific vaccination. Thus, new thera...
Source: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - January 31, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Evaluation of the user seal check on gross leakage detection of 3 different designs of N95 filtering facepiece respirators
Conclusions The results did not support user seal checks in detecting any actual gross leakage in the donning of N95 respirators. However, such a check might alert health care workers that donning a tight-fitting respirator should be performed carefully. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - January 31, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Predictive value of rapid shallow breathing index in relation to the weaning outcome in ICU patients
Conclusion RSBIsp measured through spirometry at the end of SBT is a better predictor of weaning outcome than RSBIpsv measured through pressure support. Our result also reveal that dead space fraction (Vd/Vt) together with PACO2–PECO2 difference are good adjunctive tools for predicting weaning outcome in type II respiratory failure. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis)
Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical significance of serum surfactant protein D in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung diseases
Conclusion The serum SP-D level may be a useful marker for ILD especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis)
Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchodilator effects, pharmacokinetics and safety of PSX1002-GB, a novel glycopyrronium bromide formulation, in COPD patients; a randomised crossover study
Conclusion Single doses of PSX1002-GB (12.5-100μg) were well tolerated. PSX1002-GB 50 and 100mcg delivered by pMDI produced rapid onset bronchodilation that was sustained over a 24 hour period. (Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Statins and brain dysfunction in intensive care
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): Tarek Sharshar, Andrea Polito, Fernando Bozza, Fabrice Chrétien (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Rosuvastatin versus placebo for delirium in intensive care and subsequent cognitive impairment in patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome: an ancillary study to a randomised controlled trial
This study was done at 35 hospitals in the USA. Patients were randomly assigned in permuted blocks of eight and stratified by hospital to receive either rosuvastatin (40 mg loading dose and then 20 mg daily until the earliest of 3 days after discharge from intensive care, study day 28, or death) or placebo. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. Delirium was assessed with the validated Confusion Assessment Method for intensive care. Cognitive function was assessed with tests for executive function, language, verbal reasoning and concept formation, and working, immediate, and delayed memory. We defi...
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

ERJ February Podcast: precision medicine in chronic airway diseases
As part of the February issue, the European Respiratory Journal presents the latest in its series of podcasts. Chief editor Marc Humbert discusses treatable traits of chronic airway diseases and precision medicine with Prof. Alvar Agustí from the University of Barcelona, Spain. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Electronic Resources Source Type: research

Chronic diseases like asthma and COPD: do they truly exist?
We have all been taught what asthma is and currently, the worldwide Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) strategy defines the disease in great detail [1]. Similarly, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been delineated carefully by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), which provides concrete recommendations for its diagnosis based on today's standards [2]. These two efforts have probably done more for the benefit of patients with chronic airway diseases around the world than any top-level research programme in the field: chapeau! The solid recommendations by GINA and GOLD are based ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sterk, P. J. Tags: COPD and smoking, Asthma and allergy Editorials Source Type: research

Asthma phenotypes in childhood: conceptual thoughts on stability and transition
We have known for a long time that asthma-like symptoms in the first years of life predict later asthma poorly. Many preschool wheezers become asymptomatic by school age. A few will develop classic atopic asthma, which is likely to persist into later childhood and even adulthood, but the large majority of preschool children with asthma-like symptoms are difficult place into clear-cut categories. The clinical picture varies from child to child, and remissions and relapses are common. During past decades, many attempts have been made to define asthma phenotypes. Initial attempts were simple and based on a combination of expe...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Spycher, B. D., Kuehni, C. E. Tags: Paediatric pulmonology Editorials Source Type: research

Stressful sleep
Few would challenge the assertion that the inability to breathe is stressful. In fact, inhaling carbon dioxide to simulate asphyxia is a time-honoured research protocol to unmask panic disorder [1]. Sleep loss is also stressful, as evidenced by increased cortisol and sympathetic tone in insomnia [2] or sleep deprivation [3, 4]. In the case of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), impaired breathing efforts may jolt the sleeper awake with surges in heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nerve activity and catecholamines. The treatment of OSA normalises many of these parameters [5]. Hence, OSA clearly engages the "fight or flight...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jun, J. C., Polotsky, V. Y. Tags: Sleep medicine Editorials Source Type: research

Incidence of venous thromboembolism in COPD: linking inflammation and thrombosis?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health burden and expected to become the third leading cause of death by 2030 [1, 2]. Acute exacerbations with aggravation of respiratory symptoms are associated with an acceleration of progressive lung function decline and significant worsening of prognosis (in-hospital mortality rate, 10%; 3-year mortality rate, 49%) [2]. Management of patients with COPD presenting with worsening dyspnoea remains challenging and, in approximately one-third of cases, the underlying cause cannot be identified [2]. Importantly, evidence is accumulating that, in a relevant proportion of...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lankeit, M., Held, M. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Editorials Source Type: research

Optimising treatment for post-operative lung cancer recurrence
Surgical treatment offers the best chances for long-term survival in patients with primary nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, long-term survival after surgery remains less than 50%, mostly due to a 30–77% rate of tumour recurrence. Unlike the distant type of recurrence that is treated nonsurgically in the vast majority of patients, local or loco-regional recurrence, which occurs in 4.6–24% of patients after complete resection (~80% of cases in the first 2 years) [1], raises several concerns related to the optimal therapeutic approach. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Subotic, D., Van Schil, P., Grigoriu, B. Tags: Lung cancer Editorials Source Type: research

Ageing lungs and very elderly COPD: anytime and anywhere
The recent European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society Task Force for COPD Research statement [1] requested new studies that "...evaluate the impact of age on the importance of identifying an airflow limitation (i.e. is it more important to identify asymptomatic airflow limitation in a 30-year-old than an 80-year-old?)", as well as those studies that compare outcomes among individuals diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on the basis of the fixed ratio versus lower limit of normal (LLN) thresholds. In this issue of the European Respiratory Journal (ERJ), Luoto et al. [2] report the results...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Soriano, J. B., Suissa, S. Tags: COPD and smoking, Lung structure and function Editorials Source Type: research

The bronchiectasis severity index and FACED score for bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis is a chronic airway disease which is associated with cough, sputum production, haemoptysis and/or other distressing symptoms, resulting from various aetiologies [1–4]. The vicious cycle, which consists of airway infection, airway inflammation and structural damage, predominates in the pathogenesis and progression of bronchiectasis [5]. Despite the disappointingly limited number of effective treatment approaches and evidence-based management recommendations, it is imperative to evaluate disease severity meticulously so that better therapeutic outcomes can be achieved. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Guan, W.-j., Chen, R.-c., Zhong, N.-s. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis Editorials Source Type: research

Treating allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: the way forward
Allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses are an endotype of allergic lung disease, similar to but more severe than uncomplicated asthma, caused by a Th2-dominated immune response and a bronchocentric granulocytic inflammation provoked by endobronchial growth of filamentous fungi in individuals with innate host defence defects (primarily people with severe allergic asthma or cystic fibrosis); untreated, it leads to progressive structural damage [1–3]. The scope of this problem, however, has only been recognised recently [4, 5]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Moss, R. B. Tags: Asthma and allergy Editorials Source Type: research

Genetic testing in pulmonary hypertension: how should our clinical practice reflect recent advances?
In this issue of the European Respiratory Journal, Girerd et al. [1] summarise their experience to date with genetic testing for reported mutations in cohorts of patients with familial pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic PAH, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH). This collective work from the French Referral Centre of Pulmonary Hypertension represents a current state of the art in a fast moving and complex area from a group with considerable experience. In the last decade, we have moved from a simple and unequivocal association of one gene; heterozygous germli...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Toshner, M. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Editorials Source Type: research

Sex differences in pulmonary hypertension: are we cleaning up the mess?
When I was looking for a research project to pursue as a fellow in 2006, I became interested in sex differences in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). When I proposed the idea of pursuing this topic further to a well-regarded expert in the field, his sobering answer was "That area is a mess"; and what a mess it was! We knew at that time that oestrogens exert protective effects in acute and chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) [1–3], as well as in monocrotaline-induced PH (MCT–PH) [4]. However, we also knew that women are more prone to PAH [5], a finding at odds with the data derived from anima...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lahm, T. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Editorials Source Type: research

Bedaquiline and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic and critical analysis of the evidence
The importance of adequately managing multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) cases for TB control and elimination are underlined in the new World Health Organization (WHO) "End TB Strategy" [1, 2] as part of pillar one (integrated, patient-centred care and prevention; element 2: treatment of all people with TB including drug-resistant TB, and patient support) and in the recently published "Framework towards TB elimination in low incidence countries" in its priority action 5 (optimise the prevention and care of drug-resistant TB) and the related background documents [3–5]. Fur...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pontali, E., Sotgiu, G., D'Ambrosio, L., Centis, R., Migliori, G. B. Tags: Editorials Source Type: research

European IPF Patient Charter: an SOS to the world
This is a time of unprecedented progress in the field of respiratory medicine, particularly for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In the course of one decade, the disease has been redefined, diagnostic criteria have been established [1] and the genetic mechanisms have been elucidated [2]. Two drugs have been approved (pirfenidone in 2011 in Europe and in 2014 in the USA, and nintedanib in 2014 in Europe and the USA) from results of randomised trials including thousands of patients [3–5]. Also, some previously recommended treatments, such as the combination of steroids and azathioprine, have been found deleterious ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Crestani, B. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Editorials Source Type: research

Prenatal stress and childhood asthma risk: taking a broader view
We now know that asthma risk begins in utero during rapid lung morphogenesis, when the developing fetus is particularly vulnerable to toxic insults due to immature immune, neuroendocrine and antioxidant defences. A meta-analysis published in a recent issue of the European Respiratory Journal (ERJ) [1] builds on substantial evidence highlighting psychological stress as a critical toxic exposure that, starting in utero, can permanently alter interrelated systems (i.e. immune, autonomic, neuroendocrine and oxidation systems) believed to programme lung growth and consequent respiratory disorders, including asthma [2]. (Source:...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lee, A., Wright, R. J. Tags: COPD and smoking, Paediatric pulmonology Editorials Source Type: research

Treatable traits: toward precision medicine of chronic airway diseases
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two prevalent chronic airway diseases that have a high personal and social impact. They likely represent a continuum of different diseases that may share biological mechanisms (i.e. endotypes), and present similar clinical, functional, imaging and/or biological features that can be observed (i.e. phenotypes) which require individualised treatment. Precision medicine is defined as "treatments targeted to the needs of individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic, or psychosocial characteristics that distinguish a given patient from other patien...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Agusti, A., Bel, E., Thomas, M., Vogelmeier, C., Brusselle, G., Holgate, S., Humbert, M., Jones, P., Gibson, P. G., Vestbo, J., Beasley, R., Pavord, I. D. Tags: COPD and smoking, Asthma and allergy Perspective Source Type: research

Report of the European Respiratory Society/European Cystic Fibrosis Society task force on the care of adults with cystic fibrosis
The improved survival in people with cystic fibrosis has led to an increasing number of patients reaching adulthood. This trend is likely to be maintained over the next decades, suggesting a need to increase the number of centres with expertise in the management of adult patients with cystic fibrosis. These centres should be capable of delivering multidisciplinary care addressing the complexity of the disease, in addition to addressing the psychological burden on patients and their families. Further issues that require attention are organ transplantation and end of life management. Lung disease in adults with cystic fibros...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - January 31, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Elborn, J. S., Bell, S. C., Madge, S. L., Burgel, P.-R., Castellani, C., Conway, S., De Rijcke, K., Dembski, B., Drevinek, P., Heijerman, H. G. M., Innes, J. A., Lindblad, A., Marshall, B., Olesen, H. V., Reimann, A. L., Sole, A., Viviani, L., Wagner, T. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis Task Force Reports Source Type: research