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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 17.

Error signals as powerful stimuli for the operant conditioning-like process of the fictive respiratory output in a brainstem-spinal cord preparation from rats.
Abstract Respiratory neuromuscular activity needs to adapt to physiologic and pathologic conditions. We studied the conditioning effects of sensory fiber (putative Ia and II type from neuromuscular spindles) stimulation on the fictive respiratory output to the diaphragm, recorded from C4 phrenic ventral root, of in-vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations from rats. The respiratory burst frequency in these preparations decreased gradually (from 0.26±0.02 to 0.09±0.003 bursts(-1)±SEM) as the age of the donor rats increased from zero to 4 days. The frequency greatly increased when the pH of the bath was lowered, a...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - June 27, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Formenti A, Zocchi L Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor.
Abstract Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30ppm for 6h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1ppm). At the 1.0ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithel...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - June 27, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Clewell HJ, Efremenko A, Campbell JL, Dodd DE, Thomas RS Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research

The effect of pre-existing medical conditions on heat stroke during hot weather in South Korea.
CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing neuropsychiatric disorder was associated with an increased risk of heat stroke. National strategies and clinical guidance for such patients should be initiated to prevent fatal events. PMID: 24981822 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environmental Research)
Source: Environmental Research - June 27, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kim SH, Jo SN, Myung HN, Jang JY Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research

Are children׳s asthmatic symptoms related to ambient temperature? A panel study in Australia.
CONCLUSIONS: High ambient temperature is a risk factor for respiratory symptoms in children with asthma. As ambient temperature increases, policies and strategies for rising temperatures will be necessary to protect asthmatic children. PMID: 24981821 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environmental Research)
Source: Environmental Research - June 27, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Li S, Baker PJ, Jalaludin BB, Guo Y, Marks GB, Denison LS, Williams GM Tags: Environ Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of influenza virus infection and hemagglutinin cleavage by the protease inhibitor HAI-2.
In this study, we demonstrate that HAI-2 is an effective inhibitor of cleavage of HA from the human-adapted H1 and H3 subtypes. HAI-2 inhibited influenza virus H1N1 infection in cell culture, and HAI-2 administration showed protection in a mouse model of influenza. HAI-2 has the potential to be an effective, alternative antiviral therapeutic for influenza. PMID: 24978308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications)
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - June 27, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Hamilton BS, Chung C, Cyphers SY, Rinaldi VD, Marcano VC, Whittaker GR Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research

Association of sleep-disordered breathing with decreased cognitive function among patients with dementia.
In this study, a type-4 sleep recorder was used to evaluate respiratory function during sleep in 111 patients with dementia, and data suggesting a possible relationship with cognitive function levels were examined. Multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate the association of severity of dementia with sleep-disordered breathing, age, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. It was found that the respiratory disturbance index was associated with severity of cognitive dysfunction in our subjects. Furthermore, patients younger than 80 years were more susceptible to lower cognitive function associated with slee...
Source: Journal of Sleep Research - June 27, 2014 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Aoki K, Matsuo M, Takahashi M, Murakami J, Aoki Y, Aoki N, Mizumoto H, Namikawa A, Hara H, Miyagawa M, Kadotani H, Yamada N Tags: J Sleep Res Source Type: research

Analysis of the local and systemic inflammatory response in hospitalized infants with respiratory syncitial virus bronchiolitis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that RSV triggers an inflammatory response fundamentally at the respiratory level, with scant systemic repercussion. This local response is characterized by an increase in Th1 and Th2 cytokines, although with a relative predominance of Th1. The determination upon patient admission of IL-6 and MIP-1β levels in NPA, and of MIP-1β in PB could help predict severe forms and the need for oxygenotherapy. PMID: 24985791 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia)
Source: Allergologia et Immunopathologia - June 27, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Moreno-Solís G, Torres-Borrego J, de la Torre-Aguilar MJ, Fernández-Gutiérrez F, Llorente-Cantarero FJ, Pérez-Navero JL Tags: Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) Source Type: research

Giant Thymolipoma: Case Report of an Unusual Mediastinal Tumor.
Abstract Thymolipoma is an uncommon benign neoplasm of the thymus composed of mature adipose and thymic tissue. The diagnosis of thymolipoma should be considered in the case of a mediastinal mass with fat density, especially if it is interspersed with strands of soft tissue attenuation on computed tomography scans. However, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate radiologically between a thymolipoma and other mediastinal fatty tumors. Here we present a patient with a huge mediastinal mass that proved to be a thymolipoma. PMID: 24985048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - June 27, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Obeso Carillo GA, García Fontán EM, Cañizares Carretero MA Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Feasibility and Practical Considerations for Heating and Humidifying Gases during Newborn Stabilisation: An in vitro Model.
Conclusion: Rapid gas conditioning for newborn stabilisation is feasible using the experimental set-up, ≥20 ml H2O and a flow of 10 l/min. The circuit could be used immediately once switched on. Without power, conditioning is quickly lost. Investigation of the clinical effects of gas conditioning is warranted. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID: 24993671 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neonatology)
Source: Neonatology - June 27, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Owen LS, Dawson JA, Middleburgh R, Buttner S, McGrory L, Davis PG Tags: Neonatology Source Type: research

Excluding infection through procalcitonin testing improves outcomes of congestive heart failure patients presenting with acute respiratory symptoms: Results from the randomized ProHOSP trial
(Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - June 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Philipp Schuetz, Alexander Kutz, Eva Grolimund, Sebastian Haubitz, Désirée Demann, Alaadin Vögeli, Fabienne Hitz, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Robert Thomann, Claudine Falconnier, Claus Hoess, Christoph Henzen, Robert J. Marlowe, Werner Zimmerli, Beat Mueller, Source Type: research

One Fifth of U.K. Kids with Persistent Coughs May Have Pertussis
A booster vaccination may be warranted for adolescents in England to help diminish the spread of this highly contagious respiratory disease -- Read more on (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed - June 26, 2014 Category: Science Tags: Biology Society & Policy Health Infectious Diseases Pharmaceuticals Source Type: research

Pediatric Pit Crew CPR
A reader asks, “Does your Pit Crew CPR process work for pediatrics?” See also: Pit Crew CPR – The Explicit Details The answer is, “Yes!” with some minor modifications. We are developing a class for Pediatric Pit Crew CPR. It has not yet been implemented so consider this a beta version. I hate to give a disclaimer but you should have your Medical Director review this Pediatric Pit Crew CPR concept and the accuracy of our airway chart before using it. Some things to keep in mind: Pediatric cardiac arrest is more likely to be respiratory / asphyxial so there is less emphasis on “patient&#...
Source: EMS 12-Lead - June 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tom Bouthillet Tags: ems-topics patient-management pediatrics Pediatric Pit Crew CPR Source Type: research

Clinical Hemodynamic Parameters Do Not Accurately Reflect Systemic Oxygen Transport in Neonates after the Norwood Procedure
ConclusionsRoutine clinical hemodynamic parameters do not accurately reflect oxygen transport after the Norwood procedure, except for SvO2, which does not differentiate between VO2 and DO2. Higher heart rate and SAP are correlated with a worse balance of oxygen transport. The results of clinical hemodynamic monitoring should be interpreted with caution. Direct measurements of oxygen transport parameters are important in the care of neonates after the Norwood procedure. (Source: Congenital Heart Disease)
Source: Congenital Heart Disease - June 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Santokh Dhillon, Xiaoyang Yu, Gencheng Zhang, Sally Cai, Jia Li Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Lung recruitment and endotracheal suction in ventilated preterm infants measured with electrical impedance tomography
ConclusionsETT suction in non‐muscle‐relaxed and ventilated preterm infants with RDS results in significant lung volume increase that is maintained for at least 90 min. Regional differences in distribution of ventilation with ETT suction suggest that the behaviour of the lung is heterogeneous in nature. (Source: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health - June 26, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Judith L Hough, Andrew D Shearman, Helen Liley, Caroline A Grant, Andreas Schibler Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: characterization and risk factors
Conclusions: The main risk factors for P. aeruginosa isolation in severe COPD were the extent of bronchiectasis and exposure to antibiotics. Over 10% of these patients fulfilled criteria for chronic colonization by P. aeruginosa and showed clonal persistence, independently of the presence of bronchiectasis. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Miguel GallegoXavier PomaresMateu EspasaEva CastañerMar SoléDavid SuárezEduard MonsóConcepción Montón Source Type: research

Developmental lung expression and transcriptional regulation of Claudin-6 by TTF-1, Gata-6, and FoxA2
Conclusions: These data revealed for the first time that Cldn6 might be an important tight junctional component expressed by pulmonary epithelium during lung organogenesis. Furthermore, Cldn6-mediated aspects of cell differentiation may describe mechanisms of lung perturbation coincident with impaired cell junctions and abnormal membrane permeability. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Felix JimenezJoshua LewisSamuel BelgiqueTyler WoodPaul Reynolds Source Type: research

Impact of early daycare on healthcare resource use related to upper respiratory tract infections during childhood: prospective WHISTLER cohort study
Children attending daycare in the first year of life have greater risk of upper respiratory tract infections than non-attendees, suggesting that improved prevention strategies are required to reduce infection rates in daycare facilities. (Source: BMC Medicine)
Source: BMC Medicine - June 26, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Marieke LA de HoogRoderick VenekampCornelis van der EntAnne SchilderElisabeth SandersRoger DamoiseauxDebby BogaertCuno UiterwaalHenriette SmitPatricia Bruijning-Verhagen Source Type: research

Obesity, COPD, NIV and reverse epidemiology
(Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fergal J. O'Donoghue, Mark E. Howard Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Addressing ethnic disparity in asthma trials
(Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Naghmeh Radhakrishna, Mark Hew Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Diagnostic properties of the methacholine and mannitol bronchial challenge tests: A comparison study
ConclusionsThe present study demonstrated overall similar diagnostic properties of two diagnostic tests, but also suggested their intercomplementary roles for asthma.The clinical trial registration number at is NCT02104284. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Min‐Hye Kim, Woo‐Jung Song, Tae‐Wan Kim, Hyun‐Jung Jin, You‐Seob Sin, Young‐Min Ye, Sang‐Heon Kim, Heung‐Woo Park, Byung‐Jae Lee, Hae‐Sim Park, Ho‐Joo Yoon, Dong‐Chull Choi, Kyung‐Up Min, Sang‐Heon Cho Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Lung function testing in children: importance of race and ethnic-specific reference equations.
Abstract Marked differences in lung function occur between children of different racial and ethnic backgrounds even when all known confounders including socioeconomic circumstances have been taken into account. Use of ethnic-specific equations, such as those recently published by the Global Lung Function Initiative, help to minimize such differences, thereby improving the accuracy with which lung disease can be identified and treated during childhood, as well as enabling the true impact of adverse environmental or socioeconomic exposures to be assessed, irrespective of ethnic background. In future, incorporation of...
Source: Respiratory Care - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Stocks J, Sonnappa S, Lum S Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research

Decreased cough sensitivity and aspiration in parkinson's disease.
Conclusions:UTC ratings may be important in understanding the mechanism underlying morbidity related to aspiration pneumonia in people with PD and dysphagia. Further understanding decreased UTC in people with PD and dysphagia will be essential for the development of strategies and treatments to address deficits of airway protection in this population. Background: Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of these infections is largely attributed to the presence of dysphagia with silent aspiration, or aspiration without an appropriate cough response. The ...
Source: Chest - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Troche MS, Brandimore AE, Okun MS, Davenport PW, Hegland KW Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Using a Novel Ultra-Fast Chip-Type Real-Time PCR System.
Conclusions:The NBS LabChip G2-3 system may have potential as an ultra-fast, cost-effective diagnostic tool for pulmonary TB with high sensitivity and specificity. Background: NBS LabChip G2-3 is a novel ultra-fast, chip-type portable real-time PCR system. We conducted this study to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this system in detecting pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and to assess its diagnostic performance as compared with a conventional tube-type PCR system. Methods: A total of 247 sputum samples were collected from the patients who were suspected of having pulmonary TB. After the decontamination process, thes...
Source: Chest - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lee SH, Kim SW, Lee S, Kim E, Kim DJ, Park S, Lee EJ, Lee SY, Lee JS, Lim CS, Kim WK, In KH Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Long-term effects of a program to increase physical activity in smokers.
Conclusions:In smokers with normal lung function, improvements in daily physical activity, exercise capacity, anxiety and depression obtained through a 5-month program aimed at increasing physical activity are sustained one year after completion of the program. Furthermore, such a program can contribute to smoking cessation in this population. Background: Programs aimed at increasing physical activity in daily life (PADL) have generated growing interest in order to prevent the deleterious effects of physical inactivity. Recent literature has shown that a short-term protocol using pedometers increased PADL in smokers wi...
Source: Chest - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mantoani LC, Furlanetto KC, Kovelis D, Proença M, Zabatiero J, Bisca G, Morita A, Pitta F Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Respiratory modulation of cardiac vagal tone in Lyme disease.
CONCLUSION: Respiratory modulation of cardiac vagal tone is impaired in Lyme disease, which suggests that Lyme disease may directly affect the vagus nerve or the brainstem. PMID: 24976922 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Cardiology)
Source: World Journal of Cardiology - June 26, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Puri BK, Shah M, Monro JA, Kingston MC, Julu PO Tags: World J Cardiol Source Type: research

Schisantherin A protects lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in mice through inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways.
Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) adhesion, activation, sequestration and inflammatory damage to alveolar-capillary membrane. Schisantherin A, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruit of Schisandra sphenanthera, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of schisantherin A on LPS-induced mouse ARDS. The pulmonary injury severity was evaluated 7h after LPS administration and the protective effects of schisantherin A on LPS-induced mouse ARDS were a...
Source: International Immunopharmacology - June 26, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Zhou E, Li Y, Wei Z, Fu Y, Lei H, Zhang N, Yang Z, Xie G Tags: Int Immunopharmacol Source Type: research

The Debate on Continuous Home Oxygen Therapy.
Abstract Two studies published in the early 80s, namely the Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial (NOTT) and the Medical Research Council Trial (MRC), laid the foundations for modern home oxygen therapy. Since then, little progress has been made in terms of therapeutic indications, and several prescription-associated problems have come to light. Advances in technology have gone hand in hand with growing disregard for the recommendations in clinical guidelines on oxygen therapy. The introduction of liquid oxygen brought with it a number of technical problems, clinical problems related to selecting candidate patients for po...
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - June 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Díaz Lobato S, García González JL, Mayoralas Alises S Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Paradoxical respiratory sinus arrhythmia due to a large thoracic empyema in an ambulatory patient.
In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented report of paradoxical respiratory sinus arrhythmia in an ambulatory, non-anesthetized spontaneously breathing patient. PMID: 24999275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - June 26, 2014 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Assir MZ, Faheem MM, Brenes-Salazar JA, Waseem T Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

The authors reply
(Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - June 25, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: John Massie, Lynn Gillam Tags: Response to Letter Source Type: research

Using lung function measurements to greater advantage in patients with lung disease: Which test and when?
(Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - June 25, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Graham L. Hall, Charles G. Irvin Tags: Series Editorial: A Prologue Source Type: research

Evaluation of an improved sustained-release buprenorphine formulation for use in mice.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-BUP-SR administration resulted in antinociception effects for 48 hours. Results of this study indicated that the improved BUP-SR formulation could be safely administered SC and conferred superior analgesia, compared with that for BUP-HCl, in mice. PMID: 24959727 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - June 25, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Healy JR, Tonkin JL, Kamarec SR, Saludes MA, Ibrahim SY, Matsumoto RR, Wimsatt JH Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections at an outpatient chemotherapy center
Conclusions: Improper preparation and handling of injectable medications likely caused the outbreak. Increased infection control oversight of oncology clinics is critical to prevent similar outbreaks. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - June 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Thomas E. Dobbs, Alice Y. Guh, Peggy Oakes, Mary Jan Vince, Joseph C. Forbi, Bette Jensen, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Paul Byers Tags: Major Articles Source Type: research

Editorial Board
(Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - June 25, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Mycobacterium tuberculosis pili (MTP), a putative biomarker for a tuberculosis diagnostic test” [Tuberculosis 94 (3) (May 2014) 338–345]
(Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - June 25, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Natasha Naidoo, Saiyur Ramsugit, Manormoney Pillay Tags: Corrigendum Source Type: research

Respiratory self‐gating for free‐breathing magnetization transfer MRI of the abdomen
ConclusionRSG approaches may offer to improve the utility of MT‐weighted imaging methods for the assessment of fibrotic diseases and tumor desmoplasia in abdominal organs. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - June 25, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Weiguo Li, Zhuoli Zhang, Kangan Li, Ning Jin, Yue Zhang, Tianjing Zhang, Frank H. Miller, Andrew C. Larson Tags: Note Source Type: research

Impact of preceding respiratory viral infections on the clinical severity of patients with pneumococcal pneumonia
ConclusionThis study suggests that preceding RVIs might be one of the risk factors affecting the clinical severity of pneumococcal pneumonia. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - June 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Young Kyung Yoon, Kyung Sook Yang, Jang Wook Sohn, Chang Kyu Lee, Min Ja Kim Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Trends in Sri Lankan cause-specific adult mortality 1950-2006
Conclusions: Significant disparities are demonstrated in Sri Lankan cause-specific adult mortality by sex and age group for 1950-2006. Female mortality progressively declined while male mortality demonstrated periods of increase and stagnation. Among males aged 15-34 years this coincides with periods of civil conflict over 1970-2000. Among males aged 35-64 years the increased mortality from non-communicable disease and external causes are the main reasons for stagnation in all-cause mortality since the 1970's. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - June 25, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chiranthika VithanaChristine LinhartRichard TaylorStephen MorrellSyed Azim Source Type: research

Procedural sedation with dexmedetomidine during ablation of atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusion Procedural sedation with dexmedetomidine may assure safety and patient immobility during AF ablation, and therefore may be a potential alternative for that with GABAergic anaesthetics. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - June 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sairaku, A., Yoshida, Y., Hirayama, H., Nakano, Y., Ando, M., Kihara, Y. Tags: Ablation for atrial fibrillation Source Type: research

Improved sedation with dexmedetomidine-remifentanil compared with midazolam-remifentanil during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: a randomized, controlled trial
Conclusion The combination of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil provided deeper sedation, less respiratory depression, better analgesia, and higher satisfaction for the interventionist during catheter ablation of A-fib compared with midazolam plus remifentanil, even at a lower dose of remifentanil. (Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - June 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Cho, J. S., Shim, J.-K., Na, S., Park, I., Kwak, Y. L. Tags: Ablation for atrial fibrillation Source Type: research

Cost‐utility analysis of daily versus intermittent inhaled corticosteroids in mild‐persistent asthma
ConclusionsThe present analysis shows that compared to intermittent therapy, daily therapy with ICS for treating pediatric patients with recurrent wheezing and mild persistent asthma is a dominant strategy (more cost effective), because it showed a greater gain in QALYs with lower total treatment costs. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - June 25, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Carlos E. Rodriguez‐Martinez, Gustavo Nino, Jose A. Castro‐Rodriguez Tags: Original Article: Asthma Source Type: research

Reduced Risk of Lung Cancer With Metformin Therapy in Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
In conclusion, metformin use appears to be associated with lower risks of lung and respiratory cancer in diabetic patients. However, caution regarding overestimation is needed, since adjustment for smoking attenuates the association. (Source: American Journal of Epidemiology)
Source: American Journal of Epidemiology - June 25, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zhang, Z.-J., Bi, Y., Li, S., Zhang, Q., Zhao, G., Guo, Y., Song, Q. Tags: RESEARCH-ARTICLE Source Type: research

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) Attenuation of Subchronic Cigarette Smoke-induced Pulmonary Neutrophilia Is Associated with Retention of Nuclear RelB and Suppression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1)
Cigarette smoke is associated with chronic and enhanced pulmonary inflammation characterized by increased cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment to the lung. Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well-known to mediate toxic effects of manmade environmental contaminants, the AhR has emerged as a suppressor of acute cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia by a mechanism involving the NF-B protein RelB. Yet individuals who smoke often smoke for many years and vary in their cigarette consumption. As there is currently no information on the AhR prevention of lung inflammation, including neutrophilia, due to varied...
Source: Toxicological Sciences - June 25, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: de Souza, A. R., Zago, M., Eidelman, D. H., Hamid, Q., Baglole, C. J. Tags: Inhalation and Respiratory Respiratory Toxicology Source Type: research

Vascular remodelling in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and irreversible fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown aetiology that usually leads to respiratory failure and death within 5 years of diagnosis. Alveolar epithelial cell injury, disruption of alveolar capillary membrane integrity and abnormal vascular repair and remodelling have all been proposed as possible pathogenic mechanisms. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the abnormalities in vascular remodelling observed in IPF and highlights several of the cytokines thought to play a pathogenic role, which may ultimately prove to be future therapeutic targets. (Source: QJM)
Source: QJM - June 25, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Barratt, S., Millar, A. Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

Adenovirus causing fever, upper respiratory infection, and allograft nephritis complicated by persistent asymptomatic viremia
Abstract A 20‐year‐old woman, with renal transplant complicated by recurrence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and post‐transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, presented nearly 2 years after transplantation with fever, conjunctivitis, and sinus congestion. She was found to have severe adenovirus (ADV)‐induced granulomatous interstitial nephritis, confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for ADV in the renal biopsy, without urinary symptoms, hematuria, or laboratory evidence of a change in allograft function. Fever, upper respiratory tract symptoms, and evidence of adenoviral infection in the allograft resol...
Source: Transplant Infectious Disease - June 25, 2014 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: A.M. Lachiewicz, R. Cianciolo, M.B. Miller, V. Derebail Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Parenchymal cryobiopsies for interstitial lung diseases: A step forward in disease management
(Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - June 25, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fabien Maldonado, Teng Moua, Joseph Skalski Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Integrated miRNA and mRNA transcriptomes of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM cells) identifies strain-specific miRNA molecular signatures associated with H-PRRSV and N-PRRSV infection.
Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant viral diseases in swine, which causes large economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. There is considerable strain variation in PRRSV and two examples of this are the highly virulent Chinese-type PRRSV (H-PRRSV) and the classical North American type PRRSV (N-PRRSV), both with different pathogenesis. These differences may be due in part to genetic and phenotypic differences in virus replication, but also interaction with the host cell. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial regulators of gene expression and play vital roles i...
Source: Molecular Biology Reports - June 25, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Cong P, Xiao S, Chen Y, Wang L, Gao J, Li M, He Z, Guo Y, Zhao G, Zhang X, Chen L, Mo D, Liu X Tags: Mol Biol Rep Source Type: research

Glycocaulis albus sp. nov., a moderately halophilic dimorphic prosthecate bacterium isolated from petroleum contaminated saline soil.
Abstract Two novel bacterial strains, SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2, which shared 99.9 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity each other, were isolated from petroleum contaminated saline soil, in Shengli Oilfield, eastern China. Cells were Gram-staining negative, motile, aerobic, mesophilic and moderately halophilic. They could grow chemoheterotrophically on varies carbon sources with oxygen as electron accepter. Morphologically, they were typical Caulobacteria-type dimorphic prosthecate bacteria. The genome DNA G+C contents of strains SLG210-30A1(T) and SLG210-19A2 were 61.8 mol% and 61.6 mol% respectively. Strain SLG210...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - June 25, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiang-Lin L, Bai-Sheng X, Man C, Shuang G, Yue-Qin T, Ya-Nan W, Heng-Lin C, Xue-Ying L, Si-Yuan Y, Wu XL Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research