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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 18.

Dynamic corset versus three-point brace in the treatment of osteoporotic compression fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine: a prospective, comparative study.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared to three-point orthosis, patients treated with dynamic orthosis had a greater reduction in pain and a greater improvement in quality of life and respiratory function, with equal effectiveness in stabilizing the fracture, and fewer complications. PMID: 27386868 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research)
Source: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research - July 8, 2016 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Meccariello L, Muzii VF, Falzarano G, Medici A, Carta S, Fortina M, Ferrata P Tags: Aging Clin Exp Res Source Type: research

Early Life Exposure to the Great Smog of 1952 and the Development of Asthma.
CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first to link early-life pollution exposure to later development of asthma using a natural experiment, suggesting the legacy of the Great Smog is ongoing. PMID: 27392261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bharadwaj P, Graff Zivin J, Mullins JT, Neidell M Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Chromobacterium rhizoryzae sp. nov., isolated from rice roots.
Abstract A novel facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium, designated LAM1188T, was isolated from the roots of rice (Oryza sativa) in Hubei Province. Cells of strain LAM1188T were Gram-stain negative and motile. The temperature and pH ranges for growth were 15-40 °C (optimum: 30 °C) and pH 5-10 (optimum: pH 7), respectively. The strain did not require NaCl for growth but tolerated up to 3.5 % NaCl (w/v). Analysis on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate was a member of the genus Chromobacterium, and most closely related to Chromobacterium haemolyticum MDA0585T and Chromobacterium aquaticum CC...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - July 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhou S, Guo X, Wang H, Kong D, Wang Y, Zhu J, Dong W, He M, Hu G, Zhao B, Zhao B, Ruan Z Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Martelella suaedae sp. nov. and Martelella limonii sp. nov., isolated from the root of halophytes.
Abstract Two Gram-negative, aerobic and endophytic bacterial strains, designated YC7033T and YC7034T, were isolated from the roots of halophytes (Suaeda maritime and Limonium tetragonum) inhabiting in tidal flats of Sacheon area, Korea, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that two strains were closely related to Martelella endophytica YC6887T, Martelella mangrovi BM9-1T, Martelella radicis BM5-7T and Martelella mediterranea DSM 17316T with 97.6-99.1 % similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence similarities with the type strains of another closely related genus, Rhizobium...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - July 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Authors: Chung EJ, Hwang JM, Kim KH, Jeon CO, Chung YR Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Lipopolysaccharide promotes pulmonary fibrosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) via lincRNA-p21 induced inhibition of Thy-1 expression.
This study aims to investigate the effects and mechanism of lincRNA-p21 on pulmonary fibrosis in ARDS. Purified 10 mg/kg LPS was dropped into airways of C57BL/6 mice. Expression levels of lincRNA-p21 and Thy-1 were measured by real-time PCR or western blotting. Proliferation of lung fibroblasts was analyzed by BrdU incorporation assay. Lung and BAL collagen contents were estimated using colorimetric Sircol assay. LincRNA-p21 expression was time-dependently increased and Thy-1 expression was time-dependently reduced in a mouse model of ARDS and in LPS-treated lung fibroblasts. Meanwhile, lung fibroblast proliferation was a...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry - July 8, 2016 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Zhou WQ, Wang P, Shao QP, Wang J Tags: Mol Cell Biochem Source Type: research

IL-12p40 gene-deficient BALB/c mice exhibit lower weight loss, reduced lung pathology and decreased sensitization to allergen in response to infection with pneumonia virus of mice.
In conclusion, these data suggest that a depressed regulatory capacity in BALB/c mice to PVM infection results in enhanced immunopathology and sensitization to allergen. PMID: 27400340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virology)
Source: Virology - July 8, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Shrivastava P, Sarkar I, Atanley E, Gomis S, van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk S Tags: Virology Source Type: research

It's all in the gills: Evaluation of O2 uptake in Pacific hagfish refutes a major respiratory role for the skin [SHORT COMMUNICATION]
Alexander M. Clifford, Alex M. Zimmer, Chris M. Wood, and Greg G. GossHagfish skin has been reported as an important site for ammonia excretion and as the major site of systemic oxygen acquisition. However, debate remains whether cutaneous O2 uptake is the dominant route of uptake; all evidence supporting this hypothesis has been derived using indirect measurements. Here we use separating chambers and direct measurements of oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion to quantify cutaneous and branchial exchanges in Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) at rest and following exhaustive exercise. Hagfish primarily relied on the ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - July 8, 2016 Category: Biology Authors: Clifford, A. M., Zimmer, A. M., Wood, C. M., Goss, G. G. Tags: SHORT COMMUNICATION Source Type: research

Multiscale entropy analysis of heart rate variability in heart failure, hypertensive, and sinoaortic-denervated rats: classical and refined approaches
This study highlights the contribution of the multiscale complexity analysis of HRV for understanding the physiological mechanisms involved in cardiovascular regulation. (Source: AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology)
Source: AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - July 8, 2016 Category: Physiology Authors: Silva, L. E. V., Lataro, R. M., Castania, J. A., da Silva, C. A. A., Valencia, J. F., Murta, L. O., Salgado, H. C., Fazan, R., Porta, A. Tags: Neural Control Source Type: research

GABAA- and glycine-mediated inhibitory modulation of the cough reflex in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.
Abstract Cough-related sensory inputs from rapidly-adapting receptors (RARs) and C-fibres are processed by second-order neurons mainly located in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Both GABAA and glycine receptors have been proven to be involved in the inhibitory control of second-order cells receiving RAR projections. We investigated the role of these receptors within the caudal NTS in the modulation of the cough reflex induced either by mechanical or chemical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cinelli E, Iovino L, Bongianni F, Pantaleo T, Mutolo D Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Restoration of R117H CFTR Folding and Function in Human Airway Cells Through Combination Treatment with VX-809 and VX-770.
In this study we investigated the effectiveness of VX-809/VX-770 therapy on restoring CFTR function in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from R117H/F508del CF patients. We found that VX-809 stimulated more CFTR activity in R117H/F508del HBEs than in F508del/F508del HBEs. R117H expressed exclusively in immortalized HBEs exhibited a folding defect, was retained in the ER, and degraded prematurely. VX-809 corrected the R117H folding defect and restored channel function. Because R117 is involved in ion conductance, VX-770 acted additively with VX-809 to restore CFTR function in chronically treated R117H/F508del cells. Alt...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gentzsch M, Ren HY, Houck SA, Quinney NL, Cholon DM, Sopha P, Chaudhry IG, Das J, Dokholyan NV, Randell SH, Cyr DM Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Differential Regulation of Autophagy and Mitophagy in Pulmonary Diseases.
Abstract Lysosomal mediated degradation of intracellular lipids, proteins and organelles, known as autophagy, represents a inducible adaptive response to lung injury resulting from exposure to insults, such as hypoxia, microbes, inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion, pharmaceuticals (e.g. bleomycin), or inhaled xenobiotics (i.e., air pollution, cigarette smoke). This process clears damaged or toxic cellular constituents and facilitates cell survival in stressful environments. Autophagic degradation of dysfunctional or damaged mitochondria is termed mitophagy. Enhanced mitophagy is usually an early response to promote ...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aggarwal S, Mannam P, Zhang J Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Treatment of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Prone Positioning.
Abstract Prone positioning was first proposed in the 1970s as a method to improve gas exchange in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Subsequent observations of dramatic improvement in oxygenation with simple patient rotation motivated the next several decades of research. This work elucidated the physiology mechanisms underlying changes in gas exchange and respiratory mechanics with prone ventilation. However, translating physiological improvements into a clinical benefit has proven challenging; several contemporary trials showed no major clinical benefits with proning. By optimizing patient selection ...
Source: Chest - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Scholten EL, Beitler JR, Prisk GK, Malhotra A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis in Children: Natural History and Risk Factors for Bronchiectasis.
CONCLUSIONS: PBB is associated with a future diagnosis of bronchiectasis in a subgroup of children. H. influenzae lower airway infection and recurrent PBB are significant predictors. Clinicians should be cognisant of the relationship between PBB and bronchiectasis and appropriate follow-up measures should be taken in those with risk factors. PMID: 27400908 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wurzel DF, Marchant JM, Yerkovich ST, Upham JW, Petsky HL, Smith-Vaughan H, Masters B, Buntain H, Chang AB Tags: Chest Source Type: research

The Inaccuracy of Patient Recall for COPD Exacerbation Rate Estimation and its Implications: Results from Central Adjudication.
CONCLUSIONS: Patient 6-month recall of exacerbation events are inaccurate. This may lead to inaccurate estimates of incidence measures and underestimation of treatment effects. The use of multiple data sources combined with event adjudication could substantially reduce sample size requirements and possibly cost of studies. PMID: 27400907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Frei A, Siebeling L, Wolters C, Held L, Muggensturm P, Strassmann A, Zoller M, Riet GT, Puhan MA Tags: Chest Source Type: research

ROS/HIF-1 α/PDGF-BB Autocrine Loop Contributes to Cocaine-mediated Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Damage.
ROS/HIF-1α/PDGF-BB Autocrine Loop Contributes to Cocaine-mediated Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Damage. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016 Jul 8; Authors: Yang L, Chen X, Simet SM, Hu G, Cai Y, Niu F, Kook Y, Buch SJ Abstract Abuse of psychostimulants such as cocaine has been shown to be closely associated with complications of the lung such as pulmonary hypertension, edema, increased inflammation and infection. However, the mechanism by which cocaine mediates impairment of alveolar epithelial barrier integrity that underlies various pulmonary complications isn't well determined. Herein we sought to invest...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - July 8, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Yang L, Chen X, Simet SM, Hu G, Cai Y, Niu F, Kook Y, Buch SJ Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

HoBi ‐Like Pestivirus and Its Impact on Cattle Productivity
Summary The clinical features and economic impact of the infection caused by an emerging group of pestiviruses, namely HoBi‐like pestivirus, in a cattle herd of southern Italy are reported. In 2011, the virus was first associated with respiratory disease, causing an abortion storm after 1 year and apparently disappearing for the following 3 years after persistently infected calves were slaughtered. However, in 2014, reproductive failures and acute gastroenteritis were observed in the same herd, leading to a marked decrease of productivity. A HoBi‐like strain closely related to that responsible for previous outbreaks ...
Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases - July 8, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: N. Decaro, M. S. Lucente, M. Losurdo, V. Larocca, G. Elia, L. Occhiogrosso, P. A. Marino, F. Cirone, C. Buonavoglia Tags: Rapid Communication Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid ‐induced hyperglycaemia in respiratory disease: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
In conclusion, glucocorticoid therapy increases the risk of hyperglycaemia in all individuals with underlying respiratory disease but not when diabetic status is analysed separately. (Source: Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism)
Source: Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism - July 8, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Stuart Breakey, Stephen J. Sharp, Amanda I. Adler, Benjamin G. Challis Tags: BRIEF REPORT Source Type: research

Changes in breathomics from a 1 ‐year randomized smoking cessation trial of electronic cigarettes
ConclusionsSmokers invited to switch to electronic cigarettes who completely abstained from smoking showed steady progressive improvements in their exhaled breath measurements and symptom scores. FeNo and eCO normalization is highly supportive of improved respiratory health outcomes and adds to the notion that quitting from tobacco smoking can reverse harm in the lung. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Investigation)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Investigation - July 8, 2016 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Davide Campagna, Fabio Cibella, Pasquale Caponnetto, Maria Domenica Amaradio, Massimo Caruso, Jaymin B. Morjaria, Mario Malerba, Riccardo Polosa Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Caution to use CO2 cryotherapy for foreign body removal in children: Authors ’ reply
(Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lei Zhang, Yong Yin, Jing Zhang, Hao Zhang Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Meta ‐analysis and systematic review of procalcitonin‐guided treatment in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
ConclusionResults from this meta‐analysis suggest PCT‐guided treatment can safely reduce antibiotic overuse in patients with AECOPD. (Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal)
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - July 8, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Changyang Lin, Qiyuan Pang Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Renal and Non-Renal Solid Organ Transplantation
Following transplantation (TX) of both renal and non-renal organs, a large proportion of patients have renal dysfunction. There are multiple causes for this. Chronic nephrotoxicity and high doses of calcineurin inhibitors are important factors. Preoperative and perioperative factors like hypertension, hypotension, drugs and infections may play a causative role as well. Organ-specific causes include hepatorenal syndrome, cirrhosis, low cardiac function, low respiratory function and diabetes developed both before and after TX. It is important to be able to perform precise and valid measurements or estimates of renal function...
Source: Nephron - July 7, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Review of the clinical significance of respiratory virus infections in newborn infants
ConclusionPreventing virus infections by intensifying hygiene measures and cohorting infected infants should be a major goal for neonatal intensive care units, as well as more common use of virus diagnostics. Active virus surveillance and long‐term follow‐up are needed to ascertain the causality and exact underlying mechanisms for adverse long‐term consequences.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Paediatrica)
Source: Acta Paediatrica - July 7, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Raakel Luoto, Tuomas Jartti, Olli Ruuskanen, Matti Waris, Liisa Lehtonen, Terho Heikkinen Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Chest pain prevalence, causes, and disposition in the emergency department of a regional hospital in Pretoria.
CONCLUSION: The main cause of acute chest pain was found to be respiratory disease, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. In the African context, the aetiology of acute chest pain differs from that in first world countries. Health workers should therefore pay special attention to respiratory conditions during diagnosis and management in African patients with acute chest pain. PMID: 27380782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Primary Care)
Source: Primary Care - July 7, 2016 Category: Primary Care Authors: Geyser M, Smith S Tags: Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med Source Type: research

Outpatient admissions and hospital costs of Syrian refugees in a Turkish university hospital.
CONCLUSION: On the specified dates, the clinics were mostly frequented from Syrian refugees until 18 years group. The most common presenting symptoms are respiratory diseases and most frequented clinic is emergency. PMID: 27381545 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Medical Journal)
Source: Saudi Medical Journal - July 7, 2016 Category: Middle East Health Tags: Saudi Med J Source Type: research

Congenital lobar emphysema. A rare cause of hypertension.
In this report, a case with congenital lobar emphysema, which is a rare cause of respiratory distress and hypertension is discussed. PMID: 27381542 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Saudi Medical Journal)
Source: Saudi Medical Journal - July 7, 2016 Category: Middle East Health Tags: Saudi Med J Source Type: research

Delayed functional improvement after near-fatal bleeding complication following endobronchial valve therapy for emphysema.
Authors: Baldi S, Coni F, Limerutti G, Baccega M, Ruffini E, Solidoro P Abstract Endoscopic treatment of emphysema is supported by different methods, including valves, coils and sealants. The mechanism is mainly related to volume reduction of targeted area. Endobronchial valves (EBV) appear the most studied method. In a multicentre randomised study, placement of unidirectional endobronchial valves resulted in a statistically significant functional improvement in the treated cohort compared to the control. Adverse events, occurring post procedure, included COPD exacerbations, haemoptysis, pneumothorax and pneumonia....
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot in the treatment of bronchobiliary fistula.
Authors: Özdemir C, Sökücü SN, Akbaş A, Altay S, Karasulu AL, Dalar L Abstract Bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is a rare condition in which an abnormal communication exists between the bile ducts and the bronchial tree. Malignancy is the most common etiology of BBF, although many others are possible. A 74-year-old male patient with an inoperable Klatskin tumor presented with a complaint of yellow-green sputum and cough; the patient underwent fiber-optic bronchoscopy based on a preliminary diagnosis of bronchobiliary fistula. Using fiber-optic rigid bronchoscopy, the laterobasal segment of the lower right lung lob...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Multum non multa: airway distensibility by forced oscillations.
Authors: Mermigkis C, Schiza SE, Panagou P Abstract Airway distensibility although appears to be unaffected by airway smooth muscle tone probably related to airway remodelling, after bronchodilator treatment is significantly increased in subjects with asthma. We assessed airway distensibity and its first moment derivative in two patients with mild intermittent asthma and normal spirometry. The increase in airway distensibility after bronchodilation measured at the tidal volume range during quiet breathing by forced oscillations was not accompanied by a change in its first moment, while the latter showed a significa...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Critical review of the equations predicting 6-minute walking distance in obese subjects.
Authors: Donini LM, Poggiogalle E, Mosca V, Pinto A, Migliaccio S, Brunani A, Capodaglio P Abstract The correlation between the 6-minute walking distance and obesity has been only partially explored. Results obtained from the existing predictive equations are influenced by a variety of factors (health status, severity of obesity, reduced muscle strength and mobility, decreased aerobic capacity, presence of comorbidities). The aim of our study was to verify, compare and discuss the 6MWD predictive capacity of the equations currently available in the literature in a sample of obese subjects. Despite similar study des...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Incidental finding of bronchial diverticula in a non-smoker population: evaluation on thin-section CT.
Authors: Ciccarese F, Garzillo G, Chiesa AM, Poerio A, Baroncini S, Bacchi Reggiano ML, Sverzellati N, Zompatori M Abstract Bronchial diverticula have been described as a common radiological finding in smoker patients with COPD, but the specificity of this sign should be further investigated. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of diverticula in a cohort of non-smoker subjects. Between February and July 2012, 2438 patients were admitted to our Radiology Unit to undergo a chest CT. Among them, we enrolled 121 non-smoking patients (78/121-64.5% females, 43/121-35.5% males), of different age (57....
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Concurrent sensitization to Aspergillus Fumigatus in tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.
Authors: Chhabra SK, Dash DJ Abstract Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is characterized by lung tissue and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Serum total IgE is also markedly increased in TPE. However, an association with asthma or other hypersensitivity conditions has not been described. During the diagnostic workup of three patients eventually confirmed to have TPE, hypersensitivity to the fungus, Aspergillus Fumigatus was found. However, there was no evidence of diseases of aspergillus hypersensitivity such as severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). T...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Bilateral empyema treated by sequential pleuroscopy.
We present the case of a 71-year-old man with bilateral empyema treated successfully by sequential pleuroscopy, associated to infectious pericarditis. PMID: 27374214 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease)
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

A rib abnormality mimicking pulmonary nodule: a pitfall in the plain chest x-ray.
We describe a case with intrathorasic rib abnormality mimicking a peripheral metastatic lung nodule in the plain chest x-ray and emphasize the use of coronal and sagittal reformatted images in thorasic imaging. Utilisation of multiplanar reformatted images in chest computerised tomography increase diagnostic quality. PMID: 27374213 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease)
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Cholesterol: until which age 'the lower the better'?
Authors: Marchionni N, Orso F Abstract In the elderly and particularly in the very elderly the prognostic role of hypercholesterolemia is uncertain and there are conflicting data from the literature. In some studies, the relation between high levels of cholesterol and cardiovascular events, strongly demonstrated for younger subjects, has been confirmed also in the elderly, conversely in other studies a relation between low cholesterol levels and higher mortality risk has been described, particularly in the very elderly. Furthermore, uncertainties regarding hypercholesterolemia treatment have been raised both in sec...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in patiens with heart failure and chronic pulmonary disease.
Authors: Temporelli PL Abstract The epidemiology of chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are well known. Each of these conditions has an important impact on quality of life and functional status and on healthcare consumption. Through shared risk factors and pathophysiological mechanisms CHF and COPD coexist more frequently than expected from the respective populations observed by the pulmonologist or cardiologist. This has important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Several registry-based studies and post-hoc analyses of large randomized controlled trials evaluating CO...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Resistance training and sarcopenia.
Authors: Giallauria F, Cittadini A, Smart NA, Vigorito C Abstract Aging is inexorably accompanied by a progressive decline of muscle mass, quality and strength. The resulting condition has been termed sarcopenia. Age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by a variety of factors including changes in the hormonal milieu, inactivity, poor nutrition, chronic illness, and loss of integrity and function in the peripheral and central nervous systems. The downstream mechanisms by which these risk factors cause sarcopenia are not completely understood. Exercise training (particularly resistance training) has long been ident...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Cardiac rehabilitation is safe and effective also in the elderly, but don't forget about drugs!
Authors: Del Sindaco D, Tinti MD, Pulignano G, Tolone S, Minardi G, Uguccioni M, Lax A Abstract In the setting of heart failure (HF) pharmacotherapy demonstrates a quantifiable improvement in exercise tolerance also in HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). For patients with HFpEF, often older, with higher prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other comorbidities, endpoints such as quality of life and functional capacity may be more clinically relevant. However several study show as the use of ACE-I and B-blocker were lesser than expected. Beta-blocker therapy is the keystone ...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Are clinical trial results transferable in the real life?
Authors: Natale E, Marsocci A Abstract Generally in the clinical practice patients are more complex in comparison with those included in the clinical trials. In this article, we discuss three relevant items, which may implement the transferability of the clinical trial results in the real world. The observational studies have fewer restrictions on the number of patients included, due to more relaxed inclusion and exlusion criteria than in randomized clinical trials. The absence of randomization however may lead to potential for bias. The recurrent event analysis may extend the positive results of clinical trials re...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Barriers to cardiac rehabilitation access of older heart failure patients and strategies for better implementation.
Authors: Pulignano G, Tinti MD, Del Sindaco D, Tolone S, Minardi G, Lax A, Uguccioni M Abstract In heart failure (HF), cardiac rehabilitation (CR) may reduce decompensations, hospitalization, and ultimately mortality in long term. Many studies over the past decade have demonstrated that aerobic exercise training is effective and safe in stable patients with HF. Exercise CR resulted in a clinically important improvement in the QOL. Several clinical and psychosocial factors are associated with decreased participation in CR programs of elderly HF patients, such as perception of exercise as tiring or painful, comorbidi...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation in the elderly: evidence for cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction or chronic heart failure.
Authors: Fattirolli F, Pratesi A Abstract Cardiac rehabilitation in the elderly today often represents a utopia. The international scientific literature takes little into account this type of prescription for old people, although they represent a large and growing proportion of cardiac patients, with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure, which we have to manage in everyday life. Furthermore, interventions of health education, clinical follow up, rehospitalisation prevention and prescription of tailored exercise, are sometimes more necessary in this kind of patients, given the presence of multimorbidity, functio...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.
Authors: Mossello E, Simoni D Abstract High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, ...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

High blood pressure and syncope: orthostatic hypotension as a link.
Authors: Rafanelli M, Ungar A Abstract The prevalence of hypertension increases with the age. Diagnostic criteria are the same as for the young, but in older adults isolated systolic hypertension is more frequent, due to loss of vascular compliance. Blood pressure should be measured on both sides in the seated position, moreover in the supine and upright position to detect orthostatic hypotension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is useful to detect white coat hypertension and masked hypertension, to tailor the treatment and search for diurnal and nocturnal blood pressure pattern abnormalities. Given that frail...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Aspirin use for primary prevention in elderly patients.
Authors: Terrosu P Abstract The net clinical benefit of aspirin in primary prevention is uncertain as the reduction in occlusive events needs to be balanced against the increase in gastro-intestinal and cerebral bleedings. The meta-analysis of ATT (Anti Thrombotic Trialists) Collaboration in 2009 showed that aspirin therapy in primary prevention was associated with 12% reduction in cardio-vascular events, due mainly to a reduction in non-fatal myocardial infarction (0.18% vs 0.23% per year, p<0.0001). However, the benefit in term of coronary events was almost balanced by the increase in major bleedings. The ...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research

Aging clinical problems: a difficult balance between age and frailty.
Authors: Rozzini R Abstract Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome that embodies an elevated risk of catastrophic declines in health and function among older adults. Frailty is a condition associated with ageing with associated weakness, slowing, decreased energy, lower activity, and, when severe, unintended weight loss. As a population ages, a central focus of geriatricians and public health practitioners is to understand, and then beneficially intervene on, the factors and processes that put elders at such risk, especially the increased vulnerability to stressors (e.g. extremes of heat and cold, infection, injury...
Source: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease - July 7, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Monaldi Arch Chest Dis Source Type: research