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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 19.

Soluble factors from colonic epithelial cells contribute to gut homeostasis by modulating macrophage phenotype.
In this study we examined the role of epithelial cells in inducing this intestinal macrophage phenotype. Using an in vitro system we showed that, in two-dimensional culture, epithelial cell-derived factors from a murine cell line, CMT-93, are sufficient to induce phenotypic changes in macrophages. Exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages, J774A.1, to soluble factors derived from epithelial cells, induced an altered phenotype similar to that of intestinal macrophages with decreased production of IL-12p40, IL-6 and IL-23 and expression of MHC ІІ and CD80 following TLR ligation. Furthermore, these conditioned macrophages s...
Source: Innate Immunity - October 7, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Kristek M, Collins LE, DeCourcey J, McEvoy FA, Loscher CE Tags: Innate Immun Source Type: research

Clinical aspects and outcomes of 70 patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a single-center experience in Saudi Arabia
To report the experience with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection at a single center in Saudi Arabia. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - October 7, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mustafa Saad, Ali S. Omrani, Kamran Baig, Abdelkarim Bahloul, Fatehi Elzein, Mohammad Abdul Matin, Mohei A.A. Selim, Mohammed Al Mutairi, Daifullah Al Nakhli, Amal Y. Al Aidaroos, Nisreen Al Sherbeeni, Hesham I. Al-Khashan, Ziad A. Memish, Ali M. Albarrak Source Type: research

[Some features of the nose in craniofacial malformations.]
Abstract In craniofacial malformations, the nose is variably affected: in its location, its shape or by lack of development. In this short chapter, some of the common problems encountered by the specialized teams are summarized. Craniofacial astronomies can modify the skeleton of the nose during growth, sometime at an early age. However, most rhinoplasties are performed at adulthood. The nasal pyramid may present deformations that produce functional and aesthetics impairment that should be treated when necessary. Respiratory problems should be recognized as early as possible and treated in priority. PMID: 25303...
Source: Annales de Chirurgie Plastique et Esthetique - October 7, 2014 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Arnaud E Tags: Ann Chir Plast Esthet Source Type: research

Pulmonary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.
Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are a systemic illness that may affect up to half of all patients. Among the extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, those involving the lungs are relatively rare and often overlooked. However, there is a wide array of such manifestations, spanning from airway disease to lung parenchymal disease, thromboembolic disease, pleural disease, enteric-pulmonary fistulas, pulmonary function test abnormalities, and adverse drug reactions. The spectrum of IBD manifestations in the chest is broad, and the manifestations may mimic other diseases. Althou...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - October 7, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ji XQ, Wang LX, Lu DG Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research

Effects of an additional pressure support level on exercise duration in patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation.
CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing PMV, an additional PS level of up to 4 cmH2O compared with the baseline setting may help to improve exercise tolerance by prolonging exercise duration. PMID: 25304086 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J Formos Med Assoc)
Source: J Formos Med Assoc - October 7, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chen YH, Lin HL, Hsiao HF, Huang CT, Kao KC, Li LF, Huang CC, Tsai YH Tags: J Formos Med Assoc Source Type: research

Pre-treatment mycobacterial sputum load influences individual on-treatment measurements
Time to culture positivity (TTP) in liquid medium is now widely available as a measure of viable mycobacterial sputum load. TTP correlates well with and could replace colony-forming unit (CFU) counting in studies of antituberculosis drug effects. We investigated the influence of the pre-treatment mycobacterial sputum load on 4428 CFU measurements obtained within the first 14 days of treatment. Using a prediction model we show that pre-treatment CFU counts contribute 29% to the variation of on-treatment CFU counts and increase the precision of the prediction of on-treatment CFU from TTP by 12%. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - October 7, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Andreas H. Diacon, Lize van der Merwe, Anne-Marie Demers, Florian Von Groote-Bidlingmaier, Amour Venter, Peter R. Donald Tags: Drug discovery and resistance Source Type: research

Criteria Air Pollutants and Emergency Nursing
Outdoor air pollution is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from lower respiratory infections, chronic respiratory diseases, cardiovascular and circulatory diseases, and cancer.1 Roughly 130 million Americans live where air pollution does not meet healthy air quality standards, with air pollution disproportionately affecting those who have low incomes and are ethnic minorities, women, and children.2 Outdoor air pollution is one of the top 20 leading risk factors associated with loss of healthy life-years in North America. (Source: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN)
Source: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN - October 7, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Jessica Castner, Sarah Gittere, Jin Young Seo Tags: Clinical Source Type: research

An unusual diagnosis of increasing respiratory failure after lung resection
(Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine)
Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine - October 6, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Four-dimensional computed tomography based respiratory-gated radiotherapy with respiratory guidance system: analysis of respiratory signals and dosimetric comparison.
Conclusions. The reproducibility and regularity of respiratory amplitude and period were significantly improved with the complex system-guided breathing compared to the free or the audio-guided breathing. In addition, the treatment plan based on the 4D CT-based MIP images acquired with the complex system guided breathing showed better normal tissue sparing than that on the free breathing CT. PMID: 25276775 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomed Res)
Source: Biomed Res - October 6, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Lee JA, Kim CY, Yang DS, Yoon WS, Park YJ, Lee S, Kim YB Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Teva shedding 14 new drug candidates
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. said Monday its discontinuing or divesting 14 new drug-development programs in non-core therapeutic areas. Going forward, Teva said its plans to focus its research and development efforts for branded products on two key areas: central nervous system disorders (including multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases and pain); and respiratory diseases (including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.) “Our late-stage pipeline assets are expected… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines - October 6, 2014 Category: Hospital Management Authors: John George Source Type: research

Optimization of acquisition parameters and accuracy of target motion trajectory for four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography with a dynamic thorax phantom
Abstract Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the performance of four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CBCT) and to optimize the acquisition parameters. We evaluated the relationship between the acquisition parameters of 4D-CBCT and the accuracy of the target motion trajectory using a dynamic thorax phantom. The target motion was created three dimensionally using target sizes of 2 and 3 cm, respiratory cycles of 4 and 8 s, and amplitudes of 1 and 2 cm. The 4D-CBCT data were acquired under two detector configurations: “small mode” and “medium mode”. The projection data acquired with scan times ra...
Source: Radiological Physics and Technology - October 6, 2014 Category: Physics Source Type: research

Zellweger syndrome and secondary mitochondrial myopathy
In conclusion, this is the first study of patients with a molecularly confirmed peroxisomal disorder with features of a concomitant mitochondrial myopathy and underscores the role of secondary mitochondrial dysfunction in Zellweger syndrome, potentially contributing to the clinical phenotype. (Source: European Journal of Pediatrics)
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - October 6, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Physical training for asthma.
CONCLUSIONS: This review demonstrated that physical training showed significant improvement in maximum oxygen uptake, though no effects were observed in other measures of pulmonary function. Physical training was well tolerated among people with asthma in the included studies and, as such, people with stable asthma should be encouraged to participate in regular exercise training, without fear of symptom exacerbation. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which physical activity impacts asthma management. PMID: 25272000 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Sao Paulo Medical Journal)
Source: Sao Paulo Medical Journal - October 6, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Carson KV, Chandratilleke MG, Picot J, Brinn MP, A AJ, Smith BJ Tags: Sao Paulo Med J Source Type: research

Self-reported exercise and longitudinal outcomes in cystic fibrosis: a retrospective cohort study
Conclusions: In our retrospective study, self-reported exercise was associated with improved longitudinal nutritional and pulmonary outcomes in cystic fibrosis for adults. Although prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations, programs to promote regular exercise among individuals with cystic fibrosis would be beneficial. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Joseph CollacoScott BlackmanKaren RaraighChristopher MorrowGarry CuttingShruti Paranjape Source Type: research

In Vivo Interactions Between Cobalt or Ferric Compounds and the Pools of Sulphide in the Blood During and After H2S Poisoning
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), a chemical hazard in oil and gas production, has recently become a dreadful method of suicide, posing specific risks and challenges for the first responders. Currently, there is no proven effective treatment against H2S poisoning and its severe neurological, respiratory or cardiac after-effects. We have recently described that H2S is present in various compartments, or pools, in the body during sulphide exposure, which have different levels of toxicity. The general goals of our study were to (1) determine the concentrations and kinetics of the various pools of hydrogen sulphide in the blood, i.e., ...
Source: Toxicological Sciences - October 6, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Haouzi, P., Sonobe, T., Torsell-Tubbs, N., Prokopczyk, B., Chenuel, B., Klingerman, C. M. Tags: Clinical and Translational Toxicology Source Type: research

Isolation and characterization of a prokaryotic cell organelle from the anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis
Summary Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium with nitrite to nitrogen gas in the absence of oxygen. These microorganisms form a significant sink for fixed nitrogen in the oceans and the anammox process is applied as a cost‐effective and environment‐friendly nitrogen removal system from wastewater. Anammox bacteria have a compartmentalized cell plan that consists of three separate compartments. Here we report the fractionation of the anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis in order to isolate and analyze the innermost cell compartment called the anammoxosome. The subcellular fractions were...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - October 6, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Sarah Neumann, Hans J.C.T. Wessels, W. Irene C. Rijpstra, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Boran Kartal, Mike S.M. Jetten, Laura Niftrik Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

CD8(+)IL-17(+) T Cells Mediate Neutrophilic Airway Obliteration in T-bet Deficient Mouse Lung Allograft Recipients.
Abstract Acute cellular rejection is a known risk factor for the development of obliterative bronchiolitis which limits the long term survival of lung transplant recipients. However, the T cell effector mechanisms in both of these processes remain incompletely understood. Using the mouse orthotopic lung transplant model, we investigated whether C57BL/6 T-bet-/- recipients of MHC-mismatched BALB/c lung grafts develop rejection pathology and allospecific cytokine responses that differ from WT mice. T-bet-/- recipients demonstrated vigorous allograft rejection at 10 days, characterized by neutrophilic inflammation and...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - October 6, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Lendermon EA, Dodd-O JM, Coon TA, Miller HL, Ganguly S, Popescu I, O'Donnell CP, Cardenes N, Levine M, Rojas M, Weathington NM, Zhao J, Zhao Y, McDyer JF Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Hospitalizations in Pre-Mature Infants in Lima, Peru.
Abstract We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima, Peru in infants with a birth weight ≤ 1,500 g followed from birth hospital discharge up to 1 year of age to determine the incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalizations. We enrolled 222 infants from March of 2009 to March of 2010 infants: 48 infants with a birth weight < 1,000 g and 174 infants with a birth weight of 1,000-1,500 g (birth weight = 1,197 ± 224 g; gestational age = 30.1 ± 2.6 weeks). There were 936 episodes of respiratory infections; the incidence of respiratory infections during the first 1 year of lif...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - October 6, 2014 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Ochoa TJ, Bautista R, Dávila C, Salazar JA, Bazán C, Guerra O, Llanos JP, López L, Zea-Vera A, Ecker L Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Pulmonary rehabilitation for interstitial lung disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary rehabilitation seems to be safe for people with ILD. Improvements in functional exercise capacity, dyspnoea and quality of life are seen immediately following pulmonary rehabilitation, with benefits also evident in IPF. Because of inadequate reporting of methods and small numbers of included participants, the quality of evidence was low to moderate. Little evidence was available regarding longer-term effects of pulmonary rehabilitation. PMID: 25284270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - October 6, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Dowman L, Hill CJ, Holland AE Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

[ARAPOC Study: Prevalence of respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the general population.]
CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of COPD and the significant level of underdiagnoses lead to believe that early diagnosis of this disease is still a pending issue. New strategies need to be developed to resolve this problem. PMID: 25300462 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Atencion Primaria)
Source: Atencion Primaria - October 6, 2014 Category: Primary Care Authors: Bruscas Alijarde MJ, Naberan Toña K, Lambán Sánchez MT, Bello Dronda S Tags: Aten Primaria Source Type: research

Sternal tuberculosis: The role of imaging.
PMID: 25301413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Canella C, Zanetti G, Marchiori E Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Combination of tracheal bronchus and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in a patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis and ipsilateral vagal nerve neurofibroma.
PMID: 25301412 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gorospe Sarasúa L, Saldaña Garrido D, Ayala Carbonero AM Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Procollagen Type I and III Aminoterminal Propeptide Levels and Severity of Interstitial Lung Disease in Mexican Women With Progressive Systemic Sclerosis.
CONCLUSIONS: PINP and PIIINP are useful markers for severe ILD+SSc, suggesting they could play a role in the follow-up of this complication in SSc. PMID: 25301411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gonzalez-Lopez L, Rocha-Muñoz AD, Olivas-Flores EM, Garcia-Gonzalez A, Peguero-Gómez AR, Flores-Navarro J, Villa-Manzano AI, Zavaleta-Muñiz SA, Salazar-Paramo M, Mejía M, Juárez-Contreras P, Vazquez-Del Mercado M, Cardona-Muñoz EG, Trujillo-Hernánd Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Characteristics of candidates for lung transplantation due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema.
CONCLUSIONS: The number of patients receiving a lung transplant for COPD has progressively increased and the tendency is to perform the evaluation in earlier stages of the disease. Patients receiving transplants for COPD and AATD had similar characteristics at the time of the evaluation, although AATD patients were younger and had less exposure to tobacco and lower PCO2. PMID: 25301410 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Giacoboni D, Barrecheguren M, Esquinas C, Rodríguez E, Berastegui C, López-Meseguer M, Monforte V, Bravo C, Pirina P, Miravitlles M, Román A Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Generation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by in vitro assembly of viral genomic cDNA fragments.
In conclusion, this study describes for the first time the use of GA as a simple, yet powerful tool for generating infectious PRRSV needed for studying PRRSV biology and developing novel vaccines. PMID: 25300804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)
Source: Virus Research - October 6, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Suhardiman M, Kramyu J, Narkpuk J, Jongkaewwattana A, Wanasen N Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research

strains spreading in Hanoi, Vietnam: Beijing sublineages, genotypes, drug susceptibility patterns, and host factors
Beijing genotype strains are divided into two major sublineages, ancient (atypical) and modern (typical) types, but their phenotypic variations remain largely unknown. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from Hanoi, Vietnam, were analyzed by single-nucleotide polymorphisms and spoligotyping. Patient information and drug susceptibility patterns were obtained. Genetic clustering was assessed by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) locus sets. Multivariate analysis was also performed to investigate factors possibly associated with these sublineages. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shinji Maeda, Nguyen T.L. Hang, Luu T. Lien, Pham H. Thuong, Nguyen V. Hung, Nguyen P. Hoang, Vu C. Cuong, Minako Hijikata, Shinsaku Sakurada, Naoto Keicho Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Increased percentage of IFNγ-producing CD56 + CD3+ cells in active tuberculosis patients upon CFP-10 stimulation of peripheral mononuclear cells
Aiming to identify a possible biomarker that distinguishes immune cellular response of active tuberculosis from latent infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, tuberculin positive household contacts (TST + HHC), and tuberculin negative non-household contacts (TST-NonHHC) were stimulated with PPD or CFP-10 and the percentage of CD69+ cells, proliferating precursor and IFNγ-producing CD4+, CD8+, CD56 + CD3− and CD56 + CD3+ cells were compared. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Victoria E. Niño, Luis F. García, Mauricio Rojas, Víctor Campo, Gloria Ávila, Julio Cesar Klínger, Blanca L. Ortiz, María Lilia Díaz Tags: Immunological aspects Source Type: research

Midregional proadrenomedullin for prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia: A systematic review
The initial prognostic assessment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has important clinical implications. We hypothesized that midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a valuable test for the prediction of outcomes in patients with CAP. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rodrigo Cavallazzi, Karim El-Kersh, Emran Abu-Atherah, Sonal Singh, Yoon K. Loke, Timothy Wiemken, Julio Ramirez Tags: Review Source Type: research

Serum and bal beta--glucan for the diagnosis of pneumonia in HIV positive patients
The diagnosis of patients with pulmonary infiltrates and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a challenge. In current clinical practice the gold standard for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) diagnosis remains the identification of the organism in bronco alveolar lavage (BAL) using microscopy (e.g., silver stain). (1->3)-β -d-glucan (BG) is a polysaccharide that is present within the cell wall of Pneumocystis and other fungi. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: D. Salerno, D. Mushatt, L. Myers, Y. Zhuang, N. de la Rua, E.J. Calderon, D.A. Welsh Source Type: research

Association of lung function with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease outcomes in elderly: The Rancho Bernardo Study
Lung function is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated the prospective association of reduced lung function by spirometry and CHD or CVD events in older community-dwelling adults. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hwa Mu Lee, Michael A. Liu, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Nathan D. Wong Source Type: research

Nasal potential difference: Best or average result for function as diagnostic criteria for cystic fibrosis?
The current practice of averaging the nasal potential difference (NPD) results of right and left nostril measurements reduce inter-individual variability but may underestimate individual CFTR function. (Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis)
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Katherine Keenan, Julie Avolio, Claudia Rueckes-Nilges, Elizabeth Tullis, Tanja Gonska, Lutz Naehrlich Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Outbreak of acute respiratory infection in a care home for the vulnerable elderly: investigation, management and challenges
On the afternoon of Friday 2nd April 2012, the West Midlands East Health Protection Team (HPT), based in Birmingham UK, was contacted by a NHS Primary Care Trust (PCT) infection control nurse. Seven deaths due to respiratory illness had occurred since the 13th of March in a 70 bed care home for elderly and end of life patients. The home was contacted and they reported that 18 residents and two members of staff had suffered chest infections since 27th February. (Source: Public Health)
Source: Public Health - October 6, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Authors: A. Mavrodaris, B. Sibal, C. McKerr, J.I. Hawker Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Increased percentage of IFN-γ producing CD56CD3 cells in active tuberculosis patients upon CFP-10 stimulation of peripheral mononuclear cells
Aiming to identify a possible biomarker that distinguishes immune cellular response of active tuberculosis from latent infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of pulmonary tuberculosis patients (PTB), tuberculin positive household contacts (TST+ HHC), and tuberculin negative non-household contacts (TST− Non HHC) were stimulated with PPD or CFP-10 and the percentage of CD69+ cells, proliferating precursor and IFN-γ producing CD4+, CD8+, CD56+CD3− and CD56+CD3+ cells were compared. IL-2, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-18 and IL-10 were measured in culture supernatants. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - October 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Victoria E. Niño, Luis F. García, Mauricio Rojas, Víctor Campo, Gloria Ávila, Julio Cesar Klínger, Blanca L. Ortiz, María Lilia Díaz Tags: Immunological aspects Source Type: research

Adult-Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis May Be Associated with Number of Sexual Partners
What risk factors, if any, are strongly associated with adult-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (AO-RRP)? (Source: ENT Today)
Source: ENT Today - October 5, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Amy Eckner Tags: Laryngology Literature Reviews Practice Focus HPV Source Type: research

Protein and microRNA biomarkers from lavage, urine, and serum in military personnel evaluated for dyspnea
Conclusions: Candidate proteins and miRNAs associated with the general diagnosis of dyspnea have been identified in subjects with differing medical diagnoses. Since these markers can be measured in readily obtained clinical samples, further studies are possible that test the value of these findings in more formal classification or case-control studies in much larger cohorts of subjects with specific lung diseases such as asthma, emphysema, or some other well-defined lung disease. (Source: BMC Medical Genomics)
Source: BMC Medical Genomics - October 5, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Joseph BrownHeather BrewerCarrie NicoraKarl WeitzMichael MorrisAndrew SkabelundJoshua AdkinsRichard SmithJi-Hoon ChoRichard Gelinas Source Type: research

Anticholinergics/Antimuscarinic Drugs in Asthma
Abstract Anticholinergic alkaloids have been used for thousands of years for the relief of bronchoconstriction and other respiratory symptoms, and their use in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is well established. Acetylcholine, acting through muscarinic receptor (M) receptor, modulates multiple physiologic functions pertinent to asthma including airway muscle tone, mucus gland secretion, and various parameters of inflammation and remodeling. In addition, activation of M receptors may inhibit beta2 adrenoreceptor. These observations offer the rationale for the use of M receptors antagonists ...
Source: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports - October 5, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Validation method to determine metals in atmospheric particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a pollutant composed by various metals, that when accumulated in the respiratory system may cause serious health problems. Methods IO-3.1 (metal extraction in PM) and IO-3.4 [metal determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)] are the recommended by the United State Environmental Protection Agency. With the intent to evaluate the performance of the method developed in our laboratory for the extraction of metal in PM with HNO3 p.a. bidistilled and determination by ICP-OES of Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn, validation w...
Source: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society - October 4, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

[World Report] Rare enterovirus continues to circulate in North America
D68, an uncommon strain of enterovirus, has caused an unexpectedly high number of respiratory illnesses across the USA and has now appeared in Canada. Brian Owens reports. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - October 4, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Brian Owens Tags: World Report Source Type: research

TargetCOPD: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of targeted case finding for COPD versus routine practice in primary care: protocol
In this study, using a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 56 general practices in the West Midlands, we plan to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a Targeted approach to case finding for COPD compared with routine practice. Using an individual patient RCT nested in the Targeted arm, we plan also to compare the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of Active case finding using a postal questionnaire (with supplementary opportunistic questionnaires), and Opportunistic-only case finding during routine surgery consultations.All ever-smoking patients aged 40-79 years, without a current diagnosis of...
Source: BioMed Central - October 4, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Rachel E JordanPeymane AdabSue JowettJen MarshRichard RileyAlexandra EnocsonMartin MillerBrendan CooperAlice TurnerJon G AyresKar Keung ChengKate JollyRobert StockleySheila GreenfieldStanley SiebertAmanda DaleyDavid Fitzmaurice Source Type: research

Indacaterol improves lung hyperinflation and physical activity in patients with moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Conclusions: Indacaterol 150 mug improved lung hyperinflation in patients with moderate COPD, which was associated with an increase of physical activity.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01012765. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - October 4, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Henrik WatzFelix KrippnerAnne KirstenHelgo MagnussenClaus Vogelmeier Source Type: research

Intestinal current measurement versus nasal potential difference measurements for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis: a case-control study
Background: Nasal potential difference (NPD) and intestinal current measurement (ICM) are functional CFTR tests that are used as adjunctive diagnostic tools for cystic fibrosis (CF). Smoking has a systemic negative impact on CFTR function. A diagnostic comparison between NPD and ICM and the impact of smoking on both CFTR tests has not been done. Methods: The sweat chloride test, NPD, and ICM were performed in 18 patients with CF (sweat chloride >60 mmol/l), including 6 pancreatic sufficient (PS) patients, and 13 healthy controls, including 8 smokers. The NPD CFTR response to Cl-free and isoproterenol perfusion (Delta0Cl- +...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - October 4, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Azadeh Bagheri-HansonSebastian NedwedClaudia Rueckes-NilgesLutz Naehrlich Source Type: research

The use of non‐invasive ventilation in very old patients with hypercapnic acute respiratory failure because of COPD exacerbation
ConclusionsThe use of NIV in very old patients was effective in many cases. Endotracheal intubation after NIV failure was not efficacious in either group. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Practice)
Source: International Journal of Clinical Practice - October 4, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: A. Nicolini, M. Santo, L. Ferrera, M. Ferrari‐Bravo, C. Barlascini, A. Perazzo Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research

Systematic identification of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations in human respiratory epithelial cells during influenza A virus infection
Conclusion: Compared with other representative state-of-the-art algorithms, the proposed SITPR framework can more effectively identify the activated transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations simultaneously from a given background network. The idea of SITPR is generally applicable to the analysis of gene regulatory networks in human cells. The results obtained for human respiratory epithelial cells suggest the importance of the transcriptional, post-transcriptional regulations as well as their synergies in the innate immune responses against IAV infection. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - October 4, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Zhi-Ping LiuHulin WuJian ZhuHongyu Miao Source Type: research

Diphtheria-like illness in a fully immunised child caused by Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum
VA Indumathi, R Shikha, DR SuryaprakashIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2014 32(4):443-445Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a common commensal flora of the upper respiratory tract in humans. Though the pathogenicity of C. pseudodiphtheriticum is not rare, its role as an opportunistic pathogen is mainly limited to the lower respiratory tract, particularly in patients with underlying systemic conditions or immune-compromisation. We hereby present the first case of C. pseudodiphtheriticum causing diphtheria-like illness affecting the upper respiratory tract of a 6-year-old fully immunised otherwise healthy child. ...
Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology - October 4, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: VA IndumathiR ShikhaDR Suryaprakash Source Type: research

A chalcone with potent inhibiting activity against biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae
In this study, a series of natural and synthetic chalcones with various chemical substituents were evaluated in vitro for their antibiofilm activities against strong biofilm‐forming strains of NTHi. Of the test chalcones, 3‐hydroxychalcone (chalcone 8) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity, its mean minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50) being 16 μg/mL (71.35 μM), or approximately sixfold more active than the reference drug, azithromycin (MBIC50 419.68 μM). The inhibitory activity of chalcone 8, which is a chemically modified chalcone, appeared to be superior to those of the natural chalcone...
Source: Microbiology and Immunology - October 4, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Duangkamol Kunthalert, Sudarat Baothong, Pichit Khetkam, Suwadee Chokchaisiri, Apichart Suksamrarn Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Reduced primary care respiratory infection visits following pregnancy and infancy vitamin D supplementation: a randomised‐controlled trial
ConclusionVitamin D3 supplementation during pregnancy and infancyreduces primary care visits for ARIduring early childhood.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Paediatrica)
Source: Acta Paediatrica - October 4, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Cameron C. Grant, Suhina Kaur, Ellen Waymouth, Edwin A. Mitchell, Robert Scragg, Alec Ekeroma, Alistair Stewart, Julian Crane, Adrian Trenholme, Carlos A. Camargo Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research