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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 19.

Meet two new grads of Portland’s Concorde Career College who are ready to take the health world by storm (or at least check your vitals)
Oregon Health & Science University isn’t the only school in Portland launching graduates into the health care field this month. Concorde Career College prepares nontraditional students to enter the workforce in a short period of time. The school prepares them for ancillary jobs in the health care arena, such as dental and medical assistants, surgical technologists, respiratory therapists and billing and code specialists. Concorde requires extensive “externships” to give students the experience… (Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - June 19, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Elizabeth Hayes Source Type: research

Meet two new grads of Portland’s Concorde Career College who are ready to take the health world by storm (or at least check your vitals)
Oregon Health & Science University isn’t the only school in Portland launching graduates into the health care field this month. Concorde Career College prepares nontraditional students to enter the workforce in a short period of time. The school prepares them for ancillary jobs in the health care arena, such as dental and medical assistants, surgical technologists, respiratory therapists and billing and code specialists. Concorde requires extensive “externships” to give students the experience… (Source: Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Source: Health Care:Hospitals headlines - June 19, 2014 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Elizabeth Hayes Source Type: research

Advances in Cardiac Processing Software
New software methods that incorporate iterative reconstruction, resolution recovery, and noise compensation now provide the ability to maintain or improve myocardial perfusion SPECT image quality with conventional sodium iodide cameras. Despite lower image counting statistics associated with significantly decreased injected radiopharmaceutical doses or shortened acquisition times or both, image quality is preserved or even improved compared with conventional processing methods. The ability to prescribe a desired myocardial count density by preselecting a SPECT acquisition time now avoids additional patient radiation exposu...
Source: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine - June 19, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Ernest Gordon DePuey Source Type: research

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol; +19 new citations
19 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol These pubmed results were generated on 2014/06/19PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol...)
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Report Source Type: research

Transitional hemodynamics in preterm infants with a respiratory management strategy directed at avoidance of mechanical ventilation
(Source: Early Human Development)
Source: Early Human Development - June 19, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Anil Lakkundi, Ian Wright, Koert de Waal Source Type: research

Impaired kisspeptin signaling decreases metabolism and promotes glucose intolerance and obesity
The neuropeptide kisspeptin regulates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor KISS1R. In addition to GnRH neurons, KISS1R is expressed in other brain areas and peripheral tissues, which suggests that kisspeptin has additional functions beyond reproduction. Here, we studied the energetic and metabolic phenotype in mice lacking kisspeptin signaling (Kiss1r KO mice). Compared with WT littermates, adult Kiss1r KO females displayed dramatically higher BW, leptin levels, and adiposity, along with strikingly impaired glucose tolerance. Conversely, male Kiss1r KO mice h...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kristen P. Tolson, Christian Garcia, Stephanie Yen, Stephanie Simonds, Aneta Stefanidis, Alison Lawrence, Jeremy T. Smith, Alexander S. Kauffman Source Type: research

Co-morbidities are the key nominators of the health related quality of life in mild and moderate COPD
Conclusions: The results suggest that co-morbidities may impair HRQoL at an early stage of the disease, while bronchial obstruction becomes a significant determinant of HRQoL only in severe COPD. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jukka KoskelaMaritta KilpeläinenHenna KupiainenWitold MazurHarri SintonenMarike BoezenAri LindqvistDirkje PostmaTarja Laitinen Source Type: research

Twenty years of surveillance in Rett syndrome: what does this tell us?
Conclusions: Survival in Rett syndrome has now been estimated with the most accurate follow up to date. During adulthood, continuation of multidisciplinary services and programs is necessary to optimise health and wellbeing. (Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases)
Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases - June 19, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Alison AndersonKingsley WongPeter JacobyJenny DownsHelen Leonard Source Type: research

Characterisation of acute respiratory infections at a United Kingdom paediatric teaching hospital: observational study assessing the impact of influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) on predominant viral pathogens
Conclusions: Influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) is an ongoing cause of occasionally severe disease affecting both healthy children and those with co-morbidities. Surveillance of viral pathogens provides valuable information on patterns of disease. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - June 19, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emily LeesEnitan CarrolChristine GerrardFiona HardimanGareth HowelAlison TimmisKent ThorburnMalcolm GuiverPaul McNamara Source Type: research

m.3635G>A mutation as a cause of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy
Over 90% of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is caused by one of three mtDNA mutations (m.11778A>G, m.3460G>A, m.14484T>C). The remaining cases are due to rare mutations in different genes encoding subunits of the respiratory chain. The proband is a 17-year-old male with symptoms of optic nerve atrophy. No common LHON mutations were found, but detailed sequencing identified a rare, homoplasmic mutation m.3635G>A in the ND1 gene. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - June 19, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Kodroł, A., Krawczyłski, M. R., Tołska, K., Bartnik, E. Tags: Eye Diseases, Cranial nerves Short report Source Type: research

Predictors for an unsuccessful INtubation-SURfactant-Extubation procedure: a cohort study
Conclusions: We identified specific predictors associated with an unsuccessful INSURE procedure. Keeping high-risk neonates with one or several predictors intubated and treated with mechanical ventilation after surfactant may prevent a re-intubation procedure. (Source: BMC Pediatrics - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pediatrics - Latest articles - June 19, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nis BrixAnna SellmerMorten JensenLinda PedersenTine Henriksen Source Type: research

A complete landscape of post-transcriptional modifications in mammalian mitochondrial tRNAs
In mammalian mitochondria, 22 species of tRNAs encoded in mitochondrial DNA play crucial roles in the translation of 13 essential subunits of the respiratory chain complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Following transcription, mitochondrial tRNAs are modified by nuclear-encoded tRNA-modifying enzymes. These modifications are required for the proper functioning of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt tRNAs), and the absence of these modifications can cause pathological consequences. To date, however, the information available about these modifications has been incomplete. To address this issue, we isolated all 22 species of m...
Source: Nucleic Acids Research - June 19, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Suzuki, T., Suzuki, T. Tags: RNA Source Type: research

Interventional therapies for malignant pleural effusions: The present and the future
Abstract The approach to management of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) has changed over the past few decades. The key goals of MPE management are to relieve patient symptoms using the least invasive means and in the most cost‐effective manner. There is now a realization that patient‐reported outcome measures should be the primary goal of MPE treatment, and this now is the focus in most clinical trials. Efforts to minimize patient morbidity are complemented by development of less invasive treatments that have mostly replaced the more aggressive surgical approaches of the past. Therapeutic thoracentesis is simple, effe...
Source: Respirology - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rajesh Thomas, Roslyn Francis, Helen E. Davies, Y.C. Gary Lee Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Loss of UCP2 Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction without Altering ROS Production and Uncoupling Activity
This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. (Source: PLoS Genetics)
Source: PLoS Genetics - June 19, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Alexandra Kukat et al. Source Type: research

Human rhinovirus infection causes different DNA methylation changes in nasal epithelial cells from healthy and asthmatic subjects
Conclusions: We describe for the first time that Human rhinovirus infection causes DNA methylation changes in airway epithelial cells that differ between asthmatic and healthy subjects. These epigenetic differences may possibly explain the mechanism by which respiratory viruses cause asthma exacerbations. (Source: BMC Medical Genomics)
Source: BMC Medical Genomics - June 19, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Peter McErleanSilvio FavoretoFabricio CostaJunqing ShenJihan QuraishiAssel BiyashevaJocelyn CooperDenise ScholtensElio VaninMaria de BonaldoHehuang XieMarcelo SoaresPedro Avila Source Type: research

Bet v 1 Is an Allergen Whose Function Depends on Iron [Protein Structure and Folding]
It is hypothesized that allergens are at the borderline of self and non-self and, through as yet elusive circumstances, mount a Th2 response for allergic sensitization. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 is considered the prototype for the PR-10 protein family causing respiratory allergy. Here, we give structural evidence that Bet v 1 is a lipocalin-like protein with a striking structural resemblance to human lipocalin 2. Lipocalin 2 is highly expressed in the lung where it exerts immunoregulatory functions dependent on being loaded with siderophore-bound iron (holo-form) or not (apo-form). We demonstrate that similar...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - June 19, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Roth-Walter, F., Gomez-Casado, C., Pacios, L. F., Mothes-Luksch, N., Roth, G. A., Singer, J., Diaz-Perales, A., Jensen-Jarolim, E. Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Pulmonary hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus: echocardiography-based definitions predict 6-year survival
Conclusion. The ESC/ERS/ISHLT echocardiography-based definitions of PH are useful to predict 6-year mortality in SLE patients. A history of pulmonary thromboembolism and lung vasculitis/haemorrhage, cumulated organ damage and long-lasting disease are associated with PH in SLE. (Source: Rheumatology)
Source: Rheumatology - June 19, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Hubbe-Tena, C., Gallegos-Nava, S., Marquez-Velasco, R., Castillo-Martinez, D., Vargas-Barron, J., Sandoval, J., Amezcua-Guerra, L. M. Tags: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Autoimmunity CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Effects of IL-6 and IL-6 blockade on neutrophil function in vitro and in vivo
Conclusion. Therapeutic blockade of IL-6, while inducing a transient neutropenia, does not directly affect neutrophil functions associated with host defence. TCZ-associated neutropenia cannot be explained by direct induction of apoptosis by TCZ, induction of apoptosis following depletion of IL-6, nor increased phagocytosis of neutrophils. (Source: Rheumatology)
Source: Rheumatology - June 19, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Wright, H. L., Cross, A. L., Edwards, S. W., Moots, R. J. Tags: Immunogenetics, Rheumatoid Arthritis BASIC [AMP ] TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Mitochondrial biogenesis-associated factors underlie the magnitude of response to aerobic endurance training in rats.
In this study, we compare a newly developed rat model system selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance from aerobic training to test whether genetic segregation for trainability associates with differences in factors associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. Low response trainer (LRT) and high response trainer (HRT) rats from generation 11 of artificial selection were trained five times a week, 30 min per day for 3 months at 70 % VO2max to study the mitochondrial molecular background of trainability. As expected, we found significant differential for the gain in running distance between LRT and HRT grou...
Source: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology - June 19, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Marton O, Koltai E, Takeda M, Koch LG, Britton SL, Davies KJ, Boldogh I, Radak Z Tags: Pflugers Arch Source Type: research

An evidence-based quality improvement perspective for a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease case-finding program.
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a persistent progressive respiratory disease that is increasing in prevalence and cost in the United States health care system. Delays in recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are associated with poorer clinical outcomes. These delays are seen more often in populations experiencing economic hardship, lack of access to care, and lack of insurance, such as those seen in an indigent care clinic. The COPD case-finding program was planned as an evidence-based quality improvement project with a prospective, descriptive design generating a convenience sample of pati...
Source: Chronic Respiratory Disease - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Estes TS, Short N, Bowser D, Boyle A Tags: Chron Respir Dis Source Type: research

Five-year cohort study: emphysematous progression of indium-exposed workers.
Conclusions:Long-term adverse effects on emphysematous changes were observed. The results suggest indium-exposed workers with In-S levels higher than 20 µg/L should be immediately removed from exposure. Background: Dose-dependent adverse lung effects due to indium exposure have been reported in a cross-sectional study. This is a 5-year longitudinal cohort study of indium-exposed and unexposed workers, assessing indium exposure levels and its clinical lung effects. Methods: From 2008 to 2011, a 5-year follow-up study was conducted on 40 unexposed and 240 formerly or currently indium-exposed workers at 11 factories....
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nakano M, Omae K, Uchida K, Michikawa T, Yoshioka N, Hirata M, Tanaka A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Entrustable Professional Activities and Curricular Milestones for Fellowship Training in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine: Report of a multi-society working group.
Abstract Abstract: This paper describes the Curricular Milestones and Entrustable Professional Activities for trainees in Pulmonary, Critical Care, or combined fellowship programs. Under the Next Accreditation System of the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), curricular milestones comprise the curriculum or learning objectives for training in these fields. Entrustable professional activities represent the outcomes of training, the activities that society and professional peers can expect fellowship graduates to be able to perform unsupervised. These curricular milestones and entrustable pro...
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fessler HE, Addrizzo-Harris D, Beck JM, Buckley JD, Pastores SM, Piquette CA, Rowley JA, Spevetz A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Elevation of Plasma Cell Free Hemoglobin in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
ConclusionsCFH is elevated in a PAH patients and BMPR2 carriers compared with healthy subjects and PVH patients. Elevated CFH levels are independently associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. Further study is required to understand the mechanism of CFH elevation and the potential pathologic contribution of CFH in PAH. Background: Cell free hemoglobin (CFH) is a potent nitric oxide scavenger associated with poor outcomes in several diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by reduced nitric oxide availability. We hypothesized that CFH would be elevated in PAH and associate with hemody...
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brittain EL, Janz DR, Austin ED, Bastarache JA, Wheeler LA, Ware LB, Hemnes AR Tags: Chest Source Type: research

A randomized investigator-masked double-bind placebo-controlled trial on thalidomide in severe cutaneous sarcoidosis.
Conclusion:At a dose of 100 mg daily for 3 months, our results do not encourage thalidomide use in cutaneous sarcoidosis. Trial registration:NCT0030552 ( Context: Thalidomide use in cutaneous sarcoidosis is based on data from small case series or case reports. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of thalidomide in severe cutaneous sarcoidosis. Design, Setting and Participants: Randomized, double-bind, parallel, placebo-controlled, investigator-masked, multicentre trial lasting 3 months, and an open-label study from month 3 to month 6. Adults with clinical and histological diagnosis ...
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Droitcourt C, Rybojad M, Porcher R, Juillard C, Cosnes A, Joly P, Lacour JP, D'Incan M, Dupin N, Sassolas B, Misery L, Chevrant-Breton J, Lebrun-Vignes B, Desseaux K, Valeyre D, Revuz J, Tazi A, Chosidow O, Dupuy A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Prediction of acute respiratory disease in current and former smokers with and without COPD.
Conclusions:Although acute episodes of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar and at a population level there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. Background: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unknown. Methods: 8246 non-Hispanic White and African American current and former smokers in the COPDGene cohort had longitudinal follow up (LFU) every six months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an emerg...
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bowler RP, Kim V, Regan E, Williams A, Santorico SA, Make BJ, Lynch DA, Hokanson JE, Washko GR, Bercz P, Soler X, Marchetti N, Criner GJ, Ramsdell J, Han MK, Demeo D, Anzueto A, Comellas A, Crapo J, Dransfield M, Wells JM, Hersh CP, MacIntyre N, Martinez Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Novel Use of Dexmedetomidine for the Treatment of Anticholinergic Toxidrome.
We report the case of an adolescent with anticholinergic toxidrome from diphenhydramine overdose, whose symptoms were treated with a novel application of dexmedetomidine. CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old female developed an anticholinergic toxidrome after intentionally ingesting 9.5 mg/kg of diphenhydramine. Despite routine supportive therapies, to include appropriate doses of lorazepam, she continued to have significant agitation, psychosis, and hallucinations. A dexmedetomidine infusion was started to aid in the treatment of her agitation and psychosis with marked improvement of her symptoms. DISCUSSION: Using dexmede...
Source: Journal of Medical Toxicology - June 19, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Walker A, Delle Donne A, Douglas E, Spicer K, Pluim T Tags: J Med Toxicol Source Type: research

Exposure to air pollutants and mortality in hypertensive patients according to demography: A 10 year case-crossover study.
This study evaluated whether short term exposures to NO2, O3, particulate matter <10 mm in diameter (PM10) were associated with higher risk of mortality. A total of 223,287 hypertensive patients attended public health-care services and newly prescribed at least 1 antihypertensive agent were followed-up for up to 5 years. A time-stratified, bi-directional case-crossover design was adopted. For all-cause mortality, significant positive associations were observed for NO2 and PM10 at lag 0-3 days per 10 μg/m(3) increase in concentration (excess risks 1.187%-2.501%). Significant positive associations were found for O3 at ...
Source: Environmental Pollution - June 19, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Wong MC, Tam WW, Wang HH, Lao XQ, Zhang DD, Chan SW, Kwan MW, Fan CK, Cheung CS, Tong EL, Cheung NT, Tse LA, Yu IT Tags: Environ Pollut Source Type: research

Inhibition of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by α-tocopheryl succinate.
Abstract α-Tocopheryl succinate (TOS), a redox-silent analogue of vitamin E, suppresses cell growth in a number of clinical and experimental cancers, inhibits mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and activates reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The aim of this study was to test whether TOS also inhibits glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH), another flavoprotein-dependent enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain because there are differences between electron transfer pathway from SDH and mGPDH to coenzyme Q pool. For our experiments brown adipose tissue mitochondria with high expression of ...
Source: The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology - June 19, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rauchová H, Vokurková M, Drahota Z Tags: Int J Biochem Cell Biol Source Type: research

Directing traffic: IL‐17 and IL‐22 coordinate pulmonary immune defense
Summary Respiratory infections and diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, and effective treatments probably require manipulating the inflammatory response to pathogenic microbes or allergens. Here, we review mechanisms controlling the production and functions of interleukin‐17 (IL‐17) and IL‐22, cytokines that direct several aspects of lung immunity. Innate lymphocytes (γδ T cells, natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells) are the major source of IL‐17 and IL‐22 during acute infections, while CD4+ T‐helper 17 (Th17) cells contribute to vaccine‐induced immunity. The characterization of ...
Source: Immunological Reviews - June 19, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jeremy P. McAleer, Jay K. Kolls Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Medication use among children 0-14 years old: population baseline study in the Jequitinhonha Vale, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of drugs use in children was high, indicating the need for formulating educational programs aiming at the awareness of caregivers regarding rational use. PMID: 24953722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Jornal de Pediatria)
Source: Jornal de Pediatria - June 19, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Cruz MJ, Dourado LF, Bodevan EC, Andrade RA, Santos DF Tags: J Pediatr (Rio J) Source Type: research

Total Endovascular Treatment of an Aortic Arch Aneurysm in a Patient with a Mechanical Aortic Valve
Discussion: Total endovascular arch aneurysm repair is no longer contraindicated in patients with a mechanical aortic valve. (Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery)
Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery - June 19, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: R. Spear, R. Azzaoui, B. Maurel, J. Sobocinski, B. Roeder, S. Haulon Tags: Aortic Disease Source Type: research

Comparison of diffusion-weighted MRI acquisition techniques for normal pancreas at 3.0 Tesla.
CONCLUSION: The highest image quality for normal pancreas was obtained using respiratory-triggered DWI with IR. Normal pancreas displayed inhomogeneous ADC values along the head, body, and tail structures. PMID: 25010365 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology)
Source: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology - June 19, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Yao XZ, Kuang T, Wu L, Feng H, Liu H, Cheng WZ, Rao SX, Wang H, Zeng MS Tags: Diagn Interv Radiol Source Type: research

A case of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with malignant transformation, HPV11 DNAemia, high L1 antibody titre and a fatal papillary endocardial lesion
Conclusion: We here report a severe case of JORRP hallmarked by HPV11 DNAemia and very high antibody titres directed against the major viral capsid protein L1. Furthermore, the extent of malignant transformation and the discovery of a very rare fatal endocardial lesion highlight the unpredictability of JORRP and the complexity of its clinical management. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - June 18, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Paul-Stefan MauzManola ZagoRalf KurthMichael PawlitaMartin HolderriedJohn ThierickeAngelika IftnerFrank StubenrauchKarl SotlarThomas Iftner Source Type: research

Pandemic clinical case definitions are non-specific: multiple respiratory viruses circulating in the early phases of the 2009 influenza pandemic in New South Wales, Australia
Conclusions: In the very early stages of a new pandemic, limiting testing to only the novel virus will miss other clinically important co-circulating respiratory pathogens. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - June 18, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Vigneswary RatnamohanJanette TaylorFrank ZengKenneth McPhieChristopher BlythSheena AdamsonJen KokDominic Dwyer Source Type: research

Once-daily oral administration of cyclosporine in a lung transplant patient with a history of renal toxicity of calcineurin inhibitors
We report a patient with a history of calcineurin inhibitor-induced renal toxicity who successfully underwent living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) with the novel immunosuppressive strategy of once-daily administration of cyclosporine. An 18-year old man with progressive respiratory insufficiency after bone marrow transplantation was referred to our hospital for lung transplantation. He had a history of renal toxicity due to calcineurin inhibitors. Based on his history of tacrolimus- and cyclosporine-induced renal toxicity, we decided to initiate basiliximab as induction therapy, followed by once-daily cyclospori...
Source: Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery - June 18, 2014 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Matsuda, Y., Chen, F., Miyata, H., Date, H. Tags: Thoracic Source Type: research

Respirophasic carotid artery peak velocity variation as a predictor of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with coronary artery disease
Conclusions Doppler assessment of respirophasic Vpeak-CA seems to be a highly feasible and reliable method to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients undergoing coronary revascularization. Clinical trial registration NCT 01836081. (Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia - June 18, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Song, Y., Kwak, Y. L., Song, J. W., Kim, Y. J., Shim, J. K. Tags: Cardiovascular Source Type: research

Low intraoperative tidal volume ventilation with minimal PEEP is associated with increased mortality
Conclusions Use of low intraoperative TV with minimal PEEP is associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality. (Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia - June 18, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Levin, M. A., McCormick, P. J., Lin, H. M., Hosseinian, L., Fischer, G. W. Tags: Clinical Practice Source Type: research

RSV Increases the Virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae by Binding to PBP1a: a New Paradigm in Respiratory Infection.
Conclusion The direct interaction between a respiratory virus protein and the pneumococcus resulting in increased bacterial virulence and worsening disease outcome is a new paradigm in respiratory infection. PMID: 24941423 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Smith CM, Sandrini S, Datta S, Freestone P, Shafeeq S, Radhakrishnan P, Williams G, Glenn SM, Kuipers OP, Hirst RA, Easton AJ, Andrew PW, O'Callaghan C Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Getting personal: Perspectives on individualized treatment duration in M/XDR-TB.
Abstract Tuberculosis differs from most other bacterial infectious diseases by a very long duration of combination antibiotic therapy required to achieve relapse-free cure. While the standard recommended "short-course" treatment length for tuberculosis is 6 months, the World Health Organization recommends duration of 20 months for the treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Apart from the long duration of antituberculosis therapy, treatment of M/XDR-TB is very expensive and often associated with adverse drug events. The optimal duration for treatmen...
Source: Respiratory Care - June 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Heyckendorf J, Olaru ID, Ruhwald M, Lange C Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

MiR-31 Dysregulation in Cystic Fibrosis Airways Contributes to Increased Pulmonary Cathepsin S Production.
Conclusions: The miR-31/IRF-1/CTSS pathway may play a functional role in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease and may open up new avenues for exploration in the search for an effective therapeutic target. PMID: 24940638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Weldon S, McNally P, McAuley DF, Oglesby IK, Wohlford-Lenane CL, Bartlett JA, Scott CJ, McElvaney NG, Greene CM, McCray PB, Taggart CC Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

How much can chest radiography contribute to the diagnosis of pulmonary emboli?
Unsuspected and so undiagnosed pulmonary embolism (PE) is an important clinical problem and cause of death.1 Clinicians need to be always alert to the possibility of this treatable condition. Understanding the predictive value of routine tests is crucial if the diagnosis is not to be missed. A chest radiograph is usually the first imaging study to be performed in patients with chest pain or dyspnoea, regardless of the clinical suspicion of PE. Large studies of chest radiographs in patients with proven PE provide a basis for understanding just how much, or how little and why, the chest radiograph can contribute to the diagn...
Source: Postgraduate Medical Journal - June 18, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Bain, G. Tags: Drugs: cardiovascular system, Pain (neurology), Venous thromboembolism, Radiology, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Pulmonary embolism, Clinical diagnostic tests, Radiology (diagnostics) Editorials Source Type: research

Radiographic features of pulmonary embolism: Westermark and Palla signs
We present a case highlighting the importance of recognising these unusual radiological signs in patients presenting with haemodynamically unstable pulmonary emboli (box 1). Box 1CXR appearance of Westermark and Palla signs Westermark sign: regional pulmonary oligaemia Palla sign: enlargement of the descending pulmonary artery Case A 78-year-old lady presented to the emergency department with collapse and pleuritic chest pain. On examination, the patient was in respiratory distress and haemodynamic compromise with a respiratory rate of 36 breaths/min, an oxygen saturation of 86% on room air, a heart rate of 120 b...
Source: Postgraduate Medical Journal - June 18, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Abbas, A., St Joseph, E. V., Mansour, O. M. A., Peebles, C. R. Tags: Emergency medicine, Journalology, Patients, Drugs: cardiovascular system, Echocardiography, Pain (neurology), Stroke, Hypertension, Venous thromboembolism, Radiology, Pulmonary embolism, Clinical diagnostic tests, Radiology (diagnostics), Epidemiology, Et Source Type: research

Nursing perceptions of high‐flow nasal cannulae treatment for very preterm infants
ConclusionsNeonatal nurses preferred NCPAP for post‐extubation support of infants <28 weeks' gestation and HFNC for infants of 28 or 30 weeks' gestation. Nurses accurately predicted varying efficacy of HFNC across different gestational ages, consistent with the findings of a contemporaneous randomised trial. In the context of clinical non‐inferiority, as shown in the randomised trial, nursing preference for HFNC over NCPAP in preterm infants ≥28 weeks' gestation supports the use of HFNC as post‐extubation support in this population. (Source: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health - June 18, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Calum T Roberts, Brett J Manley, Jennifer A Dawson, Peter G Davis Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Primary ciliary dyskinesia: Overlooked and undertreated in children
Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a multi‐organ disorder associated with chronic oto‐sino‐pulmonary disease, neonatal respiratory distress, situs abnormalities and reduced fertility. Repeated respiratory tract infections leads to the almost universal development of bronchiectasis. These clinical manifestations are a consequence of poorly functioning motile cilia. However, confirming the diagnosis is quite difficult and is often delayed, so the true incidence of PCD may be significantly higher than current estimates. Nasal nitric oxide has been earmarked as a useful screening tool for identifying patients, ...
Source: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health - June 18, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Patrick Hosie, Dominic A Fitzgerald, Adam Jaffe, Catherine S Birman, Lucy Morgan Tags: Review Article Source Type: research