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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 19.
Preclinical evaluation of human secretoglobin 3A2 in mouse models of lung development and fibrosis.
Abstract Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2 is a member of the SCGB gene superfamily of small secreted proteins, predominantly expressed in lung airways. We hypothesize that human SCGB3A2 may exhibit anti-inflammatory, growth factor, and anti-fibrotic activities and be of clinical utility. Recombinant human SCGB3A2 was expressed, purified, and biochemically characterized as a first step to its development as a therapeutic agent in clinical settings. Human SCGB3A2, as well as mouse SCGB3A2, readily formed a dimer in solution, and exhibited novel phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity. This is the first demonstration of any quan...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - November 8, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cai Y, Winn ME, Zehmer JK, Gillette WK, Lubkowski JT, Pilon AL, Kimura S Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research
Angiostatin Inhibits Acute Lung Injury in a Mouse Model.
Abstract Acute lung injury is marked by profound influx of activated neutrophils, which have delayed apoptosis, along with fluid accumulation that impairs lung function and causes high mortality. Inflammatory and antimicrobial molecules such as reactive oxygen species from activated neutrophils with prolonged lifespan cause tissue damage and contribute to lung dysfunction. Angiostatin, an endogenous anti-angiogenic molecule, is expressed in the lavage fluid of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and modifies neutrophil infiltration in a mouse model of peritonitis. Our aim was to investigate the therap...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - November 8, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aulakh GK, Suri SS, Singh B Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research
Recent advances in late lung development and the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Abstract In contrast to early lung development, a process exemplified by the branching of the developing airways, the later development of the immature lung remains very poorly understood. A key event in late lung development is secondary septation, in which secondary septa arise from primary septa, creating a greater number of alveoli of a smaller size, which dramatically expands the surface area over which gas exchange can take place. Secondary septation, together with architectural changes to the vascular structure of the lung which minimize the distance between the inspired air and the blood, are the objectives...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - November 8, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Madurga A, Mizikova I, Ruiz-Camp J, Morty RE Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research
F-actin scaffold stabilizes lamellar bodies during surfactant secretion.
Abstract Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells secrete surfactant that forms a protective layer on the lung's alveolar epithelium. Vesicles called, lamellar bodies (LBs) store surfactant. Failure of surfactant secretion, which causes severe lung disease, relates to the manner in which LBs undergo exocytosis during the secretion. However, the dynamics of LBs during the secretion process are not known in intact alveoli. Here, we addressed this question through real-time confocal microscopy of single AT2 cells in live alveoli of mouse lungs. Using a combination of phospholipid and aqueous fluorophores that localize to LBs, we i...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - November 8, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Islam MN, Gusarova GA, Monma E, Das SR, Bhattacharya J Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research
Deletion of airway cilia results in non-inflammatory bronchiectasis and hyperreactive airways.
In conclusion, motile cilia may play an important role in controlling airway structure and function. PMID: 24213915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce...)
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - November 8, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gilley SK, Stenbit AE, Pasek RC, Sas KM, Steele SL, Amria M, Bunni MA, Estell KP, Schwiebert LM, Flume P, Gooz M, Haycraft CJ, Yoder BK, Miller C, Pavlik JA, Turner GA, Sisson JH, Bell PD Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research
Feasibility of a 3D human airway epithelial model to study respiratory absorption.
Abstract The respiratory route is an important portal for human exposure to a large variety of substances. Consequently, there is an urgent need for realistic in vitro strategies for evaluation of the absorption of airborne substances with regard to safety and efficacy assessment. The present study investigated feasibility of a 3D human airway epithelial model to study respiratory absorption, in particular to differentiate between low and high absorption of substances. Bronchial epithelial models (MucilAir™), cultured at the air-liquid interface, were exposed to eight radiolabeled model substances via the apical ...
Source: Toxicology in Vitro - November 8, 2013 Category: Toxicology Authors: Reus AA, Maas WJ, Jansen HT, Constant S, Staal YC, van Triel JJ, Kuper F Tags: Toxicol In Vitro Source Type: research
Update on new medicinal application of gentamicin: Evidence-based review.
Abstract Gentamicin (GM) was discovered in 1963 and was introduced into parenteral usage in 1971. Since then, GM has been widely used in medicinal applications. The Food and Drug Administration of the United States approved the routine prescription of GM to treat the following infectious disorders: infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter spp., Enterobacteriaceae spp., Pseudomonas spp.; Staphylococcus infectious disease; bacterial meningitis; bacterial sepsis of newborns; bacterial septicemia; infection of the eye, bone, skin and/or subcutaneous tissue; infective...
Source: J Formos Med Assoc - November 8, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Chen C, Chen Y, Wu P, Chen B Tags: J Formos Med Assoc Source Type: research
The effect of childhood obstructive sleep apnea on ambulatory blood pressure is modulated by the distribution of respiratory events during rapid eye movement and nonrapid eye movement sleep
Abstract: Objective: We aimed to investigate if different childhood obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subtypes, namely rapid eye movement (REM)-related, nonrapid eye movement (NREM)-related and stage-independent OSA would exert different effects on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP).Methods: Data from our previous school-based cross-sectional study were reanalyzed. Subjects who had an obstructive apnea–hypopnea index (OAHI) between 1 and 10 events per hour and a total REM sleep duration of >30min were included in our analysis. REM-related and NREM-related OSA were defined as a ratio of OAHI in REM sleep (OAHIREM) to OAHI in NRE...
Source: Sleep Medicine - November 8, 2013 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Chun Ting Au, Crover Kwok Wah Ho, Yun Kwok Wing, Albert Martin Li Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
Neonatal hyperoxic exposure persistently alters lung secretoglobins and annexin A1.
Abstract Altered functions of the lung epithelial surface likely contribute to the respiratory morbidities in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Infants with BPD exhibit decreased expressions of secretoglobins (SCGBs), including Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP). Expression of lung SCGB and annexin A1 (ANXA1) is persistently altered in CCSP knockout mice suggesting that CCSP indirectly influences innate immune responses. The present studies tested the hypothesis that neonatal hyperoxic exposure induces deficits in CCSP expression that are associated with persistent alterations in lung SCGB and ANXA1 e...
Source: Biomed Res - November 7, 2013 Category: Research Authors: Raffay TM, Locy ML, Hill CL, Jindal NS, Rogers LK, Welty SE, Tipple TE Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Pharmacokinetics and physiological effects of repeated oral administrations of tramadol in horses
In conclusion, there was accumulation and increase in exposure to tramadol and M2, but not M1, during repeated oral administrations in horses. (Source: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
Source: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - November 7, 2013 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: A. G. P. Guedes, H. K. Knych, J. H. N. Soares, R. J. Brosnan Tags: Scientific Paper Source Type: research
C. albicans growth, transition, biofilm formation, and gene expression modulation by antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W
Conclusions: These data provide new insight into the efficacy of KSL-W against C. albicans and its potential use as an antifungal therapy. (Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Microbiology - Latest articles - November 7, 2013 Category: Microbiology Authors: Simon ThebergeAbdelhabib SemlaliAbdullah AlamriKai LeungMahmoud Rouabhia Source Type: research
Increase of caffeine and decrease of corticosteroids for extremely low‐birthweight infants with respiratory failure from 1997 to 2011
ConclusionTreatment strategies for respiratory failure in ELBW infants have changed significantly between 1997 and 2011. (Source: Acta Paediatrica)
Source: Acta Paediatrica - November 7, 2013 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Roland Gerull, Helen Manser, Helmut Küster, Tina Arenz, Mathias Nelle, Stephan Arenz Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research
First Steps Toward Understanding the Variability in Acute Pain Service Provision and the Quality of Pain Relief in Everyday Practice Across the United Kingdom
ConclusionsProspective longitudinal data has the potential to improve our understanding of variation in process and outcome measures and establish future research priorities. (Source: Pain Medicine)
Source: Pain Medicine - November 7, 2013 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Fiona Duncan, Ruth Day, Carol Haigh, Stuart Gill, Jeremy Nightingale, Olga O'Neill, David Counsell, Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Influenza outbreak control practices and the effectiveness of interventions in long‐term care facilities: a systematic review
ConclusionsOur results indicate pharmaceutical control measures have the clearest reported protective effect in LTCFs. Non‐pharmaceutical approaches may be useful; however, most data were from observational studies and standardized reporting or well‐conducted clinical trials of NPI are needed to more precisely measure these effects. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kaitlin Rainwater‐Lovett, Kevin Chun, Justin Lessler Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Genetic variability of human metapneumo‐ and bocaviruses in children with respiratory tract infections
ConclusionsPhylogenetic analysis revealed circulation of one single lineage (B2) for HMPV viruses and predominance of St2 genotype for HBoV viruses. A possible recombination between St1 genotype strains of HBoV was observed. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vasiliki Pogka, Afroditi Moutousi, Athanasios Kossyvakis, Antonios Kalliaropoulos, Dionyssios N. Sgouras, Maria Giannaki, Andreas F. Mentis Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Clinical diagnosis of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza in children with negative rapid influenza diagnostic test by lymphopenia and lower C‐reactive protein levels
ConclusionsA combination of a low lymphocyte count and a low CRP level could, in the early disease phase, provide a useful screening for H1N1 children with false‐negative RIDT, potentially facilitating differential diagnoses. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lin Wang, Ling‐Sai Chang, Ing‐Kit Lee, Kuo‐Shu Tang, Chung‐Chen Li, Hock‐Liew Eng, Huey‐Ling You, Kuender D. Yang Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Analysis of the acute‐phase protein response in pigs to clinical and subclinical infection with H3N2 swine influenza virus
ConclusionsNo relevant clinical signs were observed in intranasally infected pigs. In contrast, coughing, nasal discharge, and fever were observed in pigs infected intratracheally. All infected pigs exhibited specific antibodies in the serum at 10 dpi, and viral shedding was confirmed. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were significantly increased after infection. The level of Pig‐MAP remained constant during subclinical and clinical infection. The concentrations of CRP, Hp and SAA were higher in pigs with clinical disease. Although not specific, strategic APP measurements may reveal ongoing clinical and subclinical...
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Małgorzata Pomorska‐Mól, Kwit Krzysztof, Zygmunt Pejsak, Iwona Markowska‐Daniel Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Increased hand washing reduces influenza virus surface contamination in Bangkok households, 2009–2010
Within a hand‐washing clinical trial, we evaluated factors associated with fomite contamination in households with an influenza‐infected child. Influenza virus RNA contamination was higher in households with low absolute humidity and in control households, suggesting that hand washing reduces surface contamination. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jens W. Levy, Piyarat Suntarattiwong, James M. Simmerman, Richard G. Jarman, Kara Johnson, Sonja J. Olsen, Tawee Chotpitayasunondh Tags: Short Article Source Type: research
Excess mortality impact of two epidemics of pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09) virus in Hong Kong
Hong Kong experienced two large epidemics of pandemic influenza A(H1N1pdm09). We used regression methods to estimate the excess mortality associated with each epidemic. The first epidemic of H1N1pdm09 peaked in September 2009 and was associated with 2·13 [95% confidence interval (CI): −8·08, 11·82] excess all‐cause deaths per 100 000 population. The second epidemic of H1N1pdm09 in early 2011 was associated with 4·72 [95% CI: −0·70, 10·50] excess deaths per 100 000 population. More than half of the estimated excess all‐cause deaths were attributable to respiratory causes in each epidemic. The reasons for sub...
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peng Wu, Edward Goldstein, Lai‐Ming Ho, Joseph T. Wu, Thomas Tsang, Gabriel M. Leung, Benjamin J. Cowling Tags: Short Article Source Type: research
Prenatal influenza exposure and cardiovascular events in adulthood
ConclusionsThere was generally no evidence of an association between prenatal influenza exposure and acute MI or stroke in adulthood. However, survivor bias and left truncation of outcomes for the 1918 pandemic are possible, and the current young ages of persons included in the analyses for the 1957 and 1968 pandemics may warrant later re‐evaluation. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Noelle M. Cocoros, Timothy L. Lash, Al Ozonoff, Mette Nørgaard, Alfred DeMaria, Viggo Andreasen, Henrik Toft Sørensen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
International flight‐related transmission of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: an historical cohort study of the first identified cases in the United Kingdom
ConclusionsThis study of A(H1N1)pdm09 does not support current WHO guidance regarding the contact tracing of passengers seated within two rows of an infectious case of influenza during air travel. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - November 7, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nicholas Young, Richard Pebody, Gillian Smith, Babatunde Olowokure, Giri Shankar, Katja Hoschler, Monica Galiano, Helen Green, Anders Wallensten, Angela Hogan, Isabel Oliver Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Cervical auscultation in the diagnosis of oropharyngeal aspiration in children: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
DiscussionEarly detection and appropriate management of OPA is important to prevent chronic pulmonary disease and poor growth in children. As the reliability of CFE to detect OPA is low, a technique that can improve the diagnostic accuracy of the CFE will help minimise consequences to the paediatric respiratory system. Cervical auscultation is a technique that has previously been documented as a clinical adjunct to the CFE; however, no published RCTs addressing the reliability of this technique in children exist. Our study will be the first to establish the utility of CA in assessing and diagnosing OPA risk in young childr...
Source: Trials - November 7, 2013 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Thuy FrakkingAnne ChangKerry-Ann O¿GradyKatie Walker-SmithKelly Weir Source Type: research
Highlights from this issue
You schmooze, you don't lose (if you are the Tobacco Industry) In this issue, we co-publish an editorial (see page 1090) setting out an even more stringent policy with regard to tobacco funded research—namely, don't bother us with it under any circumstances; Goebbels has a better chance of publishing in the Jewish Chronicle. However, it's good to record that, at a time when Britain wants to leave the EU because they are out of step with our thinking on human rights and other issues, we are as one on tobacco control. So the EU parliament have courageously opted to phase out menthol cigarettes over 8 years not thr...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bush, A., Pavord, I. Tags: Airwaves Source Type: research
The yin and the yang of immunosuppression with inhaled corticosteroids
A patient who is immunosuppressed is susceptible to mycobacterial infection: are you surprised? Before you jump to conclusions, you might wish to clarify the nature and extent of immunosuppression, and whether it is through disease, therapy, or both, reserving judgement until you know more. Patients are often concerned about immunosuppressive effects of inhaled and oral corticosteroids. Asthmatics are used to infections putting them in hospital, and not unreasonably view with suspicion any treatment option that might make this more likely to happen. However, healthcare providers know that for asthmatics, appropriate local ...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sabroe, I., Postma, D., Heijink, I., Dockrell, D. H. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
IPF: time for the (ciliary) beat generation?
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias remains a disabling, progressive lung disease with extremely poor prognosis, in which no pharmacological intervention significantly alters outcome.1 A relatively poor understanding of the complex pathophysiology of IPF continues to hinder the identification of effective therapies, and of patients most likely to benefit from existing treatments. Usual interstitial pneumonia is the histological hallmark of IPF, characterised by temporospatial heterogeneity in which normal lung is interspersed with areas of subpleural interstitial f...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wiscombe, S., Forrest, I. A., Simpson, A. J. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Journal policy on research funded by the tobacco industry
As editors of the BMJ, Heart, Thorax and BMJ Open, we have decided that the journals will no longer consider for publication any study that is partly or wholly funded by the tobacco industry. Our new policy is consistent with those of other journals including PLoS Medicine, PLoS One, PLoS Biology;1 Journal of Health Psychology;2 journals published by the American Thoracic Society;3 and the BMJ's own Tobacco Control.4 Critics may argue—as many did when journals stopped publishing cigarette advertisements—that publishing such research does not constitute endorsing its findings and that, as long as funding sources...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Godlee, F., Malone, R., Timmis, A., Otto, C., Bush, A., Pavord, I., Groves, T. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Tuberculosis vaccines: time to reset the paradigm?
The recent publication of a Phase IIb efficacy trial of the tuberculosis vaccine candidate MVA85A represents the long awaited outcome of the hopes and investment of a global research endeavour seeking a giant leap in tuberculosis control. MVA85A, a modified vaccinia virus expressing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) 85A antigen, is designed to improve on the currently available vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and is the first among a number of novel vaccine candidates to enter a Phase IIb efficacy trial in infants. Given that the immunological rationale underpinning the development of MVA85A is shared by 9 out of...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lalvani, A., Sridhar, S., von Reyn, C. F. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Drugs: infectious diseases, Vaccination / immunisation, Child health HOT off the breath Source Type: research
The prognostic significance of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) and CD133 expression in early stage non-small cell lung cancer
Conclusions Expression of ALDH1A1 and CD133, and coexpression of ALDH1A1 and CD133, is strongly associated with poor survival in early-stage NSCLC following surgical resection. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that expression of stem cell markers correlates with recurrence as an indirect measure of self-renewal capacity. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Alamgeer, M., Ganju, V., Szczepny, A., Russell, P. A., Prodanovic, Z., Kumar, B., Wainer, Z., Brown, T., Schneider-Kolsky, M., Conron, M., Wright, G., Watkins, D. N. Tags: Open access, Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine) Source Type: research
Use of inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of tuberculosis
Conclusions ICS use increases the risk of TB in an intermediate-TB-burden country. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of TB development among patients who are long-term high-dose ICS users. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lee, C.-H., Kim, K., Hyun, M. K., Jang, E. J., Lee, N. R., Yim, J.-J. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Editor's choice, Asthma, Drugs: respiratory system Tuberculosis Source Type: research
Linezolid for XDR-TB
This randomised phase 2a trial in South Korea recruited 41 patients with sputum culture-positive pulmonary extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), who had failed to respond to 6 months of available treatment. Daily dosage of 600 mg linezolid was added either immediately or after a delay of two months. After four months of linezolid, or two consecutive negative sputum smears, patients continued either 300 mg or 600 mg daily for another 18 months. After 4 months, the primary outcome of sputum culture conversion was achieved in 15 of the 19 immediately treated patients, and in 7 of 20 in the...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Turner, R. D. Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research
Expression of cilium-associated genes defines novel molecular subtypes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Conclusions Expression of cilium genes appears to identify two unique molecular phenotypes of IPF/UIP. The different molecular profiles may be relevant to therapeutic responsiveness in patients with IPF/UIP. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yang, I. V., Coldren, C. D., Leach, S. M., Seibold, M. A., Murphy, E., Lin, J., Rosen, R., Neidermyer, A. J., McKean, D. F., Groshong, S. D., Cool, C., Cosgrove, G. P., Lynch, D. A., Brown, K. K., Schwarz, M. I., Fingerlin, T. E., Schwartz, D. A. Tags: Interstitial lung disease, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Source Type: research
Systemic tryptophan and kynurenine catabolite levels relate to severity of rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbation: a prospective study with a parallel-group design
Conclusions Rhinovirus infection by itself induces no IDO activity, but the reduced pulmonary IDO activity in patients with allergic asthma at baseline may underlie a reduced control of viral infections. Notably, the enhanced systemic catabolism of tryptophan in patients with allergic asthma was strongly related to the outcome of rhinovirus challenge in asthma and may serve as a prognostic factor. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: van der Sluijs, K. F., van de Pol, M. A., Kulik, W., Dijkhuis, A., Smids, B. S., van Eijk, H. W., Karlas, J. A., Molenkamp, R., Wolthers, K. C., Johnston, S. L., van der Zee, J. S., Sterk, P. J., Lutter, R., the RESOLVE research team, Berger, Fens, Yick, Tags: Drugs: infectious diseases, TB and other respiratory infections, Asthma Biomarkers of disease Source Type: research
Imbalance between subpopulations of regulatory T cells in COPD
Conclusions The imbalance between the anti-inflammatory subsets (aTreg+rTreg) and the pro-inflammatory subset (Fr III) of Tregs may play an important role in COPD progression. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hou, J., Sun, Y., Hao, Y., Zhuo, J., Liu, X., Bai, P., Han, J., Zheng, X., Zeng, H. Tags: Inflammation, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research
Increased skeletal muscle-specific microRNA in the blood of patients with COPD
Conclusions Plasma levels of individual myomiRs are altered in patients with COPD but alone do not predict muscle fibre size or proportion. Our findings are consistent with an increase in muscle wasting and turnover associated with the development of skeletal muscle dysfunction and fibre-type shift in patients with stable COPD. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Donaldson, A., Natanek, S. A., Lewis, A., Man, W. D.-C., Hopkinson, N. S., Polkey, M. I., Kemp, P. R. Tags: Open access Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research
Microbial communities in the respiratory tract of patients with interstitial lung disease
Conclusions IIP, non-IIP and sarcoidosis are not associated with disordered airway microbiota and a pathogenic role of commensals in the disease process is therefore unlikely. Nevertheless, molecular analysis of the topographical microbiota continuity along the respiratory tract may provide additional information to assist management of individual patients. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Garzoni, C., Brugger, S. D., Qi, W., Wasmer, S., Cusini, A., Dumont, P., Gorgievski-Hrisoho, M., Muhlemann, K., von Garnier, C., Hilty, M. Tags: Fungal lung diseases, Open access, Drugs: infectious diseases, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Chemotherapy, Interstitial lung disease, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine) Source Type: research
Airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications
Airway epithelial cells and immune cells participate in the inflammatory process responsible for much of the pathology found in the lung of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Intense bronchial neutrophilic inflammation and release of proteases and oxygen radicals perpetuate the vicious cycle and progressively damage the airways. In vitro studies suggest that CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient airway epithelial cells display signalling abnormalities and aberrant intracellular processes which lead to transcription of inflammatory mediators. Several transcription factors, especially nuclear factor-B, are...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cohen-Cymberknoh, M., Kerem, E., Ferkol, T., Elizur, A. Tags: Inflammation, Cystic fibrosis Review Source Type: research
Evaluating hypoxia during air travel in healthy infants
This study aimed to characterise the in-flight hypoxia response and the accuracy of the HCT to predict this response in healthy, term infants in the first year of life. Infants (n=24: (15 male)) underwent a HCT prior to commercial air travel during which parents monitored SpO2. Thirty-two flights were undertaken with six infants completing multiple flights. The median in-flight SpO2 nadir was 87% and significantly lower than the HCT SpO2 nadir (92%: p<0.001). Infants on seven flights recorded SpO2<85% with one infant recording a HCT with a SpO2 less than 85%. There was marked variability in the in-flight SpO2 in the ...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Khanna, M., Shackleton, C., Verheggen, M., Sharp, M., Wilson, A. C., Hall, G. L. Tags: Research letter Source Type: research
Thalidamide for IPF-associated cough
This small, randomised twelve-week crossover trial based at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore, USA, assessed the efficacy of thalidomide versus placebo on cough in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This drug when previously given as Contergan for hyperemesis gravidarum led to birth defects; however, it is now approved for the treatment of refractory multiple myeloma and other malignant diseases. After performing a phase 2 trial (published in 2008), the authors enrolled 25 mild-moderate IPF patients (20 completed) suffering from cough adversely affecting their quality of life. The Cough Quality of Life Questionnai...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kardos, P. Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research
Systemic safety of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination
The recent article by Busse et al1 on the safety of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol combination (FF/VI) in asthma reported no significant changes in geometric mean 24 h urinary cortisol (24UC) compared with baseline, perhaps giving a false impression that FF is devoid of systemic adverse effects. The interpretation of these data should be put in context of the patients who were already taking inhaled corticosteroids (ICS 500–1000μg/day) and, as such, would have suppressed adrenal function prior to randomisation with FF/VI. This, in turn, makes the possibility for detecting subtle changes in 24UC less likely wh...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lipworth, B. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research
Authors' reply to 'Safety and tolerability of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol'
We thank Dr Lipworth for his response to our article on the safety and tolerability of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) combination in asthma,1 in which he specifically discusses effects on urinary cortisol. We acknowledge the limitations of urinary cortisol assessment; however, as outlined in the online supplement, the urinary cortisol population in our study specifically excluded subjects with an incomplete urine collection and/or 24-h urinary creatinine levels below the lower limit of the threshold range. Thus, our data are not confounded by incomplete collections. We also acknowledge that patients were receiving ...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Busse, W. W., Andersen, L. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research
Asthma admissions, smoking bans and administrative databases
We read with great interest the recent paper by Sims et al,1 wherein they identified a clinically and statistically significant reduction in admissions with asthma following the implementation of a workplace smoking ban in the UK, independent of prevailing temporal trends and other measureable confounding factors. We welcome this important addition to the evidence base in this area, and endorse the authors’ view that this work addresses important deficiencies in previously published data from our group and others.2 3 However, we were surprised that an important limitation of any study using administrative databases f...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kent, B. D., Lane, S. J., Moloney, E. D. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research
Asthma admissions, smoking bans and administrative databases: author's response
The issue of the potential misclassification within Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data of asthma for another condition such as COPD, or vice versa, raised by Kent et al1 is an important one and any impact that this may have should be considered. Misclassification with resultant bias is a potential risk of many studies. However, the extent, or direction, to which bias may be introduced to a study that uses the recorded primary diagnosis from nationally collected data to ascertain trends in admissions is difficult to estimate. Kent et al’ claim that asthma is misclassified in 9–14% of cases is based on a sing...
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sims, M., Maxwell, R., Gilmore, A. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research
What is top of the charts? BPIFB1/LPLUNC1 localises to the bronchiolised epithelium in the honeycomb cysts in UIP
This study, which appears to be the largest data set yet published, identifies two distinct gene signatures with high expression of ‘cilium-associated genes’ being shown to be associated with cases that exhibit microscopic honeycombing, which is commonly observed in, but not specific to, ‘Usual Interstitial Pneumonia’ (UIP), the pathological pattern of remodelling seen in IPF. This metaplastic bronchial type epithelium within the honeycomb spaces has recently been the focus of histological studies that have shown the strong expression of the gel forming mucin, MUC5B.2 3 This new expression signature... (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - November 7, 2013 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bingle, C. D., Araujo, B., Wallace, W. A., Hirani, N., Bingle, L. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research