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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 19.

Statement on smoking cessation in COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit.
We describe the epidemiological links between smoking and pulmonary disorders, the evidence for benefits of stopping smoking, how best to assess tobacco dependence and what interventions currently work best to help pulmonary patients quit. Finally, we describe characteristics and management of any "hardcore" smoker who finds it difficult to quit with standard approaches. PMID: 25882805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - April 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jiménez-Ruiz CA, Andreas S, Lewis KE, Tonnesen P, van Schayck CP, Hajek P, Tonstad S, Dautzenberg B, Fletcher M, Masefield S, Powell P, Hering T, Nardini S, Tonia T, Gratziou C Tags: Eur Respir J Source Type: research

Airflow limitation by the Global Lungs Initiative equations in a cohort of very old adults.
Abstract The cut-off for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) defining airflow limitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still contested. We assessed airflow limitation prevalence by the lower limit of normal (LLN) of Global Lungs Initiative (GLI) 2012 reference values and its predictive ability for all-cause mortality and hospitalisation in very old adults (aged ≥80 years) compared with the fixed cut-off. In a Belgian population-based prospective cohort of 411 very old adults, airflow limitation prevalence by the 5th percentile of GLI 2012 z-scores (GLI-LLN)...
Source: Respiratory Care - April 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Turkeshi E, Vaes B, Andreeva E, Matheï C, Adriaensen W, Van Pottelbergh G, Degryse JM Tags: Eur Respir J Source Type: research

Epstein–Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) polymorphisms and expression are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem and host genetic factors play a critical role in susceptibility and resistance to TB. The aim of this study was to identify novel candidate genes associated with TB susceptibility. We performed a population-based case–control study to genotype 13 tag SNPs spanning Epstein–Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), IL-4, interferon beta 1 (IFNB1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (CXCL14) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) genes in 435 pulmonary TB patients and 375 health donors from China. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - April 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ruijuan Zheng, Haipeng Liu, Peng Song, Yonghong Feng, Lianhua Qin, Xiaochen Huang, Jianxia Chen, Hua Yang, Zhonghua Liu, Zhenglin Cui, Zhongyi Hu, Baoxue Ge Tags: Host genetics of susceptibility Source Type: research

Intra-host viral variability in children clinically infected with H1N1 (2009) pandemic influenza.
Abstract Recent in-depth genetic analyses of influenza A virus samples have revealed patterns of intra-host viral genetic variability in a variety of relevant systems. These have included laboratory infected poultry, horses, pigs, chicken eggs and swine respiratory cells, as well as naturally infected poultry and horses. In humans, next generation sequencing techniques have enabled the study of genetic variability at specific positions of the viral genome. The present study investigated how 454 pyrosequencing could help unravel intra-host genetic diversity patterns on the full-length viral hæmagglutinin and neuram...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - April 16, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Bourret V, Croville G, Mansuy JM, Mengelle C, Mariette J, Klopp C, Genthon C, Izopet J, Guérin JL Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, l-borneol, CAS registry number 464-45-9.
Abstract The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for Genotoxicity, Repeated Dose Toxicity, Developmental Toxicity, Reproductive Toxicity, Local Respiratory Toxicity, Phototoxicity, Skin Sensitization potential as well as Environmental assessment. Repeated Dose Toxicity was determined using read across analog to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 15 mg/kg/day, based on a gavage 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats, that resulted in a MOE of 3061, considering 100% absorption from skin contac...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - April 16, 2015 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Bhatia S, Bruze M, Calow P, Dagli ML, Dekant W, Fryer AD, Kromidas L, Cava S, Lalko JF, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, Miyachi Y, Politano VT, Ritacco G, Salvito D, Shen J, Schultz TW, Sipes IG, Wall B, Wilcox DK Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

A Rac1 GTPase is a critical factor in the immune response of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to Vibrio alginolyticus infection.
In this study, a cDNA encoding a RAS GTPase (LvRac1) in the Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) was identified and characterized. A recombinant variant of this GTPase, rLvRac1, was expressed in the model organism P. pastoris and its expression was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Biochemical assays indicated that the recombinant protein retained GTPase activity and was expressed in all of the organism's tested tissues. Injection of the bacterium V. alginolyticus into L. vannamei induced hepatopancreatic upregulation of LvRac1 expression. Moreover, knocking down LvRac1 in vivo significantly reduced the expression of the L. va...
Source: Developmental and Comparative Immunology - April 16, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Cha GH, Wang WN, Peng T, Huang MZ, Liu Y Tags: Dev Comp Immunol Source Type: research

Diagnostic Accuracy of Home-Based Monitoring System in Morbidly Obese Patients with High Risk for Sleep Apnea
Conclusions PM is an efficacious method for diagnosing OSA in obese patients who have a high clinical probability of the disease. The method displays good sensitivity and specificity in severe cases; nevertheless, the high rate of data loss must be taken into account. (Source: Obesity Surgery)
Source: Obesity Surgery - April 15, 2015 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Joint Annual Meeting of the Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Pneumologie / Société Suisse de Pneumologie. Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Pneumologie / Société Suisse de Pneumologie Pédiatrique. Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Thoraxchirurgie / Société Suisse de Chirurgie Thoracique. Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Pulmonale Hypertonie / Société Suisse sur l'Hypertension Pulmonaire. 16-17 April 2015, Lugano: Abstracts
Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Learning Curve for EBUS-TBNA: Longer than We May Think
Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Authors' Reply
Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Prediction error and required internal margin provided for irregular respiratory movements: a phantom study
Conclusion The RPM and 4DCT system has a risk of prediction error, which may result from the complicated amplitude irregularity of respiratory movement. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Strengthening Preventive Cardiology
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) - mainly cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes are responsible for 63% of global deaths (14 million people annually) and their prevention has been identified as a priority by the World Health Organisation [1]. As a result, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has set a target of a 25% relative reduction in mortality from NCDs by 2025 [1]. Other targets outlined in the WHO Global Action Plan include reductions in risk factors combined with the availability of drug therapy and counselling amongst others (Box) [1]. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - April 15, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Julie Redfern, Clara Chow Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Discrete Decreased Activity in the Lower Thoracic Spine on FDG PET/CT: Another Respiration-Related Artifact
Conclusion: Error of attenuation correction from respiratory motion can lead to underestimation of FDG activity in the lower thoracic spine, and this should not be interpreted as possible marrow replacement process requiring further imaging if there is coexisting banana artifact. (Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine)
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - April 15, 2015 Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Frequency of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Dental Patients with Tooth Wear
Conclusions:Tooth wear could be a tool to identify those patients at risk of having OSAS. This highlights the importance of dental professionals to identify and refer patients with OSAS.Citation:Durán-Cantolla J, Alkhraisat MH, Martínez-Null C, Aguirre JJ, Guinea ER, Anitua E. Frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in dental patients with tooth wear. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):445–450. (Source: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM)
Source: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM - April 15, 2015 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Vitamin D and respiratory infections
This study aimed to review recent clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in adults and children, and to evaluate the functional role of vitamin D in respiratory infections. The evaluated studies show an important immunomodulatory role of vitamin D, which reduces the incidence and risk of URTIs, both in children and in adults. Combating URTIs can be done prophylactically, associating the use of vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae with strengthening the immune system through supplementation with vitamin D. These actions can significantly contribute to reducing the number of URTIs, the use of antibiotics, and co...
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - April 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An outbreak of influenza A(H3N2) in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India, in 2011
Conclusions: An influenza A(H3N2) outbreak was confirmed in Alappuzha district of Kerala state with a co-circulation of A(H1N1)pdm09. No substantial difference in the sequence was observed in the etiological agent, and the virus was found to be sensitive to oseltamivir. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - April 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The clinical characteristics and outcome of children hospitalized with dengue in Barbados, an English Caribbean country
Conclusions: Less than a third of all the children with confirmed dengue required hospitalization. Atypical clinical manifestations were common, and only a minority of these children had severe dengue. Overall, the case fatality rate for dengue in this select population of children hospitalized with dengue was low. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - April 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Vitamin D and respiratory infections
This study aimed to review recent clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in adults and children, and to evaluate the functional role of vitamin D in respiratory infections. The evaluated studies show an important immunomodulatory role of vitamin D, which reduces the incidence and risk of URTIs, both in children and in adults. Combating URTIs can be done prophylactically, associating the use of vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae with strengthening the immune system through supplementation with vitamin D. These actions can significantly contribute to reducing the number of URTIs, the use of antibiotics, and co...
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - April 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

An outbreak of influenza A(H3N2) in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India, in 2011
Conclusions: An influenza A(H3N2) outbreak was confirmed in Alappuzha district of Kerala state with a co-circulation of A(H1N1)pdm09. No substantial difference in the sequence was observed in the etiological agent, and the virus was found to be sensitive to oseltamivir. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - April 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The clinical characteristics and outcome of children hospitalized with dengue in Barbados, an English Caribbean country
Conclusions: Less than a third of all the children with confirmed dengue required hospitalization. Atypical clinical manifestations were common, and only a minority of these children had severe dengue. Overall, the case fatality rate for dengue in this select population of children hospitalized with dengue was low. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - April 15, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

$$\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{ 2}$$ V ˙ O 2 kinetics and metabolic contributions during full and upper body extreme swimming intensity
Conclusion Despite the short duration of the event, the aerobic energy contribution covers about 50 % of total metabolic energy liberation, highlighting that both aerobic and anaerobic energy processes should be developed to improve the 100 m swimming performance. Lower limbs action provided an important contribution in the energy availability in working muscles being advised its full use in this short duration and very high-intensity event. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Needle Gauge and Grey Zone Analysis in Endobronchial Ultrasound-Transbronchial Needle Aspiration: The Need for More Randomised Evidence
Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The Epworth Sleepiness Scale in Portuguese adults: from classical measurement theory to Rasch model analysis
Conclusions The ESS showed an adequate structural, internal, and criterion validity, both in the CMT and the RM, suggesting this as a useful and effective measure for assessing sleepiness in Portuguese adults. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The influence of a clinical classification system on the management of patients with positional dependent obstructive sleep apnoea
(Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Telmisartan attenuates myocardial apoptosis induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia in rats: modulation of nitric oxide metabolism and inflammatory mediators
Conclusions This study show that pre-CIH telmisartan administration ameliorated myocardial injury following CIH by attenuating CIH-induced myocardial apoptosis via regulation of NOS activity and inhibition of excessive NO generation, oxidation/nitration stress, and inflammatory responses. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Positional OSA part 1: towards a clinical classification system for position-dependent obstructive sleep apnoea
We report on the development and process that resulted in the Amsterdam Positional OSA Classification (APOC). Method A panel of three field experts were instructed to independently assign the diagnosis POSA to 100 randomly selected patients they considered likely to benefit from a clinically significant improvement of their OSA with PT. In a group setting, the completed lists were compared. Discrepancies were discussed until consensus was met. This resulted in the consensus standard used to calibrate the new classification. Using the nominal group technique, the APOC was develope...
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Augmentation in restless legs syndrome patients in Korea
Conclusions We found an 11.7 % augmentation rate in Korean RLS subjects. There was no difference in the rate of RLS augmentation between the dopaminergic monotherapy group and the combined treatment group. It may be related with using a similar dosage of dopaminergic drugs. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Trigeminal induced arousals during human sleep
Conclusion Trigeminal stimuli during sleep led to arousals in dose- and time-dependent manner. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Predictors of successful completion of diagnostic home sleep testing in patients with chronic kidney disease
Conclusions Advanced age is an important factor in test refusal and complications of diabetes contributes to test failure. Symptom matching may be a source of selection bias, as patients with risk factors for OSA are more likely to accept the diagnostic test. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Decreased levels of serum nesfatin-1 in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
Conclusions Decreased serum nesfatin-1 levels are associated with the presence and severity of OSAS. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A health-economic analysis of diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure in relation to cardiovascular disease. The Greek experience.
Conclusions CPAP was found to be clinically more effective therapy than no treatment in relation to CVD and a cost-effective strategy in males with severe OSAS. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of chronic continual- and intermittent hypoxia-induced systemic inflammation on the cardiovascular system in rats
Conclusions The current study expands our understanding that both IH and CH could activate the expression of NF-κB and related inflammatory factors as well as cause pathophysiologic damage to the cardiovascular system in OSAS. All these results provide further support to an emerging hypothesis that activation of NF-κB-dependent inflammation may play a central role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in OSAS. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Erratum to: Tailored behavioral medicine intervention for enhanced physical activity and healthy eating in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and overweight
(Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Sleep, mood, and sexual behavior
(Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Accuracy of a novel auto-CPAP device to evaluate the residual apnea-hypopnea index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
Conclusions The automatic analysis from auto-CPAP (S9 Autoset) showed a good diagnostic accuracy to identify residual sleep apnea. The absolute agreement between PSG and auto-CPAP to classify the respiratory events correctly varied from very low (obstructive apneas, hypopneas) to moderate (central apneas). (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The perception of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea/Hypopnoea Syndrome (OSAHS) among Italian general practitioners
Conclusions: In conclusion, this survey about the perception of OSAHS among GPs in Italy highlighted a satisfactory overall knowledge of OSAHS and only few weak points. (Source: Clinical and Molecular Allergy)
Source: Clinical and Molecular Allergy - April 15, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Carlo LombardiEleonora MusiccoGermano BettoncelliManlio MilaneseGianenrico SennaFulvio BraidoGiorgio Canonica Source Type: research

The Presentation of Respiratory Failure in Elderly Individuals
Abstract Respiratory failure (RF) is a prevalent condition whose presence in elderly patients may be complex and require specific and specialized intervention. A multidimensional evaluation is necessary to choose the best treatment, taking into consideration functional capacity and frailty. Cardiogenic pulmonary edema, community-acquired pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, bronchitis, and acute asthma are the main causes of RF in this patient population. Despite the limited availability of studies and data, including systematic reviews, regarding RF treatment in elderly patients, in this update, we synthesize data to g...
Source: Current Geriatrics Reports - April 15, 2015 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Pulmonary epithelial barrier function: some new players and mechanisms
The pulmonary epithelium serves as a barrier to prevent access of the inspired luminal contents to the subepithelium. In addition, the epithelium dictates the initial responses of the lung to both infectious and noninfectious stimuli. One mechanism by which the epithelium does this is by coordinating transport of diffusible molecules across the epithelial barrier, both through the cell and between cells. In this review, we will discuss a few emerging paradigms of permeability changes through altered ion transport and paracellular regulation by which the epithelium gates its response to potentially detrimental luminal stimu...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brune, K., Frank, J., Schwingshackl, A., Finigan, J., Sidhaye, V. K. Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research

Hypoxia-induced proliferation of tissue-resident endothelial progenitor cells in the lung
Exposure to hypoxia induces changes in the structure and functional phenotypes of the cells composing the pulmonary vascular wall from larger to most peripheral vessels. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may be involved in vascular endothelial repair. Resident EPCs with a high proliferative potential are found in the pulmonary microcirculation. However, their potential location, identification, and functional role have not been clearly established. We investigated whether resident EPCs or bone marrow (BM)-derived EPCs play a major role in hypoxic response of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs). Mice were exposed...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nishimura, R., Nishiwaki, T., Kawasaki, T., Sekine, A., Suda, R., Urushibara, T., Suzuki, T., Takayanagi, S., Terada, J., Sakao, S., Tatsumi, K. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

CYR61 (CCN1) overexpression induces lung injury in mice
Cysteine-rich protein-61 (CYR61), also known as connective tissue growth factor, CYR61, and nephroblastoma overexpressed gene 1 (CCN1), is a heparin-binding protein member of the CCN family of matricellular proteins. Gene expression profiles showed that Cyr61 is upregulated in human acute lung injury (ALI), but its functional role is unclear. We hypothesized that CYR61 contributes to ALI in mice. First, we demonstrated that CYR61 expression increases after bleomycin-induced lung injury. We then used adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to determine whether CYR61 overexpression in the lungs was sufficient to cause ALI. Mice in...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Grazioli, S., Gil, S., An, D., Kajikawa, O., Farnand, A. W., Hanson, J. F., Birkland, T., Chen, P., Duffield, J., Schnapp, L. M., Altemeier, W. A., Matute-Bello, G. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

A-kinase-anchoring proteins coordinate inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke in airway smooth muscle
β2-Agonist inhibitors can relieve chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms by stimulating cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling. A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) compartmentalize cAMP signaling by establishing protein complexes. We previously reported that the β2-agonist fenoterol, direct activation of protein kinase A (PKA), and exchange factor directly activated by cAMP decrease cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced release of neutrophil attractant interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. In the present study, we tested the role of AKAPs in CSE-induced IL-8 release from ASM cells ...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Poppinga, W. J., Heijink, I. H., Holtzer, L. J., Skroblin, P., Klussmann, E., Halayko, A. J., Timens, W., Maarsingh, H., Schmidt, M. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

p53 protects against LPS-induced lung endothelial barrier dysfunction
New therapies toward heart and blood vessel disorders may emerge from the development of Hsp90 inhibitors. Several independent studies suggest potent anti-inflammatory activities of those agents in human tissues. The molecular mechanisms responsible for their protective effects in the vasculature remain unclear. The present study demonstrates that the transcription factor p53, an Hsp90 client protein, is crucial for the maintenance of vascular integrity, protects again LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction, and is involved in the mediation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Hsp90 inhibitors in lung tissues. p53 sil...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Barabutis, N., Dimitropoulou, C., Birmpas, C., Joshi, A., Thangjam, G., Catravas, J. D. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

PPAR-{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone reverses perinatal nicotine exposure-induced asthma in rat offspring
In a rat model, downregulation of homeostatic mesenchymal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) signaling following perinatal nicotine exposure contributes to offspring asthma, which can be effectively prevented by concomitant administration of PPAR- agonist rosiglitazone (RGZ). However, whether perinatal nicotine exposure-induced asthma can be reversed is not known. We hypothesized that perinatal nicotine exposure-induced asthma would be reversed by PPAR- agonist RGZ. Pregnant rat dams received either placebo or nicotine from embryonic day 6 until term. Following spontaneous delivery at term, dams were conti...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Liu, J., Sakurai, R., Rehan, V. K. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Neonatal hyperoxic lung injury favorably alters adult right ventricular remodeling response to chronic hypoxia exposure
The development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) requires multiple pulmonary vascular insults, yet the role of early oxygen therapy as an initial pulmonary vascular insult remains poorly defined. Here, we employ a two-hit model of PH, utilizing postnatal hyperoxia followed by adult hypoxia exposure, to evaluate the role of early hyperoxic lung injury in the development of later PH. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 90% oxygen during postnatal days 0–4 or 0–10 or to room air. All pups were then allowed to mature in room air. At 10 wk of age, a subset of rats from each group was exposed to 2 wk of hypoxia (Patm =...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Goss, K. N., Cucci, A. R., Fisher, A. J., Albrecht, M., Frump, A., Tursunova, R., Gao, Y., Brown, M. B., Petrache, I., Tepper, R. S., Ahlfeld, S. K., Lahm, T. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies are polymodal airway sensors: Evidence for CO2/H+ sensing
Pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEB) in mammalian lungs are thought to function as airway O2 sensors that release serotonin (5-HT) in response to hypoxia. Direct evidence that NEB cells also respond to airway hypercapnia/acidosis (CO2/H+) is presently lacking. We tested the effects of CO2/H+ alone or in combination with hypoxia on 5-HT release from intact NEB cells in a neonatal hamster lung slice model. For the detection of 5-HT release we used carbon fiber amperometry. Fluorescence Ca2+ imaging method was used to assess CO2/H+-evoked changes in intracellular Ca2+. Exposure to 10 and 20% CO2 or pH 6.8–7.2 evoked s...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Livermore, S., Zhou, Y., Pan, J., Yeger, H., Nurse, C. A., Cutz, E. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Pulmonary CD103 expression regulates airway inflammation in asthma
Although CD103+ cells recently emerged as key regulatory cells in the gut, the role of CD103 ubiquitous expression in the lung and development of allergic airway disease has never been studied. To answer this important question, we evaluated the response of Cd103–/– mice in two separate well-described mouse models of asthma (ovalbumin and house dust mite extract). Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage content, histology, and cytokine response. CD103 expression was analyzed on lung dendritic cells and T cell subsets by flow cytometry. Cd103–/– mice exposed to antig...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bernatchez, E., Gold, M. J., Langlois, A., Lemay, A.-M., Brassard, J., Flamand, N., Marsolais, D., McNagny, K. M., Blanchet, M.-R. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

PKC {delta} and {beta}II regulate angiotensin II-mediated fibrosis through p38: a mechanism of RV fibrosis in pulmonary hypertension
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) eventually leads to right ventricular (RV) fibrosis and dysfunction that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although angiotensin II plays an important role in RV remodeling associated with hypoxic PH, the molecular mechanisms underlying RV fibrosis in PH largely remain unresolved. We hypothesized that PKC-p38 signaling is involved in RV collagen accumulation in PH and in response to angiotensin II stimulation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 wk of normoxia or hypoxia (10% FiO2) as a model of PH. Hypoxic rats developed RV hypertrophy and fibrosis associated wit...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - April 15, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chichger, H., Vang, A., O'Connell, K. A., Zhang, P., Mende, U., Harrington, E. O., Choudhary, G. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research