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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 2.

Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection with T-SPOT ® . TB in a Predominantly Immigrant Population with Rheumatologic Disorders
Conclusions TST+ and TSPOT+ results predict risk factors associated with LTBI independent of immunosuppressive IMT. Some TST+/TSPOT− results were unlikely to be false-negatives. The combined use of TST and TSPOT appears to be a reasonable diagnostic strategy to evaluate for LTBI in this population. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 16, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Alterations of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor gene copy number and protein expression are common in non-small cell lung cancer
Conclusions High IGF1R gene copy number and protein overexpression are frequent in NSCLC, particularly in SCCs, but they are not prognostically relevant. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - October 16, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Tran, T. N., Selinger, C. I., Yu, B., Ng, C. C., Kohonen-Corish, M. R. J., McCaughan, B., Kennedy, C., O'Toole, S. A., Cooper, W. A. Tags: Molecular genetics, Immunology (including allergy), Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine) Original article Source Type: research

Therapeutic effects of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on lung injury in rats with emphysema
Conclusions: rAFMSCs might differentiate into AECII-like cells or induce local regeneration of the lung alveolar epithelium in vivo after transplantation and thus could be used in COPD treatment and lung regenerative therapy. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - October 16, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yaqing LiChao GuWulin XuJianping YanYingjie XiaYingyu MaChun ChenXujun HeHouquan Tao Source Type: research

Post-transcriptional Silencing of the COX Assembly Factor SURF1 [Molecular Bases of Disease]
Leigh Syndrome (LS) is the most common early-onset, progressive mitochondrial encephalopathy usually leading to early death. The single most prevalent cause of LS is occurrence of mutations in the SURF1 gene, and LSSurf1 patients show a ubiquitous and specific decrease in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase, COX). SURF1 encodes an inner membrane mitochondrial protein involved in COX assembly. We established a Drosophila melanogaster model of LS based on the post-transcriptional silencing of CG9943, the Drosophila homolog of SURF1. Knockdown of Surf1 was induced ubiquitously in l...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - October 16, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Da–Re, C., von Stockum, S., Biscontin, A., Millino, C., Cisotto, P., Zordan, M. A., Zeviani, M., Bernardi, P., De Pitta, C., Costa, R. Tags: Bioenergetics Source Type: research

Burkholderia insulsa sp. nov., a facultatively chemolithotrophic bacterium isolated from an arsenic-rich shallow marine hydrothermal system.
Abstract Enrichment cultures inoculated with hydrothermally influenced nearshore sediment from Papua New Guinea led to the isolation of an arsenic-tolerant, acidophilic, facultatively aerobic bacterial strain named PNG-April(T). Cells of this strain were Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile and did not form spores. Strain PNG-April(T) grew at temperatures between 4 °C and 40 °C (optimum 30 - 37 °C), at pH between 3.5 and 8.3 (optimum 5 - 6) and up to 2.7 % NaCl (optimum 0 - 1.0 %). Both arsenate and arsenite were tolerated up to concentrations of at least 0.5 mM. Metabolism in strain PNG-April(T) was strictly respi...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - October 16, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Rusch A, Islam S, Savalia P, Amend JP Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

DosS is Required for the Complete Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mice with Classical Granulomatous Lesions.
Conclusions: DosS, but not DosR and DosT, is required by Mtb to survive in C3HeB/FeJ mice. The attenuation of Δ-dosS is not due to its inability to induce the DosR regulon, nor is it a result of the accumulation of hypoxia. That the in-vivo growth restriction of Δ-dosS could be mimicked ex-vivo suggested sensitivity to macrophage oxidative burst. Anoxic caseous centers within TB lesions eventually progress to cavities. Our results provide greater insight into the molecular mechanisms of Mtb persistence within host lungs. PMID: 25322074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell ...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - October 16, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Gautam US, McGillivray A, Mehra S, Didier PJ, Midkiff CC, Kissee RS, Golden NA, Alvarez X, Niu T, Rengarajan J, Sherman DR, Kaushal D Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

mRNA Expression Levels of PGC-1α in a Transgenic and a Toxin Model of Huntington's Disease.
In this study, we examined the expression levels of FL-PGC-1α and N-truncated PGC-1α (NT-PGC-1α), a shorter but functionally active splice variant of PGC-1α protein, in N171-82Q transgenic and 3-nitropropionic acid-induced murine model of Huntington's disease (HD). The expression levels were determined by RT-PCR in three brain areas (striatum, cortex, and cerebellum) in three age groups (8, 12, and 16 weeks). Besides recapitulating prior findings that NT-PGC-1α is preferentially increased in 16 weeks of age in transgenic HD animals, we detected age-dependent alterations in both models, including a cerebellum-predomi...
Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - October 16, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: Török R, Kónya JA, Zádori D, Veres G, Szalárdy L, Vécsei L, Klivényi P Tags: Cell Mol Neurobiol Source Type: research

Autonomic Arousal During Actigraphically Estimated Waking and Sleep in Male Veterans With PTSD
Physiological hyperarousal is manifested acutely by increased heart rate, decreased respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and increased skin conductance level and variability. Yet it is uncertain to what extent such activation occurs with the symptomatic hyperarousal of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We compared 56 male veterans with current PTSD to 54 males who never had PTSD. Subjects wore ambulatory devices that recorded electrocardiograms, finger skin conductance, and wrist movement while in their normal environments. Wrist movement was monitored to estimate sleep and waking periods. Heart rate, but not the other variab...
Source: Journal of Traumatic Stress - October 16, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Franziska Bertram, Andrea L. Jamison, Cindie Slightam, Sunyoung Kim, Heidi L. Roth, Walton T. Roth Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Factors affecting postoperative respiratory tract function in type-C esophageal atresia. Thoracoscopic versus open repair
Conclusion TR is less traumatic than OR because DLR is unnecessary, resulting in lower RTI and smooth recovery. (Source: Pediatric Surgery International)
Source: Pediatric Surgery International - October 15, 2014 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Slow and deep respiration suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with chronic heart failure: from modeling to clinical application
Influences of slow and deep respiration on steady-state sympathetic nerve activity remain controversial in humans and could vary depending on disease conditions and basal sympathetic nerve activity. To elucidate the respiratory modulation of steady-state sympathetic nerve activity, we modeled the dynamic nature of the relationship between lung inflation and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 11 heart failure patients with exaggerated sympathetic outflow at rest. An autoregressive exogenous input model was utilized to simulate entire responses of MSNA to variable respiratory patterns. In another 18 patients, we det...
Source: AJP: Heart and Circulatory Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Harada, D., Asanoi, H., Takagawa, J., Ishise, H., Ueno, H., Oda, Y., Goso, Y., Joho, S., Inoue, H. Tags: CARDIOVASCULAR NEUROHORMONAL REGULATION Source Type: research

Animal Models of Allergic Airways Disease: Where Are We and Where to Next?
ABSTRACT In a complex inflammatory airways disease such as asthma, abnormalities in a plethora of molecular and cellular pathways ultimately culminate in characteristic impairments in respiratory function. The ability to study disease pathophysiology in the setting of a functioning immune and respiratory system therefore makes mouse models an invaluable tool in translational research. Despite the vast understanding of inflammatory airways diseases gained from mouse models to date, concern over the validity of mouse models continues to grow. Therefore the aim of this review is twofold; firstly, to evaluate mouse models of a...
Source: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry - October 15, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: David G. Chapman, Jane E. Tully, James D. Nolin, Yvonne M. Janssen‐Heininger, Charles G. Irvin Tags: Prospects Source Type: research

Postural disturbances resulting from unilateral and bilateral diaphragm contractions: a phrenic nerve stimulation study
Thoracoabdominal breathing movements are a complex source of postural disturbance, but there are contradictory reports in the literature with inspiration described as having either a backward or a forward disturbing effect. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, the present study studied the postural disturbance caused by isolated contractions of the diaphragm. Eight male and four female healthy subjects followed an original paradigm of phrenic nerve stimulation (bilateral and unilateral) and "diaphragmatic" voluntary sniff maneuvers in the seated and standing postures. Center of gravity (CG) acceleration ...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Hamaoui, A., Hudson, A. L., Laviolette, L., Nierat, M.-C., Do, M.-C., Similowski, T. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Strain differences in pH-sensitive K+ channel-expressing cells in chemosensory and nonchemosensory brain stem nuclei
The ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex is inherently low in inbred Brown Norway (BN) rats compared with other strains, including inbred Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Since the brain stem expression of various pH-sensitive ion channels may be determinants of the CO2 chemoreflex, we tested the hypothesis that there would be fewer pH-sensitive K+ channel-expressing cells in BN relative to SS rats within brain stem sites associated with respiratory chemoreception, such as the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), but not within the pre-Bötzinger complex region, nucleus ambiguus or the hypoglossal motor nucleus. Medullary sections (...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Martino, P. F., Olesiak, S., Batuuka, D., Riley, D., Neumueller, S., Forster, H. V., Hodges, M. R. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Glial TLR4 signaling does not contribute to opioid-induced depression of respiration
Opioids activate glia in the central nervous system in part by activating the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation 2 (MD2) complex. TLR4/MD2-mediated activation of glia by opioids compromises their analgesic actions. Glial activation is also hypothesized as pivotal in opioid-mediated reward and tolerance and as a contributor to opioid-mediated respiratory depression. We tested the contribution of TLR4 to opioid-induced respiratory depression using rhythmically active medullary slices that contain the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC, an important site of respiratory rhythm generation) and adult rats ...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Zwicker, J. D., Zhang, Y., Ren, J., Hutchinson, M. R., Rice, K. C., Watkins, L. R., Greer, J. J., Funk, G. D. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Neonatal decompensation before surgery in hypoplastic left heart syndrome: a case control study
Conclusions Heart and respiratory rates, and metabolic acid base trajectories show subtle differences prior to decompensation in neonates with HLHS. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating rates of change rather than absolute values of physiological and laboratory variables. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition - October 15, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Sheward, V. E., Murdoch, I. A., Durward, A., Tibby, S. M. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Congenital heart disease, Hypertension, Airway biology Original articles Source Type: research

Auditing documentation on delivery room management using video and physiological recordings
Conclusions Accurate and complete documentation of neonatal resuscitation continues to be a challenge. Recordings of physiological parameters and video imaging can improve documentation by providing detailed information. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition - October 15, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Schilleman, K., Witlox, R. S., van Vonderen, J. J., Roegholt, E., Walther, F. J., te Pas, A. B. Tags: Child health, Resuscitation Original articles Source Type: research

Initial treatment and early weight gain of children with Robin Sequence in Germany: a prospective epidemiological study
Conclusions Non-surgical management is preferred for infants with RS in Germany. The extent of upper airway obstruction seemed to influence in-hospital weight gain, while use of the PEBP was associated with improved early weight gain. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition - October 15, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Maas, C., Poets, C. F. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Failure to thrive, Dentistry and oral medicine, Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology Original articles Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of bubble CPAP in neonatal care in low and middle income countries: a systematic review
Conclusions There is evidence that bubble CPAP is safe and reduces the need for mechanical ventilation. Further research into the efficacy of bubble CPAP in low-income and middle-income countries is needed. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition - October 15, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Martin, S., Duke, T., Davis, P. Tags: Reviews Source Type: research

Experience with oral betamethasone in extremely low birthweight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia
We report our experience regarding efficacy and safety of BETA in extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants with BPD. During the study period, 291 ELBW infants <28 weeks were born, of whom 35 (12%) met inclusion criteria: birth weight 500–999 g; gestational age <28 weeks; mechanical ventilation ≥7 days; survival with BPD; need for >30% FiO2 at start of BETA therapy; inability to wean from respiratory support over a 3-day period; and, oral BETA treatment... (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition - October 15, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Smolkin, T., Ulanovsky, I., Jubran, H., Blazer, S., Makhoul, I. R. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Decreased granulomatous reaction by polyurethane‐coated stent in the trachea
ConclusionsThe new polyurethane‐coated metallic stent maintains enough holding force, and reduces histobiological reaction to foreign bodies in this experiment. (Source: Pediatrics International)
Source: Pediatrics International - October 15, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Hikoro Matsui, Takehiko Hiroma, Hisaya Hasegawa, Yoshifumi Ogiso Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Exposes, the EU and implementing Article 5.3
The modern era of ever more complex governmental processes, multi-government groupings such as the European Union, and overarching international legislation and agreements stacks the dice in favour of large global corporations. Tobacco companies have the resources needed to keep track of all the different processes, to use them to best advantage, to find legal and procedural highways and byways that will further confuse and delay, to generate support from groups directly and indirectly associated with them, and to lobby, lobby, lobby. Building on the cornucopia of documents made available following the US Master Settlement...
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Daube, M. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Worldwide news and comment
CANADA: EXPERTS WANT HEALTH ON LITIGATION AGENDA In the early 1980's, Canada had one of the globe's highest rates of per capita tobacco consumption. But in less than two decades, in response to aggressive campaigning by health NGOs, Canada experienced arguably the largest decline in use anywhere. An image from the Campaign for Justice on Tobacco Fraud. Gains were made on many fronts: through increases in tobacco taxation, a world precedent-setting ban on tobacco advertising, breakthroughs in smoke-free air travel and federally-regulated workplaces, and from landmark tobacco package warnings. But Canada can no longer claim...
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: TC News analysis Source Type: research

TPPA and tobacco control: threats to APEC countries
Background Twelve-member countries of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) are negotiating the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA), a free trade agreement to facilitate international trade and investment. As reported by multiple sources, the TPPA would grant the same trade benefits and legal protections to tobacco products, services and investments that it would provide to other sectors. Malaysia proposed excluding tobacco control measures from the scope of all TPPA chapters while the US proposed only to establish a consultation process in tobacco-related disputes and to declare that tobacco control measures...
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sy, D. K., Stumberg, R. K. Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Lighter Side
(Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction before and after implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free policy in Uruguay: experience through 2010
Conclusions Adding two more years of follow-up data confirmed that Uruguay's smoke-free law was followed by a substantial and sustained reduction in AMI hospitalisations. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sebrie, E. M., Sandoya, E., Bianco, E., Hyland, A., Cummings, K. M., Glantz, S. A. Tags: Brief report Source Type: research

Quantifying the influence of the tobacco industry on EU governance: automated content analysis of the EU Tobacco Products Directive
Conclusions Using quantitative text mining techniques, we observed that tobacco industry lobbying activity at the EU was associated with significant policy shifts in the EU Tobacco Products Directive legislation towards the tobacco industry's submissions. In the light of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, additional governance strategies are needed to prevent undue influence of the tobacco industry on EU policy making. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Costa, H., Gilmore, A. B., Peeters, S., McKee, M., Stuckler, D. Tags: Open access Research paper Source Type: research

Seeking out 'easy targets'? Tobacco companies, health inequalities and public policy
Conclusions Tobacco companies co-opted and misrepresented a social determinants model of health to argue against government regulation of the tobacco market. By drawing on this model, tobacco companies are misappropriating a powerful public health discourse in an attempt to create a false dichotomy between reducing inequalities and regulating of the tobacco market. Such tactics highlight the need for ongoing monitoring of industry attempts to undermine tobacco control policy, particularly with reference to harm reduction. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Clifford, D., Hill, S., Collin, J. Tags: Editor's choice Research paper Source Type: research

Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia
Conclusions SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Maslennikova, G. Y., Oganov, R. G., Boytsov, S. A., Ross, H., Huang, A.-T., Near, A., Kotov, A., Berezhnova, I., Levy, D. T. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

A qualitative evaluation of 40 voluntary, smoke-free, multiunit, housing policy campaigns in California
Discussions The aforementioned steps tended to be intertwined, and successfully securing voluntary smoke-free MUH policy required a strategic but flexible plan of implementation prior to entrance into the field. Campaigns designed to enhance voluntary smoke-free MUH policy adoption should underscore the economic viability of such policies during each strategic step. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Satterlund, T. D., Treiber, J., Kipke, R., Cassady, D. Tags: Open access Research paper Source Type: research

Gifting and sharing cigarettes in a rural Chinese village: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions Both gifting and sharing cigarettes are common in rural China. Gifting of cigarettes during the New Year Festival is a significant expenditure affecting both smoking and non-smoking households and may be an opportunity for additional mass media marketing. Among current and former smokers, sharing cigarettes in China is a major impediment to smoking cessation. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rich, Z. C., Hu, M., Xiao, S. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Left-digit price effects on smoking cessation motivation
Conclusions These data reveal the clear and robust relationship between the price of cigarettes and an individual's motivation to attempt smoking cessation. Furthermore, the current study indicates the importance of left-digit price transitions in this relationship, suggesting policymakers should consider relative price positions in the context of tax changes. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: MacKillop, J., Amlung, M. T., Blackburn, A., Murphy, J. G., Carrigan, M., Carpenter, M. J., Chaloupka, F. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

News media representations of electronic cigarettes: an analysis of newspaper coverage in the UK and Scotland
Conclusions Drawing on the diffusion of innovations theory, we suggest that newspaper constructions of ENDS provide readers with important information about what ENDS are for, how they work, and their relative advantages. These themes, and dominance of more positive meanings, raise a number of issues for tobacco control, including concerns around celebrity use and promotion; the impact of increasing ENDS use on social norms around smoking; their potential to undermine smokefree legislation; and their promotion as effective cessation aids. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rooke, C., Amos, A. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Lighter Side
(Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Heavy metal hazards of Nigerian smokeless tobacco
Conclusions Although there was no apparent risk when each metal was analysed and considered individually, the potential risk could be multiplied when considering all heavy metals. The high heavy metal content in Nigerian smokeless tobacco may have public health implications. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Orisakwe, O. E., Igweze, Z. N., Okolo, K. O., Ajaezi, G. C. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Tobacco control in Namibia: the importance of government capacity, media coverage and industry interference
Conclusions The fact that Namibia was able to pass fairly comprehensive tobacco control legislation with such meagre resources is commendable. The government must now implement the regulations that make the legislation effective. Tobacco control progress in low-income and middle-income nations can be encouraged through use of the media and improved staff and legal capacity within health ministries. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tam, J., van Walbeek, C. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Does use of 'non-trial' cessation support help explain the lack of effect from offering NRT to quitline callers in a RCT?
Introduction Quitlines help smokers to stop but few studies have explored how behavioural and medicinal interventions can be optimally delivered via this route.1 One of these was the PORTSSS trial, which found that offering free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vouchers did not increase cessation rates compared with no offer.2 It also found that a ‘proactive’, more intensive call regime from/to clients did not improve cessation rates over ‘usual care’. Was it possible that participants who did not receive a voucher for NRT sought out and used other forms of cessation support, which minimised any e...
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Docherty, G., Lewis, S., McEwen, A., Bauld, L., Coleman, T. Tags: Open access Research letter Source Type: research

Which smoking cessation aids are proven effective according to smokers who want to quit smoking? A report from the Netherlands
This study sought to find an answer to this question. The data collected in September 2010 were part of a study administered by the research agency MarketResponse. Adult smokers... (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Willems, R. A., Willemsen, M. C., Smit, E. S., Nagelhout, G. E., Janssen, E., de Vries, H. Tags: Research letter Source Type: research

Application of clinical proteomics in acute respiratory distress syndrome
This article reviews the contemporary proteomics platforms that are available for comprehensive studies in ARDS. The challenges of various biofluids that could be investigated and some of the studies performed are also discussed. (Source: Clinical and Translational Medicine)
Source: Clinical and Translational Medicine - October 15, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Maneesh BhargavaLeeAnn HigginsChristine WendtDavid Ingbar Source Type: research

Bench-test comparison of 26 emergency and transport ventilators
Conclusion: Major differences were observed between devices and categories, either in terms of general characteristics or technical reliability, across the spectrum of operation. Huge variability of tidal volume delivery with some devices in response to modifications in respiratory mechanics and FIO2 should make clinicians question their use in the clinical setting. (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - October 15, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Erwan L¿HerAnnie RoyNicolas Marjanovic Source Type: research

Year in review 2013: Critical Care - respirology
This review documents important progress made in 2013 in the field of critical care respirology, in particular with regard to acute respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Twenty-five original articles published in the respirology and critical care sections of Critical Care are discussed in the following categories: pre-clinical studies, protective lung ventilation – how low can we go, non-invasive ventilation for respiratory failure, diagnosis and prognosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, and promising interventions for acute respiratory distress syndrome. (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - October 15, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Gerard CurleyArthur Slutsky Source Type: research

Dietary milk fat globule membrane improves endurance capacity in mice
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) comprises carbohydrates, membrane-specific proteins, glycoproteins, phospholipids, and sphingolipids. We evaluated the effects of MFGM consumption over a 12-wk period on endurance capacity and energy metabolism in BALB/c mice. Long-term MFGM intake combined with regular exercise improved endurance capacity, as evidenced by swimming time until fatigue, in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of dietary MFGM plus exercise was accompanied by higher oxygen consumption and lower respiratory quotient, as determined by indirect calorimetry. MFGM intake combined with exercise increased plasma levels...
Source: AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Haramizu, S., Ota, N., Otsuka, A., Hashizume, K., Sugita, S., Hase, T., Murase, T., Shimotoyodome, A. Tags: Obesity, Diabetes and Energy Homeostasis Source Type: research

Disinhibition of the midbrain colliculi unmasks coordinated autonomic, respiratory, and somatomotor responses to auditory and visual stimuli
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, under conditions in which collicular neurons are disinhibited, coordinated cardiovascular, somatomotor, and respiratory responses can be evoked by natural environmental stimuli. In response to natural auditory, visual, or somatosensory stimuli, powerful synchronized increases in sympathetic, respiratory, and somatomotor activity were generated following blockade of GABAA receptors in a specific region in the midbrain colliculi of anesthetized rats, but not under control conditions. Such responses still occurred after removal of most of the forebrain, including the amygdala and ...
Source: AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Muller-Ribeiro, F. C. F., Dampney, R. A. L., McMullan, S., Fontes, M. A. P., Goodchild, A. K. Tags: Respiration Source Type: research

Physiological responses of a rodent to heliox reveal constancy of evaporative water loss under perturbing environmental conditions
We present here evidence, based on the first measurements of evaporative water loss for a small mammal in heliox, that mammals may have a previously unappreciated ability to maintain acute constancy of total evaporative water loss under perturbing environmental conditions. Thermoregulatory responses of ash-grey mice (Pseudomys albocinereus) to heliox were as expected, with changes in metabolic rate, conductance, and respiratory ventilation consistent with maintaining constancy of body temperature under conditions of enhanced heat loss. However, evaporative water loss did not increase in heliox. This is despite our confirma...
Source: AJP: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Cooper, C. E., Withers, P. C. Tags: Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis Source Type: research

Whooping cough.
Abstract Whooping cough or pertussis is a contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Whooping cough is transmitted via droplets in the air from sneezing or coughing and individuals are considered infectious from just before and up to 21 days after the onset of the cough. Usually it has an incubation period of seven to ten days, and the disease lasts six to eight weeks. PMID: 25315570 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)
Source: Nursing Standard - October 15, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Chivima B Tags: Nurs Stand Source Type: research

Butorphanol with oxygen insufflation corrects etorphine-induced hypoxaemia in chemically immobilized white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum )
Background: Opioid-induced immobilization is associated with severe respiratory depression in the white rhinoceros. We evaluated the efficacy of butorphanol and oxygen insufflation in alleviating opioid-induced respiratory depression in eight boma-managed rhinoceros. Results: Chemical immobilization with etorphine, azaperone and hyaluronidase, as per standard procedure for the white rhinoceros, caused severe respiratory depression with hypoxaemia (PaO2?=?27???7?mmHg [mean???SD]), hypercapnia (PaCO2?=?82???6?mmHg) and acidosis (pH =7.26???0.02) in the control trial at 5?min. Compared to pre-intervention values, butorphanol ...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - October 15, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Anna HawMarkus HofmeyrAndrea FullerPeter BussMichele MillerGregory FlemingLeith Meyer Source Type: research

Basal levels of glutathione peroxidase correlate with onset of radiation induced lung disease in inbred mouse strains
In conclusion, pulmonary oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were more affected by inbred strain than radiation over 7 days posttreatment. Lung GPx activity, and GPx2 expression, predicted for survival from lethal pneumonitis, and serum GPx for fibrosis, in this panel of mice. (Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology)
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kunwar, A., Haston, C. K. Tags: CALL FOR PAPERS Source Type: research

In search of the elusive lipofibroblast in human lungs
Although the pulmonary interstitial lipofibroblast (LF) has been widely recognized in rat and mouse lungs, their presence in human lungs remains controversial. In a recent issue of the Journal, Tahedl and associates (Tahedl D, Wirkes A, Tschanz SA, Ochs M, Mühlfeld C. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 307: L386–L394, 2014) address this controversy and provide the most detailed stereological analysis of LFs in mammals other than rodents. Strikingly, their observations demonstrate that LFs were only observed in rodents, which contrasts with earlier reports. This editorial reviews the anatomical, physiological, an...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ahlbrecht, K., McGowan, S. E. Tags: EDITORIAL FOCUS Source Type: research

Regulation of epithelial sodium channels in urokinase plasminogen activator deficiency
Epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) govern transepithelial salt and fluid homeostasis. ENaC contributes to polarization, apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transformation, etc. Fibrinolytic proteases play a crucial role in virtually all of these processes and are elaborated by the airway epithelium. We hypothesized that urokinase-like plasminogen activator (uPA) regulates ENaC function in airway epithelial cells and tested that possibility in primary murine tracheal epithelial cells (MTE). Both basal and cAMP-activated Na+ flow through ENaC were significantly reduced in monolayers of uPA-deficient cells. The reduction in ENaC...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chen, Z., Zhao, R., Zhao, M., Liang, X., Bhattarai, D., Dhiman, R., Shetty, S., Idell, S., Ji, H.-L. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Regulation of fibroblast lipid storage and myofibroblast phenotypes during alveolar septation in mice
Signaling through platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα) is required for alveolar septation and participates in alveolar regeneration after pneumonectomy. In both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, bipotent pdgfrα-expressing progenitors expressing delta-like ligand-1 or sex-determining region Y box 9 (Sox9) may differentiate into either lipid storage cells or myofibroblasts. We analyzed markers of mesenchymal progenitors and differentiation in lung fibroblasts (LF) with different levels (absent, low, or high) of pdgfrα gene expression. A larger proportion of pdgfrα-expressing than...
Source: AJP: Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology - October 15, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: McGowan, S. E., McCoy, D. M. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research