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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 2.

Statins as adjunct therapy in COPD: how do we cope after STATCOPE?
Introduction Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase that are widely used to reduce cardiovascular (CVS) disease risk yet have pleiotropic effects in other organs, including the lungs.1 2 The results of the Simvastatin for the Prevention of Exacerbations in Moderate-to-Severe COPD (STATCOPE) study, that investigated their potential effects on exacerbations of COPD, have been recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine.3 In this Hot off the breath editorial, we review the rationale for the study, discuss its design, main results, strengths and limitations, and speculate on the...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Young, R. P., Hopkins, R. J., Agusti, A. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Heart failure, Ischaemic heart disease, Inflammation HOT off the breath Source Type: research

Better survival after lung cancer surgery in high-volume hospitals
In this nationwide database study from England, the association between hospital volume and survival after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigated. The National Cancer Data Repository was used to extract data on lung cancer diagnosed in England between 2004 and 2008. Survival status was obtained from the National Health Service Central Register and information on surgical resections was acquired from the Hospital Episode Statistics records. Socioeconomic status for each patient was estimated based on the area of residence. Comorbidity information was obtained using diagnosis codes from the Hospital ...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sartipy, U. Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research

Comparison of fibulin-3 and mesothelin as markers in malignant mesothelioma
Conclusions Soluble mesothelin is a superior diagnostic biomarker for MM compared with fibulin-3, whereas fibulin-3 provides superior prognostic information compared with mesothelin. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Creaney, J., Dick, I. M., Meniawy, T. M., Leong, S. L., Leon, J. S., Demelker, Y., Segal, A., (Bill) Musk, A. W., Lee, Y. C. G., Skates, S. J., Nowak, A. K., Robinson, B. W. S. Tags: Open access, Respiratory cancer, Occupational and environmental medicine, Environmental issues Biomarkers of disease Source Type: research

Sputum-to-serum hydrogen sulfide ratio in COPD
Conclusions The ratio of sputum-to-serum levels of H2S may provide a useful marker of COPD indicative of obstructive neutrophilic inflammation and of potential ongoing exacerbation. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Saito, J., Mackay, A. J., Rossios, C., Gibeon, D., Macedo, P., Sinharay, R., Bhavsar, P. K., Wedzicha, J. A., Chung, K. F. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Inflammation, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Evolution of lung function during the first year of life in newborn screened cystic fibrosis infants
Conclusions This is the first study reporting improvements in FEV0.5 over time in stable NBS CF infants treated with standard therapy. Milder changes in lung function occurred by 1 year than previously reported. Lung function at 3 months predicts a high-risk group, who should be considered for intensification of treatment and enrolment into RCTs. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nguyen, T. T.-D., Thia, L. P., Hoo, A.-F., Bush, A., Aurora, P., Wade, A., Chudleigh, J., Lum, S., Stocks, J., on behalf of the London Cystic Fibrosis Collaboration (LCFC) Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Cystic fibrosis, Screening (epidemiology), Screening (public health) Source Type: research

Viral and host factors determine innate immune responses in airway epithelial cells from children with wheeze and atopy
Conclusions AECs from children with wheeze and/or atopy do not have an intrinsic defect in the production of IFN-β or -, however, this response is influenced by the infecting virus. Higher viral load is associated with atopy and wheeze suggesting an impaired antiviral response to RSV and hMPV that is not influenced by production of IFNs. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Spann, K. M., Baturcam, E., Schagen, J., Jones, C., Straub, C. P., Preston, F. M., Chen, L., Phipps, S., Sly, P. D., Fantino, E. Tags: Open access, Drugs: infectious diseases, TB and other respiratory infections, Child health, Asthma Source Type: research

Overdiagnosis of pulmonary emboli by CT pulmonary angiograms
The authors of this article suggest that pulmonary emboli (PEs) are being overdiagnosed by high-resolution CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA), which detect small, isolated subsegmental PEs that are not clinically important. Data from the USA show an 80% rise in the incidence of PEs between 1998 and 2006 after CTPA was introduced. Despite the large increase in diagnosis, age-adjusted mortality from PE (deaths in the US population) has changed little: from 12.3 to 11.9 per 100 000. Presently the best evidence for overdiagnosis comes from a trial that randomised 1417 patients with suspected PE to receive either ventilation&...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hoda, U. Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research

IL-27 controls sepsis-induced impairment of lung antibacterial host defence
Conclusions IL-27 is an important mediator of sepsis-induced impairment of lung antibacterial host defence. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cao, J., Xu, F., Lin, S., Song, Z., Zhang, L., Luo, P., Xu, H., Li, D., Zheng, K., Ren, G., Yin, Y. Tags: Drugs: infectious diseases, Ethics Respiratory infection Source Type: research

A crossover randomised controlled trial of oral mandibular advancement devices for obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO)
Conclusions Non-adjustable MADs achieve clinically important improvements in mild to moderate OSAHS and are cost-effective. Of those trialled, the semi-bespoke MAD is an appropriate first choice. Trial registration number ISRCTN02309506. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Quinnell, T. G., Bennett, M., Jordan, J., Clutterbuck-James, A. L., Davies, M. G., Smith, I. E., Oscroft, N., Pittman, M. A., Cameron, M., Chadwick, R., Morrell, M. J., Glover, M. J., Fox-Rushby, J. A., Sharples, L. D. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Editor's choice Sleep Source Type: research

Pulmonary metastasectomy: what is the practice and where is the evidence for effectiveness?
Pulmonary metastasectomy is a commonly performed operation and is tending to increase as part of a concept of personalised treatment for advanced cancer. There have been no randomised trials; belief in effectiveness of metastasectomy is based on registry data and surgical follow-up studies. These retrospective series are comprised predominately of solitary or few metastases with primary resection to metastasectomy intervals longer than 2–3 years. Five-year survival rates of 30–50% are recorded, but as case selection is based on favourable prognostic features, an apparent association between metastasectomy ...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Treasure, T., Milošević, M., Fiorentino, F., Macbeth, F. Tags: Lung neoplasms, Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine) Review Source Type: research

Cardiovascular event rates in the MOSAIC trial: 2-year follow-up data
The Multicentre Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Intervention Cardiovascular (MOSAIC) trial investigated the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on both sleepiness and predicted cardiovascular risk over 6 months in minimally symptomatic patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Although there was clear benefit in terms of Epworth Sleepiness Score, there was no improvement in blood pressure and predicted vascular risk score. In order to calculate the required size of future trials, with real vascular events as the endpoint, the rate of such events in this population is needed. 188 patients from the original tria...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Turnbull, C. D., Craig, S. E., Kohler, M., Nicoll, D., Stradling, J. Tags: Epidemiologic studies Research letter Source Type: research

Community-based recruitment of patients with COPD into clinical research
We report our experience and propose that pulmonary rehabilitation and patient groups may represent an enriched pool of COPD patients to recruit into clinical trials. Trial registration number: EudraCT 2011-001063-43 (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brill, S. E., El-Emir, E., Allinson, J. P., Donaldson, G. C., Nazareth, I., Wedzicha, J. A. Tags: Open access Research letter Source Type: research

Efficacy of lower-limb muscle training modalities in severely dyspnoeic individuals with COPD and quadriceps muscle weakness: results from the DICES trial
Finding an effective rehabilitative modality that does not evoke severe dyspnoea is indeed of great interest to clinicians. The DICES trial aims to identify the optimal training modality by studying the efficacy of high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and low-frequency NMES or strength training in severely dyspnoeic individuals with COPD with quadriceps muscle weakness at baseline. We have some queries regarding the data analysis employed by Sillen et al.1 A power calculation is described in the online supplement which is based on a between-group (intervention vs control) difference of 9.2 kg. W...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chaplin, E., Latimer, L. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Efficacy of lower-limb muscle training modalities in severely dyspnoeic individuals with COPD and quadriceps muscle weakness: response from the authors
We thank Chaplin and Latimer for their interest in the DICES study.1 The correspondents question the validity of the power calculation, and in turn, state that we cannot conclude that high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (HF-NMES) and strength training have equivalent effects in severely dyspnoeic patients with COPD and quadriceps muscle weakness at baseline.1 At the time of the start of the preparations of the DICES study in September 2009, we were not able to find statistical formulas where results from studies comparing two groups can be used for power calculations for three groups. Therefore, for the ini...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sillen, M. J. H., Franssen, F. M. E., Delbressine, J. M. L., Vaes, A. W., Wouters, E. F. M., Spruit, M. A. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Particulate matter: short-term but high-impact exposure at public gathering in Germany
Dear editor, Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is increasingly regarded as a global health threat1 and China in particular is frequently criticised for having problems with haze and air pollution.2 A systematic analysis of the global burden of disease in 2010 described a shift of risk factors away from communicable diseases in children towards non-communicable diseases in adults. Ambient PM air pollution was specified as a key, new risk factor in the global disease burden.3 While the effects of long-term exposure to PM air pollution have been discussed extensively, the effects of short-term exposure to high concentrati...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gerber, A., Krause, M., Groneberg, D. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Rebuttal: 'Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS): does the current definition need revisiting?'
In response to the comments by Tulaimat and Littleton,1 we will clarify our original statement on ‘Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS): does the current definition need revisiting?2 The two issues that these authors raise are curious and indeed re-enforce the statement we made previously, and we wholly appreciate this. We highlighted that the use of ‘calculated arterial standard bicarbonate (HCO3–) level from a conventional blood gas machine, in the absence of another influence on metabolic acid-base status’ should be considered, and this is supported by Tulaimat and Littleton's comments. Additio...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hart, N., Mandal, S., Manuel, A., Mokhlesi, B., Pepin, J.-L., Piper, A., Stradling, J. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Incidence and risk factors for drug intolerance and association with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis: analysis of national case registers for England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2001-2010
Anti-tuberculosis drug regimens are efficacious, but drug intolerance can be severe and may impact on treatment completion rates. The Enhanced Tuberculosis Surveillance (ETS) system is a case register of all new notifications of tuberculosis in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. We conducted a cohort study to estimate the incidence of, and risk factors for, drug intolerance reported through ETS between 2001 and 2010 and to assess its relationship with treatment non-completion. Reports of drug intolerance were found for 868/67 547 (1.28%) patients in the cohort, and important risk factors were female sex, older age, ...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Smith, C., Abubakar, I., Thomas, H. L., Anderson, L., Lipman, M., Reacher, M. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Open access Chest clinic Source Type: research

Indwelling pleural catheters for non-malignant effusions: a multicentre review of practice
Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) are commonly used in the management of malignant pleural effusion (MPE). There is little data on their use in non-malignant conditions. All IPC insertions for non-malignant cases from five large UK centres were found using prospectively maintained databases. Data were collected on 57 IPC insertions. The commonest indications were hepatic hydrothorax (33%) and inflammatory pleuritis (26%). The mean weekly fluid output was 2.8 L (SD 2.52). 48/57 (84%) patients had no complications. Suspected pleural infection was documented in 2 (3.5%) cases. 33% (19/57) of patients underwent ‘sponta...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bhatnagar, R., Reid, E. D., Corcoran, J. P., Bagenal, J. D., Pope, S., Clive, A. O., Zahan-Evans, N., Froeschle, P. O., West, D., Rahman, N. M., Chatterji, S., Sivasothy, P. R., Maskell, N. A. Tags: TB and other respiratory infections Chest clinic Source Type: research

Delivery of genes into the CF airway
Gene therapy was suggested as a potential treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF), even before the identification of the CFTR gene. Initial enthusiasm has been tempered as it became apparent that reintroduction of the CFTR gene into the cells of the lung is more difficult than anticipated. Here, we review the major gene delivery vectors evaluated clinically, and suggest that advances in either plasmid DNA design and/or hybrid lentivirus biology may finally facilitate lung gene transfer with efficiencies sufficient for CF gene therapy to offer clinical benefit. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gill, D. R., Hyde, S. C. Tags: Molecular genetics, Cystic fibrosis Chest clinic Source Type: research

The leak and endobronchial peek
A 42-year-old man from Afghanistan was referred to hospital as a case of non-resolving pneumonia. He had fever and productive cough of thick white sputum for 4 months without response to antibiotics. There was no history of haemoptysis, sick contacts, recent travel, weight loss, substance abuse or HIV risk factors. He was a non-smoker with unremarkable family and environmental history. On examination, he was febrile (temp=39.1°C) with stable haemodynamics. Oxygen saturation was 96% while breathing room air at rest and finger nail clubbing was absent. Chest auscultation revealed bronchial breathing on the left uppe...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: AlShati, M. H. Tags: Hemoptysis, Lung neoplasms, Parasitic lung disease, Drugs: infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Tropical medicine (infectious diseases), Lung cancer (oncology), Screening (oncology), Inflammat Source Type: research

Case-based discussion from North Tyneside General Hospital: somatostatin analogues in yellow nail syndrome associated with recurrent pleural effusions
Kristian Brooks (KB): A 77-year-old man presented to accident and emergency with a 1-month history of progressive breathlessness and reduced exercise tolerance. He had no chest pain, cough or wheeze, but had bilateral leg swelling and 4 kg weight loss. He had long-standing nail dystrophy and, following presentation with recurrent lower respiratory tract infections several years previously, bronchiectasis had been confirmed on high-resolution CT. He was a lifelong non-smoker, but had significant occupational asbestos exposure. There was no relevant family history. Chest radiograph showed large bilateral pleural effusio...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brooks, K. G., Echevarria, C., Cooper, D., Bourke, S. C. Tags: Emergency medicine, TB and other respiratory infections, Respiratory cancer, Screening (oncology), Inflammation, Cardiothoracic surgery, Radiology (diagnostics), Occupational and environmental medicine, Environmental issues Chest clinic Source Type: research

Calcified pulmonary chondromas in Carney's triad
A 20-year-old woman presented with haematemesis. Endoscopy identified gastric ulceration. Chest imaging (figures 1 and 2) and subsequent surgical biopsy confirmed pulmonary chondromas (figures 3 and 4). These benign cartilaginous tumours, typically found in young women, can form part of ‘Carney's triad’ with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and paraganglioma.1 Twenty-one years later, she developed further gastric ulceration, histology confirming a GIST (figures 5 and 6). She has now had 2 years of imatinib therapy and remains well. As yet, she has not developed paraganglioma or other organ involvem...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Haja Mydin, H., Kerr, K. M., Dempsey, O. Tags: Images in Thorax, Journalology, Screening (oncology), Histopathology, Ethics Chest clinic Source Type: research

What's hot that the other lot got
Domicillary NIV in severe stable COPD A great deal of evidence exists supporting the use of in-hospital non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for acute exacerbations of COPD resulting in hypercapnic respiratory failure. However, the evidence is weak for the ability of long term NIV to improve outcomes in patients with stable hypercapnic COPD. This prospective, multicentre, randomised, controlled trial (Lancet Respir Med 2014. doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(14)70153-5) enrolled patients with stable severe COPD and a PaCO2 of 7 kPa or higher and pH higher than 7.35. NIV was targeted to reduce baseline PaCO2 by at least 20%, or to achi...
Source: Thorax - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rolin, S. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Muscle disease, Neuromuscular disease, Inflammation, Asthma, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Vascularitis, Health education, Smok Source Type: research

Prenatal breastfeeding counseling --- pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system, United States, 2010.
Abstract Breastfeeding is a highly effective preventive measure a mother can take after birth to protect the health of her infant, as well as her own. Immunologic and antiinflammatory properties of breast milk protect against numerous illnesses and diseases in children. Benefits of breastfeeding for infants include a lower risk for ear infections, atopic dermatitis, lower respiratory tract infections, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants, type 2 diabetes, asthma, and childhood obesity. For mothers, benefits of breastfeeding include a lower risk for breast cancer an...
Source: MMWR Surveill Summ - September 12, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Lind JN, Ahluwalia IB, Perrine CG, Li R, Harrison L, Grummer-Strawn LM Tags: MMWR Surveill Summ Source Type: research

Positive end-expiratory airway pressure does not aggravate ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction in rabbits
IntroductionImmobilization of hindlimb muscles in a shortened position results in an accelerated rate of inactivity-induced muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Similarly, prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) results in diaphragm inactivity and induces diaphragm muscle atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Further, the application of positive end-expiratory airway pressure (PEEP) during mechanical ventilation would result in shortened diaphragm muscle fibers throughout the respiratory cycle. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that compared to CMV without PEEP; the combination of PEEP and CMV would accel...
Source: Critical Care - September 12, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Catherine SassoonErcheng ZhuLiwei FangGary SieckScott Powers Source Type: research

Anesthetic considerations in myofibrillar myopathy
This study is the first report of anesthetic management of a patient with MFM. We report multiple anesthetic encounters of a child with genetically confirmed BAG3‐myopathy, a subtype of MFM with severe childhood disease onset. A review of the anesthetic implications of the disease is provided, with specific exploration of possible susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and sensitivity to other anesthetic agents. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - September 12, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Gregory J. Latham, Grace Lopez Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

How to use: bacterial cultures in diagnosing lower respiratory tract infections in cystic fibrosis
Respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis. Certain bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are associated with a worse clinical outcome than others, but can be completely eradicated if identified and treated early. The diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections can be challenging in the non-expectorating patient, in whom upper airway samples, such as cough swabs, are a surrogate for lower airway sampling. However, the results of these often do not fit with the clinical picture, presenting a management dilemma. Frequently, clinicians are faced with a negative culture r...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ahmed, B., Bush, A., Davies, J. C. Tags: Pancreas and biliary tract, Epidemiologic studies, Influenza, TB and other respiratory infections, Child health, Cystic fibrosis Interpretations Source Type: research

Unusual chest radiographic findings in children
A 9-year-old British Asian girl with asthma was referred by her general practitioner to outpatients with a 12-month history of dry cough and an abnormal chest radiograph. There was no history of recent travel, tuberculosis (TB) exposure or clinical features to suggest TB such as weight loss and night sweating. She received courses of antibiotics without improvement. She was fully immunised including BCG vaccine. She had chickenpox (varicella) infection aged 3 years. On assessment, she was found to have worsening nocturnal cough, frequent use of inhaled salbutamol, and dyspnoea, wheeze and cough on exertion. Systemic e...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elemraid, M. A., Wacogne, I., Williams, H. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: infectious diseases, Child health, Radiology, Asthma, Drugs: respiratory system, Clinical diagnostic tests, Radiology (diagnostics) Epilogue Source Type: research

Paediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines
Information about current guidelines Gastroesophageal reflux (GOR) symptoms in infants are a common reason for consulting medical professionals, with a reported prevalence of 4.3% at 6 months which decreases to 2% by 18 months of age.1 In May 2009, the North American Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) jointly published clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis and management of GOR in children.2 The aim was to develop ‘an international consensus on the diagnosis and manag...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Onyeador, N., Paul, S. P., Sandhu, B. K. Tags: Endoscopy, Surgery, Oesophagus, Editor's choice, Stomach and duodenum, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Childhood nutrition, Childhood nutrition (paediatrics), Child health, Infant health, Infant nutrition (including br Source Type: research

Early adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea improved quality of life and symptoms but not attention or executive function
Design: Multicentre, single-blind randomised trial. Allocation: Concealed (web-based randomisation) Blinding: Study investigators (other than surgeons) were blinded. Families were not blinded. Study question Setting: Seven academic sleep centres in the USA. Patients: Children 5–9 years with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Without recurrent tonsillitis, body mass index z-score >3 and medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Intervention: Tonsillectomy within 4 weeks or watchful waiting. Outcomes: Change in attention and executive-function score caregiver and teacher rating of beh...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Schilder, A. G. M. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), TB and other respiratory infections, Sleep disorders (neurology), Child and adolescent psychiatry (paedatrics), Child health, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Sleep disorders, Airway biology, Sleep disorders (respi Source Type: research

Unusual chest radiographic findings in children
Answers From questions on page 189 Figure 1 shows multiple dense 2–3 mm nodules. Figure 2 demonstrates an arrowed zoomed up image of a nodule. The radiologist's initial report suggested excluding tuberculosis (TB) infection. Subsequently, she had been investigated for TB and had a negative Mantoux test. A second radiology opinion concluded that the nodules were the benign sequel of previous varicella infection. Varicella pneumonitis can be a fulminant condition but is often asymptomatic. Scattered nodular lung opacities measuring up to 1 cm associated with varicella pneumonitis have been recognise...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice - September 12, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Elemraid, M. A., Wacogne, I., Williams, H. Tags: Journalology, Immunology (including allergy), Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Child health, Asthma, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Competing interests (ethics) Epilogue Source Type: research

ECG and navigator‐free four‐dimensional whole‐heart coronary MRA for simultaneous visualization of cardiac anatomy and function
ConclusionA fully self‐gated 4D whole‐heart imaging technique was developed, potentially allowing cardiac anatomy and function assessment from a single measurement. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - September 12, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Jianing Pang, Behzad Sharif, Zhaoyang Fan, Xiaoming Bi, Reza Arsanjani, Daniel S. Berman, Debiao Li Tags: Rapid Communication Source Type: research

Renal surgery for kidney cancer in Germany 2005-2006: length of stay, risk of postoperative complications and in-hospital death
Conclusions: In this representative population-based analysis, we found that the surgical approach is associated with the risk of complications and length of hospital stay. Furthermore, in the era of ageing populations, renal cancer patients with comorbidities should be counseled about their increased in-hospital mortality risk. (Source: BMC Urology - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Urology - Latest articles - September 12, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Andreas StangChristian Büchel Source Type: research

Effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiorespiratory regulation in spontaneously breathing newborn rats.
CONCLUSION: In spontaneously breathing immature rats, dexmedetomidine administration significantly reduced HR and V'E . Because atipamezole fully reversed decreases in fR and therefore V'E , dexmedetomidine-related respiratory suppression occurs predominantly through α2 -adrenoceptor-related suppression of fR . PMID: 25216395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia)
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - September 12, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tamiya J, Ide R, Takahashi M, Saiki C Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

Anesthetic considerations in myofibrillar myopathy.
This study is the first report of anesthetic management of a patient with MFM. We report multiple anesthetic encounters of a child with genetically confirmed BAG3-myopathy, a subtype of MFM with severe childhood disease onset. A review of the anesthetic implications of the disease is provided, with specific exploration of possible susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, and sensitivity to other anesthetic agents. PMID: 25216331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia)
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - September 12, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Latham GJ, Lopez G Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

ECG and navigator-free four-dimensional whole-heart coronary MRA for simultaneous visualization of cardiac anatomy and function.
CONCLUSION: A fully self-gated 4D whole-heart imaging technique was developed, potentially allowing cardiac anatomy and function assessment from a single measurement. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 25216287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - September 12, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Pang J, Sharif B, Fan Z, Bi X, Arsanjani R, Berman DS, Li D Tags: Magn Reson Med Source Type: research

MicroRNA-146a and microRNA-146b expression and anti-inflammatory function in human airway smooth muscle.
Abstract MicroRNA(miR)-146a and miR-146b are negative regulators of inflammatory gene expression in lung fibroblasts, epithelial cells, monocytes, and endothelial cells. The abundance of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and IL-1β is negatively regulated by the miR-146 family, suggesting miR-146a and/or miR-146b might modulate inflammatory mediator expression in airway smooth muscle thereby contributing to pathogenesis of asthma. To test this idea we compared miR-146a and miR-146b expression in human airway smooth muscle cells (hASMCs) from non-asthmatic and asthmatic subjects treated with cytomix (IL-1β, TNFα, and IFNγ...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Comer BS, Camoretti-Mercado B, Kogut PC, Halayko AJ, Solway J, Gerthoffer WT Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Chronic exposure to perfluorinated compounds: impact on airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation.
Abstract Emerging epidemiological evidence reveals a link between lung disease and exposure to indoor pollutants such as perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). PFC exposure during critical developmental stages may increase asthma susceptibility. Thus, in a murine model we tested the hypothesis that early life and continued exposure to two ubiquitous household PFCs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perflurooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), can induce lung dysfunction that exacerbates allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. Balb/c mice were exposed to PFOA or PFOS (4 mg/kg chow) from gestation day-2 ...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ryu MH, Jha A, Ojo OO, Mahood TH, Basu S, Detillieux KA, Nikoobakht N, Wong CS, Loewen M, Becker AB, Halayko AJ Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Cell-Cell Interactions and Bronchoconstrictor Eicosanoid Reduction With Inhaled Carbon Monoxide and Resolvin D1.
Abstract Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) mediated acute lung injury from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critical care medicine. Here, we report that inhaled low-dose carbon monoxide (CO) and i.v. resolvin D1 (RvD1) in mice each reduced PMN-mediated acute lung injury from I/R. Inhaled CO (125-250ppm) and RvD1 (250-500ng) each reduced PMN lung infiltration, and gave additive lung protection. In mouse whole blood, CO and RvD1 attenuated PMN-platelet aggregates reducing leukotrienes (LTs) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) in I/R lungs. With human whole blood, CO (125-250 ppm) d...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shinohara M, Kibi M, Riley IR, Chiang N, Dalli J, Kraft BD, Piantadosi CA, Choi AM, Serhan CN Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Epidermal growth factor receptor activity is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation.
Conclusions: EGF and EGFR are necessary for basal cell proliferation. The EGFR/EGFR homo- and the EGFR/ERB-B2 hetero-dimer account for ~34% and 66% of basal cell proliferation in vitro. Active EGFR is necessary for basal cell proliferation after NA injury. We conclude that EGFR activation is necessary for mouse basal cell proliferation and normal epithelial repair. PMID: 25217659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce...)
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - September 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brechbuhl HM, Li B, Smith RW, Reynolds SD Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Enterovirus may not be in Oregon but health officials are on the lookout
So far, enterovirus D68, a respiratory infection affecting children in the Midwest and Southeast, hasn’t emerged in Oregon. Even though the Oregon Health Authority knows of no cases yet, it may be a matter of time. Legacy Health is taking precautions at its six hospitals. Regence BlueCross BlueShield of Oregon posted information on its website. Dr. Csaba Mera, a pediatrician and Regence’s executive medical director, said the virus will likely reach Oregon “because we’re a very mobile society… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - September 11, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Elizabeth Hayes Source Type: research