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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 2.

The Oxford Handbook of Health Communication, Behavior Change, and Treatment Adherence
(Source: Occupational Medicine)
Source: Occupational Medicine - August 20, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Williams, N. Tags: Book Review Source Type: research

Untitled
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by expiratory flow limitation, causing air trapping and lung hyperinflation. Hyperinflation leads to reduced exercise tolerance and poor quality of life in COPD patients. Total lung capacity (TLC) is an indicator of hyperinflation particularly in subjects with moderate-to-severe airflow obstruction. The aim of our study was to identify genetic variants associated with TLC in COPD. Methods: We performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in white subjects from three cohorts: the COPDGene Study; the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Pr...
Source: Respiratory Research - August 20, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jin LeeMerry-Lynn McDonaldMichael ChoEmily WanPeter CastaldiGary HunninghakeNathaniel MarchettiDavid LynchJames CrapoDavid LomasHarvey CoxsonPer BakkeEdwin SilvermanCraig Hersh Source Type: research

The psychometric properties of the St George¿s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a literature review
Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQL) is particularly important in patients with progressive and incurable diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The St George?s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) has frequently been used to measure HRQL in patients with IPF, but it was developed for patients with obstructive lung diseases. The aim of this review was to examine published data on the psychometric performance of the SGRQ in patients with IPF. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify studies reporting data on the internal consistency, construct validity, test-retest reliability, and interpre...
Source: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes - August 20, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Jeffrey SwigrisDirk EsserCraig ConoscentiKevin Brown Source Type: research

Work-related exacerbation of asthma among adults treated by pulmonary specialists.
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS) in asthmatic adults at pulmonary clinics. A cross-sectional study was performed. Current employed subjects were subdivided into two groups by WRS status according to questionnaire mainly based on one developed by NIOSH. Subjects' occupation and workplace exposures were evaluated by asthma specific job exposure matrix (JEM). Thirty nine of 179 current employed asthmatics had WRS. Subjects with WRS were more likely to have self-reported allergy and low molecular weight antigens' exposure (PR: 2.7). The two most frequent occupational classes ...
Source: Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health - August 20, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, Aminian O, Najafi A, Salehpour S, Eslaminejad A, Derakhshan Deilami G, Nourijelyani K, Tarlo SM Tags: Arch Environ Occup Health Source Type: research

Deposition of Particles in Human Mouth–Throat Replicas and a USP Induction Port
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery - August 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Compressive Forces and Computed Tomography–derived Positive End-expiratory Pressure in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Conclusions: Lung recruitability and CT scan–derived PEEP are unrelated. To overcome the compressive forces and to lift up the thoracic cage, a similar PEEP level is required in higher and lower recruiters (16.8 ± 4 vs. 16.6 ± 5.6, P = 1). (Source: Anesthesiology)
Source: Anesthesiology - August 19, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Critical Care Medicine: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Two Studies on Reversal of Opioid-induced Respiratory Depression by BK-channel Blocker GAL021 in Human Volunteers
Conclusion: GAL021 produces respiratory stimulatory effects during opioid-induced respiratory depression with containment of opioid-analgesia and without any further increase of sedation. Further studies are needed to confirm these preliminary data. (Source: Anesthesiology)
Source: Anesthesiology - August 19, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Perioperative Medicine: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Improved Subspace Estimation for Low-Rank Model-Based Accelerated Cardiac Imaging
Sparse sampling methods have emerged as effective tools to accelerate cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Low-rank model-based cardiac imaging uses a predetermined temporal subspace for image reconstruction from highly undersampled $({bf k},{hbox{t}})$-space data and has been demonstrated effective for high-speed cardiac MRI. The accuracy of the temporal subspace is a key factor in these methods, yet little work has been published on data acquisition strategies to improve subspace estimation. This paper investigates the use of non-Cartesian ${bf k}$-space trajectories to replace the Cartesian trajectories that are om...
Source: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering - August 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Engineering Source Type: research

One Bout of Calf Raises Induces Improvement of Mitochondrial Function in Claudicants
Introduction: Mitochondria in patients with PAD do not produce as much ATP as mitochondria in normally perfused muscle. Therefore patients with PAD do not only have a decreased supply of nutrients and oxygen, as a result of diseased arteries, but the concurrent mitochondrial respiratory defects also lead to an even lower ATP production from the amount of O2 present. (Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery)
Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery - August 19, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: M. van Schaardenburgh, M. Wohlwend, Ø. Rognmo, E. Mattsson Tags: ESVS Abstracts: Stockholm 2014 Source Type: research

Staphylococcus aureus bio‐products: New biological roles for a pleurodesis agent
(Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - August 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ioannis Psallidas, Georgios T. Stathopoulos Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Is the incidence of malignancy increased in patients with sarcoidosis? A systematic review and meta‐analysis
In conclusion, after accounting for possible detection bias and publication bias, there does not appear be a significant association between sarcoidosis and malignancy. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - August 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Patompong Ungprasert, Narat Srivali, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Charat Thongprayoon, Wisit Cheungpasitporn, Eric L. Knight Tags: Review Source Type: research

Influence of distinct asthma phenotypes on lung function following weight loss in the obese
ConclusionsTH2‐low obese asthmatics appear to be characterized by increased small airway responsiveness and abnormalities in resting airway function that may persist following weight loss. However, this was not the case for TH2‐high obese asthmatics, highlighting the complex interplay between IgE status and asthma pathophysiology in obesity. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - August 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: David G. Chapman, Charles G. Irvin, David A. Kaminsky, Patrick M. Forgione, Jason H.T. Bates, Anne E. Dixon Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Repeating pulmonary rehabilitation: Prevalence, predictors and outcomes
ConclusionsOne in five patients repeated PR, achieving clinically significant improvements in exercise tolerance and quality of life. Patients with small improvements in disease mastery after initial PR were more likely to repeat the programme and may benefit from earlier intervention or longer duration PR. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - August 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hazel Heng, Annemarie L. Lee, Anne E. Holland Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cross-resistance against RSV entry inhibitors [Microbiology]
In this study, we established a robust high-throughput drug screening protocol by... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 19, 2014 Category: Science Authors: Yan, D., Lee, S., Thakkar, V. D., Luo, M., Moore, M. L., Plemper, R. K. Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Activation-induced Cell Death Drives Profound Lung CD4(+) T Cell Depletion in HIV-associated COPD.
Abstract Rationale: As overall survival improves, individuals with HIV infection become susceptible to other chronic diseases, including accelerated COPD. Objective: To determine whether individuals with HIV-associated COPD exhibit dysregulated lung mucosal T-cell immunity compared to controls. Methods: Using flow cytometry, we evaluated peripheral blood and lung mucosal T-cell immunity in 14 HIV+COPD+, 13 HIV+COPD- and 7 HIV-COPD+ individuals. Measurements and Main Results: HIV+COPD+ individuals demonstrated profound CD4+ T-cell depletion with reduced CD4:CD8 T-cell ratios in BAL-derived lung mononuclear cells (LM...
Source: Respiratory Care - August 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Popescu I, Drummond MB, Gama L, Coon T, Merlo CA, Wise RA, Clements JE, Kirk GD, McDyer JF Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Short and Long-term Effects of Ambient Ozone and Fine Particulate Matter on the Respiratory Health of COPD Subjects.
Abstract Abstract To date, no study has evaluated the short and long-term effects air pollution exposure on emphysematous subjects who have undergone lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). Data from the NETT study (1998-2003) included 1218 subjects, aged 39-84. Daily values of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone were obtained. Mixed effects models tested the association between short and long-term pollutant concentrations and changes in pulmonary function. Cumulative air pollution exposure was strongly associated with worsened respiratory function and symptoms. Mean PM2.5 was associated with poorer lun...
Source: Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health - August 19, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kariisa M, Foraker R, Pennell M, Buckley T, Diaz P, Criner GJ, Wilkins JR Tags: Arch Environ Occup Health Source Type: research

A colorimetric immunoassay for respiratory syncytial virus detection based on gold nanoparticles-graphene oxide hybrids with mercury-enhanced peroxidase-like activity
Chem. Commun., 2014, Advance ArticleDOI: 10.1039/C4CC05155F, CommunicationLei Zhan, Chun Mei Li, Wen Bi Wu, Cheng Zhi HuangA novel colorimetric immunoassay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was developed based on mercury-stimulated peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles-graphene composites (AuNPs-GO).To cite this article before page numbers are assigned, use the DOI form of citation above.The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles)
Source: RSC - Chem. Commun. latest articles - August 18, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Lei Zhan Source Type: research

High risk of adult asthma following severe wheezing in early life
Conclusion: Subjects with severe early wheezing have a 10‐fold increase in the risk of adult asthma compared to an age‐matched control group, adjusted for allergic rhinitis, gender, smoking and heredity. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - August 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Emma Goksör, Mainor Åmark, Bernt Alm, Linda Ekerljung, Bo Lundbäck, Göran Wennergren Tags: Original Article: Epidemiology Source Type: research

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in the European haplogroups HV, JT, and U do not have a major role in schizophrenia
This study was performed in three steps: (1) identification of pathogenic mutations and variants in 14 schizophrenia patients with an apparent maternal inheritance of the disease by sequencing the entire mtDNA; (2) case‐control association study of 23 variants identified in step 1 (16 missense, 3 rRNA, and 4 tRNA variants) in 495 patients and 615 controls, and (3) analyses of the associated variants according to the clinical, psychopathological, and neuropsychological characteristics and according to the oxidative and enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We did not identify pathogenic mtDNA mutati...
Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics - August 18, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Helena Torrell, Antonio Salas, Nerea Abasolo, Constanza Morén, Glòria Garrabou, Joaquín Valero, Yolanda Alonso, Elisabet Vilella, Javier Costas, Lourdes Martorell Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Sleep and cognitive performance: The role of income and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity
ABSTRACT A health disparities view suggests that low family income status acts as a risk factor for poor cognitive functioning. A biosystems view suggests that poor sleep and poor stress response system functioning are also risk factors. These views are rarely integrated to test multiplicative risk or protective effects from social–cultural and biological variables. We investigated interactions among familial income, children's sleep and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA reactivity, indexing parasympathetic nervous system reactivity) in the prediction of cognitive performance of school‐aged children. Partici...
Source: Developmental Psychobiology - August 18, 2014 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Lori Staton, J. Benjamin Hinnant, Joseph Buckhalt, Mona El‐Sheikh Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Frequent cough in unsatisfactory controlled asthma – results from the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study
Conclusions: Approximately 60% of asthmatics from this population-based study had insufficiently controlled asthma and persistent complaints, despite a high use of asthma medications. These self-reported symptoms were supported by clinical examination data. Increased cough frequency is an indicator of a more severe and difficult to control disease and should be considered when asthma is characterized. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - August 18, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Roxana MinchevaLinda EkerljungAnders BjergMalin AxelssonTodor A PopovBo LundbäckJan Lötvall Source Type: research

Frequent cough in unsatisfactory controlled asthma ¿ results from the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study
Conclusions: Approximately 60% of asthmatics from this population-based study had insufficiently controlled asthma and persistent complaints, despite a high use of asthma medications. These self-reported symptoms were supported by clinical examination data. Increased cough frequency is an indicator of a more severe and difficult to control disease and should be considered when asthma is characterized. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - August 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Roxana MinchevaLinda EkerljungAnders BjergMalin AxelssonTodor PopovBo LundbäckJan Lötvall Source Type: research

Flow-controlled expiration: a novel ventilation mode to attenuate experimental porcine lung injury
Conclusions The newly developed FLEX mode is able to attenuate experimental lung injury. FLEX could provide a novel means of lung-protective ventilation. (Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia - August 18, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Goebel, U., Haberstroh, J., Foerster, K., Dassow, C., Priebe, H.- J., Guttmann, J., Schumann, S. Tags: Respiration And The Airway Source Type: research

High-frequency jet ventilation shortened the duration of gas embolization during laparoscopic liver resection in a porcine model
Conclusion HFJV shortened the mean duration of GE during LLR and was a feasible ventilation method during the procedure. Individual physiological responses to GE were unpredictable. (Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia - August 18, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Fors, D., Eiriksson, K., Waage, A., Arvidsson, D., Rubertsson, S. Tags: Respiration And The Airway Source Type: research

Preliminary development and evaluation of the support system for care of mechanically ventilated patients
Conclusions The SCMVP can facilitate rapid and successful recognition of the site of leak in a respiratory circuit in a simulation environment. (Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia - August 18, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Maruyama, K., Morohashi, S., Fukakura, Y., Takeuchi, H., Miyaji, T., Tsuji, T., Hasegawa, T., Eguchi, K., Usuda, Y., Andoh, T. Tags: Respiration And The Airway Source Type: research

Anaesthetic conserving device AnaConDa(R): dead space effect and significance for lung protective ventilation
Conclusions An ACD causes a dead space effect larger than its internal volume due to reflection of CO2, which is attenuated but not abolished by sevoflurane administration. CO2 reflection from the ACD limits its use with low tidal volume ventilation, such as with lung protection ventilation strategies. Clinical trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01699802. (Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia)
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia - August 18, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Sturesson, L. W., Bodelsson, M., Jonson, B., Malmkvist, G. Tags: Respiration And The Airway Source Type: research

Tasmanian Aborigines step up to health: evaluation of a cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and secondary prevention program
Conclusion: A cardiopulmonary program, which included exercise and education and met national guidelines, was designed and delivered specifically for the Aboriginal community. It increased participation in rehabilitation by Aborigines with, or at high risk of, established disease and led to positive changes in health behaviours, functional exercise capacity and health related quality of life. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Source: BMC Health Services Research - August 18, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Maureen DaveyWendy MooreJulia Walters Source Type: research

Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: a retrospective case review from a tertiary hospital
Conclusions With the emergence of wheat allergy in East Asian countries, WDEIA has become an important condition for physicians and Singapore is no exception. Under-recognition combined with life-threatening symptoms warrants better public awareness measures. In addition, further studies are necessary to identify possible unique genetic and environmental exposures that could explain the inter-regional differences of WDEIA. (Source: Postgraduate Medical Journal)
Source: Postgraduate Medical Journal - August 18, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Thalayasingam, M., Allameen, N. A., Soh, J. Y., Bigliardi, P., Van Bever, H., Shek, L. P.-C. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: cardiovascular system, Dermatology Original article Source Type: research

Next-generation sequencing reveals frequent consistent genomic alterations in small cell undifferentiated lung cancer
Conclusions Greater than 50% of the SCLC cases harboured at least one actionable alteration. Given the limited treatment options and poor prognosis of patients with SCLC, comprehensive genomic profiling has the potential to identify new treatment paradigms and meet an unmet clinical need for this disease. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - August 18, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Ross, J. S., Wang, K., Elkadi, O. R., Tarasen, A., Foulke, L., Sheehan, C. E., Otto, G. A., Palmer, G., Yelensky, R., Lipson, D., Chmielecki, J., Ali, S. M., Elvin, J., Morosini, D., Miller, V. A., Stephens, P. J. Tags: Open access, Breast cancer, Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine) Original article Source Type: research

IgE deficiency may indicate underlying hypogammaglobulinaemia?
Low serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) (<2 kU/L) found during allergy investigations may be a marker for other immunodeficiency states, in particular common variable immunodeficiency. The latter is characterised by recurrent infections, mainly respiratory, resulting in structural lung damage making early diagnosis important. We looked through 4013 samples retrospectively over a 12-month period to identify samples with IgE <2 kU/L. We identified 74/4013 (1.84%) with serum IgE levels <2 kU/L. Only 20 samples had serum immunoglobulin quantification and serum electrophoresis requested. Three of these samples ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - August 18, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: McVicker, S., Karim, M. Y. Tags: Immunology (including allergy) Short report Source Type: research

Avian influenza H9N2 subtype in Poland - characterization of the isolates and evidence of concomitant infection.
Abstract In April/May 2013, four outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) infections caused by H9N2 subtype were diagnosed in Poland in fattening turkey flocks exhibiting a drop in feed and water intake, depression, respiratory signs and mortality. The subsequent serological survey carried out on samples collected between June 2012 and September 2013 from 92 poultry flocks detected positive sera in two additional meat turkey flocks located in the same province. The analysis of amino acids in the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase glycoproteins revealed that the detected H9N2 viruses possessed molecular profiles sugge...
Source: Avian Pathology - August 18, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Smietanka K, Minta Z, Swiętoń E, Olszewska M, Jóźwiak M, Domańska-Blicharz K, Wyrostek K, Tomczyk G, Pikuła A Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Epithelial Interleukin-25 is a Key Mediator in Th2-high, Corticosteroid-responsive Asthma.
Conclusions: IL-25 measurements identify two subsets of subjects with distinct asthma phenotypes and different responses to ICS. Since IL-25 has a major role in triggering type 2 responses, bronchial epithelial IL-25 expression is likely a key determinant of type 2 response activation in asthma. Plasma IL-25 level reflects airway IL-25/type 2 response activation and may be useful for predicting responses to asthma therapy. PMID: 25133876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - August 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cheng D, Xue Z, Yi L, Shi H, Zhang K, Huo X, Bonser LR, Zhao J, Xu Y, Erle DJ, Zhen G Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Association Between Occupational Exposure and Lung Function, Respiratory Symptoms and High Resolution CT Imaging in COPDGene.
Conclusions: Occupational exposure to dust and fumes in men and women is similarly associated with airflow obstruction, respiratory symptoms, more emphysema, gas trapping in men and women. Abstract word count: 247. PMID: 25133327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - August 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marchetti N, Garshick E, Kinney GL, McKenzie A, Stinson D, Lutz SM, Lynch DA, Criner GJ, Silverman EK, Crapo JD, the COPDGene Investigators Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Association of interleukin‐8 and neutrophils with nasal symptom severity during acute respiratory infection
Using a large data set (n = 811), the relationship between acute respiratory infection illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers was investigated to determine whether certain symptoms are correlated more closely than others with the inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin‐8 (IL‐8) and nasal neutrophils. Participants with community acquired acute respiratory infection underwent nasal lavage for IL‐8 and neutrophil testing, in addition to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the detection and identification of respiratory viruses. Information about symptoms was obtained throughout the duration of t...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - August 17, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Kelsey M. Henriquez, Mary S. Hayney, Yaoguo Xie, Zhengjun Zhang, Bruce Barrett Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine does not reduce emergence agitation in adults following orthognathic surgery
ConclusionThe addition of a single dose of dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) to low‐dose remifentanil infusion did not attenuate emergence agitation in intubated patients after orthognathic surgery compared with low‐dose remifentanil infusion alone. However, single‐dose dexmedetomidine suppressed coughing, haemodynamic changes, and pain during emergence and recovery phases, without respiratory depression. Delayed awakening might be associated with this treatment. (Source: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica)
Source: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica - August 17, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: S. Y. HAM, J. E. KIM, C. PARK, M. J. SHIN, Y. H. SHIM Tags: GENERAL ANAESTHESIA Source Type: research

Withdrawal of ventilatory support outside the intensive care unit: guidance for practice
Conclusions Planned withdrawal of ventilatory support outside the intensive care setting is challenging and resource intensive. The development of local collaborations and guidance can enable parents of children dependent on intensive care to consider a preferred place of death for their child, which may be outside the intensive care unit. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - August 17, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Laddie, J., Craig, F., Brierley, J., Kelly, P., Bluebond-Langner, M. Tags: Open access, Child health, Hospice, Adult intensive care Original article Source Type: research

Diagnosis and management of primary ciliary dyskinesia
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an inherited autosomal-recessive disorder of motile cilia characterised by chronic lung disease, rhinosinusitis, hearing impairment and subfertility. Nasal symptoms and respiratory distress usually start soon after birth, and by adulthood bronchiectasis is invariable. Organ laterality defects, usually situs inversus, occur in ~50% of cases. The estimated prevalence of PCD is up to ~1 per 10 000 births, but it is more common in populations where consanguinity is common. This review examines who to refer for diagnostic testing. It describes the limitations surrounding diagnosis using ...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - August 17, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Lucas, J. S., Burgess, A., Mitchison, H. M., Moya, E., Williamson, M., Hogg, C., on behalf of the National PCD Service, UK Tags: Open access, TB and other respiratory infections, Reproductive medicine, Disability, Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology, Screening (epidemiology), Screening (public health) Review Source Type: research

Safety of medicines used for ADHD in children: a review of published prospective clinical trials
Conclusions Few studies evaluated the long-term safety of drugs for ADHD. Heterogeneity in follow-up duration and in data reporting made comparing different studies and drugs difficult. A systematic monitoring of long-term safety is needed. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - August 17, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Clavenna, A., Bonati, M. Tags: Headache (including migraine), Pain (neurology), Sleep disorders (neurology), Child and adolescent psychiatry (paedatrics), Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Sleep disorders, Sleep disorders (respiratory medicine) Drug therapy Source Type: research

Intravenous salbutamol for childhood asthma: evidence-based medicine?
Intravenous salbutamol is commonly used to treat children with severe asthma unresponsive to inhaled β2-agonist therapy. However, in this setting, there is little clinical trial data demonstrating its effectiveness. Additionally, there are significant concerns that intravenous salbutamol-dosing recommendations for children with acute asthma are excessive, and unnecessarily raise the potential for adverse reactions, such as lactic acidosis and tachycardia which, by increasing respiratory workload, exacerbate respiratory failure. Here, we review salbutamol clinical pharmacology and toxicology, evidence relating to its u...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - August 17, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Starkey, E. S., Mulla, H., Sammons, H. M., Pandya, H. C. Tags: ADC Drug Therapy, Immunology (including allergy), Drugs: cardiovascular system, Child health, Asthma, Drugs: respiratory system, Arrhythmias, Metabolic disorders Source Type: research

Towards evidence based medicine for paediatricians
Compared with standard care There’s a decent argument in the analysis of quantitative studies of therapies, particularly using randomised controlled trial designs, that says that we should be looking at the totality of unbiased evidence (systematic reviews) rather than looking at individual, cherry-picked, studies. The best estimate from this comes from a pooling of all the results: meta-analysis. There’s a challenge to this, though, when the comparisons are not quite the same. In the case of trials of drug A versus drugs B, C, D and E, it can be quite easy to spot (and then perhaps undertake a network meta-ana...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - August 17, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Phillips, B. Tags: ADC Archimedes, Journalology, Clinical trials (epidemiology), Cerebral palsy, Drugs: infectious diseases, TB and other respiratory infections, Child health, Competing interests (ethics) Source Type: research

Question 2: Humidified heated high flow nasal cannula versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure for providing respiratory support following extubation in preterm newborns
Clinical scenario On the morning ward round, you review a 27-week gestational age neonate who is ready for extubation following a brief period of mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome. Your neonatal unit has recently introduced humidified heated high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) as a means of providing non-invasive respiratory support. You wonder about the risk of failed extubation compared with standard nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). The medical student on the ward round also asks you whether there would be any difference in the risk of the baby developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - August 17, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Daish, H., Badurdeen, S. Tags: ADC Archimedes, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Clinical trials (epidemiology), Child health, Mechanical ventilation, Undergraduate Source Type: research

Correction
Lampland AL, Plumm B, Worwa C, et al. Bi-level CPAP does not improve gas exchange when compared with conventional CPAP for the treatment of neonates recovering from respiratory distress syndrome. This paper was incorrectly published on the Online First page of Archives of Disease in Childhood, it should have been published on the Online First page for ADC Fetal & Neonatal Edition. We apologise to the author for this error, the paper has now been moved to the correct edition. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - August 17, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Correction Source Type: research

A potential protective role for thiamine in glucose-driven oxidative stress.
Abstract The relationship between glucose repression and the oxidative stress response was investigated in Schizosaccharomyces pombe wild type cells (972h(-)) and glucose repression resistant mutant type cells (ird11). We aimed to reveal the mechanism of simultaneous resistance to glucose repression and oxidative stress in ird11 mutants. Compared to the wild type, the expression of the sty1 gene was not altered in the ird11 mutant under normal growth conditions, but decreased after exposure to H2O2. This effect was clearly explained by the immunoblotting results, which showed elevated levels of a much more stable p...
Source: Genetics and Molecular Research - August 16, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Palabiyik B, Jafari Ghods F, Onay Ucar E Tags: Genet Mol Res Source Type: research