Medicine RSS Search Engine

Respiratory Medicine Respiratory Medicine RSS feedThis is an RSS file. You can use it to subscribe to this data in your favourite RSS reader or to display this data on your own website or blog.

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 20.

Insomnia as an expression of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome – the effect of treatment with nocturnal ventilatory support
Conclusion NVS has proved effective in treating insomnia secondary to OSAS, and favorable results could be observed even in patients that did not meet the criteria of NVS adherence. Results suggest that all insomnia subtypes, except the mixed subtype, may derive from OSAS. (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Immune influence of pregnancy on human H7N9 infection: a case report
Conclusion These cases highlighted that the pregnant patient infected with H7N9 could induce an effective Th1 immune response equal to that of non-pregnant patients with H7N9 virus infection, although the pregnancy itself could lead to a Th2 deviation. These data suggested that pregnant patients could acquire a similar antiviral response for H7N9 infection versus non-pregnant patients. (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pancreatopleural fistula contributing to a large volume recurrent pleural effusion
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2015 Source:Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia (English Edition) Author(s): J.T. Soares , J. Ressurreição , I. Marques , L. Batista , T. Pereira , M. Mendes (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis of the airway: The experience of an endoscopic unit
Conclusion Papillomatosis of the airway is a rare condition predisposing to malignant transformation. RRP tends to recur and repeated surgeries are needed to remove papillomatas. Endoscopic treatment is important for the removal of the papillomas that are not accessible via laryngoscopy (YAG Laser, cryotherapy, etc.) and for resistant moderate/severe cases of RPP because it allows intralesional administration of adjuvant therapy like cidofovir. (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Platelet mitochondrial dysfunction in critically ill patients: comparison between sepsis and cardiogenic shock
IntroductionPlatelet mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes (that produce energy) are variably inhibited during human sepsis. Whether these changes occur even during other acute critical illness or are associated with impaired platelet aggregation and secretion (that consume energy) is not known. The aims of this study were firstly to compare platelet mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes activity between patients with sepsis and those with cardiogenic shock, and secondly to study the relationship between platelet mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes activity and platelet responsiveness to (exogenous) agonists in pat...
Source: Critical Care - February 11, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Alessandro ProttiFrancesco FortunatoAndrea ArtoniAnna LecchiGiovanna MottaGiovanni MistralettiCristina NovembrinoGiacomo ComiLuciano Gattinoni Source Type: research

Improved preparation of nasal lavage fluid (NLF) as a noninvasive sample for proteomic biomarker discovery
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuroproteomics: Applications in Neuroscience and Neurology. Graphical abstract (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Proteins and Proteomics)
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Proteins and Proteomics - February 11, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Impairment of respiratory function in late‐onset distal myopathy due to MATR3 mutation
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Muscle and Nerve)
Source: Muscle and Nerve - February 11, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Torsten Kraya, Bernd Schmidt, Tobias Müller, Frank Hanisch Tags: Short Reports Source Type: research

Fulminant lipid storage myopathy due to multiple acyl‐coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency
Conclusions: This report illustrates a late‐onset case of MADD and reviews the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with proximal myopathy and excessive accumulation of lipid on muscle biopsy. Muscle Nerve, 2015 (Source: Muscle and Nerve)
Source: Muscle and Nerve - February 11, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Charles H. Whitaker, Kevin J. Felice, David Silvers, Qian Wu Tags: Case of the Month Source Type: research

Boldness and fecundity in hermit crabs
One explanation for animal personality is that different behavioural types derive from different life-history strategies. Highly productive individuals, with high growth rates and high fecundity, are assumed to live life at a fast pace showing high levels of boldness and risk taking, compared with less productive individuals. Here, we investigate among-individual differences in mean boldness (the inverse of the latency to recover from a startling stimulus) and in the consistency of boldness, in male hermit crabs in relation to two aspects of life-history investment. We assessed aerobic scope by measuring the concentration ...
Source: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences - February 11, 2015 Category: Biology Authors: Bridger, D., Bonner, S. J., Briffa, M. Tags: behaviour, ecology, evolution Research articles Source Type: research

Loss of Cytochrome cM Stimulates Cyanobacterial Heterotrophic Growth in the Dark
Although cyanobacteria are photoautotrophs, they have the capability for heterotrophic metabolism that enables them to survive in their natural habitat. However, cyanobacterial species that grow heterotrophically in the dark are rare. It remains largely unknown how cyanobacteria regulate heterotrophic activity. The cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya boryana grows heterotrophically with glucose in the dark. A dark-adapted variant dg5 isolated from the wild type (WT) exhibits enhanced heterotrophic growth in the dark. We sequenced the genomes of dg5 and the WT to identify the mutation(s) of dg5. The WT genome consists of a circular...
Source: Plant and Cell Physiology - February 11, 2015 Category: Cytology Authors: Hiraide, Y., Oshima, K., Fujisawa, T., Uesaka, K., Hirose, Y., Tsujimoto, R., Yamamoto, H., Okamoto, S., Nakamura, Y., Terauchi, K., Omata, T., Ihara, K., Hattori, M., Fujita, Y. Tags: Regular Papers Source Type: research

H9N2 Influenza Whole Inactivated Virus Combined with Polyethyleneimine Strongly Enhance Mucosal and Systemic Immunity after Intranasal Immunization in Mice.
Abstract Influenza whole inactivated virus (WIV) are more immunogenic and induce protective antibody responses than other formulations like split virus (SV) or subunit (SU) vaccines, after intranasal mucosal delivery. Polyethyleneimine (PEI), an organic polycation, is widely used as a gene transfection and DNA vaccine delivery reagent. Although PEI has potent mucosal adjuvant activity for viral subunit glycoprotein antigens recently, its immune activity with H9N2 WIV is not well demonstrated. Here, mice were immunized intranasally with H9N2 WIV combined with PEI, and the levels of local respiratory tract and system...
Source: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology - February 11, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Qin T, Yin Y, Huang L, Yu Q, Yang Q Tags: Clin Vaccine Immunol Source Type: research

Presence of infection influences the epithelial lining fluid penetration of oral levofloxacin in adult patients
Penetration of antimicrobials to the site of infection is vital towards achieving a positive outcome (e.g. pathogen eradication and rapid patient recovery). Thus, it is critical to identify the exposure of an antimicrobial at the primary affected site in order to determine the optimal dosing regimen. For lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the presumed target site of infection for extracellular organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae [1–4]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents - February 11, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Joseph L. Kuti, David P. Nicolau Source Type: research

Diagnosis and treatment of severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn: a 10‐year nationwide retrospective study
ConclusionsAlthough overall survival is comparable with previous studies, our concern is procedure‐related infections and preterm births. Close collaboration between the university hospitals is needed to ensure timely treatment, operator skills and systematic follow‐up of the children. (Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica)
Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica - February 11, 2015 Category: OBGYN Authors: Susanna Sainio, Irmeli Nupponen, Malla Kuosmanen, Ansa Aitokallio‐Tallberg, Eeva Ekholm, Erja Halmesmäki, Maija‐Riitta Orden, Pertti Palo, Tytti Raudaskoski, Aydin Tekay, Jarno Tuimala, Jukka Uotila, Vedran Stefanovic Tags: Main Research Article Source Type: research

Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Associated with a Vancomycin-Impregnated Spacer
J Knee Surg RepDOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1399761Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe adverse drug reaction with a mortality rate near 10% characterized by erythematous cutaneous eruption, multiorgan involvement, and hypereosinophilia. This case report highlights a patient who developed DRESS in the setting of intravenous vancomycin and a vancomycin and tobramycin-impregnated (PROSTALAC, DePuy Synthes, Warsaw, IN) functional spacer. The spacer was placed during the revision of a left total knee replacement complicated by a septic joint. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of DRES...
Source: Journal of Knee Surgery Reports - February 11, 2015 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Bodendorfer, Blake MichaelCole, Emily FahrigCarstens, Stephanie J.Sherman, Seth L.Katta, Natraj Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

MRI Findings in Children with Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Cranial Nerve Dysfunction Occurring during the 2014 Enterovirus D68 Outbreak [EDITOR'S CHOICE]
CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with acute flaccid paralysis and/or cranial nerve dysfunction during the recent enterovirus D68 outbreak demonstrate unique imaging findings characterized by brain stem and gray matter spinal cord lesions, similar to the neuroimaging findings described in previous outbreaks of viral myelitis such as enterovirus 71 and poliomyelitis. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - February 11, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Maloney, J. A., Mirsky, D. M., Messacar, K., Dominguez, S. R., Schreiner, T., Stence, N. V. Tags: EDITOR ' S CHOICE Source Type: research

Combination pirfenidone and inhaled N‐acetylcysteine therapy for IPF: Does it take these two to tango?
(Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Maria I. Velez, Anoop M. Nambiar Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Tc17 cells are associated with cigarette smoke‐induced lung inflammation and emphysema
ConclusionsLong‐term cigarette smoke exposure induced Tc17 cell expansion both locally and distally, which was associated with emphysema and deoxyribonucleic acid damage. As an important source of IL‐17A, this T cell subset may be a potential target for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hongbin Zhou, Wen Hua, Yan Jin, Chao Zhang, Luanqing Che, Lixia Xia, Jiesen Zhou, Zhihua Chen, Wen Li, Huahao Shen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Rehabilitation following hospitalization in patients with COPD: Can it reduce readmissions?
(Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lissa M. Spencer Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Pleural empyema caused by Klebsiella oxytoca: A case series
We report on 19 patients from Western Australia of pleural empyema with Klebsiella oxytoca, an organism never before reported in association with this condition. Median age was 65 years, 14/17 (83%) had been in hospital within 30 days prior to diagnosis, 12/18 (67%) had active cancer, 9/17 (53%) had been in intensive care and 7/17 (41%) had prior surgery. Nine patients died at the time of censure, five within 90 days of infection. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Elizabeth Suthers, Andrew Rosenstengel, Julie Hart, Joshua R. Lewis, Ian Kay, Grant Waterer, Y.C. Gary Lee, Fraser Brims Tags: Scientific Letter Source Type: research

Ancient mycobacterial lipids: key reference biomarkers in charting the evolution of tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a cell envelope incorporating a peptidoglycan-linked arabinogalactan esterified by long-chain mycolic acids. A range of “free” lipids are associated with the “bound” mycolic acids, producing an effective envelope outer membrane. The distribution of these lipids is discontinuous among mycobacteria and such lipids have proven potential for biomarker use in tracing the evolution of tuberculosis. A plausible evolutionary scenario involves progression from an environmental organism, such as Mycobacterium kansasii, through intermediate “smooth” tubercle bacilli, labelled “Mycobacteriu...
Source: Tuberculosis - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: David E. Minnikin, Oona Y-C. Lee, Houdini H.T. Wu, Gurdyal S. Besra, Apoorva Bhatt, Vijayashankar Nataraj, Bruce M. Rothschild, Mark Spigelman, Helen D. Donoghue Source Type: research

Trends in mortality from pulmonary tuberculosis before and after antibiotics in the Portuguese sanatorium (1918-1991): archival evidence and its paleopathological relevance
The comparative study of patients’ profiles and outcomes from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), before and after the discovery of antibiotic therapy, using sanatoria archives is an unexplored approach in paleopathology. Although higher mortality rates are assumed before chemotherapy, scarce information exists regarding the disease’s duration in institutionalized patients and to what extent tuberculous sufferers lived enough to develop skeletal lesions. To fill this gap, 315 clinical files from the former male Sanatorium Carlos Vasconcelos Porto, located in São Brás de Alportel, Portugal, were studied. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vítor M.J. Matos, Ana Luísa Santos Source Type: research

7000 year-old Tuberculosis Cases from Hungary – Osteological and Biomolecular Evidence
This study derives from the macroscopic analysis of a Late Neolithic population from Hungary. Remains were recovered from a tell settlement at Hódmezővásárhely-Gorzsa from graves within the settlement as well as pits, ditches, houses and as stray finds. One of the most important discoveries from these remains was evidence of tuberculosis. Pathological analysis of the seventy-one individuals revealed numerous cases of infections and non-specific stress indicators on juveniles and adults, metabolic diseases on juveniles, and evidence of trauma and mechanical changes on adults. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Muriel Masson, Zsolt Bereczki, Erika Molnár, Helen D. Donoghue, David E. Minnikin, Oona Y.-C. Lee, Houdini H.T. Wu, Gurdyal S. Besra, Ian D. Bull, György Pálfi Source Type: research

Evidence for Tuberculosis in 18/19 century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe – French Western Indies)
During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of ...
Source: Tuberculosis - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sandra Lösch, Mi-Ra Kim, Olivier Dutour, Patrice Courtaud, Frank Maixner, Thomas Romon, Christophe Sola, Albert Zink Source Type: research

Three-dimensional imaging of past skeletal TB: from lesion to process
3D imaging has become an essential tool in the field of biological anthropology, notably for human evolution purposes. High resolution virtual 3D reconstructions of original specimens contribute to their preservation and broaden the ability for research, teaching and exchanges. Paleopathology can get substantial benefit from these methods, among others for reconstructing infectious pathological processes on ancient bones.Tuberculosis is frequently diagnosed on ancient human remains; however, some osseous expressions are difficult to interpret using classical methods. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hélène Coqueugniot, Bruno Dutailly, Pascal Desbarats, Bruno Boulestin, Ildiko Pap, Ildiko Szikossy, Oussama Baker, Michel Montaudon, Michel Panuel, Kinga Karlinger, Balázs Kovács, Lilla Alida Kristóf, György Pálfi, Olivier Dutour Source Type: research

Respiratory Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis
Respiratory dysfunction frequently occurs in patients with advanced multiple sclerosis (MS), and may manifest as acute or chronic respiratory failure, disordered control of breathing, respiratory muscle weakness, sleep disordered breathing, or neurogenic pulmonary edema. The underlying pathophysiology is related to demyelinating plaques involving the brain stem or spinal cord. Respiratory complications such as aspiration, lung infections and respiratory failure are typically seen in patients with long-standing MS. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: George E. Tzelepis, F. Dennis McCool Tags: Review Source Type: research

Effect of ivacaftor in patients with advanced cystic fibrosis and a mutation: Safety and efficacy in an expanded access program in the United States
Ivacaftor is the first therapeutic agent approved for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) that targets the underlying molecular defect. Patients with severe lung disease were excluded from the randomized Phase 3 trials. This open-label study was designed to provide ivacaftor to patients in critical medical need prior to commercial product availability. (Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis)
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jennifer Taylor-Cousar, Minoo Niknian, Geoffrey Gilmartin, Joseph M. Pilewski, for the VX11-770-901 investigators Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

High Prevalence of Respiratory Muscle Weakness in Hospitalized Acute Heart Failure Elderly Patients
Conclusion Elderly patients admitted with AHF may present a high prevalence of RMW on admission; this condition may be maintained at similar levels on discharge in a large percentage of these patients, even after clinical stabilization of the heart condition. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - February 11, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pedro Verissimo et al. Source Type: research

Intermittent reductions in respiratory neural activity elicit spinal TNFα-independent, atypical PKC-dependent inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation.
Abstract In many neural networks, mechanisms of compensatory plasticity respond to prolonged reductions in neural activity by increasing cellular excitability or synaptic strength. In the respiratory control system, a prolonged reduction in synaptic inputs to the phrenic motor pool elicits a TNFα- and atypical PKC-dependent form of spinal plasticity known as inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF). Although iPMF may be elicited by a prolonged reduction in respiratory neural activity, iPMF is more efficiently induced when reduced respiratory neural activity (neural apnea) occurs intermittently. Mechani...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology - February 11, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: Baertsch NA, Baker-Herman TL Tags: Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol Source Type: research

Prospective Comparison of RT-PCR/ESI-MS to Prodesse ProFlu Plus and Cepheid GenXpert for the Detection of Influenza A and B Viruses.
This study expands on previous research by performing a prospective evaluation of RT-PCR/ESI-MS to detect and identify Influenza A and B viruses compared to Prodesse ProFlu Plus and combined ProFlu Plus and Cepheid Xpert Flu. ProFlu Plus was also used as a gold standard for comparison for respiratory syncytial virus detection. Using ProFlu Plus as a gold standard, RT-PCR/ESI-MS had sensitivity and specificity of 82.1% (23/28) and 100% (258/258), respectively, for Influenza A, 100% (16/16) and 99.6% (269/270), respectively for Influenza B, and 88.6% (39/44) and 99.6% (241/242) for any Influenza virus. Using matching results...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - February 11, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Hardick J, Dugas A, Goheen J, Rothman R, Gaydos C Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

PRRSV receptors and their roles in virus infection.
Abstract Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a restricted cell tropism and prefers to invade well-differentiated cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, such as pulmonary alveolar macrophages and African green monkey kidney cell line MA-104 and its derivatives, such as Marc-145, Vero and CL-2621. PRRSV infection of the host cells actually is a receptor-mediated endocytosis and replication process. The presence and absence of the cellular receptors decide whether the cell lines are permissive or non-permissive to PRRSV infection. Several PRRSV non-permissive cell lines, such as BHK-21, ...
Source: Archives of Microbiology - February 11, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Shi C, Liu Y, Ding Y, Zhang Y, Zhang J Tags: Arch Microbiol Source Type: research

Alterations in aerobic energy expenditure and neuromuscular function during a simulated cross-country skiathlon with the skating technique.
Abstract Here, we tested the hypothesis that aerobic energy expenditure (AEE) is higher during a simulated 6-km (2 loops of 3-km each) "skiathlon" than during skating only on a treadmill and attempted to link any such increase to biomechanical and neuromuscular responses. Six elite male cross-country skiers performed two pre-testing time-trials (TT) to determine their best performances and to choose an appropriate submaximal speed for collection of physiological, biomechanical and neuromuscular data during two experimental sessions (exp). Each skier used, in randomized order, either the classical (CL) or skating te...
Source: Human Movement Science - February 11, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Fabre N, Mourot L, Zoppirolli C, Andersson E, Willis SJ, Holmberg HC Tags: Hum Mov Sci Source Type: research

Detection and characterization of a novel human parechovirus genotype in Thailand.
Abstract Human parechoviruses (HPeV), member in the family Picornavirdae, cause respiratory symptoms primarily in infants and young children. Currently, 16 genotypes have been described based on phylogenetic analysis of VP1 sequences, all of which have a global distribution. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPeV in Thailand. A total of 171 fecal specimens collected during October 2012 to May 2013 from children with diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand were investigated for HPeV by RT-PCR and sequence analysis. HPeVs were found in 3 out of 171 (1.8%) fecal specimen...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - February 11, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Chuchaona W, Khamrin P, Yodmeeklin A, Saikruang W, Kongsricharoern T, Ukarapol N, Okitsu S, Hayakawa S, Ushijima H, Maneekarn N Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Ancient mycobacterial lipids: Key reference biomarkers in charting the evolution of tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a cell envelope incorporating a peptidoglycan-linked arabinogalactan esterified by long-chain mycolic acids. A range of “free” lipids are associated with the “bound” mycolic acids, producing an effective envelope outer membrane. The distribution of these lipids is discontinuous among mycobacteria and such lipids have proven potential for biomarker use in tracing the evolution of tuberculosis. A plausible evolutionary scenario involves progression from an environmental organism, such as Mycobacterium kansasii, through intermediate “smooth” tubercle bacilli, labelled “Mycobacteriu...
Source: Tuberculosis - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: David E. Minnikin, Oona Y.-C. Lee, Houdini H.T. Wu, Gurdyal S. Besra, Apoorva Bhatt, Vijayashankar Nataraj, Bruce M. Rothschild, Mark Spigelman, Helen D. Donoghue Source Type: research

Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe – French Western Indies)
During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of ...
Source: Tuberculosis - February 11, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sandra Lösch, Mi-Ra Kim, Olivier Dutour, Patrice Courtaud, Frank Maixner, Thomas Romon, Christophe Sola, Albert Zink Source Type: research

Role of Titanium in the Development of Yellow Nail Syndrome
This study showed elevated titanium levels (ranging from 1.1 to 170 μg/g of nail plate) in nail clippings or pieces of shed nail from 30 patients with YNS. Titanium was not found in the nails of healthy patients. Complete resolution was seen in 4 patients after removal of their titanium implants. Titanium dioxide is commonly found in cosmetics, sunscreens, medications, confectionaries and joint implants. Exposure to titanium can lead to its ions being released by galvanic action of dental gold or amalgam through the oxidative stress of fluorides. It is hypothesized that this galvanic interaction may lead to the yellow dis...
Source: Skin Appendage Disorders - February 10, 2015 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Mucosal Immune Development in Early Life: Setting the Stage
Abstract Our environment poses a constant threat to our health. To survive, all organisms must be able to discriminate between good (food ingredients and microbes that help digest our food) and bad (pathogenic microbes, viruses and toxins). In vertebrates, discrimination between beneficial and harmful antigens mainly occurs at the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, digestive, urinary and genital tract. Here, an extensive network of cells and organs form the basis of what we have come to know as the mucosal immune system. The mucosal immune system is composed of a single epithelial cell layer protected by a mucus...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Discovery of 4′-Chloromethyl-2′-deoxy-3′,5′-di-O-isobutyryl-2′-fluorocytidine (ALS-8176), A First-in-Class RSV Polymerase Inhibitor for Treatment of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/jm5017279 (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)
Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - February 10, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Guangyi Wang, Jerome Deval, Jin Hong, Natalia Dyatkina, Marija Prhavc, Joshua Taylor, Amy Fung, Zhinan Jin, Sarah K. Stevens, Vladimir Serebryany, Jyanwei Liu, Qingling Zhang, Yuen Tam, Sushmita M. Chanda, David B. Smith, Julian A. Symons, Lawrence M. Bla Source Type: research

An Evolutionary Medicine Approach to Understanding Factors That Contribute to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Although many studies have been published on the causes and mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the reason for the existence of COPD and the reasons why COPD develops in humans have hardly been studied. Evolutionary medical approaches are required to explain not only the proximate factors, such as the causes and mechanisms of a disease, but the ultimate (evolutionary) factors as well, such as why the disease is present and why the disease develops in humans. According to the concepts of evolutionary medicine, disease susceptibility is acquired as a result of natural selection during the evolutionary...
Source: Respiration - February 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Anesthetic techniques to facilitate lung lavage for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in children—new airway techniques and a review of the literature
Summary Pediatric patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis require whole lung lavage to clear the accumulation of lipoproteinaceous material within the alveoli, to maintain respiratory function. Anesthesia for this presents a challenge due to preexisting respiratory failure, and the small diameter and length of the pediatric airway, which is often unable to accommodate existing one‐lung isolation and ventilation equipment. Novel techniques to facilitate lung lavage on seven occasions are described and placed in the context of the existing literature to date. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - February 10, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Caroline A. Wilson, Sally L. Wilmshurst, Ann E. Black Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

The burden of disease in older people and implications for health policy and practice
Publication date: 7–13 February 2015 Source:The Lancet, Volume 385, Issue 9967 Author(s): Martin J Prince , Fan Wu , Yanfei Guo , Luis M Gutierrez Robledo , Martin O'Donnell , Richard Sullivan , Salim Yusuf 23% of the total global burden of disease is attributable to disorders in people aged 60 years and older. Although the proportion of the burden arising from older people (≥60 years) is highest in high-income regions, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per head are 40% higher in low-income and middle-income regions, accounted for by the increased burden per head of population arising from cardiovascular disease...
Source: The Lancet - February 10, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Sleep-disordered breathing and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis—is there an association?
Conclusion Our results do not support the contention that nocturnal upper airway obstruction in steroid-free patients with IPF is a common problem or correlated with lung function. In this cohort of patients, there was no evidence that significant SDB at baseline was a predictor of survival. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - February 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Obstructive sleep apnea rather than diabetes or obesity associated with proteinuria in late mid-aged male workers: a decision tree analysis
Conclusions AHI was the major determinant responsible for the presence of proteinuria in late mid-aged male workers, while HbA1c and BMI were found in the junior subgroup. By algorithmic analysis, this study provides a comprehensive hierarchical model for better understanding of the correlates of proteinuria and sleep apnea. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - February 10, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of a combined inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine using North American and European strains in specific pathogen free pigs
Publication date: Available online 9 February 2015 Source:The Veterinary Journal Author(s): Minjoo Yeom , Kwang-Seoo Lyoo , Bo-Kyu Kang , Daesub Song , Bongkyun Park In Korea, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is caused by European (type 1) and North American (type 2) strains of PRRS virus (PRRSV). In the present study, the efficacy of a multi-strain PRRSV vaccine inactivated with binary ethylenimine (BEI) was evaluated in pigs. The vaccine contained one type 1 strain (GCEU0907) and two type 2 strains (GC4019 and GC6262). Three vaccinated groups (four pigs per group) and three mock vaccinated groups (f...
Source: The Veterinary Journal - February 10, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in childhood: current advances and perspectives
Abstract Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a newly discovered human small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, which was classified into the Polyomaviridae family. MCPyV is acquired in early childhood through close contact involving respiratory tract secretions and causes a widespread, previously unrecognised, asymptomatic infection in both immunocompetent children and adults. To date, several researchers have established that MCPyV is the potential causative agent of Merkel cell carcinoma, a relatively rare but life-threatening skin cancer of neuroendocrine origin. In our review, we present current da...
Source: Archives of Virology - February 10, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Impaired gamma delta T cell-derived IL-17A and inflammasome activation during early respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants
ia A Cormier (Source: Immunology and Cell Biology)
Source: Immunology and Cell Biology - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Huaqiong HuangJordy SaraviaDahui YouAaron J ShawStephania A Cormier Source Type: research

Monocyte/macrophage-Specific NADPH Oxidase Contributes to Antimicrobial Host Defense in X-CGD
Conclusions Our results indicate that residual reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) production in PMNs plays an important role in infantile stage in X-CGD, but thereafter retained function of monocytes/macrophages might compensate for the function of NADPH oxidase deficient PMNs and might be an important parameter for predicting the prognosis of X-CGD patients. (Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Immunology - February 10, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome: Indicators for a severe course
Conclusion: Recovery was longer with acute gastrointestinal infection and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Speech impairment could be a clinical clue for the need of mechanical ventilation. (Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - February 10, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Muhammet Ali VarkalTuğçe Aksu UzunhanNur AydınlıBarış EkiciMine ÇalışkanMeral Özmen Source Type: research

Fazio Londe syndrome: A treatable disorder
We report an 11-year-old child with features of Fazio Londe syndrome who presented to our Institute with respiratory failure. (Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)
Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology - February 10, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Poovazhagi VaradarajanVimal ThayanathiLeema C Pauline Source Type: research