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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 20.

Low vs. high flow oxygen delivery systems in children with lower respiratory infection
ConclusionIn both groups, there was marked improvement in all measured parameters following introduction of supplemental oxygen. However, oxygen is delivered more efficiently by high‐flow systems. The Venturi mask may decrease the total duration of oxygen usage time as well as the length of hospitalization among young children with HALRI through rapid symptom resolution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Pediatrics International)
Source: Pediatrics International - July 17, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Pinar Uygur, Sedat Oktem, Perran Boran, Engin Tutar, Gulnur Tokuc Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Airflow limitation in COPD is associated with increased left ventricular wall stress in coincident heart failure
COPD and heart failure occur with a considerable coincidence. Beside well-known mechanisms of increased right heart load in COPD, dedicated changes of the left ventricle (LV) are ill-defined and the question remains, whether specific interactions exist beyond common shared risk factors. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Peter Alter, Kirsten van de Sand, Christoph Nell, Jens H. Figiel, Timm Greulich, Claus F. Vogelmeier, Andreas R. Koczulla Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Postoperative Pneumonia after Lung Cancer Surgery and Impact of Pneumonia on Survival
Little is known about risk factors and prognosis for postoperative pneumonia (POP) in patients undergoing therapeutic lung cancer (LC) surgery. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dennis F. Simonsen, Mette Søgaard, Imre Bozi, Charles R. Horsburgh, Reimar W. Thomsen Source Type: research

Effect of weight reduction on obese patients with COPD and bronchial asthma
Conclusion Weight reduction improved airway obstruction, increased ERV, RV, FRC and DLCO either significant or insignificant in asthma and COPD. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis)
Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Nanocomplexes for Gene Therapy of Respiratory Diseases: Targeting and Overcoming the MucusBarrier
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2015 Source:Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Sante Di Gioia, Adriana Trapani, Stefano Castellani, Annalucia Carbone, Giuliana Belgiovine, Emanuela Fabiola Craparo, Giovanni Puglisi, Gennara Cavallaro, Giuseppe Trapani, Massimo Conese Gene therapy, i.e. the delivery and expression of therapeutic genes, holds great promise for congenital and acquired respiratory diseases. Non-viral vectors are less toxic and immunogenic than viral vectors, although they are characterized by lower efficiency. However, they have to overcome many barriers, including ...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Urinary uric acid excretion as an indicator of severe hypoxia and mortality in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Conclusion UA excretion, as a marker of tissue hypoxia, may be useful in the management of OSA and COPD patients. (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Residential exposure to air toxics is linked to lower grade point averages among school children in El Paso, Texas, USA
Abstract Children in low-income neighborhoods tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental toxicants. This is cause for concern because exposure to environmental toxicants negatively affects health, which can impair academic success. To date, it is unknown if associations between air toxics and academic performance found in previous school-level studies persist when studying individual children. In pairing the National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter risk disaggregated by source, with individual-level data collected through a mail survey, this paper exam...
Source: Population and Environment - July 17, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Lost after translation: Insights From Surfactant For Understanding The Role Of Alveolar Epithelial Dysfunction And Cell Quality Control In Fibrotic Lung Disease.
Abstract Dating back nearly 35 years ago to the Witschi hypothesis, epithelial cell dysfunction and abnormal wound healing have reemerged as central concepts in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in adults and in interstitial lung disease in children (chILD). Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells represent a metabolically active compartment in the distal airspaces responsible for pulmonary surfactant biosynthesis and function as a progenitor population required for maintenance of alveolar integrity. Rare mutations in surfactant system components have provided new clues to understanding broader questio...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mulugeta S, Nureki SI, Beers MF Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

HO-1/CO regulation of mitochondrial-capillary density relationships in human skeletal muscle.
Abstract The heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide (HO-1/CO) system induces mitochondrial biogenesis, but its biological impact in human skeletal muscle is uncertain. The enzyme generates carbon monoxide (CO), which stimulates mitochondrial proliferation in normal muscle. Here we examined whether CO breathing can be used to produce a coordinated metabolic and vascular response in human skeletal muscle. In nineteen healthy subjects, we performed vastus lateralis (VL) muscle biopsies and tested one-legged VO2max before and after breathing air or CO (200 ppm) for one hour daily for five days. In response to CO, there was r...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pecorella SR, Potter JV, Cherry AD, Peacher DF, Welty-Wolf KE, Moon RE, Piantadosi CA, Suliman HB Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Reduced FoxO3a expression causes low autophagy in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis fibroblasts on collagen matrix.
Abstract Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and fatal lung disease, and fibroblasts derived from patients with IPF are resistant to type I collagen matrix-induced cell death. The alteration of the PTEN/Akt axis permits IPF fibroblasts to maintain a pathological phenotype on collagen by suppressing autophagy. However, the precise underlying mechanism by which the Akt down-stream molecule suppresses autophagic activity remains elusive. FoxO3a is a direct target of Akt and is implicated with the transcriptional activation of autophagy. Therefore, we investigated whether reduced FoxO3a expression causes a...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Im J, Hergert P, Nho RS Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

A review of recent developments and applications of morphometry/stereology in lung research.
Abstract Design-based stereology is the gold standard of morphometry in lung research. Here, we analyze the current use of morphometric and stereological methods in lung research and provide an overview on recent methodological developments and biological observations made by the use of stereology. Based on this analysis we hope to provide useful recommendations for a good stereological practice in order to further the use of advanced and unbiased stereological methods. PMID: 26186944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce...)
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mühlfeld C, Hegermann J, Wrede C, Ochs M Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in the NICU Environment.
CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary MRI reveals quantifiable, significant differences between BPD patients, premature patients without BPD, and full-term controls; these methods could be implemented to individually phenotype disease, which may impact clinical care and predict future outcomes. PMID: 26186608 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Walkup LL, Tkach JA, Higano NS, Thomen RP, Fain SB, Merhar SL, Fleck RJ, Amin RS, Woods JC Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Spatio-temporal Aeration and Lung Injury Patterns are Influenced by the First Inflation Strategy at Birth.
CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical and molecular consequences of lung aeration at birth are not simply related to rapidity of fluid clearance but the spatio-temporal pressure-volume interactions within the lung during inflation and deflation. PMID: 26186685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol...)
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tingay DG, Rajapaksa A, Zonneveld CE, Black D, Perkins EJ, Adler A, Grychtol B, Lavizzari A, Frerichs I, Zahra VA, Davis PG Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Sleep, Death and the Heart.
Abstract Obstructive and central sleep apnea have been associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality. Sympathetic dysregulation occurring as a result of the respiratory disturbance is thought to play a role in this increased risk. Sleep apnea increases the risk of arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia/infarction, stroke, and heart failure, all of which may increase mortality risk. A higher incidence of nocturnal arrhythmias, cardiac ischemia and sudden death has been noted in subjects with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). In this review, the association between SDB and each of these cond...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - July 17, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: Mansukhani MP, Wang S, Somers VK Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research

Development and performance assessment of a qualitative SYBR® green real-time PCR assay for the detection of Aspergillus versicolor in indoor air.
Abstract Currently, contamination of indoor environment by fungi and molds is considered as a public health problem. The monitoring of indoor airborne fungal contamination is a common tool to help understanding the link between fungi in houses and respiratory problems. Classical analytical monitoring methods, based on cultivation and microscopic identification, depend on the growth of the fungi. Consequently, they are biased by difficulties to grow some species on certain culture media and under certain conditions or by noncultivable or dead fungi that can consequently not be identified. However, they could have an...
Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - July 17, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Libert X, Chasseur C, Bladt S, Packeu A, Bureau F, Roosens NH, De Keersmaecker SC Tags: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Inhaled Epoprostenol Is Noninferior to Inhaled Nitric Oxide for the Treatment of ARDS.
CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled epoprostenol was noninferior to inhaled nitric oxide with regard to ventilator-free days from day 1 to day 28 in ARDS patients. PMID: 26187741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy)
Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy - July 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ammar MA, Bauer SR, Bass SN, Sasidhar M, Mullin R, Lam SW Tags: Ann Pharmacother Source Type: research

Multistage self-gated lung imaging in small rodents.
CONCLUSION: The presented respiratory gating method allows the reconstruction of different respiratory positions. Improved sharpness in expiration images was observed compared with ungated images. SNR and NSI changes in parenchyma reflect the expected variation of lung tissue density during respiration. Magn Reson Med, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 26189455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - July 17, 2015 Category: Radiology Authors: Tibiletti M, Kjørstad Å, Bianchi A, Schad LR, Stiller D, Rasche V Tags: Magn Reson Med Source Type: research

An ST11 clone of Pasteurella multocida, widely spread among farmed rabbits in the Iberian Peninsula, demonstrates respiratory niche association.
In this study, 100 P. multocida isolates from different commercial rabbit farms located throughout the Iberian Peninsula were molecularly characterized by capsular typing, detection of four virulence-associated genes (tbpA, toxA, hgbB, and pfhA), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Rabbit P. multocida isolates belonged to three different capsular types: A (47.0%), D (28.0%), and F (25.0%). One group of P. multocida isolates of capsular type D and positive for the hgbB gene was significantly associated with the clinical presentation of respiratory disease (OR 5.91; 95%CI, 1.63-21.38). These isolates belonged to same sequ...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - July 17, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: García-Alvarez A, Chaves F, Fernández A, Sanz C, Borobia M, Cid D Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Molecular genetic analysis of the Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus from lethal and recovered cases in Russia from 2009 to 2014: Deletions in the nucleoprotein.
Abstract Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus caused about 2000 laboratory confirmed lethal cases in Russia during 2009-2010 and 1302, 135 and 29 cases in the 2010-2011, 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 seasons respectively. The on average short duration (7.8±5days) of lethal cases of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infections in Russia suggests primary viral rather than secondary bacterial pneumonia. Hemorrhagic syndrome was recorded in 36.6% of patients. An examination of 221 lung samples from lethal influenza cases for the presence of bacterial DNA that could cause pneumonia did not reveal bacterial superinfections in 86% of cases. Mole...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - July 17, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Yatsyshina S, Renteeva A, Deviatkin A, Vorobyeva N, Minenko A, Valdokhina A, Elkina M, Kuleshov K, Shipulin G Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Animal models of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.
This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses." PMID: 26192750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)
Source: Antiviral Research - July 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: van Doremalen N, Munster VJ Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research

Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.
Abstract Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to e...
Source: Journal of Virological Methods - July 17, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Kumar M, Mazur S, Ork BL, Postnikova E, Hensley LE, Jahrling PB, Johnson R, Holbrook MR Tags: J Virol Methods Source Type: research

Relation of lung function and current inhalant allergen-specific immunoglobulin E concentrations in adolescents (GINIplus cohort).
CONCLUSION: Although allergen-specific IgE concentrations can contribute to the identification of subjects at higher risk for allergic rhinitis and asthma, sensitization to inhalant allergens is not related to impaired spirometric lung parameters within the different allergic respiratory disease subgroups. PMID: 26195441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology)
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - July 17, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Luzak A, Flexeder C, von Berg A, Berdel D, Klümper C, Koletzko S, Bauer CP, Heinrich J, Nowak D, Schulz H Tags: Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol Source Type: research

Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumors: Benign or Malignant?
PMID: 26195157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia)
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - July 17, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schiavoni E, Alvarez Padilla F, Bustos M Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Restrictive Fluid Resuscitation Leads to Better Oxygenation than Non-Restrictive Fluid Resuscitation in Piglets with Pulmonary or Extrapulmonary Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS RFR led to better oxygenation in ARDSp and ARDSexp compared with NRFR, but fluid restriction improved oxygenation in ARDSexp only. PMID: 26166324 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)
Source: Medical Science Monitor - July 16, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research

Effect of dobutamine on extravascular lung water index, ventilator function, and perfusion parameters in acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with septic shock
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology)
Source: Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology - July 16, 2015 Category: Biotechnology Tags: article Source Type: research

Discovery of 1,2,4-Triazole-1,3-Disulfonamides as Dual Inhibitors of Mitochondrial Complex II and Complex III
New J. Chem., 2015, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C5NJ00215J, PaperHua Cheng, Yan-Qing Shen, Xia-Yan Pan, Yi-Ping Hou, Qiongyou Wu, GF YangThe respiratory chain succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR or complex II) and ubihydroquinone-cytochrome (cyt) c oxidoreductase (cyt bc1 or complex III) have been demonstrated as the promising targets of numerous antibiotics and...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles)
Source: RSC - New J. Chem. latest articles - July 16, 2015 Category: Chemistry Authors: Hua Cheng Source Type: research

Injuries following a serious hydrofluoric acid leak: First aid and lessons
This article describes the events that took place leading to casualties as well as presenting the first-aid experience and the lessons learnt from this kind of mass injury. (Source: Burns)
Source: Burns - July 16, 2015 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Computed tomographic assessment of airflow obstruction in smoke inhalation injury: Relationship with the development of pneumonia and injury severity
Conclusions These data revealed the utility of computed tomography scanning on admission to show that the patients with smoke inhalation injury had airway wall thickening compared to control patients without smoke inhalation injury. Airflow narrowing due to airway wall thickening was related to the development of pneumonia and the number of mechanical ventilation days in patients with smoke inhalation injury. Airflow narrowing is one important factor of respiratory deterioration in smoke inhalation injury. (Source: Burns)
Source: Burns - July 16, 2015 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Reconstruction of thoracic burn sequelae by scar release and flap resurfacing
Conclusions Scar releases and flaps provide a safe and effective method for the correction of restricted thoracic expansion, respiratory restriction, decreased range of shoulder motion, and discomfort from thoracic burn sequelae. (Source: Burns)
Source: Burns - July 16, 2015 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Nrf2 activators modulate oxidative stress responses and bioenergetic profiles of human retinal epithelial cells cultured in normal or high glucose conditions
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015 Source:Pharmacological Research Author(s): Roberta Foresti, Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Maria Bianca Platania, Filippo Drago, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini Retinal pigment epithelial cells exert an important supporting role in the eye and develop adaptive responses to oxidative stress or high glucose levels, as observed during diabetes. Endogenous antioxidant defences are mainly regulated by Nrf2, a transcription factor that is activated by naturally-derived and electrophilic compounds. Here we investigated the effects of the Nrf2 activators dimethylfumarate (...
Source: Pharmacological Research - July 16, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Limited OXPHOS capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity in laboratory mice irrespective of the glucose tolerance status
Conclusion Reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity in white adipocytes is a hallmark of murine obesity irrespective of the glucose tolerance status. Impaired respiratory capacity in white adipocytes solely is not sufficient for the development of systemic glucose intolerance. Graphical abstract (Source: Molecular Metabolism)
Source: Molecular Metabolism - July 16, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Gastrointestinal variant of Lemierre's syndrome complicating ruptured appendicitis
We describe a case of F. necrophorum bacteremia associated with suppurative porto-mesenteric vein thrombosis (PVT) following acute ruptured appendicitis. In addition, we list the documented twelve cases of Fusobacterium pylephlebitis. Recanalization of the porto-mesenteric veins and relief of the extrahepatic portal hypertension were achieved with early empiric antibiotic and local thrombolytic therapy. Our patient's case underscores the importance of recognizing Fusobacterium bacteremia as a possible cause of suppurative PVT after disruption of the gastrointestinal mucosa following an acute intraabdominal infectious proce...
Source: IDCases - July 16, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Proteomic analysis of cell wall in four pathogenic species of Candida exposed to oxidative stress
Publication date: Available online 15 July 2015 Source:Microbial Pathogenesis Author(s): Mayra Denisse Ramírez-Quijas, Everardo López-Romero, Mayra Cuéllar-Cruz In order for Candida species to adhere and colonize human host cells they must express cell wall proteins (CWP) and adapt to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by phagocytic cells of the human host during the respiratory burst. However, how these pathogens change the expression of CWP in response to oxidative stress (OSR) is not known. Here, fifteen moonlight-like CWP were identified that expressed differentially in four species of Candida after they w...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - July 16, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pulmonary Hypertension in Heart Failure: Epidemiology, Right Ventricular Function and Survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Cpc-PH is rare in chronic heart failure. Right ventricular-pulmonary vascular coupling is poor in Cpc-PH, and might serve as one explanation of dismal outcomes. PMID: 26181215 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gerges M, Gerges C, Pistritto AM, Lang MB, Trip P, Jakowitsch J, Binder T, Lang IM Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Aberrant DNA Methylation of Phosphodiesterase 4D: Effect on Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotypes.
In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between epigenetic regulation of PDE4D and ASMC phenotypes. We identified CpG site-specific hypomethylation at PDE4D promoter in human asthmatic ASMCs. We next utilized methylated oligonucleotides to introduce CpG site-specific methylation at PDE4D promoter and examined its effect on ASMCs. We showed that PDE4D methylation decreased cell proliferation and migration of asthmatic ASMCs. We further elucidated that by showing methylated PDE4D decreased PDE4D expression in asthmatic ASMCs, increased cAMP level and inhibited the aberrant increase in Ca2+ level. Moreover, PDE4D ...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lin AH, Shang Y, Mitzner W, Sham JS, Tang WY Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Pulmonary epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma with multiple bone metastases: case report and review of literature
We report here a case of unusual pulmonary EIMS with multiple bone metastases. A 21-year-old Chinese male patient presented with complaints of general fatigue and rapid weight loss, and a huge tumor arising in the left lower lobe of lung was detected by chest computed tomography. The mass of lung was totally resected. Microscopically, the tumor cells were rounded and epithelioid in shape. Myxoid stroma and inflammatory infiltration was also present. The tumor cells were immunopositive to anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in smooth cytoplasmic pattern. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay revealed the presence of ...
Source: Diagnostic Pathology - July 16, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Xinge FuJuhong JiangXiao-ying TianZhi Li Source Type: research

Advances in molecular biology of lung disease: Aiming for precision therapy in NSCLC.
Abstract Lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer related mortality in the developed world, accounting for almost one quarter of all cancer deaths. Traditional treatment algorithms largely relied on histological subtype and comprised pragmatic chemotherapy regimes with limited efficacy. However, as our understanding of the molecular basis of disease in NSCLC has improved exponentially it has become apparent that NSCLC can be radically subdivided, or molecularly characterised on the basis of recurrent 'driver' mutations occurring in specific oncogenes. We know that the presence of such mutations leads to constit...
Source: Chest - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rooney C, Sethi T Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Rebuttal From Dr. Punjabi.
Abstract It is quite reasonable to advocate that the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is a clinically valuable metric for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on the basis that patients with a high AHI have a higher prevalence of excessive sleepiness, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease compared to those with a lower AHI. Moreover, the contention that the AHI is a "marker of disease" is also sound given that clinical symptoms improve or resolve when the AHI decreases with treatment. However, these arguments only suggest that the AHI is, at best, a crude metric for OSA. Indeed, Dr. Rappaport's conclusion that the AHI is use...
Source: Chest - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Punjabi NM Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Rebuttal From Dr. Rapoport.
Abstract In his editorial Dr. Punjabi points out intrinsic limitations of the AHI concept: the cycle rate of events does not capture physiological "severity" of each event (eg, quantitative flow reduction, event duration) or biological impact (eg. degree of desaturation, sympathetic activation); temporal distribution of events is not captured (eg clusters of apnea/hypopnea are counted equally to widely separated individual events); other essential aspects of sleep are ignored (eg total duration of sleep determines overall exposure to sleep disordered breathing). Thus, he argues AHI is an overly simplistic represent...
Source: Chest - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rapoport DM Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Counterpoint: Is the AHI the best way to quantify the severity of sleep disordered breathing? No.
Abstract Since the early clinical descriptions of obstructive sleep apnea in the 1970s, our understanding of the pathogenesis and adverse consequences of this chronic disease has advanced substantially. Initially, the primary focus was the recognition of sleep-related apneic events which were observed to severely fragment sleep, induce cardiovascular instability, and lead to excessive sleepiness during the day. Given the significant hemodynamic and sleep-related effects of obstructive apneas during sleep, it comes as no surprise that the "apnea index", which tallies the number of apneas per hour of sleep, became th...
Source: Chest - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Punjabi NM Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Point: Is the AHI the best way to quantify the severity of sleep disordered breathing? - YES.
Abstract Over the past 30 years, we have come to appreciate that during sleep there is a spectrum of obstructive breathing physiology ranging from mild snoring to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. By some estimates significant abnormalities of breathing during sleep may affect as much as 15-20% of the adult population and 5-10% of children. The obesity epidemic makes it likely that these numbers will only increase. PMID: 26181884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rapoport DM Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and outcomes in extreme elderly (age ≥85) Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation: The Fushimi AF Registry.
Conclusions: In our community-based prospective cohort, Japanese extreme elderly AF patients had a higher incidence of stroke but similar major bleeding risks compared with the younger AF population. Trial Registry: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry; No.: UMIN000005834; URL: PMID: 26181726 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yamashita Y, Hamatani Y, Esato M, Chun YH, Tsuji H, Wada H, Hasegawa K, Abe M, Lip GY, Akao M Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Transgenically-expressed secretoglobin 3A2 accelerates resolution of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice
Conclusions: These results demonstrate that SCGB3A2 is an anti-fibrotic agent, and suggest a possible therapeutic use of recombinant SCGB3A2 in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yan CaiMitsuhiro YonedaTakeshi TomitaReiko KurotaniMinoru OkamotoTaketomo KidoHiroyuki AbeWayne MitznerArjun GuhaShioko Kimura Source Type: research

Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to investigate different dosing regimens of olodaterol delivered via Respimat ® in patients with moderate to severe persistent asthma
Background: A Phase II, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial comparing the 24-h forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) time profile after 3 weeks’ treatment with once-daily (QD) or twice-daily (BID) olodaterol (at the same total daily dose) versus placebo delivered via Respimat ® in patients with moderate to severe asthma. Methods: Patients were randomised to different sequences of olodaterol with 2-week washout, either as a total daily dose of 5 μg (5 μg QD [AM] or 2.5 μg BID) or placebo, or 10 μg (10 μg QD [AM] or 5 μg BID...
Source: Respiratory Research - July 16, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kai-Michael BeehCraig LaForceMartina GahlemannArne WenzRobert ToorawaMatja¿ Fle¿ar Source Type: research