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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 20.

Comparison of Clinical Features, Virulence, and Relapse among Mycobacterium avium Complex Species.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that specific MAC species have varying degrees of virulence and classifying MAC isolates into distinct species aids in identifying which patients are at a higher risk of clinical relapse. PMID: 25835090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Boyle DP, Zembower TR, Reddy S, Qi C Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Rebuttal From Dr. Middlekauff.
Abstract Abstract: Avdalovic and Murin raise an important question: What do we say to our patients and others who inquire about electronic(e)-cigarettes? I disagree with their dogmatic stance that in the absence of definitive proof that e-cigarettes are safe, we must assume that they are not. The science indicates that a more nuanced response will best serve the health interests of our patients. PMID: 25837381 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Middlekauff HR Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Counterpoint: Does the Risk of Electronic Cigarettes Exceed Potential Benefits? No.
Abstract Abstract: Although the medical community is unanimous in its wish to limit, or even eliminate tobacco smoking, the role of electronic(e)-cigarettes in this process has been controversial. Will e-cigarettes be part of the solution by harm reduction - and are e-cigarettes really less harmful? Or will e-cigarettes contribute to the problem by serving as a gateway to tobacco cigarettes? As we are debating, regulations are being issued - and challenged. Unfortunately, due to a paucity of data, the calls for regulations in some cases sound alarmist. Certainly contributing to the strong opposition roused by the e...
Source: Chest - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Middlekauff HR Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Rebuttal From Drs Avdalovic and Murin.
Abstract Abstract: We agree with many of the points raised by Dr. Middlekauff. In comparison to traditional cigarettes it appears that e-cigarettes are less carcinogenic and their use in lieu of cigarettes would likely lead to less chronic cardiovascular and respiratory disease. In an ideal world, millions of traditional cigarette smokers would switch to the e-cigarette and the global burden of lung cancer, coronary disease and COPD would dramatically decrease over time. Unfortunately, we do not live in an ideal world, and the dream that e-cigarettes will lead to a decrease in total tobacco consumption may be repla...
Source: Chest - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Avdalovic MV, Murin S Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Point: Does the Risk of Electronic Cigarettes Exceed Potential Benefits? Yes.
Abstract Abstract: The use of e-cigarettes continues to dramatically increase, and the debate over their safety and appropriate use has heated up, in parallel. We as pulmonary clinicians are called upon to advise our patients and others about e-cigarettes, which presents challenges given the current limitations of the data upon which our advice should be based. What do we say? PMID: 25836723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Avdalovic MV, Murin S Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Continuous positive airway pressure and high flow nasal cannula oxygen in bronchiolitis.
Abstract Abstract: Some infants with bronchiolitis develop severe respiratory failure, because of a complex pathophysiological process that involves increased airways resistance, alveolar atelectasis, muscle fatigue, and hypoxaemia due to mismatch between ventilation and perfusion. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and high flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC) may improve work of breathing and oxygenation. Although the mechanisms behind these non-invasive modalities of respiratory support are not well understood, they may help infants by way of distending pressure, and delivery of high concentrations of ...
Source: Chest - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sinha IP, McBride AK, Smith R, Fernandes RM Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Relapse in FEV1-Decline after Steroid Withdrawal in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Conclusions: ICS discontinuation after 30-month in COPD can worsen lung function decline, AHR and QOL during 5-year follow-up. This suggests that ICS treatment lacks sustained disease modifying effect after treatment cessation. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00158847. PMID: 25836351 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kunz LI, Postma DS, Klooster K, Lapperre TS, Vonk JM, Sont JK, Kerstjens HA, Snoeck-Stroband JB, Hiemstra PS, Sterk PJ, GLUCOLD Study Group Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Tumor Budding Correlates with Protumor Immune Microenvironment and is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Recurrence of Stage I Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Conclusions: Tumor budding is an independent prognostic factor of stage I lung adenocarcinoma and correlates with protumor immune microenvironment. Our findings advocate investigating tumor-immune cell interactions at invading edge as a biological driver of tumor aggressiveness. PMID: 25836013 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kadota K, Yeh YC, Villena-Vargas J, Cherkassky L, Drill EN, Sima CS, Jones DR, Travis WD, Adusumilli PS Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Treatment options for the pediatric patent ductus arteriosus: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Conclusion: Both therapies have comparable outcomes. Re-intervention is more common with catheter-based treatment but overall complication rates were not higher and hospital stay is shorter. Our data span more than two decades and may not reflect current surgical and catheterization outcomes. Large, randomized prospective studies may help determine the optimal treatment strategy. PMID: 25835756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lam JY, Lopushinsky S, Ma I, Dicke F, Brindle M Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Marinobacter nitratireducens sp. nov., a halophilic and lipolytic bacterium of the family Alteromonadaceae isolated from coastal surface sea water.
Abstract A novel Gram-stain-negative, rod shaped, motile bacterium, designated strain AK21T, was isolated from coastal sea surface water, Visakhapatnam, India. The strain was positive for oxidase, catalase, lipase, L-proline arylamidase and tyrosine arylamidase activities. The predominant fatty acids were C12:0, C12:0 3OH, C16:0, C16:1 ω9c, C18:1 ω9c and C16:1 7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH (summed feature 3). The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), one unidentified aminophospholipids (APL), two unidentified phospholipids (PL) and one unidentified...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - April 2, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Vaidya B, Kumar R, Korpole S, Tanuku NR, Pinnaka AK Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Electrical impedance tomography monitoring in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with mechanical ventilation during prolonged positive end-expiratory pressure adjustments.
CONCLUSION: Late improvements in oxygenation following PEEP escalation are probably due to slow recruitment in ventilated ARDS patients. Electrical impedance tomography may be an appropriate tool to assess recruitment and oxygenation status in patients with changes in PEEP. PMID: 25843526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J Formos Med Assoc)
Source: J Formos Med Assoc - April 2, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Hsu CF, Cheng JS, Lin WC, Ko YF, Cheng KS, Lin SH, Chen CW Tags: J Formos Med Assoc Source Type: research

Relationship Between Sleep Apnea and Cancer.
Abstract In the light of relationships reported between hypoxemia (tissue hypoxia) and cancer, Abrams et al. concluded in 2008 that sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and its main consequence, intermittent hypoxia, could be related with increased susceptibility to cancer or poorer prognosis of a pre-existing tumor. This pathophysiological association was confirmed in animal studies. Two large independent historical cohort studies subsequently found that the degree of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with SAHS was associated with higher cancer incidence and mortality. This finding has been confirmed in almost all sub...
Source: Archivos de Bronconeumologia - April 2, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Martínez-García MÁ, Campos-Rodríguez F, Almendros I, Farré R Tags: Arch Bronconeumol Source Type: research

Identification and expression patterns of extracellular matrix-associated genes fibropellin-ia and tenascin involved in regeneration of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.
In this study, we cloned for the first time full-length cDNAs of fibropellin-ia (1390bp, encoding a 199 amino acid protein) and tenascin (1366bp, encoding a 179 amino acid protein) from Apostichopus japonicus (designated Aj-fnia and Aj-tenascin, respectively) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The structures and characteristics of these two genes were analyzed bioinformatically, and their expression patterns associated with extracellular matrix remodeling in regeneration of A. japonicus were investigated by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH). Expression levels of Aj-fnia and Aj-tenascin in the regeneration ...
Source: Gene - April 2, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Ba H, Yao F, Yang L, Qin T, Luan H, Li Z, Zou X, Hou L Tags: Gene Source Type: research

Genomic and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of infectious bronchitis coronavirus.
Abstract Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a Gammacoronavirus that causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in chickens. A QX-like strain was analysed by high-throughput Illumina sequencing and genetic variation across the entire viral genome was explored at the sub-consensus level by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Thirteen open reading frames (ORFs) in the order 5'-UTR-1a-1ab-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3'UTR were predicted. The relative frequencies of missense: silent SNPs were calculated to obtain a comparative measure of variability in specific genes. The most variable ORFs in descendi...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - April 2, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Abolnik C Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research

Skeletal muscle increase FGF21 expression in mitochondrial disorder to compensate for the energy metabolic insufficiency by activating mTOR-YY1-PGC1α pathway.
Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a growth factor with pleiotropic effects on regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Its expression is increased in skeletal muscle of mice and human with mitochondrial disorder. However, the effects of FGF21 on skeletal muscle in response to mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency is largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that the increased expression of FGF21 was a compensatory response to respiratory chain deficiency. The mRNA and protein levels of FGF21 were robustly raised in skeletal muscle from patient with mitochondrial myopathy or MELAS. The mammalian targe...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2015 Category: Biology Authors: Ji K, Zheng J, Lv J, Xu J, Ji X, Luo YB, Li W, Zhao Y, Yan C Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

4-Hydroxynonenal induces Nrf2-mediated UCP3 upregulation in mouse cardiomyocytes.
Abstract 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a highly cytotoxic product of lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, at low concentrations, it is able to mediate cell signalling and to activate protective pathways, including that of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2). In addition, HNE activates uncoupling proteins (UCPs), mitochondrial inner membrane proteins that mediate uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and have been proposed to protect against oxidative stress. It is not known, however, whether HNE might induce UCPs expression via Nrf2 to cause mitochondrial uncoupling. We investi...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - April 2, 2015 Category: Biology Authors: López-Bernardo E, Anedda A, Sánchez-Pérez P, Acosta-Iborra B, Cadenas S Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

Cardiolipin is a Key Determinant for mtDNA Stability and Segregation during Mitochondrial Stress.
Abstract Mitochondria play a key role in adaptation during stressing situations. Cardiolipin, the main anionic phospholipid in mitochondrial membranes, is expected to be determinant in this adaptive mechanism since it modulates the activity of most membrane proteins. Here, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to conditions that affect mitochondrial metabolism as a model to determine the possible role of cardiolipin in stress adaptation. Interestingly, we found that thermal stress promotes a 30% increase in the cardiolipin content and modifies the physical state of mitochondrial membranes. These changes have e...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - April 2, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Luévano-Martínez LA, Forni MF, Dos Santos VT, Souza-Pinto NC, Kowaltowski AJ Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research

Alveolar macrophages and type I IFN in airway homeostasis and immunity.
Abstract Globally, respiratory infections cause more than 4 million deaths per year, with influenza and tuberculosis (TB) in particular being major causes of mortality and morbidity. Although immune cell activation is critical for killing respiratory pathogens, this response must be tightly regulated to effectively control and eliminate invading microorganisms while minimizing immunopathology and maintaining pulmonary function. The distinct microenvironment of the lung is constantly patrolled by alveolar macrophages (Mφ), which are essential for tissue homeostasis, early pathogen recognition, initiation of the loc...
Source: Trends in Immunology - April 2, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Divangahi M, King IL, Pernet E Tags: Trends Immunol Source Type: research

Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein.
Abstract The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal ...
Source: Virology - April 2, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Li Y, Jain N, Limpanawat S, To J, Quistgaard EM, Nordlund P, Thanabalu T, Torres J Tags: Virology Source Type: research

NADPH oxidases and cancer.
Abstract The mechanism by which reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by tumour cells remained incompletely understood until the discovery over the last 15 years of the family of NADPH oxidases (NOXs 1-5 and dual oxidases DUOX1/2) which are structural homologues of gp91phox, the major membrane-bound component of the respiratory burst oxidase of leucocytes. Knowledge of the roles of the NOX isoforms in cancer is rapidly expanding. Recent evidence suggests that both NOX1 and DUOX2 species produce ROS in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of chronic inflammatory stress; cytokine induction (by interferon-γ, ...
Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer - April 1, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Roy K, Wu Y, Meitzler JL, Juhasz A, Liu H, Jiang G, Lu J, Antony S, Doroshow JH Tags: Clin Sci (Lond) Source Type: research

Ability to work in anaerobic condition is associated with physical performance on the six-minute walk test in older patients receiving cardiac rehabilitation.
CONCLUSION: In older patients receiving post-acute cardiac rehabilitation the ability to work in the anaerobic condition is associated with physical performance in submaximal constant work rate exercises. Thus the steady-state respiratory exchange ratio might be regarded as a measure of the patient's actual exercise effort. This information may prove useful in customizing exercise prescription and assessing the effects of rehabilitation. PMID: 25823886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine)
Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine - April 1, 2015 Category: Rehabilitation Tags: J Rehabil Med Source Type: research

The Prevalence of Oral Inflammation Among Denture Wearing Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Authors: Przybyłowska D, Rubinsztajn R, Chazan R, Swoboda-Kopeć E, Kostrzewa-Janicka J, Mierzwińska-Nastalska E Abstract Oral inflammation is an important contributor to the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can impact patient's health status. Previous studies indicate that people with poor oral health are at higher risk for nosocomial pneumonia. Denture wearing is one promoting factor in the development of mucosal infections. Colonization of the denture plaque by Gram-negative bacteria, Candida spp., or other respiratory pathogens, occurring locally, may be aspirated to the lungs. The stu...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - April 1, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

A Systematic Assessment of the Association of Polysomnographic Indices with Blood Pressure: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
Conclusion:Our results support the use of a currently recommended apnea-hypopnea index definition as a marker of blood pressure risk and indicate that measurement of limb movements with arousals is also independently associated with diastolic blood pressure.Citation:Dean DA, Wang R, Jacobs DR, Duprez D, Punjabi NM, Zee PC, Shea S, Watson K, Redline S. A Systematic assessment of the association of polysomnographic indices with blood pressure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). SLEEP 2015;38(4):587–596. (Source: Sleep)
Source: Sleep - April 1, 2015 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Detection of Upper Airway Status and Respiratory Events by a Current Generation Positive Airway Pressure Device
Conclusions:A device-detected apnea-hypopnea index (AHIFlow) < 10 events/h on a positive airway pressure device is strong evidence of good treatment efficacy. Device-detected airway status agrees closely with the presumed airway status during polysomnography scored events, but should not be equated with a specific type of respiratory event.Citation:Li QY, Berry RB, Goetting MG, Staley B, Soto-Calderon H, Tsai SC, Jasko JG, Pack AI, Kuna ST. Detection of upper airway status and respiratory events by a current generation positive airway pressure device. SLEEP 2015;38(4):597–605. (Source: Sleep)
Source: Sleep - April 1, 2015 Category: Sleep Medicine Source Type: research

Acetazolamide-Related Life-Threatening Hypophosphatemia in a Glaucoma Patient
Acetazolamide-related hypophosphatemia leading to cardiac arrest is extremely rare. Herein we report a 78-year-old female glaucoma patient who developed general weakness and acute respiratory failure, followed by cardiac arrest 1 day after taking acetazolamide. The patient was successfully weaned from the ventilator after correction of hypophosphatemia and fully recovered. As acetazolamide was shown to have the potential to cause a lethal side effect in stable glaucoma, the risk of hypophosphatemia should be kept in mind by ophthalmologists. An examination of serum metabolic panels may be indicated in patients at risk of h...
Source: Journal of Glaucoma - April 1, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Online Articles: Case Reports Source Type: research

Pediatric Tea Tree Oil Aspiration Treated With Surfactant in the Emergency Department
We describe an 18-month-old male patient who ingested tea tree oil, developed central nervous system depression, respiratory distress, and received early emergency department treatment with surfactant. Early treatment of hydrocarbon pneumonitis with surfactant has not been previously described. Early administration of surfactant should be further evaluated for treatment of hydrocarbon aspiration. (Source: Pediatric Emergency Care)
Source: Pediatric Emergency Care - April 1, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Illustrative Cases Source Type: research

Cervical Lung Herniation Complicating a Case of Acute Asphyxial Asthma in a Child
We report this case of AAA and cervical lung herniation and a review of the literature of these 2 uncommon phenomena in children. (Source: Pediatric Emergency Care)
Source: Pediatric Emergency Care - April 1, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Illustrative Cases Source Type: research

Teamwork Skills in Actual, In Situ, and In-Center Pediatric Emergencies: Performance Levels Across Settings and Perceptions of Comparative Educational Impact
Discussion: In a video-based study in an academic pediatric institution, ratings of teamwork were relatively high among actual resuscitations and 2 simulation settings, substantiating the influence of simulation-based training on instilling a culture of communication and teamwork. On the basis of survey results, providers favored the in situ setting for teamwork training and suggested an expansion of our existing in situ program. (Source: Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare)
Source: Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare - April 1, 2015 Category: Medical Equipment Tags: Empirical Investigations Source Type: research

Airway Involvement of Relapsing Polychondritis Revealed by 18F-Fluoride PET/CT
Abstract: A 48-year-old man with progressive respiratory symptoms was suspected of having relapsing polychondritis (RPC). A 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy showed only mild activity in the bilateral costal cartilage. In contrast, 18F-fluoride PET/CT revealed intense radioactivity accumulation in the tracheal cartilages. Biopsy results from tracheal cartilage were consistent with a diagnosis of RPC. The patient received therapy toward RPC, and his symptoms was gradually alleviated. (Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine)
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - April 1, 2015 Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research

Practical Considerations in Opioid Use for Brain Neoplasm
ABSTRACT: Neurologists are often on the front lines of diagnosis for primary and metastatic brain tumors. Patients with brain tumors typically have multiple comorbidities and pain generators beyond headache, necessitating opioid therapy. Opioid-based pain relief and safety in the medically ill patient are complex. While using the lowest-potency opioid with adjunct medications is always prudent, patients with brain tumors frequently require dose escalation. Opioid selection and use is based on the patient’s respiratory and cardiac function as well as drug clearance capability. Specific opioid combinations, employing long-...
Source: CONTINUUM - April 1, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Practice Issues Source Type: research

Totally Laparoscopic Cyst Excision and Roux-en-Y Hepaticojejunostomy for Choledochal Cyst in Adults: A Single-institute Experience of 5 Years
Conclusions: Totally laparoscopic cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is a safe, efficacious, and minimally invasive procedure for the most instances of adult choledochal cyst. The key of success is skilled laparoscopic skills, good team cooperation, and stapler anastomosis. (Source: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy and Percutaneous Techniques)
Source: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy and Percutaneous Techniques - April 1, 2015 Category: Surgery Tags: Online Articles: Original Articles Source Type: research

Outcomes of a Pilot Hand Hygiene Randomized Cluster Trial to Reduce Communicable Infections Among US Office-Based Employees
Conclusions: An office-based multimodal hand hygiene improvement intervention demonstrated a substantive reduction in self-reported combined ARI-ILI/GI infections. (Source: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine - April 1, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Pulmonary Chondroid Hamartoma With Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection: Two Case Reports
This report emphasizes that physicians should endeavor to confirm the individual diagnosis for the various pulmonary abnormal lesions detected at the same time, if necessary through multifocal biopsies for each lesion. (Source: Medicine)
Source: Medicine - April 1, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research

The Association Between Depressive Disorder and Cardiac Autonomic Control in Adults 60 Years and Older
Conclusions: Depression was not associated with cardiac autonomic control, but antidepressants were in this sample. All antidepressants were associated with low cardiac parasympathetic control and specifically tricyclic antidepressants with high cardiac sympathetic control. (Source: Psychosomatic Medicine)
Source: Psychosomatic Medicine - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Effect of Depth and Duration of Cooling on Deaths in the NICU Among Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial
ABSTRACT: Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) due to acute perinatal asphyxia is 1 cause of childhood neurodevelopmental deficits among term infants. Induced hypothermia can decrease death or disability, but rates of death or disability remain at 44% to 55%. This multicenter randomized clinical trial among infants with moderate or severe HIE was performed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of deeper cooling, longer cooling, or both. Neonates were 36 weeks’ gestation or greater and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) within 6 hours of birth with poor respiratory effort, need for resuscitation, or d...
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - April 1, 2015 Category: OBGYN Tags: Obstetrics: Newborn Medicine Source Type: research

Cerebral Palsy Among Children Born Moderately and Late Preterm
ABSTRACT: The preterm birth rate has increased markedly in recent decades, mainly because of the increase in late preterm (LP) births. Late preterm infants are those born between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks’ gestation and account for more than 70% of all prematurely born infants in the United States. Moderately preterm (MP) (32+0–33+6 weeks) and LP infants together comprise more than 80% of all preterm births. Late preterm infants may have poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and one relatively common disorder is cerebral palsy (CP), diagnosed based on medical history, imaging data, and clinical multidisciplinary evaluations. Cer...
Source: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey - April 1, 2015 Category: OBGYN Tags: Obstetrics: Newborn Medicine Source Type: research

Sublingual immunotherapy in children and its potential beneficial collateral effect on respiratory tract infections
Current Medical Research & Opinion, Ahead of Print. (Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion)
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - April 1, 2015 Category: Research Tags: article Source Type: research

Sildenafil for the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of sildenafil in infants with PAH secondary to BPD. This was a retrospective review of medical records of all premature infants with PAH associated with BPD treated with sildenafil between January 2009 and May 2013 in a level 3 neonatal intensive care unit. The primary outcomes were clinical response (20 % decreases in respiratory support score or oxygen requirements) and echocardiographic response (20 % decrease in tricuspid regurgitation gradient or change of at least 1° of septal flattening). Twenty-three infants were included in the study. Significant echocardiogra...
Source: Mammalian Genome - April 1, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Meningitis in adolescents: the role of commensal microbiota.
Abstract The pathogen Neisseria meningitidis causes disease amongst infants and adolescents/young adults. Here we argue that disease amongst adolescents is due largely to interaction between N. meningitidis and other members of the upper respiratory tract microbiota, through a metabolic interaction involving exchange of propionic acid. PMID: 25818619 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Trends in Microbiology)
Source: Trends in Microbiology - April 1, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Moir JW Tags: Trends Microbiol Source Type: research

Understanding Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children
Abstract Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is relevant to pediatric anesthesia and is often encountered in adenotonsillectomy (A&T), the most common pediatric surgery and first-line treatment for OSAS. End-organ effects of OSAS are widespread and include pulmonary and cardiovascular complications, neurocognitive and behavioral disruption, and metabolic and inflammatory derangements. Co-existing obesity and asthma are commonly encountered. OSAS increases risk for postoperative respiratory complications causing death or anoxic brain injury. While preoperative OSAS diagnosis is preferred, anesthesia and sur...
Source: Current Anesthesiology Reports - April 1, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Outbreak of coinfection with human metapneumovirus and measles virus resulting in the death of a child at a hospital in China
Publication date: 1 April 2015 Source:American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 43, Issue 4 Author(s): Yu Kou , Zhou Sun , Feng Li , Xinfen Yu , Xuhui Yang , Jun Li , Jingcao Pan Two children with different digestive diseases were admitted to the gastroenterology department of a children's hospital in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, in May 2010. They manifested successively acute lower respiratory tract infection symptoms during their stay in the hospital. The epidemiologic and experimental evidence supports that one child acquired nosocomial coinfection with measles virus and human metapneumovirus from another c...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Prevention of respiratory infections in tracheostomized patients of a pediatric long-term rehabilitation setting
Publication date: 1 April 2015 Source:American Journal of Infection Control, Volume 43, Issue 4 Author(s): Marco Pozzi , Sara Galbiati , Federica Locatelli , Marica Granziera , Marika Santi , Daniele Colombo , Paolo Pellegrino , Sonia Radice , Emilio Clementi , Sandra Strazzer Clinical practice protocols for the control and prevention of respiratory infections in rehabilitation settings, especially regarding pediatric tracheostomized patients, are currently lacking. To tackle this issue, we conducted a systematization of our clinical management protocols, aiming at defining a decisional algorithm and describing its key p...
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - April 1, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Pneumonia in Childhood and Impaired Lung Function in Adults: A Longitudinal Study
Early-life lower respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, are associated with increased prevalence of asthma and diminished lung function in children. Whether early-life pneumonia is associated with subsequent impaired lung function and asthma in adults is not yet clear. This is the first article providing strong data for an association between early-life pneumonia in an outpatient setting and airflow limitation and asthma into adulthood, supporting the hypothesis of the early-life origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (Read the full article) (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - April 1, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Pediatrics Digest Summary Source Type: research

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure With Helmet Versus Mask in Infants With Bronchiolitis: An RCT
In a previous short-term physiologic randomized controlled trial, continuous positive airway pressure by helmet was feasible and efficient in improving gas exchange in pediatric acute respiratory failure due to bronchiolitis. Continuous positive airway pressure administered by helmet reduces the rate of noninvasive respiratory support failure and provides longer application time with less sedation than a facial mask. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events. (Read the full article) (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - April 1, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Pediatrics Digest Summary Source Type: research

Pneumonia in Childhood and Impaired Lung Function in Adults: A Longitudinal Study
CONCLUSIONS: Early pneumonia is associated with asthma and impaired airway function, which is partially reversible with bronchodilators and persists into adulthood. Early pneumonia may be a major risk factor for adult chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - April 1, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chan, J. Y. C., Stern, D. A., Guerra, S., Wright, A. L., Morgan, W. J., Martinez, F. D. Tags: Health Briefs Article Source Type: research

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure With Helmet Versus Mask in Infants With Bronchiolitis: An RCT
CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that CPAP delivered by helmet is better tolerated than CPAP delivered by facial mask and requires less sedation. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events, even in a prolonged clinical setting. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - April 1, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Chidini, G., Piastra, M., Marchesi, T., De Luca, D., Napolitano, L., Salvo, I., Wolfler, A., Pelosi, P., Damasco, M., Conti, G., Calderini, E. Tags: Health Briefs Article Source Type: research