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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 20.

Swallowing disorders in tracheostomised patients: a multidisciplinary/multiprofessional approach in decannulation protocols
Safe removal of tracheal cannula is a major goal in the rehabilitation of tracheostomised patients to achieve progressive independence from mechanical support and reduce the risk of respiratory complications. A tracheal cannula may also cause significant discomfort to the patient, making verbal communication difficult. Particularly when cuffed, tracheal cannula reduces the normal movement of the larynx which can further compromise the basic swallowing defect. A close connection between respiratory, phonating, swallowing and feeding abilities to be recovered, implies a strict integration among different professionals of the...
Source: BioMed Central - June 20, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Giancarlo GarutiCristina ReverberiAngelo BrigantiMonica MassobrioFrancesco LombardiMirco Lusuardi Source Type: research

Recurrent wheezing 36 months after bronchiolitis is associated with rhinovirus infections and blood eosinophilia
ConclusionRecurrent wheezing 36 months after infant bronchiolitis was associated with rhinoviruses and blood eosinophilia.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Paediatrica)
Source: Acta Paediatrica - June 20, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Fabio Midulla, Ambra Nicolai, Marianna Ferrara, Federico Gentile, Alessandra Pierangeli, Enea Bonci, Carolina Scagnolari, Corrado Moretti, Guido Antonelli, Paola Papoff Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

First Confirmed Cases of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS‐CoV) Infection in the United States, Updated Information on the Epidemiology of MERS‐CoV Infection, and Guidance for the Public, Clinicians, and Public Health Authorities—May 2014
This report highlights the first two cases of MERS coronavirus in the United States. Although these patients were not transplant recipients, it is important for transplant professionals to be aware of this infection and to consider it when evaluating patients with respiratory illnesses and travel to the Arabian peninsula. (Source: American Journal of Transplantation)
Source: American Journal of Transplantation - June 20, 2014 Category: Transplant Surgery Tags: Reports From the CDC: MMWR Source Type: research

Case report: nocardia infection associated with ectopic cushings
Conclusion: Opportunistic infections are known to be associated with Cushing's syndrome, and higher levels of glucocorticoid secretion are found in patients with ectopically produced ACTH. Pulmonary nocardiosis is important differential to consider. This series includes the first case reported in which signs and symptoms of cushings subsided after treatment of Nocardia. (Source: BMC Endocrine Disorders)
Source: BMC Endocrine Disorders - June 20, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Azra RizwanAqiba SarfarazAbdul JabbarJaweed AkhterNajmul Islam Source Type: research

Three-year experience of using venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for patients with severe respiratory failure.
CONCLUSIONS. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is an effective adjunctive therapy and can be used as a life-saving procedure for carefully selected patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome when the limits of standard therapy have been reached. PMID: 24948667 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hong Kong Med J)
Source: Hong Kong Med J - June 20, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Ng GW, Leung AK, Sin KC, Au SY, Chan SC, Chan OP, Wu HH Tags: Hong Kong Med J Source Type: research

In situ determination of alveolar septal strain, stress and effective Young's modulus: an experimental/computational approach.
Abstract Alveolar septa, which have often been modeled as linear elements, may distend due to inflation-induced reduction in slack or increase in tissue stretch. The distended septum supports tissue elastic and interfacial forces. An effective Young's modulus, describing the inflation-induced relative displacement of septal endpoints, has not been determined in situ for lack of a means of determining the forces supported by septa in situ. Here we determine such forces indirectly according to Mead, Takishima and Leith's classic lung mechanics analysis (J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 596-608, 1970), which demonstrates that se...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - June 20, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Perlman CE, Wu Y Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

miR-210 Promotes IPF Fibroblast Proliferation in Response to Hypoxia.
Abstract Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is characterized by the relentless spread of fibroblasts from scarred alveoli into adjacent alveolar units resulting in progressive hypoxia and death by asphyxiation. Although hypoxia is a prominent clinical feature of IPF, the role of hypoxia as a driver of the progressive fibrotic nature of the disease has not been explored. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia robustly stimulates the proliferation of IPF fibroblasts. We found that miR-210 expression markedly increases in IPF fibroblasts in response to hypoxia and knock-down of miR-210 decreases hypoxia-induced IPF fibroblast pr...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - June 20, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bodempudi V, Hergert P, Smith K, Xia H, Herrera J, Peterson M, Khalil W, Kahm J, Bitterman PB, Henke CA Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Angiotensin II type 2 receptor ligand PD123319 attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung and heart injury at a low dose in newborn rats.
Abstract Intervening in angiotensin (Ang)-II type 2 receptor (AT2) signalling may have therapeutic potential for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by attenuating lung inflammation and preventing arterial hypertension (PAH)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). We first investigated the role of AT2 inhibition with PD123319 (0.5 and 2 mg/kg/day) on the beneficial effect of AT2 agonist LP2-3 (5 µg/kg twice a day) on RVH in newborn rats with hyperoxia-induced BPD. Next we determined the cardiopulmonary effects of PD123319 (0.1 mg/kg/day) in 2 models: early treatment during continuous exposure to hyperoxia for 10...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - June 20, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wagenaar GT, Sengers RM, Laghmani EH, Chen X, Lindeboom MP, Roks AJ, Folkerts G, Walther FJ Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Resveratrol prevents hypoxia-induced arginase II expression and proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via Akt-dependent signaling.
Abstract Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation plays a fundamental role in the vascular remodeling seen in pulmonary hypertensive diseases associated with hypoxia. Arginase II, an enzyme regulating the first step in polyamine and proline synthesis, has been shown to play a critical role in hypoxia-induced proliferation of human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. In addition, there is evidence that patients with pulmonary hypertension have elevated levels of arginase in the vascular wall. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in red wine and grape skins, has diverse biochemical and physiologic...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - June 20, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chen B, Xue J, Meng X, Slutzky JL, Calvert AE, Chicoine LG Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Severity of neonatal hyperoxia determines structural and functional changes in developing mouse airway.
Abstract Wheezing is a major long-term respiratory morbidity in preterm infants with and without BPD. We hypothesized that mild vs severe hyperoxic exposure in neonatal mice differentially affects the balance between airway smooth muscle hypertrophy, apoptosis and resultant airway reactivity. Newborn mice were exposed to 7 days of mild [40% O2] or severe [70% O2] hyperoxia versus room air controls. Respiratory system resistance [Rrs], compliance [Crs], and airway reactivity were measured 14 days after oxygen exposure ended under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. Baseline Rrs increased and Crs decreased in both treatmen...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - June 20, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wang H, Jafri A, Martin RJ, Nnanabu J, Farver C, Prakash YS, MacFarlane PM Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Development of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism DNA Microarray for the Detection and Genotyping of the SARS Coronavirus.
Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a disease that spread widely in the world during late 2002 to 2004, severely threatened public health. Although there have been no reported infections since 2004, the extremely pathogenic SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), as the causative agent of SARS, has recently been identified in animals, showing the potential for the re-emergence of this disease. Previous studies showed that 27 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations among the spike (S) gene of this virus are correlated closely with the SARS pathogenicity and epidemicity. We have developed a SNP DNA microar...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - June 20, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Guo X, Geng P, Wang Q, Cao B, Liu B Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research

Mitochondrial ROS production and respiratory complex activity in rats with pressure overload-induced heart failure.
Conclusion: Increased ROS production occurs early in the development of HF with a peak at the onset of diastolic dysfunction. However, ROS production may not be related to the onset of contractile dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 24951621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Journal of Physiology - June 20, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Schwarzer M, Osterholt M, Lunkenbein A, Schrepper A, Amorim P, Doenst T Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

Assessment of in vivo skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity in humans by near infrared spectroscopy: a comparison with in situ measurements.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that in vivo near infrared spectroscopy corresponds well with the current gold standard, in situ high-resolution respirometry, for assessing mitochondrial respiratory capacity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 24951618 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)
Source: The Journal of Physiology - June 20, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Ryan TE, Brophy P, Lin CT, Hickner RC, Neufer PD Tags: J Physiol Source Type: research

Oral appliance to assist non-invasive ventilation in a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
CONCLUSIONS: When there is the presumption of airway obstructions in combination with an ineffective NIV, we advise to perform a chin lift to assess whether the obstructions can be overcome by a more anterior jaw position. If that is the case, NIV may be combined with MAD to establish effective ventilation and avoid the use of TV. PMID: 24948477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - June 20, 2014 Category: Sleep Medicine Authors: Veldhuis SK, Doff MH, Stegenga B, Nieuwenhuis JA, Wijkstra PJ Tags: Sleep Breath Source Type: research

Exome sequencing identifies a CHKB mutation in Spanish patient with Megaconial Congenital Muscular Dystrophy and mtDNA depletion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the role of CHKB in MDCMC and point to this gene as unique candidate for the combined deficiency of respiratory chain and mtDNA depletion observed in this patient. PMID: 24997086 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology)
Source: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology - June 20, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Castro-Gago M, Dacruz-Alvarez D, Pintos-Martínez E, Beiras-Iglesias A, Delmiro A, Arenas J, Martín MA, Martínez-Azorín F Tags: Eur J Paediatr Neurol Source Type: research

Meet two new grads of Portland’s Concorde Career College who are ready to take the health world by storm (or at least check your vitals)
Oregon Health & Science University isn’t the only school in Portland launching graduates into the health care field this month. Concorde Career College prepares nontraditional students to enter the workforce in a short period of time. The school prepares them for ancillary jobs in the health care arena, such as dental and medical assistants, surgical technologists, respiratory therapists and billing and code specialists. Concorde requires extensive “externships” to give students the experience… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - June 19, 2014 Category: Biotechnology Authors: Elizabeth Hayes Source Type: research

Meet two new grads of Portland’s Concorde Career College who are ready to take the health world by storm (or at least check your vitals)
Oregon Health & Science University isn’t the only school in Portland launching graduates into the health care field this month. Concorde Career College prepares nontraditional students to enter the workforce in a short period of time. The school prepares them for ancillary jobs in the health care arena, such as dental and medical assistants, surgical technologists, respiratory therapists and billing and code specialists. Concorde requires extensive “externships” to give students the experience… (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines - June 19, 2014 Category: Hospital Management Authors: Elizabeth Hayes Source Type: research

Advances in Cardiac Processing Software
New software methods that incorporate iterative reconstruction, resolution recovery, and noise compensation now provide the ability to maintain or improve myocardial perfusion SPECT image quality with conventional sodium iodide cameras. Despite lower image counting statistics associated with significantly decreased injected radiopharmaceutical doses or shortened acquisition times or both, image quality is preserved or even improved compared with conventional processing methods. The ability to prescribe a desired myocardial count density by preselecting a SPECT acquisition time now avoids additional patient radiation exposu...
Source: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine - June 19, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Ernest Gordon DePuey Source Type: research

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol; +19 new citations
19 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol These pubmed results were generated on 2014/06/19PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol...)
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Report Source Type: research

Transitional hemodynamics in preterm infants with a respiratory management strategy directed at avoidance of mechanical ventilation
(Source: Early Human Development)
Source: Early Human Development - June 19, 2014 Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Anil Lakkundi, Ian Wright, Koert de Waal Source Type: research

Impaired kisspeptin signaling decreases metabolism and promotes glucose intolerance and obesity
The neuropeptide kisspeptin regulates reproduction by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons via the kisspeptin receptor KISS1R. In addition to GnRH neurons, KISS1R is expressed in other brain areas and peripheral tissues, which suggests that kisspeptin has additional functions beyond reproduction. Here, we studied the energetic and metabolic phenotype in mice lacking kisspeptin signaling (Kiss1r KO mice). Compared with WT littermates, adult Kiss1r KO females displayed dramatically higher BW, leptin levels, and adiposity, along with strikingly impaired glucose tolerance. Conversely, male Kiss1r KO mice h...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - June 19, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kristen P. Tolson, Christian Garcia, Stephanie Yen, Stephanie Simonds, Aneta Stefanidis, Alison Lawrence, Jeremy T. Smith, Alexander S. Kauffman Source Type: research

Co-morbidities are the key nominators of the health related quality of life in mild and moderate COPD
Conclusions: The results suggest that co-morbidities may impair HRQoL at an early stage of the disease, while bronchial obstruction becomes a significant determinant of HRQoL only in severe COPD. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jukka KoskelaMaritta KilpeläinenHenna KupiainenWitold MazurHarri SintonenMarike BoezenAri LindqvistDirkje PostmaTarja Laitinen Source Type: research

Twenty years of surveillance in Rett syndrome: what does this tell us?
Conclusions: Survival in Rett syndrome has now been estimated with the most accurate follow up to date. During adulthood, continuation of multidisciplinary services and programs is necessary to optimise health and wellbeing. (Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases)
Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases - June 19, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Alison AndersonKingsley WongPeter JacobyJenny DownsHelen Leonard Source Type: research

Characterisation of acute respiratory infections at a United Kingdom paediatric teaching hospital: observational study assessing the impact of influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) on predominant viral pathogens
Conclusions: Influenza A (2009 pdmH1N1) is an ongoing cause of occasionally severe disease affecting both healthy children and those with co-morbidities. Surveillance of viral pathogens provides valuable information on patterns of disease. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - June 19, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Emily LeesEnitan CarrolChristine GerrardFiona HardimanGareth HowelAlison TimmisKent ThorburnMalcolm GuiverPaul McNamara Source Type: research

m.3635G>A mutation as a cause of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy
Over 90% of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is caused by one of three mtDNA mutations (m.11778A>G, m.3460G>A, m.14484T>C). The remaining cases are due to rare mutations in different genes encoding subunits of the respiratory chain. The proband is a 17-year-old male with symptoms of optic nerve atrophy. No common LHON mutations were found, but detailed sequencing identified a rare, homoplasmic mutation m.3635G>A in the ND1 gene. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - June 19, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Kodroł, A., Krawczyłski, M. R., Tołska, K., Bartnik, E. Tags: Eye Diseases, Cranial nerves Short report Source Type: research

Predictors for an unsuccessful INtubation-SURfactant-Extubation procedure: a cohort study
Conclusions: We identified specific predictors associated with an unsuccessful INSURE procedure. Keeping high-risk neonates with one or several predictors intubated and treated with mechanical ventilation after surfactant may prevent a re-intubation procedure. (Source: BMC Pediatrics - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pediatrics - Latest articles - June 19, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nis BrixAnna SellmerMorten JensenLinda PedersenTine Henriksen Source Type: research

A complete landscape of post-transcriptional modifications in mammalian mitochondrial tRNAs
In mammalian mitochondria, 22 species of tRNAs encoded in mitochondrial DNA play crucial roles in the translation of 13 essential subunits of the respiratory chain complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Following transcription, mitochondrial tRNAs are modified by nuclear-encoded tRNA-modifying enzymes. These modifications are required for the proper functioning of mitochondrial tRNAs (mt tRNAs), and the absence of these modifications can cause pathological consequences. To date, however, the information available about these modifications has been incomplete. To address this issue, we isolated all 22 species of m...
Source: Nucleic Acids Research - June 19, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Suzuki, T., Suzuki, T. Tags: RNA Source Type: research

Interventional therapies for malignant pleural effusions: The present and the future
Abstract The approach to management of malignant pleural effusions (MPE) has changed over the past few decades. The key goals of MPE management are to relieve patient symptoms using the least invasive means and in the most cost‐effective manner. There is now a realization that patient‐reported outcome measures should be the primary goal of MPE treatment, and this now is the focus in most clinical trials. Efforts to minimize patient morbidity are complemented by development of less invasive treatments that have mostly replaced the more aggressive surgical approaches of the past. Therapeutic thoracentesis is simple, effe...
Source: Respirology - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rajesh Thomas, Roslyn Francis, Helen E. Davies, Y.C. Gary Lee Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Loss of UCP2 Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction without Altering ROS Production and Uncoupling Activity
This study proposes a novel mechanism for an adaptive response to mitochondrial cardiomyopathy that links changes in metabolism to amelioration of respiratory chain deficiency and longer lifespan. (Source: PLoS Genetics)
Source: PLoS Genetics - June 19, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Alexandra Kukat et al. Source Type: research

Human rhinovirus infection causes different DNA methylation changes in nasal epithelial cells from healthy and asthmatic subjects
Conclusions: We describe for the first time that Human rhinovirus infection causes DNA methylation changes in airway epithelial cells that differ between asthmatic and healthy subjects. These epigenetic differences may possibly explain the mechanism by which respiratory viruses cause asthma exacerbations. (Source: BMC Medical Genomics)
Source: BMC Medical Genomics - June 19, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Peter McErleanSilvio FavoretoFabricio CostaJunqing ShenJihan QuraishiAssel BiyashevaJocelyn CooperDenise ScholtensElio VaninMaria de BonaldoHehuang XieMarcelo SoaresPedro Avila Source Type: research

Bet v 1 Is an Allergen Whose Function Depends on Iron [Protein Structure and Folding]
It is hypothesized that allergens are at the borderline of self and non-self and, through as yet elusive circumstances, mount a Th2 response for allergic sensitization. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 is considered the prototype for the PR-10 protein family causing respiratory allergy. Here, we give structural evidence that Bet v 1 is a lipocalin-like protein with a striking structural resemblance to human lipocalin 2. Lipocalin 2 is highly expressed in the lung where it exerts immunoregulatory functions dependent on being loaded with siderophore-bound iron (holo-form) or not (apo-form). We demonstrate that similar...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - June 19, 2014 Category: Chemistry Authors: Roth-Walter, F., Gomez-Casado, C., Pacios, L. F., Mothes-Luksch, N., Roth, G. A., Singer, J., Diaz-Perales, A., Jensen-Jarolim, E. Tags: Immunology Source Type: research

Pulmonary hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus: echocardiography-based definitions predict 6-year survival
Conclusion. The ESC/ERS/ISHLT echocardiography-based definitions of PH are useful to predict 6-year mortality in SLE patients. A history of pulmonary thromboembolism and lung vasculitis/haemorrhage, cumulated organ damage and long-lasting disease are associated with PH in SLE. (Source: Rheumatology)
Source: Rheumatology - June 19, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Hubbe-Tena, C., Gallegos-Nava, S., Marquez-Velasco, R., Castillo-Martinez, D., Vargas-Barron, J., Sandoval, J., Amezcua-Guerra, L. M. Tags: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Autoimmunity CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Effects of IL-6 and IL-6 blockade on neutrophil function in vitro and in vivo
Conclusion. Therapeutic blockade of IL-6, while inducing a transient neutropenia, does not directly affect neutrophil functions associated with host defence. TCZ-associated neutropenia cannot be explained by direct induction of apoptosis by TCZ, induction of apoptosis following depletion of IL-6, nor increased phagocytosis of neutrophils. (Source: Rheumatology)
Source: Rheumatology - June 19, 2014 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Wright, H. L., Cross, A. L., Edwards, S. W., Moots, R. J. Tags: Immunogenetics, Rheumatoid Arthritis BASIC [AMP ] TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE Source Type: research

Mitochondrial biogenesis-associated factors underlie the magnitude of response to aerobic endurance training in rats.
In this study, we compare a newly developed rat model system selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance from aerobic training to test whether genetic segregation for trainability associates with differences in factors associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. Low response trainer (LRT) and high response trainer (HRT) rats from generation 11 of artificial selection were trained five times a week, 30 min per day for 3 months at 70 % VO2max to study the mitochondrial molecular background of trainability. As expected, we found significant differential for the gain in running distance between LRT and HRT grou...
Source: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology - June 19, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Marton O, Koltai E, Takeda M, Koch LG, Britton SL, Davies KJ, Boldogh I, Radak Z Tags: Pflugers Arch Source Type: research

An evidence-based quality improvement perspective for a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease case-finding program.
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a persistent progressive respiratory disease that is increasing in prevalence and cost in the United States health care system. Delays in recognition, diagnosis, and treatment are associated with poorer clinical outcomes. These delays are seen more often in populations experiencing economic hardship, lack of access to care, and lack of insurance, such as those seen in an indigent care clinic. The COPD case-finding program was planned as an evidence-based quality improvement project with a prospective, descriptive design generating a convenience sample of pati...
Source: Chronic Respiratory Disease - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Estes TS, Short N, Bowser D, Boyle A Tags: Chron Respir Dis Source Type: research

Five-year cohort study: emphysematous progression of indium-exposed workers.
Conclusions:Long-term adverse effects on emphysematous changes were observed. The results suggest indium-exposed workers with In-S levels higher than 20 µg/L should be immediately removed from exposure. Background: Dose-dependent adverse lung effects due to indium exposure have been reported in a cross-sectional study. This is a 5-year longitudinal cohort study of indium-exposed and unexposed workers, assessing indium exposure levels and its clinical lung effects. Methods: From 2008 to 2011, a 5-year follow-up study was conducted on 40 unexposed and 240 formerly or currently indium-exposed workers at 11 factories....
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nakano M, Omae K, Uchida K, Michikawa T, Yoshioka N, Hirata M, Tanaka A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Entrustable Professional Activities and Curricular Milestones for Fellowship Training in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine: Report of a multi-society working group.
Abstract Abstract: This paper describes the Curricular Milestones and Entrustable Professional Activities for trainees in Pulmonary, Critical Care, or combined fellowship programs. Under the Next Accreditation System of the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), curricular milestones comprise the curriculum or learning objectives for training in these fields. Entrustable professional activities represent the outcomes of training, the activities that society and professional peers can expect fellowship graduates to be able to perform unsupervised. These curricular milestones and entrustable pro...
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Fessler HE, Addrizzo-Harris D, Beck JM, Buckley JD, Pastores SM, Piquette CA, Rowley JA, Spevetz A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Elevation of Plasma Cell Free Hemoglobin in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
ConclusionsCFH is elevated in a PAH patients and BMPR2 carriers compared with healthy subjects and PVH patients. Elevated CFH levels are independently associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. Further study is required to understand the mechanism of CFH elevation and the potential pathologic contribution of CFH in PAH. Background: Cell free hemoglobin (CFH) is a potent nitric oxide scavenger associated with poor outcomes in several diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by reduced nitric oxide availability. We hypothesized that CFH would be elevated in PAH and associate with hemody...
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brittain EL, Janz DR, Austin ED, Bastarache JA, Wheeler LA, Ware LB, Hemnes AR Tags: Chest Source Type: research

A randomized investigator-masked double-bind placebo-controlled trial on thalidomide in severe cutaneous sarcoidosis.
Conclusion:At a dose of 100 mg daily for 3 months, our results do not encourage thalidomide use in cutaneous sarcoidosis. Trial registration:NCT0030552 (ClinicalTrial.gov). Context: Thalidomide use in cutaneous sarcoidosis is based on data from small case series or case reports. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of thalidomide in severe cutaneous sarcoidosis. Design, Setting and Participants: Randomized, double-bind, parallel, placebo-controlled, investigator-masked, multicentre trial lasting 3 months, and an open-label study from month 3 to month 6. Adults with clinical and histological diagnosis ...
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Droitcourt C, Rybojad M, Porcher R, Juillard C, Cosnes A, Joly P, Lacour JP, D'Incan M, Dupin N, Sassolas B, Misery L, Chevrant-Breton J, Lebrun-Vignes B, Desseaux K, Valeyre D, Revuz J, Tazi A, Chosidow O, Dupuy A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Prediction of acute respiratory disease in current and former smokers with and without COPD.
Conclusions:Although acute episodes of respiratory disease rates are higher in subjects with COPD, risk factors are similar and at a population level there are more episodes in smokers without COPD. Background: The risk factors for acute episodes of respiratory disease in current and former smokers who do not chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are unknown. Methods: 8246 non-Hispanic White and African American current and former smokers in the COPDGene cohort had longitudinal follow up (LFU) every six months to determine acute respiratory episodes requiring antibiotics or systemic corticosteroids, an emerg...
Source: Chest - June 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bowler RP, Kim V, Regan E, Williams A, Santorico SA, Make BJ, Lynch DA, Hokanson JE, Washko GR, Bercz P, Soler X, Marchetti N, Criner GJ, Ramsdell J, Han MK, Demeo D, Anzueto A, Comellas A, Crapo J, Dransfield M, Wells JM, Hersh CP, MacIntyre N, Martinez Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Novel Use of Dexmedetomidine for the Treatment of Anticholinergic Toxidrome.
We report the case of an adolescent with anticholinergic toxidrome from diphenhydramine overdose, whose symptoms were treated with a novel application of dexmedetomidine. CASE REPORT: A 13-year-old female developed an anticholinergic toxidrome after intentionally ingesting 9.5 mg/kg of diphenhydramine. Despite routine supportive therapies, to include appropriate doses of lorazepam, she continued to have significant agitation, psychosis, and hallucinations. A dexmedetomidine infusion was started to aid in the treatment of her agitation and psychosis with marked improvement of her symptoms. DISCUSSION: Using dexmede...
Source: Journal of Medical Toxicology - June 19, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Walker A, Delle Donne A, Douglas E, Spicer K, Pluim T Tags: J Med Toxicol Source Type: research

Exposure to air pollutants and mortality in hypertensive patients according to demography: A 10 year case-crossover study.
This study evaluated whether short term exposures to NO2, O3, particulate matter <10 mm in diameter (PM10) were associated with higher risk of mortality. A total of 223,287 hypertensive patients attended public health-care services and newly prescribed at least 1 antihypertensive agent were followed-up for up to 5 years. A time-stratified, bi-directional case-crossover design was adopted. For all-cause mortality, significant positive associations were observed for NO2 and PM10 at lag 0-3 days per 10 μg/m(3) increase in concentration (excess risks 1.187%-2.501%). Significant positive associations were found for O3 at ...
Source: Environmental Pollution - June 19, 2014 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Wong MC, Tam WW, Wang HH, Lao XQ, Zhang DD, Chan SW, Kwan MW, Fan CK, Cheung CS, Tong EL, Cheung NT, Tse LA, Yu IT Tags: Environ Pollut Source Type: research

Inhibition of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by α-tocopheryl succinate.
Abstract α-Tocopheryl succinate (TOS), a redox-silent analogue of vitamin E, suppresses cell growth in a number of clinical and experimental cancers, inhibits mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and activates reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The aim of this study was to test whether TOS also inhibits glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH), another flavoprotein-dependent enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain because there are differences between electron transfer pathway from SDH and mGPDH to coenzyme Q pool. For our experiments brown adipose tissue mitochondria with high expression of ...
Source: The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology - June 19, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Rauchová H, Vokurková M, Drahota Z Tags: Int J Biochem Cell Biol Source Type: research

Directing traffic: IL‐17 and IL‐22 coordinate pulmonary immune defense
Summary Respiratory infections and diseases are among the leading causes of death worldwide, and effective treatments probably require manipulating the inflammatory response to pathogenic microbes or allergens. Here, we review mechanisms controlling the production and functions of interleukin‐17 (IL‐17) and IL‐22, cytokines that direct several aspects of lung immunity. Innate lymphocytes (γδ T cells, natural killer cells, innate lymphoid cells) are the major source of IL‐17 and IL‐22 during acute infections, while CD4+ T‐helper 17 (Th17) cells contribute to vaccine‐induced immunity. The characterization of ...
Source: Immunological Reviews - June 19, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jeremy P. McAleer, Jay K. Kolls Tags: Invited Review Source Type: research

Medication use among children 0-14 years old: population baseline study in the Jequitinhonha Vale, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of drugs use in children was high, indicating the need for formulating educational programs aiming at the awareness of caregivers regarding rational use. PMID: 24953722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Jornal de Pediatria)
Source: Jornal de Pediatria - June 19, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Cruz MJ, Dourado LF, Bodevan EC, Andrade RA, Santos DF Tags: J Pediatr (Rio J) Source Type: research

Total Endovascular Treatment of an Aortic Arch Aneurysm in a Patient with a Mechanical Aortic Valve
Discussion: Total endovascular arch aneurysm repair is no longer contraindicated in patients with a mechanical aortic valve. (Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery)
Source: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery - June 19, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: R. Spear, R. Azzaoui, B. Maurel, J. Sobocinski, B. Roeder, S. Haulon Tags: Aortic Disease Source Type: research