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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 20.

From latent to active TB: are IGRAs of any use?
In May 2014, the World Health Assembly approved the WHO End TB Strategy which set ambitious targets for the elimination of tuberculosis (TB), including a 95% reduction in TB deaths and a 90% reduction in TB incidence by 2035.1 In December 2015, WHO Guidelines for low-TB-burden countries for the management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection (LTBI) were published in support of the WHO End TB Strategy.2 A major focus of these guidelines is the identification of people with LTBI and the provision of chemoprophylaxis to prevent the development of active TB in those infected. Latent TB infection is defined as a...
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lim, W. S. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Metformin in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial
Conclusion Metformin did not ameliorate elevations in blood glucose concentration among non-diabetic patients admitted to hospital for COPD exacerbations, and had no detectable effect on CRP or clinical outcomes. Trial registration number ISRCTN66148745 and NCT01247870. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hitchings, A. W., Lai, D., Jones, P. W., Baker, E. H., on behalf of the Metformin in COPD Trial Team, on behalf of the Metformin in COPD Trial Team, Akunuri, Tumilty, Poloniecki, Balasanthiran, Caneja, Norrie, Weldring, Carungcong, Harrison, Bateman, Batt Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Open access, Inflammation Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Low-pathogenicity Mycoplasma spp. alter human monocyte and macrophage function and are highly prevalent among patients with ventilator-acquired pneumonia
This study demonstrates a high prevalence of Mycoplasmataceae among patients with VAP, with a markedly lower prevalence among patients with suspected VAP in whom subsequent cultures refuted the diagnosis. The most common organism found, M. salivarium, is able to alter the functions of key immune cells. Mycoplasmataceae may contribute to VAP pathogenesis. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nolan, T. J., Gadsby, N. J., Hellyer, T. P., Templeton, K. E., McMullan, R., McKenna, J. P., Rennie, J., Robb, C. T., Walsh, T. S., Rossi, A. G., Conway Morris, A., Simpson, A. J. Tags: Open access, Editor's choice, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Cardiothoracic surgery Critical care Source Type: research

Are welders more at risk of respiratory infections? Findings from a cross-sectional survey and analysis of medical records in shipyard workers: the WELSHIP project
Conclusions The observation that respiratory symptoms and consultations for respiratory infection in welders are more common in winter may indicate an enhanced vulnerability to a broad range of infections. If confirmed, this would have important implications for the occupational healthcare of a very large, global workforce. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marongiu, A., Hasan, O., Ali, A., Bakhsh, S., George, B., Irfan, N., Minelli, C., Canova, C., Schofield, S., De Matteis, S., Cullinan, P. Tags: TB and other respiratory infections Occupational lung disease Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of FENO-based and web-based monitoring in paediatric asthma management: a randomised controlled trial
Conclusions Economically, web-based monitoring was preferred from a healthcare perspective, while the FENO-based strategy was preferred from a societal perspective, although in QALYs and costs no statistically significant changes were found as compared with standard care. As clinical outcomes also favoured the web-based and FENO-based strategies, these strategies may be useful additions to standard care. Trial registration number Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1995). (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Beerthuizen, T., Voorend-van Bergen, S., van den Hout, W. B., Vaessen-Verberne, A. A., Brackel, H. J., Landstra, A. M., van den Berg, N. J., de Jongste, J. C., Merkus, P. J., Pijnenburg, M. W., Sont, J. K. Tags: Health policy, Clinical trials (epidemiology), Child health, Asthma, Health service research Paediatric lung disease Source Type: research

Majority of never-smokers with airflow limitation do not have asthma: the Copenhagen General Population Study
Conclusions Majority of NS+AFL–A do not seem to have undiagnosed asthma and may instead have airflow limitation caused by other risk factors. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Colak, Y., Afzal, S., Nordestgaard, B. G., Lange, P. Tags: Lung neoplasms, Epidemiologic studies, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Lung cancer (oncology), Ischaemic heart disease, Asthma, Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Pneumonia (respiratory medicine) Paediatric lung dis Source Type: research

Per cent emphysema is associated with respiratory and lung cancer mortality in the general population: a cohort study
Conclusions Quantitatively assessed emphysema on CT is associated with greater respiratory disease and lung cancer mortality, even among persons without traditional risk factors. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Oelsner, E. C., Carr, J. J., Enright, P. L., Hoffman, E. A., Folsom, A. R., Kawut, S. M., Kronmal, R. A., Lederer, D. J., Lima, J. A. C., Lovasi, G. S., Smith, B. M., Shea, S. J., Barr, R. G. Tags: Lung neoplasms, Epidemiologic studies, Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Health education, Smoking, Health effects of tobacco use, Tobacco use Respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

The histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A suppresses murine innate allergic inflammation by blocking group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) activation
Conclusions These results reveal that TSA reduces allergen-induced ILC2 activation and the early innate immune responses to an inhaled protease-containing aeroallergen. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Toki, S., Goleniewska, K., Reiss, S., Zhou, W., Newcomb, D. C., Bloodworth, M. H., Stier, M. T., Boyd, K. L., Polosukhin, V. V., Subramaniam, S., Peebles, R. S. Tags: Open access, Inflammation, Asthma Respiratory research Source Type: research

Statin treatment is associated with a decreased risk of active tuberculosis: an analysis of a nationally representative cohort
Conclusions We found that statin therapy was associated with a decreased risk of active TB, and the length of statin therapy affected the TB protection. Given the observational nature of this study, the protective effect against active TB must be confirmed in future randomised trials. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lai, C.-C., Lee, M.-t. G., Lee, S.-H., Hsu, W.-T., Chang, S.-S., Chen, S.-C., Lee, C.-C. Tags: Health policy, Epidemiologic studies, TB and other respiratory infections Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Prognostic value of interferon-{gamma} release assays, a population-based study from a TB low-incidence country
Conclusions We confirmed a high NPV of the QFT and found positive QFT associated with a higher risk of subsequent incident TB. Overall, the PPV for incident cases was 1.32%, and development of incident TB was associated with time interval after the QFT, but not with age. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hermansen, T. S., Lillebaek, T., Langholz Kristensen, K., Andersen, P. H., Ravn, P. Tags: Epidemiologic studies Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Smokers are less likely than non-smokers to seek help for a lung cancer 'alarm symptom
Conclusions Delay in help-seeking in smokers for a symptom that is potentially indicative of lung cancer is a cause for concern. Future research could usefully address the psychological mechanisms through which help-seeking in smokers is hindered. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Friedemann Smith, C., Whitaker, K. L., Winstanley, K., Wardle, J. Tags: Health policy, Lung neoplasms, Open access, Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology, Health service research, Health education, Smoking, Health effects of tobacco use, Tobacco use Research letter Source Type: research

Reduced physical activity in lymphangioleiomyomatosis compared with COPD and healthy controls: disease-specific impact and clinical correlates
Conclusions Physical activity in daily life is substatially reduced in LAM, when compared with healthy controls and COPD - indicating a disease specific impact. The regular assessment of fatigue and generic health status may improve disease management in LAM by taking daily physical activity of patients with LAM more adequately into account. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bahmer, T., Watz, H., Waschki, B., Gramm, M., Magnussen, H., Rabe, K. F., Wirtz, H., Kirsten, D., Kirsten, A. Tags: Research letter Source Type: research

Obstructive sleep apnoea and frequency of occupational injury
Abstract We sought to determine whether patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are at increased risk of occupational injury (OI). Patients referred to the University of British Columbia Hospital Sleep Laboratory for suspected OSA (May 2003 to July 2011 were recruited and rates and types of validated OI (that caused at least 1 day of disability) in the 5 years prior to polysomnography were calculated. In a sample of 1236, patients with OSA were twice as likely (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.06 to 3.50, p=0.03) to suffer at least one OI compared with patients without OSA. This association was attenuated (OR=1.76, CI 0.86 to 3...
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hirsch Allen, A. J., Park, J. E., Daniele, P. R., Fleetham, J., Ryan, C. F., Ayas, N. T. Tags: Research letter Source Type: research

Lesson of the month: selective use of cyclophosphamide in pregnancy for severe autoimmune respiratory disease
We present the cases of two pregnant women who developed severe respiratory compromise in mid pregnancy, one due to rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease associated with mixed connective tissue disease and one secondary to diffuse alveolar haemorrhage due to antiglomerular basement membrane disease. Both were treated with high-dose steroids followed by pulsed intravenous cyclophosphamide. Both women went onto have live births although one baby was growth restricted and preterm. Neither baby had any evidence of congenital abnormalities. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nelson-Piercy, C., Agarwal, S., Lams, B. Tags: Chemotherapy, Interstitial lung disease Chest clinic Source Type: research

Pectus excavatum in paintings by Jusepe de Ribera (1591-1652)
The intensity of realism pursued by Caravaggio in contrast with Mannerism was amplified by his followers ("Caravaggisti"); these included the Spanish painter, Jusepe de Ribera, with his tenebristic style as classified by the early biographers.1 Indeed, de Ribera mastered the Caraveggesque chiaroscuro and gained widespread popularity as a result of his lifelike naturalism, becoming the most influential Spanish Baroque painter. He depicted dramatic and sinister scenes of tortured saints with faces contorted in pain, mutilated and ageing bodies adorned with sagging flesh, gruesome martyrdoms and societal outcasts.1 The great ...
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lazzeri, D., Nicoli, F. Tags: Images in Thorax Chest clinic Source Type: research

Unilateral vanishing lung syndrome
A 14-year-old boy was admitted with mild right chest pain, exercise dyspnoea and occasional palpitations. There was no smoking history. There was no past medical history of recurrent chest infections. The physical examination revealed an absence of breath sounds and hyper-resonance of the right hemithorax. A chest X-ray showed unilateral massive bullous disease with radiolucency of right lung and flattening of the right hemidiaphragm (figure 1A). The high-resolution chest CT scan confirmed air herniation towards left side with mediastinal shift resulting in airway displacement (figure 1B, C). A significant reduction of rig...
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Anile, M., Diso, D., Onorati, I., Mantovani, S., Venuta, F. Tags: Images in Thorax, Journalology, Child health, Cardiothoracic surgery, Radiology (diagnostics), Ethics, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use, Tobacco use (youth) Chest clinic Source Type: research

What's hot that the other lot got
Vitamin D deficiency and exercise capacity in COPD patients Vitamin D is emerging as a possible factor in airways inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with deficiency thought to contribute to worsening lung function in COPD patients. A Korean study in Respiration (doi:10.1159/000445266) looked at whether vitamin D deficiency was associated with a more rapid decline in exercise capacity in male COPD patients. Multivariate analysis showed vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with a rapid decline in exercise capacity. The decrease in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in patients with severe vi...
Source: Thorax - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Batalla-Duran, E. Tags: Lung infection, Epidemiologic studies, TB and other respiratory infections, Inflammation, Airway biology, Interstitial lung disease, Lung function Chest clinic Source Type: research

Tuberculous pleural effusion – relapse or re-infection? Follow up of a case report and review of the literature
Conclusion Abdominal TB should be suspected in patients with fever, abdominal pain and ascites. Sputum induction (in addition to pleural fluid) for acid-fast bacilli and culture is a recommended procedure in all patients with TB pleurisy. This condition carries good prognosis, if promptly diagnosed and treated. A reasonable management strategy for pleural TB would be to initiate a four-drug regimen and perform a therapeutic thoracocentesis in patients with large, symptomatic effusions. Prolonged follow-up is essential in cases of pleural effusion, as in the presented case. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis)
Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 592: Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter
Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or) keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen fol...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - June 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Oyewale MorakinyoMatlou MokgobuMurembiwa MukholaRaymond Hunter Tags: Review Source Type: research

Signaling via pattern recognition receptors NOD2 and TLR2 contributes to immunomodulatory control of lethal pneumovirus infection
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Tyler A. Rice, Todd A. Brenner, Caroline M. Percopo, Michelle Ma, Jesse D. Keicher, Joseph B. Domachowske, Helene F. Rosenberg Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) engage microbial components in the lung, although their role in providing primary host defense against respiratory virus infection is not fully understood. We have previously shown that Gram-positive Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp) administered to the respiratory tract promotes full and sustained protection in response to an otherwise lethal mouse pneumovirus (PVM) infecti...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - June 14, 2016 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Single-dose treatment with a humanized neutralizing antibody affords full protection of a human transgenic mouse model from lethal Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-coronavirus infection
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Hongjie Qiu, Shihui Sun, He Xiao, Jiannan Feng, Yan Guo, Wanbo Tai, Yufei Wang, Lanying Du, Guangyu Zhao, Yusen Zhou Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is continuously spreading and causing severe and fatal acute respiratory disease in humans. Prophylactic and therapeutic strategies are therefore urgently needed to control MERS-CoV infection. Here, we generated a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated hMS-1, which targeted the MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain (RBD) with high affinity. hMS-1 signifi...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - June 14, 2016 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 8, Pages 168: Ferrets as a Novel Animal Model for Studying Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Immunocompetent and Immunocompromised Hosts
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important cause of severe respiratory tract disease in immunocompromised patients. Animal models are indispensable for evaluating novel intervention strategies in this complex patient population. To complement existing models in rodents and non-human primates, we have evaluated the potential benefits of an HRSV infection model in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Nine- to 12-month-old HRSV-seronegative immunocompetent or immunocompromised ferrets were infected with a low-passage wild-type strain of HRSV subgroup A (105 TCID50) administered by intra-tracheal or intra-nasal inocu...
Source: Viruses - June 14, 2016 Category: Virology Authors: Koert StittelaarLeon de WaalGeert van AmerongenEdwin Veldhuis KroezePieter FraaijCarel van BaalenJeroen van KampenErhard van der VriesAlbert OsterhausRik de Swart Tags: Article Source Type: research

Taking forward a ‘ONE HEALTH’ approach for turning the tide against The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus and other zoonotic pathogens with epidemic potential
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alimuddin Zumla, Osman Dar, Richard Kock, Matthew Muturi, Francine Ntoumi, Pontiano Kaleebu, Macete Eusebio, Sayoki Mfinanga, Matthew Bates, Peter Mwaba, Rashid Ansumana, Mishal Khan, Abdulaziz N Alagaili, Matthew Cotten, Esam I Azhar, Markus Maeurer, Giu Tags: Editorial/Viewpoint for IJID MGM series Source Type: research

Respiratory Infections and Gastrointestinal Illness on a Cruise Ship: a Three-Year Prospective Study
Cruise ships carry a large number of people in confined spaces providing an environment for transmission of infections. The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence of and describe the spectrum of respiratory infections and gastrointestinal illness among passengers and crew of cruise Ship A. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)
Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease - June 14, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Androula Pavli, Helena C. Maltezou, Antonis Papadakis, Panagiotis Katerelos, Georgios Saroglou, Athanasios Tsakris, Sotirios Tsiodras Source Type: research

Neurological Manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Hospitalized Children and Their Long-Term Follow-Up
Conclusion Neurological symptoms occurred in 25% of hospitalized pediatric patients with M. pneumoniae infection. Outcome was often favorable, but significant sequels were reported by 45%.[...]Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Neuropediatrics)
Source: Neuropediatrics - June 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kammer, JessicaZiesing, StefanDavila, Lukas AguirreBültmann, EvaIllsinger, SabineDas, Anibh M.Haffner, DieterHartmann, Hans Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Experience with Guillain-Barré syndrome in a neurological Intensive Care Unit
Conclusions In this descriptive study of a group of critical care patients with GBS, results depended on patients’ clinical severity at time of admission. Our findings are similar to results published in the international literature. (Source: Neurologia)
Source: Neurologia - June 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction notice to “Influence of vitamins and trace-elements on the incidence of respiratory infection in the elderly” (Nutr Res 2002;22:85–87)
This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). (Source: Nutrition Research)
Source: Nutrition Research - June 14, 2016 Category: Nutrition Authors: Amrit L. Jain Tags: Retraction Notice Source Type: research

Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Thorax in Pleural Diseases: A State-of-the-Art Review
Abstract The aim of this review was to present the main aspects of pleural diseases seen with conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. This modality is considered to be the gold standard for the evaluation of the pleural interface, characterization of complex pleural effusion, and identification of exudate and hemorrhage, as well as in the analysis of superior sulcus tumors, as it enables more accurate staging. The indication for MRI of the thorax in the identification of these conditions is increasing in comparison to computerized tomography, and it can also be used to support the di...
Source: Lung - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Primary Sarcomatoid Carcinoma of the Lung: Radiometabolic ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) Findings and Correlation with Clinico-Pathological and Survival Results
Conclusions No differences in terms of SUVmax were found with regard to tumour dimensions, histology (pure vs mixed, pleomorphic vs others), pathological stage and pattern of recurrence. P-stage, surgical radicality, vascular/lymphatic invasion but not SUVmax affected long-term survival in PSC. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Pleural Fluid Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Predicts Survival in Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusion
Conclusions Pleural fluid Adenosine Deaminase levels (<15 or ≥40 U/L) and neoplasms other than lung, breast, or lymphoma are independent predictors of worse survival in patients with malignant pleural effusion who undergo pleurodesis. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Efficacy of gene-therapy based on adenovirus encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant experimental pulmonary tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB), although a curable disease, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is necessary to develop a short-term therapy with reduced drug toxicity in order to improve adherence rate and control disease burden. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be a key cytokine in the treatment of pulmonary TB since it primes the activation and differentiation of myeloid and non-myeloid precursor cells, inducing the release of protective Th1 cytokines. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Alejandro Francisco-Cruz, Dulce Mata-Espinosa, Octavio Ramos-Espinosa, Brenda Marquina-Castillo, Sergio Estrada-Parra, Zhou Xing, Rogelio Hernández-Pando Tags: Immunological Aspects Source Type: research

Pneumothorax in cystic fibrosis: beyond the guidelines
Pneumothorax is a serious but common complication in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). It has adverse prognostic implications as well as associations with subsequent reduction in lung function and significant risk of recurrence. Management dilemmas frequently occur that are beyond current guidelines. We review the evidence and highlight management difficulties in pneumothoraces in CF. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Robert W. Lord, Andrew M. Jones, A. Kevin Webb, Peter J. Barry Source Type: research

Severe Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection and loss of sputum bacterial diversity in an adult patient with cystic fibrosis
We report the case of an adult patient with cystic fibrosis and chronic A. xylosoxidans infection who experienced rapid, progressive clinical deterioration. Metagenomic analysis of the sputum revealed that the airway microbiota was almost entirely dominated by A. xylosoxidans. We review the impact of this organism on lung function and the airway microbiome in cystic fibrosis, and discuss the potential for cross-infection between patients. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nick P. Talbot, William G Flight Source Type: research

Is deafness mutation screening required in cystic fibrosis patients?
Aminoglycosides are widely used in cystic fibrosis management. The m.1555A>G mutation predisposes to aminoglycoside ototoxicity. It may cause later onset hearing loss in the absence of aminoglycosides use and gradual hearing loss may be an inevitable consequence of the mutation. Given that aminoglycoside therapy forms the backbone of IV protocols in CF, this article recommends screening for this mutation to allow informed decision-making prior to aminoglycoside administration, to avoid preventable deafness. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rania Abusamra, Donna McShane Source Type: research

Phenotypic variability of R117H-CFTR expression within monozygotic twins
Whilst cystic fibrosis is a monogenic condition, variation in phenotype exists for the same CFTR genotype, which is influenced by multiple genetic and non-genetic (environmental) factors. The R117H-CFTR mutation has variability directly relating to in cis poly-thymidine alleles, producing a differing spectrum of disease. This paper provides evidence of extreme phenotype variability–including fertility status - in the context of male monogenetic twins, discussing mechanisms and highlighting the diagnostic and treatment challenges. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michael D. Waller, Nicholas J. Simmonds Source Type: research

Cystic Fibrosis Papers of the Year 2015
Studies published in the last year have expanded our knowledge of potential disease modifying agents in the treatment of class II, II and IV CFTR mutations, and included the first report of an efficacious gene therapy for CF. There is also an important message on increasing use of conventional chronic therapies even in milder disease, and the pernicious effect of chronic infection on pulmonary function. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - June 14, 2016 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Iolo Doull Source Type: research