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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 5.

Changes in lung volumes and gas trapping in patients with large hiatal hernia
ConclusionsIncreasing HH size correlates with reduced TLC and VC. Surgery improves lung volumes and gas trapping; however, the changes are mild and within the normal range. (Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal)
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Christopher Naoum, Leonard Kritharides, Alvin Ing, Gregory L. Falk, John Yiannikas Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and survival of patients with pulmonary hypertension: a 40‐month mean follow‐up
ConclusionsThe survival rates of PH patients are higher than previously reported. In our study, the largest number of deaths occurred in groups 1 and 2, and CI was found to be an independent predictor of mortality. (Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal)
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Raquel López Reyes, Dolores Nauffal Manzur, Alberto Garcia Ortega, Maria Angeles Menéndez Salinas, Emilio Ansotegui Barrera, Begoña Balerdi Perez Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Downregulation of immune responses in asthmatic humans by ES products of Marshallagia marshalli
ConclusionTo our knowledge, this is the first report to document the suppressive effect that the M. marshalli ES product has on PBMSC cell culture of asthmatic patients. The present study provides new insights into understanding the immune modulation governed by parasite‐derived products and the development of new asthma treatment strategies. (Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal)
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Farahzad Jabbari Azad, Fatemeh Kiaee, Abdorahim Rezaei, Reza Farid Hosseini, Nooshinmehr Soleimani, Hassan Borji Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Unilateral Pulmonary Vein Atresia: A Rare Case of Hemoptysis
We present a rare case of hemoptysis secondary to isolated unilateral pulmonary vein atresia. Isolated pulmonary vein atresia is a rare condition in which patients typically acquire a diagnosis in infancy and early childhood [1, 2]. Our patient presented during puberty with several previous episodes of hemoptysis prior to her admission and diagnosis. The initial diagnosis was suspected in our patient from chest computerized tomography (CT), and confirmed with cardiac catheterization and pulmonary angiography. Treatment aim is to preserve lung function and minimize irreversible pulmonary remodeling [2, 3]. Conservative moni...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Fatal pulmonary hemorrhage after taking anticoagulation medication
We describe a 64-year-old man with extensive diffuse acute lung hemorrhage, presumably as a result of anticoagulation therapy. We evaluated reports in the literature concerning acute exacerbation (acute lung injury of unknown cause) in UIP and other forms of fibrotic interstitial pneumonias. We also evaluated autopsy tissue in this case in order to determine the cause of death in this 64-year-old man, who was initially thought to have an asbestos-related disease. Based on the autopsy findings, this man died as a result of anticoagulation therapy; specifically, the use of Xarelto® (rivaroxaban). (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Successful Treatment Of Chronic Lower Respiratory Tract Infection By Macrolide Administration In A Patient With Intralobar Pulmonary Sequestration And Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2015 Source:Respiratory Medicine Case Reports Author(s): Hironobu Tsubouchi , Nobuhiro Matsumoto , Shigehisa Yanagi , Jun-ichi Ashitani , Masamitsu Nakazato Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disease associated with abnormalities in ciliary structure and function. Although recurrent respiratory infection associated with ciliary dysfunction is a common clinical feature, there is no standardized treatment or management of respiratory infection in PCD patients. Here, we report that respiratory infection with PCD and intralobar sequestration (ILS) were treated successfully...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Role Of Endovascular Embolisation In Improving The Quality Of Life In A Patient Suffering From Complicated Intralobar Pulmonary Sequestration - A Case Report
We report here a case of intralobar pulmonary sequestration in a 18 year old female who presented with recurrent severe episodes of pneumonia and hemoptysis forcing her to drop out of school.The diagnosis was confirmed by CECT Thorax and CT Angiography. The patient was managed by minimally invasive endovascular treatment in the form of feeding artery embolization. She made a full recovery with satisfactory outcome. On subsequent follow up, there was no recurrence of symptoms and she is doing well socially and academically. The aim of this case report is to show feasibility and safety of embolization as a less invasive mana...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma
We describe a case of Bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS who was successfully treated with HAART and Liposomal Doxorubicin chemotherapy. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer – Review of aetiology and diagnosis
We report the first case of spontaneous chylothorax complicating small cell lung cancer. A 52 year old female presented with exertional dyspnoea, left-sided chest and neck pain, and dysphagia. The chest X-ray on admission revealed a large left-sided pleural effusion. A subsequent CT chest showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with a left brachiocephalic and jugular vein thrombosis. The patient underwent medical thoracoscopy with chest drain insertion, which drained pleural fluid high in triglycerides, consistent with a chylothorax. Due to its uncommon nature, the management of chylothorax is not well defined. Alongside ...
Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Illicit tobacco trade in the firing line
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2015 Source:The Lancet Respiratory Medicine Author(s): The Lancet Respiratory Medicine (Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine)
Source: The Lancet Respiratory Medicine - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

There is no good evidence for the effectiveness of commonly used over-the-counter medicine to alleviate acute cough
Commentary on: Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;11:CD001831. Context Acute cough is common and the demand for (and sale of) over-the-counter (OTC) cough medication is high, even for young children where serious side effects have been described.1 Keeping the evidence up-to-date is very important. Methods The authors searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, Web of Science and the UK Department of Health National Research Register for randomised controlled trials comparing oral OTC cough me...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - May 22, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: De Sutter, A. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), General practice / family medicine, Drugs: cardiovascular system, Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Pain (neurology), Pain (palliative care), Complementary medicine, Drugs: respiratory system, Drugs: musculoskeletal and joint d Source Type: research

Nebulised hypertonic saline does not reduce hospital length of stay in acute bronchiolitis
This study was a multicentre, parallel-group, open-label randomised trial comparing 4 mL of nebulised HS administered every 6 h to standard supportive care in infants aged <1 year hospitalised at 1 of 10 hospitals... (Source: Evidence-Based Medicine)
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - May 22, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Florin, T. A. Tags: Oesophagus, Bronchiolitis, Immunology (including allergy), Asthma, Bronchitis Therapeutics/Prevention Source Type: research

Recurrence quantification analysis across sleep stages
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, Volume 20 Author(s): Jerome Rolink , Martin Kutz , Pedro Fonseca , Xi Long , Berno Misgeld , Steffen Leonhardt In this work we employ a nonlinear data analysis method called recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) to analyze differences between sleep stages and wake using cardio-respiratory signals, only. The data were recorded during full-night polysomnographies of 313 healthy subjects in nine different sleep laboratories. The raw signals are first normalized to common time bases and ranges. Thirteen different RQA and cross-RQA features derive...
Source: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control - May 22, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 2618-2640: Insights into Human Astrocyte Response to H5N1 Infection by Microarray Analysis
In this study, we performed gene profiling of human astrocytes in response to H5N1. Innate immune and pro-inflammatory responses were strongly activated at 24 h post-infection (hpi). Antiviral genes, as well as several cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, were robustly induced. Phosphorylation of p65 and p38 can be activated by viral infection, suggesting their potential critical roles in H5N1-induced pro-inflammatory response. Moreover, H5N1 infection significantly upregulated the gene expressions related to the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway at 24 hpi, such as MC2R, CHRNG, P2RY1...
Source: Viruses - May 22, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Xian LinRuifang WangJun ZhangXin SunZhong ZouShengyu WangMeilin Jin Tags: Article Source Type: research

Viral load and mRNA expression of HPV type 6 among cases with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis
ConclusionThe amount of HPV6‐DNA was consistently higher in the papilloma than in healthy mucosa. The transcription level of HPV6 E7 mRNA was similar in the papilloma and in normal mucosa. We suggest that interfering with replication of HPV6 and suppression of HPV6 to fewer than five copies/cell may be curative. Level of EvidenceN/A. Laryngoscope, 2015 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
Source: The Laryngoscope - May 22, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Ola Forslund, Stefan Schwartz, Katarina Olofsson, Roland Rydell Tags: Laryngology Source Type: research

Respiratory Nursing Diagnoses: Presenting Evidence for Identification of the Defining Characteristics in Neonatal and Pediatric Populations
ConclusionThe higher frequency defining characteristics were dyspnea, abnormal breathing pattern, use of accessory muscle to breathe, change in frequency and respiratory rate, decreased SaO2, and agitation. Implication for Nursing KnowledgeThis literature review may provide a basis for consideration of important diagnostic criteria in the pediatric population; however, clinical validation in different stages of development is critical for ensuring diagnostic accuracy. (Source: International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications)
Source: International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications - May 22, 2015 Category: Nursing Authors: Marta J. Avena, Mavilde Luz Gonçalves Pedreira, T. Heather Herdman, Maria G. R. Gutiérrez Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The use of decentralized GeneXpert by trained non-laboratory technicians in rural clinics in South Africa
The GeneXpert automated molecular assay, that can diagnose TB in two hours, was endorsed by the World Health Organization both for identifying TB and rifampicin resistance (WHO, 2012). South Africa was one of the first few countries to implement GeneXpert (WHO, 2012) however GeneXpert units were located mostly within the National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS) and not at point of care (Meyer-Rath et al, 2012). Placing it at the point of care is possible, as it requires uncomplicated processing that can be done by persons with basic computer skills (WHO, 2012). (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: L. Lebina, P.M. Abraham, K. Motlhaoleng, M. Rakgokong, E. Variava, N.A. Martinson Source Type: research

Cytokine and chemokine expression profiles in response to stimulation are altered in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected subjects with active tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is the leading cause of death among individuals co-infected with HIV, most commonly affecting those with CD4 counts below 500 cells/mm3[1-4]. HIV-infected individuals are at 20 to 37 times higher risk of reactivating from a latent TB infection (LTBI) to active TB disease (ATB) than the HIV-uninfected population [5,6]. More than 95% of TB-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income TB endemic countries. The continent of Africa is especially hard-hit, with TB and HIV acting as co-epidemics [7]. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jillian.L.M. Waruk, Zipporah Machuki, Christine Mesa, Jennifer Juno, Omu Anzala, Meenu Sharma, T.Blake Ball, Julius Oyugi, Sandra Kiazyk Tags: Immunological Aspects Source Type: research

Detecting Laryngopharyngeal Reflux in Patients with Upper Airways Symptoms: Symptoms, Signs or Salivary Pepsin?
Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) can induce laryngeal hyper-responsiveness, a unifying feature underlying chronic cough and vocal cord dysfunction. The diagnosis of LPR currently relies on invasive oesophageal pH impedance testing. We compared symptoms, laryngeal signs and salivary pepsin as potential diagnostic methods for identifying LPR in patients with upper airway symptoms. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Alexander Spyridoulias, Siobhan Lillie, Aashish Vyas, Stephen J. Fowler Source Type: research

Allergy and asthma: effects of the exposure to particulate matter and biological allergens
The prevalence of asthma and allergies including atopy has increased during the past decades, particularly in westernized countries. The rapid rise in the prevalence of such diseases cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. Rapid urbanization and industrialization throughout the world have increased air pollution and population exposures, so that most epidemiologic studies are focusing on possible links between air pollution and respiratory diseases. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence shows that chemical air pollution may interact with airborne allergens enhancing the risk of atopic sensitization and exacerbation...
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: S. Baldacci, S. Maio, S. Cerrai, G. Sarno, N. Baïz, M. Simoni, I. Annesi-Maesano, G. Viegi, on behalf of the HEALS Study Tags: Review article Source Type: research

Extended Analysis Of Exhaled And Nasal Nitric Oxide For The Evaluation Of Chronic Cough
Chronic cough is usually defined as a cough that lasts for eight weeks or longer. Its etiological diagnosis is not always straightforward, and the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has been proposed in patients’ evaluation. No studies have assessed the usefulness of extended exhaled NO measurement for the evaluation of chronic cough. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the usefulness of an extended exhaled NO measurement and nasal NO for an initial evaluation of chronic cough. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mauro Maniscalco, Stanislao Faraone, Matteo Sofia, Antonio Molino, Alessandro Vatrella, Anna Zedda Source Type: research

Comorbidity between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and type 2 diabetes: a nation-wide cohort twin study
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and is associated with several systemic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes.It has been suggested that comorbidity between COPD and type 2 diabetes is due to shared genetic factors. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Howraman Meteran, Vibeke Backer, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, Axel Skytthe, Simon Francis Thomsen Source Type: research

COPD prevalence in a north-eastern Italian general population
COPD prevalence estimates vary mostly depending on different study methodologies. We evaluated the prevalence and clinical features of COPD, as defined by GOLD and ERS/ATS recommendations in a representative sample of Northern Italy general population. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Massimo Guerriero, Marco Caminati, Giovanni Viegi, Gianenrico Senna, Giancarlo Cesana, Carlo Pomari Source Type: research

Physical activity and fatigue in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – A population based study
In subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), symptoms of fatigue, concomitant heart disease and low physical activity levels are more frequently described than in subjects without COPD. However, there are no population-based studies addressing the relationship between physical activity, fatigue and heart disease in COPD. The aim was to compare physical activity levels among subjects with and without COPD in a population based study, and to evaluate if concomitant heart disease and fatigue was associated to physical activity. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mikael Andersson, Caroline Stridsman, Eva Rönmark, Anne Lindberg, Margareta Emtner Source Type: research

Enterovirus D68-associated community-acquired pneumonia in children living in Milan, Italy
Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68), a member of the enterovirus genus first identified in 1962, has been mainly reported as a rare cause of upper respiratory tract infection [1]. However, an increasing number of EV-D68-infected children affected by severe respiratory illness, muscle weakness and paralysis were described in the USA and Canada in 2014 [2]. The American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consequently highlighted the need for the strict surveillance of EV-D68 epidemiology, and asked providers to consider EV-D68 testing for patients with severe illness with unclear etiology [3]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - May 22, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Susanna Esposito, Alberto Zampiero, Luca Ruggiero, Barbara Madini, Hubert Niesters, Nicola Principi Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Echovirus 30 meningitis epidemic followed by an outbreak-specific RT-qPCR
Echovirus 30 (E-30) is a member of the Picornaviridae family and belongs to the Enterovirus genus. Human enteroviruses are commonly associated with diverse diseases from respiratory infections to aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Over 100 enterovirus serotypes have been identified and genetically divided into four species from A to D. E-30 is a globally spread enterovirus of species B serotype and frequently associated with aseptic meningitis outbreaks [1]. Previously, genetic diversity of E-30 has been studied and the virus variants are phylogenetically divided into several genogroups [2–5]. ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - May 22, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Riikka Österback, Teemu Kalliokoski, Tuire Lähdesmäki, Ville Peltola, Olli Ruuskanen, Matti Waris Source Type: research

Cancer in Young Adults With Ischemic Stroke [Clinical Sciences]
Conclusions— Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients. (Source: Stroke)
Source: Stroke - May 22, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Aarnio, K., Joensuu, H., Haapaniemi, E., Melkas, S., Kaste, M., Tatlisumak, T., Putaala, J. Tags: Acute Cerebral Infarction, Risk Factors for Stroke, Stroke in Children and the Young Clinical Sciences Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Crisis in Cerebrovascular Endothelial Cells Opens the Blood-Brain Barrier [Basic Sciences]
Conclusions— We concluded that mitochondria are key players in BBB permeability. These novel findings suggest a potential new therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke by endothelial cell mitochondrial regulation. (Source: Stroke)
Source: Stroke - May 22, 2015 Category: Neurology Authors: Doll, D. N., Hu, H., Sun, J., Lewis, S. E., Simpkins, J. W., Ren, X. Tags: Brain Circulation and Metabolism Basic Sciences Source Type: research

Influenza-induced Type I Interferon Enhances Susceptibility to Gram-negative and Gram-positive Bacterial Pneumonia in Mice.
Abstract Suppression of Type 17 immunity by type I interferon (IFN) during influenza A infection has been shown to enhance susceptibility to secondary bacterial pneumonia. While this mechanism has been described in coinfection with Gram-positive bacteria, it is unclear if similar mechanisms may impair lung defense against Gram-negative infections. Furthermore, precise delineation of the duration of type I IFN-associated susceptibility to bacterial infection remains underexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of preceding influenza A virus infection on subsequent challenge with the Gram-negative bacteria E...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lee B, Robinson KM, McHugh KJ, Scheller EV, Mandalapu S, Chen C, Di YP, Clay ME, Enelow RI, Dubin PJ, Alcorn JF Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

IL6 Trans-signaling Increases Expression of Airways Disease Genes in Airway Smooth Muscle.
In this study, human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells were treated with IL6 (classical) or IL6+sIL6R (trans-signaling) for 24 h and gene expression measured by RNAseq. Intracellular signaling and transcription factor activation were assessed by western blotting and luciferase assay respectively. The functional effect of IL6 trans-signaling was determined by proliferation assay. IL6 trans-signaling had no effect on PI3 kinase and Erk MAP kinase pathways in HASM cells. Both classical and IL6 trans-signaling in HASM involves activation of Stat3. However, the kinetics of Stat3 phosphorylation by IL6 trans-signaling was differ...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Robinson MB, Deshpande DA, Chou J, Cui W, Smith S, Langefeld C, Hastie AT, Bleecker ER, Hawkins GA Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

14-3-3 isoforms bind directly Exon B of the 5'UTR of human surfactant Protein A2 mRNA.
In conclusion the 14-3-3 protein family affects differential regulation of SP-A1 and SP-A2 by binding directly to SP-A2 5'UTR mRNA. PMID: 26001776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce...)
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Noutsios GT, Ghattas P, Bennett S, Floros J Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Time course of cigarette smoke-induced changes of systemic inflammation and muscle structure.
Abstract Long term cigarette smoking (LTCS) has an important extrapulmonary toxicity. The aim of the study was to investigate the time dependent effects of cigarette smoke exposure on exercise capacity, markers of systemic inflammation and skeletal muscle structure. Mice were either exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week (Smoke Exposed, SE group) or assigned to the control, unexposed group (Con group). SE Group mice were exposed for 8, 16, 24 and 32 weeks to smoke and unexposed Con mice were used as age matched controls. Exercise capacity was investigated by spiroergometry. Systemic infl...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Krüger K, Dischereit G, Seimetz M, Wilhelm J, Weissmann N, Mooren FC Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

ICAM-1-dependent and ICAM-1-independent neutrophil lung infiltration by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.
In this report, we explored the mechanisms of neutrophil lung infiltration and the potential biomarkers for lung injury in a swine lung injury model caused by natural or experimental infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The neutrophil lung infiltration was determined by measuring the myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression and enzyme activity of lung tissues. Both MPO expression and enzyme activity were dramatically increased in the both naturally and experimentally infected lung tissues. Chemokine analyses by qPCR and ELISA showed that IL-8 expression was increased in both infections, while i...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - May 22, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Liu J, Hou M, Yan M, Lü X, Gu W, Zhang S, Gao J, Liu B, Wu X, Liu G Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research