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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 5.

Mouse Models of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Review of Analytical Approaches, Pathologic Features, and Common Measurements.
Abstract Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe pulmonary reaction requiring hospitalization, which is incited by many causes, including bacterial and viral pneumonia as well as near drowning, aspiration of gastric contents, pancreatitis, intravenous drug use, and abdominal trauma. In humans, ARDS is very well defined by a list of clinical parameters. However, until recently no consensus was available regarding the criteria of ARDS that should be evident in an experimental animal model. This lack was rectified by a 2011 workshop report by the American Thoracic Society, which defined the main feature...
Source: Toxicologic Pathology - August 21, 2015 Category: Pathology Authors: Aeffner F, Bolon B, Davis IC Tags: Toxicol Pathol Source Type: research

Resolvins Attenuate Inflammation and Promote Resolution in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Human Macrophages.
Abstract Inflammation is a protective response to injury, but can become chronic, leading to tissue damage and disease. Cigarette smoke causes multiple inflammatory diseases, which account for thousands of deaths and cost billions of dollars annually. Cigarette smoke disrupts the function of immune cells, such as macrophages, by prolonging inflammatory signaling, promoting oxidative stress, and impairing phagocytosis, contributing to increased incidence of infections. Recently, new families of lipid derived-mediators coined "specialized pro-resolving mediators" (SPMs) were identified. These mediators play a critica...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - August 21, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Croasdell A, Thatcher TH, Kottmann RM, Colas RA, Dalli J, Serhan CN, Sime PJ, Phipps RP Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous Emphysema on Dynamic Hyperinflation in Patients With Severe COPD Assessed for Lung Volume Reduction
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Ahead of Print. (Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Targeting Persons With or At High Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by State-based Surveillance
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Ahead of Print. (Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Prevalence of Pulmonary Hypertension and its Influence on Survival in Patients With Advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prior to Lung Transplantation
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Ahead of Print. (Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Comparison of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) in a Clinical Population
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Ahead of Print. (Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

COPD-Related Mortality and Co-morbidities in Northeastern Italy, 2008-2012: A Multiple Causes of Death Analysis
COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Ahead of Print. (Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
Source: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Toxicity of aerosols of nicotine and pyruvic acid (separate and combined) in Sprague–Dawley rats in a 28-day OECD 412 inhalation study and assessment of systems toxicology
Inhalation Toxicology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Exposure to cigarette smoke downregulates β2-adrenergic receptor expression and upregulates inflammation in alveolar macrophages
Inhalation Toxicology, Ahead of Print. (Source: Inhalation Toxicology)
Source: Inhalation Toxicology - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Exploring youth and caregiver preferences for asthma education video content
Journal of Asthma, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Asthma)
Source: Journal of Asthma - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

What roles do accredited drug dispensing outlets in Tanzania play in facilitating access to antimicrobials? Results of a multi-method analysis
Conclusion ADDOs have increased access to antimicrobials in Tanzania. Community members see them as integral to the health system. Antimicrobials are overused due to poor ADDO dispensing, poor PHF prescribing, and inappropriate public demand. Multi-pronged interventions are needed to address all determinants. (Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control)
Source: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

Study protocol: the effects of air pollution exposure and chronic respiratory disease on pneumonia risk in urban Malawian adults - the Acute Infection of the Respiratory Tract Study (The AIR Study)
DiscussionThe AIR Study is the first study of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in which air pollution exposure measurements have been undertaken in this setting, and will contribute important new information about exposure to air pollution in urban SSA. Through identification of preventable risk factors, the AIR Study aims to facilitate future research and implementation of targeted interventions to reduce the high burden of pneumonia in SSA. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hannah JaryJane MallewaMulinda NyirendaBrian FaragherRobert HeydermanIngrid PetersonStephen GordonKevin Mortimer Source Type: research

Bidirectional role of IL-6 signal in pathogenesis of lung fibrosis
Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that IL-6 could play a bidirectional role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. In particular, upregulation of IL-6 at the early inflammatory stage of BLM-injured lung has antifibrotic activity through regulating the cell fate of type 2 pneumocytes in an autocrine/paracrine manner. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Takeshi KobayashiKensuke TanakaTetsuo FujitaHiroki UmezawaHiroyuki AmanoKento YoshiokaYusuke NaitoMasahiko HatanoSadao KimuraKoichiro TatsumiYoshitoshi Kasuya Source Type: research

The effects of corticosteroids on COPD lung macrophages: a pooled analysis
Conclusions: We confirm that overall corticosteroid sensitivity in COPD lung macrophages is not reduced compared to controls. The varied effect of corticosteroids between subjects suggests that some individuals have an inherently poor corticosteroid response. The limited suppression of lung macrophage derived CXCL8 may promote neutrophilic inflammation in COPD. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Andrew HighamGeorge BoothSimon LeaThomas SouthworthJonathan PlumbDave Singh Source Type: research

Ultrasound Guided Drainage of an Esophageal Duplication Cyst in a Newborn in Respiratory Distress
This report describes a unique management of a patient with a congenital cystic chest mass presenting in respiratory distress. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports)
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports - August 20, 2015 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

A psychometric assessment of the St. George’s respiratory questionnaire in patients with COPD using rasch model analysis
Conclusions: Except the Symptom domain of SGRQ, the others have a reliabile internal consistency and a good hierarchical structure. The results of Rasch model analysis can highlight aspects for scale improvement, such as gap, duplicate items or scale responses. There was some age or severity related DIF indicating somewhat unstable across different characteristics of group.IRB No.: DMR94-IRB-179. (Source: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes)
Source: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes - August 20, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Chyi LoWen-Miin LiangLiang-Wen HangTai-Chin WuYu-Jun ChangChih-Hung Chang Source Type: research

Impact of Extreme Heat Events on Emergency Department Visits in North Carolina (2007–2011)
In this study, data on emergency department (ED) visits for heat-related illness (HRI) and other selected diseases were analyzed during three heat events across North Carolina from 2007 to 2011. These heat events were identified based on the issuance and verification of heat products from local National Weather Service forecast offices (i.e. Heat Advisory, Heat Watch, and Excessive Heat Warning). The observed number of ED visits during these events were compared to the expected number of ED visits during several control periods to determine excess morbidity resulting from extreme heat. All recorded diagnoses were analyzed ...
Source: Journal of Community Health - August 20, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Prognostic assessment of mortality and hospitalizations of outpatients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Usefulness of the CODEX index
Conclusions Both the CODEX and BODEX indices are useful for predicting hospitalisations, although the prognostic ability of the CODEX index is greater than that of the BODEX index, both for mortality and hospitalisations. (Source: Revista Clinica Espanola)
Source: Revista Clinica Espanola - August 20, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome: Weighing in on therapy options.
Abstract Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is becoming an increasingly encountered condition both in respiratory outpatient clinics and in hospitalized patients. The health consequences and social disadvantages of OHS are significant. Unfortunately, the diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy is commonly delayed when the syndrome is not recognised or misdiagnosed. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy remains the mainstay of treatment and is effective in controlling sleep-disordered breathing and improving awake blood gases in the majority of individuals. Evidence supporting one mode of therapy over ...
Source: Chest - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Piper A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Targeted Fluid Minimization Following initial Resuscitation in Septic Shock: A Pilot Study.
Conclusions: This pilot study suggests that TFM in patients with septic shock can be performed using protocol-guided assessments of fluid responsiveness. Larger trials of TFM in septic shock are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02473718. PMID: 26291900 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chen C, Kollef MH Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Defining the Asthma-COPD overlap syndrome in a COPD cohort.
Conclusions: The proposed ACOS criteria are present in 15% of a cohort of COPD patients and these patients show better one-year prognosis than clinically similar COPD patients with no ACOS criteria. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01122758. PMID: 26291753 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cosio BG, Soriano JB, López-Campos JL, Calle-Rubio M, Soler-Cataluna JJ, de-Torres JP, Marín JM, Martínez-Gonzalez C, de Lucas P, Mir I, Peces-Barba G, Feu-Collado N, Solanes I, Alfageme I, Casanova C Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Effect of electronic cigarette use on cough reflex sensitivity.
Conclusions: A single session of electronic cigarette use, approximating nicotine exposure of one tobacco cigarette, induces significant inhibition of cough reflex sensitivity. Exploratory analysis of a subgroup of subjects suggests that nicotine is responsible for this observation. Our data, consistent with previous studies of nicotine effect, suggest a dual action of nicotine: an immediate, peripheral protussive effect and a delayed central antitussive effect. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02203162. PMID: 26291648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dicpinigaitis PV, Lee Chang A, Dicpinigaitis AJ, Negassa A Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder: Clinical outcomes and impact of PAP therapy.
Conclusion: In patients with PTSD, comorbid OSAS is associated with worsened symptoms, QoL, and adherence and response to PAP. Given the negative impact on outcomes, OSAS should be carefully considered in patients with PTSD. Close follow-up is needed to optimize PAP adherence and efficacy in this at-risk population. PMID: 26291560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lettieri CJ, Williams SG, Collen JF Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Different craniofacial characteristics predict upper airway collapsibility in Japanese-Brazilian and Caucasian Males.
Conclusions: Japanese-Brazilians and Caucasians present different predictors of upper airway collapsibility. While craniofacial bony restriction was determinant to Pcrit only in the Japanese-Brazilians, anatomical imbalance between tongue and mandible volume was important to Pcrit among Caucasians. These findings may have therapeutic implications regarding how to improve anatomical predisposition to OSA across ethnicities. PMID: 26291487 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schorr F, Kayamori F, Hirata RP, Danzi-Soares NJ, Gebrim E, Moriya HT, Malhotra A, Lorenzi-Filho G, Genta PR Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Health care provider screening and advice for smoking cessation among smokers with and without COPD: 2009-2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey.
Conclusion: Health professionals should continue to prioritize tobacco cessation counseling and treatment to smokers with COPD. Increased system-level changes and insurance coverage for cessation treatments could be used to improve the delivery of brief tobacco cessation counseling to all smokers, regardless of COPD status. PMID: 26291388 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chest)
Source: Chest - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schauer GL, Wheaton AG, Malarcher AM, Croft JB Tags: Chest Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aerobic Isolates from Respiratory Samples of Young New Zealand Horses
Conclusions and clinical importanceCulture and susceptibility results have highlighted that MDR is an emerging problem for young horses in New Zealand (NZ), where a bacterial respiratory infection is suspected. This should be considered when prescribing antimicrobials, and emphasizes the need for submission of samples for culture and susceptibility. (Source: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine)
Source: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine - August 20, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: L.J. Toombs‐Ruane, C.B. Riley, A.T. Kendall, C.F. Bolwell, J. Benschop, S.M. Rosanowski Tags: Standard Article Source Type: research

Seroepidemiological survey and spatial analysis of the occurrence of Angiostrongylus vasorum in Swiss dogs in relation to biogeographic aspects
This study confirms previously known endemic areas for A. vasorum in Switzerland, and additionally identifies positive dogs in virtually all bioregions. As asymptomatic dogs may suddenly develop a critical clinical status with potentially fatal outcome, disease awareness has to be maintained for dogs from across Switzerland at altitudes below 700 m asl. (Source: Veterinary Parasitology)
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - August 20, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Divergent modulation of Rho‐kinase and Ca2+ influx pathways by Src family kinases and focal adhesion kinase in airway smooth muscle
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSSrcFK mediates Ca2+‐sensitization in ASM, while SrcFK and FAK together and individually influence multiple Ca2+ influx pathways. Tyrosine phosphorylation is therefore a key upstream signalling event in ASM contraction, and may be a viable target for modulating ASM tone in respiratory disease. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - August 20, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yasin Shaifta, Nneka Irechukwu, Jesus Prieto‐Lloret, Charles E MacKay, Keisha A Marchon, Jeremy P T Ward, Greg A Knock Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Lactate level, aetiology and mortality of adult patients in an emergency department: a cohort study
Conclusions Among adult ED patients, the prognostic value of lactate varies between diagnostic groups. (Source: Emergency Medicine Journal)
Source: Emergency Medicine Journal - August 20, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Pedersen, M., Brandt, V. S., Holler, J. G., Lassen, A. T. Tags: Drugs: cardiovascular system Original article Source Type: research

Ketamine‐Propofol Versus Propofol Alone for Procedural Sedation in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review and Meta‐analysis
ConclusionsThe premise of combining ketamine with propofol is based on the many synergies that theoretically exist between these two agents. In this study, K‐P had a lower frequency of adverse respiratory events in patients undergoing PSA in the ED compared to propofol alone. Resumen Ketamina más Propofol Frente a Propofol Solo Para el Procedimiento de Sedación en el Servicio de Urgencias: Una Revisión Sistemática y Metanálisis ObjetivosEl propofol es un agente frecuentemente utilizado para el procedimiento de sedación y analgesia (PSA) en el Servicio de Urgencias (SU), pero puede causar depresión respiratoria e ...
Source: Academic Emergency Medicine - August 20, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Justin W. Yan, Shelley L. McLeod, Alla Iansavitchene Tags: Progressive Clinical Practice Source Type: research

Role of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning–Induced Reversible Myocardial Dysfunction: A Novel Therapeutic Modality
Aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning carries a high rate of mortality despite intensive care management, primarily because of refractory myocardial depression, resistant hypotension, and severe metabolic acidosis as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified “heart–lung” machine to provide temporary cardiorespiratory support. We studied the novel use of ECMO in the management of a subset of patients with AlP poisoning. (Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Source: The Journal of Emergency Medicine - August 20, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Bishav Mohan, Vivek Gupta, Sarju Ralhan, Dinesh Gupta, Sandeep Puri, Gurpreet Singh Wander, Bhupinder Singh Tags: Selected Topics: Toxicology Source Type: research

Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensive Versus Conservative Glucose Control in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: GLUCO-CABG Trial
CONCLUSIONS Intensive insulin therapy to target glucose of 100 and 140 mg/dL in the ICU did not significantly reduce perioperative complications compared with target glucose of 141 and 180 mg/dL after CABG surgery. Subgroup analysis showed a lower number of complications in patients without diabetes, but not in patients with diabetes treated with the intensive regimen. Large prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings. (Source: Diabetes Care)
Source: Diabetes Care - August 20, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Umpierrez, G.; Cardona, S.; Pasquel, F.; Jacobs, S.; Peng, L.; Unigwe, M.; Newton, C. A.; Smiley-Byrd, D.; Vellanki, P.; Halkos, M.; Puskas, J. D.; Guyton, R. A.; Thourani, V. H. Tags: Clinical Care/Education/Nutrition/Psychosocial Research Source Type: research

Laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy does not completely mitigate increased perioperative risks in elderly patients
ConclusionsElderly patients undergoing TLPD experience rates of mortality, morbidity and cardiorespiratory events similar to those in patients submitted to OPD. In elderly patients, TLPD offers benefits by decreasing DGE, LoS and blood transfusion requirements. (Source: HPB: official journal of the International Hepato Pancreat Biliary Association)
Source: HPB: official journal of the International Hepato Pancreat Biliary Association - August 20, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: May C. Tee, Kristopher P. Croome, Christopher R. Shubert, Michael B. Farnell, Mark J. Truty, Florencia G. Que, K. Marie Reid‐Lombardo, Rory L. Smoot, David M. Nagorney, Michael L. Kendrick Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Letter to the editor: There is a need to consider all respiratory viruses in suspected mumps cases
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Source: Eurosurveillance - August 20, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

The chiropractic care of infants with breastfeeding difficulties
The benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in the literature. When compared with formula-fed infants, breastfeeding confers a lower risk of acute otitis media, gastroenteritis and diarrhea, severe lower respiratory infections, asthma, sudden infant death syndrome, and obesity, and enhances brain development.1–3 Despite these documented benefits, particularly in the first 6 months of life, breastfeeding rates are still not optimal in much of the world. It has been estimated that suboptimal breastfeeding results in more than 1 million child deaths per year and in substantially higher levels of childhood morbidity. (Source: Explore)
Source: Explore - August 20, 2015 Category: Nursing Authors: Joel Alcantara, Joey D. Alcantara, Junjoe Alcantara Source Type: research

Examining biological vulnerability in environmental context: Parenting moderates effects of low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia on adolescent depressive symptoms
We examined resting RSA, depressive symptoms, and parental responses to youth negative emotions among 120 adolescents aged 11–14 years (M = 12.86, SD = .85; 52.5% female). Resting RSA and lack of supportive parenting interacted to predict youth depressive symptoms, such that low resting RSA predicted more depressive symptoms only in the context of low levels of supportive parental responses to youth's negative emotions. By contrast, high resting RSA buffered the effects of low supportive parenting on youth depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of understanding joint contributions of biologi...
Source: Developmental Psychobiology - August 20, 2015 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Authors: Amy H. Mezulis, Sarah I. Crystal, Joshua J. Ahles, Sheila E. Crowell Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Marked Strain-specific Differences in the SU5416 Rat Model of Severe Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
In conclusion, variation in strain, even between colonies of the same strain, has a remarkable influence on the nature and severity of the response to SU, consistent with an important role for genetic modifiers of the PAH phenotype. PMID: 26291195 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - August 20, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Jiang B, Deng Y, Suen C, Taha M, Chaudhary KR, Courtman DW, Stewart DJ Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Shame-based appeals in a tobacco control public health campaign: potential harms and benefits
Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1 in 10 deaths globally (>5 million a year). Tobacco use adversely impacts not just smokers, but also those around them through secondhand smoke exposure. Given the significant personal and societal costs of tobacco use, any strategy to reduce smoking should be considered. In this issue, Amonini et al1 report on development and evaluation of a shame-based public health campaign in Perth, Australia. Public health media campaigns in Australia, in particular, have raised awareness and instigated behaviour change via approaches ranging from direct ...
Source: Tobacco Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Brown-Johnson, C. G., Prochaska, J. J. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Is it not time to reveal the secret sauce of nicotine addiction?
In the courtroom, cigarette companies like to paint a picture that their consumers are informed about the health risks of their products so that they can argue that smokers are fully responsible for any health consequences that might arise.1 While that is a convenient legal defense, it is a smoke screen. The reality is most consumers have not got a clue how their cigarettes are engineered and how the design of their cigarettes might relate to why they find it hard to stop smoking and why they get sick as a result.2 While I have heard defense lawyers argue that consumers really are not interested in knowing how their cigare...
Source: Tobacco Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cummings, K. M. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Use and abuse of statistics in tobacco industry-funded research on standardised packaging
In this commentary we consider the validity of tobacco industry-funded research on the effects of standardised packaging in Australia. As the first country to introduce standardised packs, Australia is closely watched, and Philip Morris International has recently funded two studies into the impact of the measure on smoking prevalence. Both of these papers are flawed in conception as well as design but have nonetheless been widely publicised as cautionary tales against standardised pack legislation. Specifically, we focus on the low statistical significance of the analytical methods used and the assumption that standardised...
Source: Tobacco Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Laverty, A. A., Diethelm, P., Hopkinson, N. S., Watt, H. C., McKee, M. Tags: Open access Commentary Source Type: research

Lighter Side
(Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Worldwide news and comment
All articles written by Marita Hefler unless otherwise attributed. Ideas and items for News Analysis should be sent to: marita.hefler@menzies.edu.au WORLD: US CHAMBER OF COMMERCE SHILLS FOR BIG TOBACCO In 2009, when tobacco plain packaging legislation was first being considered in Australia, the president of the US Chamber of Commerce in Washington made a submission to the country's preventative health taskforce, which was appointed by the Australian Government to provide recommendations about national tobacco control measures. At the time, the move by the US group was considered highly unusual. Although internal tobacco i...
Source: Tobacco Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: TC News analysis Source Type: research

Disadvantaged youth and smoking in mature tobacco control contexts: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research
Conclusions Surprisingly few qualitative studies focused exclusively on smoking and disadvantaged young people were found. Future qualitative studies on the intersection between specific psychosocial characteristics associated with disadvantage and increased smoking risk would be of use to inform approaches to reduce socioeconomic differentials in smoking prevalence. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hefler, M., Chapman, S. Tags: Review Source Type: research

The potential of shame as a message appeal in antismoking television advertisements
Conclusions The use of shame appeals may be an effective method of motivating smokers to quit in an environment where they are members of a small minority and supportive legislation exists to discourage smoking in public places. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Amonini, C., Pettigrew, S., Clayforth, C. Tags: Editor's choice Research paper Source Type: research

Determinants and prevalence of e-cigarette use throughout the European Union: a secondary analysis of 26 566 youth and adults from 27 Countries
Conclusions A substantial number of EU adults have ever used e-cigarettes. Ever users were more likely to be younger, current smokers, or past-year quit attempters. These findings underscore the need to evaluate the potential long term impact of e-cigarette use on consumer health, cessation and nicotine addiction and formulate a European framework for e-cigarette regulation within the revised EU Tobacco Product Directive. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vardavas, C. I., Filippidis, F. T., Agaku, I. T. Tags: Press releases Research paper Source Type: research

Lighter Side
(Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - August 20, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: PostScript Source Type: research