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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 5.

Attenuation and immunogenicity of a live high pathogenic PRRSV vaccine candidate with a 32-amino acid deletion in the nsp2 protein.
Authors: Lu W, Sun B, Mo J, Zeng X, Zhang G, Wang L, Zhou Q, Zhu L, Li Z, Xie Q, Bi Y, Ma J Abstract A porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) QY1 was serially passed on Marc-145 cells. Virulence of different intermediate derivatives of QY1 (P5, P60, P80, and P100) were determined. The study found that QY1 had been gradually attenuated during the in vitro process. Pathogenicity study showed that pigs inoculated with QY1 P100 and P80 did not develop any significant PRRS clinic symptoms. However, mild-to-moderate clinical signs and acute HP-PRRSV symptoms of infection were observed in pigs inocula...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - November 19, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

"Nomophobia": impact of cell phone use interfering with symptoms and emotions of individuals with panic disorder compared with a control group.
CONCLUSIONS: Both groups exhibited dependence on and were comforted by having an MP; however, people with PD and agoraphobia showed significantly more emotional alterations as well as intense physical and psychological symptoms when they were apart from or unable to use an MP compared to healthy volunteers. PMID: 24669231 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health)
Source: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health - November 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health Source Type: research

Case Report of a Fatal Intoxication by Nucynta
AbstractTapentadol (Nucynta) is a centrally acting opioid analgesic prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain. Its efficacy is believed to be due to μ-opioid receptor agonist activity and inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake resulting in increased norepinephrine concentrations. There is only one other case in the literature relating to the toxicity of this agent or report of a fatality. This case report documents a case in which tapentadol was identified as the cause of death. The tapentadol concentration found in the heart blood submitted in this case was more than 20 times the upper limit of the the...
Source: The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology - November 19, 2014 Category: Forensic Medicine Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research

Imaging analysis of human metapneumovirus-infected cells provides evidence for the involvement of F-actin and the raft-lipid microdomains in virus morphogenesis
Conclusions: These data suggest that HMPV matures as filamentous particles and that virus morphogenesis occurs within lipid-raft microdomains containing localized concentrations of F-actin. The similarity between HMPV morphogenesis and the closely related human respiratory syncytial virus suggests that involvement of F-actin and lipid-raft microdomains in virus morphogenesis may be a common feature of the Pneumovirinae. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - November 19, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Muhammad JumatTra Nguyen HuongPuisan WongLiat LooBoon TanFiona FenwickGeoffrey TomsRichard Sugrue Source Type: research

Impairment of vascularization of the surface covering epithelium induces ischemia and promotes malignization: a new hypothesis of a possible mechanism of cancer pathogenesis
Conclusion The process of redistribution of vascular network occurring at the interface of epithelial–stromal frontier plays an important role in maintaining the adequate metabolism of cells including those of epithelial covering. Impairment of this mechanism most probably promotes precancerous alterations. (Source: Clinical and Translational Oncology)
Source: Clinical and Translational Oncology - November 19, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Using the multi-parameter variability of photoplethysmographic signals to evaluate short-term cardiovascular regulation
This study explores a photoplethysmography (PPG)-based multi-parameter analytical approach using the period, amplitude and baseline of PPG signals to quantitatively assess cardiovascular regulation over a 30 s period. PPG data were recorded from 31 young healthy subjects during conditions of spontaneous respiration, paced respiration with 15 breaths/min and breath holding, with each condition lasting 30 s. The three indices (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2) in Poincaré plot of the normalized parameters and the correlations between the parameters or the first differences of the parameters were analyzed. The results showed that compare...
Source: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing - November 19, 2014 Category: Information Technology Source Type: research

Morbidity in relation to feeding mode in African HIV-exposed, uninfected infants during the first 6 mo of life: the Kesho Bora study [International nutrition]
Conclusions: Not breastfeeding was associated with increased risk of serious infections especially between 0 and 2.9 mo of age. The randomized controlled trial component of the Kesho Bora study was registered at Current Controlled Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) as ISRCTN71468401. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition)
Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition - November 19, 2014 Category: Nutrition Authors: Bork, K. A., Cournil, A., Read, J. S., Newell, M.-L., Cames, C., Meda, N., Luchters, S., Mbatia, G., Naidu, K., Gaillard, P., de Vincenzi, I. Tags: International nutrition Source Type: research

Efektywność szczepienia przeciwko pneumokokom a częstość występowania infekcji dróg oddechowych oraz ostrego zapalenia ucha środkowego w populacji zdrowych dzieci w wieku 0–24 miesięcy, w zależności od sposobu ich karmienia
Publication date: November–December 2014 Source:Pediatria Polska, Volume 89, Issue 6 Author(s): Jarosław Rożnowski , Bożena Leks , Anna Rożnowska Pneumococcal vaccination, despite the effort of the medical community aimed at introducing it as obligatory, still remains in the Polish vaccination schedule as recommended, and thus have to be paid by parents. 490 healthy children (47.55% boys, 52.45% girls) were observed for the first two years of life. From those, 86 were vaccinated against pneumococcal infection. The chi-square test and odds ratio (OR) were performed for intergroup comparison of the prevalence of uppe...
Source: Pediatria Polska - November 19, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Hemoptysis in an asthmatic child in the course of varicella – A case report
We report of a case of an asthmatic immunocompetent boy with hemoptysis in the course of varicella pneumonitis. Complications of chickenpox in children and causes of hemoptysis are further discussed. (Source: Pediatria Polska)
Source: Pediatria Polska - November 19, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Zatorowość płucna w praktyce pediatrycznej – opis przypadku
Publication date: September–October 2014 Source:Pediatria Polska, Volume 89, Issue 5 Author(s): Agata Misiek , Dagmara Smektała , Joanna Mitkowska , Katarzyna Derwich Venous thromboembolic disease is a rare condition in the pediatric population. In the current paper the case of a 17-year-old patient with pulmonary embolism was presented. The patient was admitted to the hospital with signs and symptoms of respiratory infection. The pneumonia was diagnosed and standard doses of antibiotics were introduced, however, no improvement was observed. Because of lingering increase of D-dimer plasma concentration and constant ch...
Source: Pediatria Polska - November 19, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Objawy kliniczne hipogammaglobulinemii u niemowląt i małych dzieci – znaczenie diagnostyczne „10 Objawów Ostrzegawczych Pierwotnego Niedoboru Odporności”
Conclusions Awareness of primary immunodeficiency is a task of physicians in ambulatory and hospital health care and concerns both pediatricians as well as other medical specialists. “10 Warning Signs of Primary Immunodeficiency” is a valuable assistance to take measures of diagnosing PIDs in children with infections; however, a diverse manifestation of these disorders indicates the necessity of expanding and updating the recommendations for diagnosing PIDs. (Source: Pediatria Polska)
Source: Pediatria Polska - November 19, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

The impact of concomitant pulmonary infection on immune dysregulation in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
Conclusions: In summary, concurrent pulmonary infection might enhance immune dysregulation of PJP in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients, but did not affect the outcome as evidenced by morbidity and mortality. Because of limited number of cases studied, further studies with larger populations are needed to verify these issues. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chung-Wei ChouFang-Chi LinHan-Chen TsaiShi-Chuan Chang Source Type: research

Correction: Singing classes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial
In our 2012 paper on the effect of singing classes for patients with COPD which compared them to participation in a films studies group, we cited the wrong clinical trial number - (ISRCTN17544114). This number in fact relates to a previous study we had undertaken, published in 2010 which also evaluated singing classes in COPD but had compared them to a "usual care" arm.The trial number we should have cited is ISRCTN39714922. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Victoria LordVictoria HumeJulia KellyPhoene CaveJudith SilverMaya WaldmanChris WhiteCayley SmithRebecca TannerMelissa SanchezWilliam ManMichael PolkeyNicholas Hopkinson Source Type: research

Quantifying the real life risk profile of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD by record linkage analysis
Conclusion: The use of ICS in our cohort was not associated with new onset of diabetes, worsening of existing diabetes or fracture hospitalisation. There was however an association with increased cataracts and pneumonia hospitalisations. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - November 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Rob FlynnThomas MacDonaldAdrian HapcaIsla MacKenzieStuart Schembri Source Type: research

Mycobacterial envelope lipids fingerprint from direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis of intact bacilli
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lipids including glycolipids and lipoglycans play a crucial role in the modulation of the host immune response by targeting the innate receptors C-type lectins, TLRs and the CD1 proteins of class 1. Glycolipids have been shown to be biomarkers of M. tuberculosis strains and also of opportunistic mycobacteria called non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Most of the structural and functional work of the Mtb lipids has been done using lipids arising from M. tuberculosis cell growth in vitro. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - November 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gérald Larrouy-Maumus, Germain Puzo Source Type: research

COPD exacerbations: reducing the burden by predicting the future?
This article is currently available as a free download on ingentaconnect (Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease - November 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Leung, Janice M.Sin, Don D. Tags: EDITORIALS Source Type: research

Looking at non-communicable diseases in Uganda through a local lens: an analysis using locally derived data
The demographic and nutritional transitions taking place in Uganda, just as in other low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), are leading to accelerating growth of chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Though still sparse, locally derived data on NCDs in Uganda has increased greatly over the past five years and will soon be bolstered by the first nationally representative data set on NCDs. Using these available local data, we describe the landscape of the globally recognized major NCDs- cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory disease- and closely examine what is known about other locally impo...
Source: Globalization and Health - November 19, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Jeremy SchwartzDavid GuwatuddeRachel NugentCharles Kiiza Source Type: research

Integration of homeopathy and complementary medicine in the public health system in Italy: national regulation and regional experiences
Abstract Complementary medicine (CM) is being increasingly used by citizens across Europe as a means to maintain their health and to treat illness and disease. In Italy the reform of Title V of the Italian Constitution allows each Region to decide how to put into practice and organize the Public Healthcare System. The agreement among the Italian National Government, the Regions, and the Provinces of Trento and Bolzano on the terms and requirements for the quality certification of training and practice of acupuncture, herbal medicine, and homeopathy by medical doctors and dentists, signed on February 2013, ...
Source: Journal of Medicine and the Person - November 19, 2014 Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research

Oseltamivir and zanamivir have limited effect on symptoms and do not reduce hospitalisation or serious complications of influenza
Commentary on: Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, et al.. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;4:CD008965. Context Neuraminidase inhibitors are widely prescribed for the treatment of influenza. Observational studies have reported that oseltamivir significantly lowers respiratory tract complications and the likelihood of hospitalisation, while an industry-sponsored systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) concluded that oseltamivir reduced the likelihood of complications requiring an antibiotic.1 2 However, many clinical t...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ebell, M. H. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Influenza, Pneumonia (infectious disease), Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Ethics Therapeutics Source Type: research

Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir administration achieves very high rate of viral clearance in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection without cirrhosis, regardless of ribavirin co-administration or length of treatment
Commentary on: Kowdley KV, Gordon SC, Reddy KR, et al.. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 8 or 12 weeks for chronic HCV without cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2014;370:1879–88. Context Approximately 150 million people worldwide are estimated to be chronic carriers of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Estimates indicate a quarter of HCV carriers will develop liver cirrhosis, which entails a risk of severe complications (hepatocellular carcinoma, decompensation, end-stage liver failure, death).1 Viral clearance significantly decreases disease progression and increases survival rates. Two antiviral approaches are currently available: inter...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Gentile, I., Borgia, G. Tags: Liver disease, Immunology (including allergy), Headache (including migraine), Pain (neurology), Sleep disorders (neurology), Sleep disorders, Sleep disorders (respiratory medicine), Dermatology Therapeutics Source Type: research

Azithromycin associated with a reduction in 90-day mortality among older pneumonia patients, although a true clinical benefit is uncertain
Commentary on: Mortensen EM, Halm EA, Pugh MJ, et al.. Association of azithromycin with mortality and cardiovascular events among older patients hospitalized with pneumonia. JAMA 2014;311:2199–208. Context Current US guidelines for regular hospital unit treatment of community-acquired pneumonia recommend a 5–7 day course of therapy with either a macrolide plus a second or third generation cephalosporin, or a respiratory fluoroquinolone.1 The primary guidance offered for choosing between these alternatives is to avoid antibiotics with patient exposure in the past 3 months. In this context, azithromycin...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ray, W. A. Tags: Geriatric medicine, Epidemiologic studies, Pneumonia (infectious disease), Dementia, Ischaemic heart disease, Memory disorders (psychiatry), Bronchitis, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Guidelines Therapeutics Source Type: research

Antibiotic Prescribing In Dutch Nursing Homes: How Appropriate Is It?
To investigate the appropriateness of decisions to prescribe or withhold antibiotics for nursing home (NH) residents with infections of the urinary tract (UTI), respiratory tract (RTI), and skin (SI). (Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association)
Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association - November 19, 2014 Category: Health Management Authors: Laura W. van Buul, Ruth B. Veenhuizen, Wilco P. Achterberg, François G. Schellevis, Rob T.G.M. Essink, Sabine C. de Greeff, Stephanie Natsch, Jenny T. van der Steen, Cees M.P.M. Hertogh Tags: Original Study Source Type: research

Outcome of Adult Horses with Botulism Treated at a Veterinary Hospital: 92 Cases (1989–2013)
Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceHorses that lose the ability to stand have a poor chance of survival. Complications are common in treated horses but do not reduce survival. (Source: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine)
Source: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: A.L. Johnson, S.C. McAdams‐Gallagher, H. Aceto Tags: Standard Article Source Type: research

Quantitative investigation of the affinity of human respiratory syncytial virus phosphoprotein C-terminus binding to nucleocapsid protein
Conclusions: The results support the idea that the interaction of the C-terminal residues of P with N constitutes a protein-protein interaction hotspot that may be a suitable target for small-molecule drugs that inhibit viral genome replication and transcription. (Source: Virology Journal)
Source: Virology Journal - November 19, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Adam ShapiroNing GaoNichole O¿ConnellJun HuJason ThresherRong-Fang GuRoss OvermanIan HardernGraham Sproat Source Type: research

The discriminative capacity of soluble Toll-like receptor (sTLR)2 and sTLR4 in inflammatory diseases
Background: The extracellular domains of cytokine receptors are released during inflammation, but little is known about the shedding of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and whether they can be used as diagnostic biomarkers. Methods: The release of sTLR2 and sTLR4 was studied in in-vitro stimulations, as well as in-vivo during experimental human endotoxemia (n?=?11, 2?ng/kg LPS), and in plasma of 394 patients with infections (infectious mononucleosis, measles, respiratory tract infections, bacterial sepsis and candidemia) or non-infectious inflammation (Crohn?s disease, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, autoinflammatory syndromes and pa...
Source: BMC Immunology - November 19, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Jaap ten OeverMatthijs KoxFrank van de VeerdonkKhutso MothapoAdriana SlavcoviciTim JansenLieke TweehuysenEvangelos Giamarellos-BourboulisPeter SchneebergerPeter WeverMonique StoffelsAnna SimonJos van der MeerMelissa JohnsonBart-Jan KullbergPeter PickkersA Source Type: research

Highlights from the issue
Editor's Choice: ED and GP patients Causes of Emergency department crowding are complex, but the proportion of ‘inappropriate GP patients’ has often dominated the debate. Recent Australian research suggested that ~10% of patients could be classified as appropriate for general practice, whilst demonstrating that the preferred government methodology doubled these figures. In this issue, Harris and McDonald investigate the case-mix of patients attending ED, GPs, a walk-in clinic (WIC) and an out-of-hours (OOH) telephone service. There was a similar case-mix of presentations to the WIC, OOH and GP, with the only di...
Source: Emergency Medicine Journal - November 19, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Middleton, P. M. Tags: EMJ Primary survey Source Type: research

A man walks into an ED...
...in Dallas, Texas. He has some respiratory symptoms. He tells a nurse (not clear which nurse) that he's come from Sierra Leone recently. A doctor sees him. The doctor does not get this history. The patient is sent home on antibiotics. Three days later he is diagnosed with Ebola. Thirteen years after 9/11, despite an reinvigorated disaster preparedness programme which sees US hospitals drilling every few months in tents and portable showers magically appearing for a day in hospital parking lots, volunteers donning personal protective equipment (PPE), and fake victims lining up for care after a (choose: earthquake, bomb, t...
Source: Emergency Medicine Journal - November 19, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Weber, E. J. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Reflection: on the use of the ILMA in an entrapped patient
On our arrival at a motor vehicle collision we were presented with an entrapped driver. Patient access was restricted to the patient's head, upper chest and right arm due to door intrusion and patient position.Obstructed Respiratory rate 6 min–1 (despite jaw thrust) and SpO2 70% Pulse 120 Unconscious Suspected head and chest injuries due to bull's eye damage to windscreen and collapsed steering wheel The airway was cleared by suction, an oral airway inserted and high-flow oxygen was administered. A low respiratory rate and a nasal cannula EtCO2 reading of 57 mm Hg confirmed hypoventilation. While rescu...
Source: Emergency Medicine Journal - November 19, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Castle, N., Naguran, S. Tags: Surgical diagnostic tests, Resuscitation Prehospital care Source Type: research

BET 1: ultrasound for the diagnosis and drainage of suspected peritonsillar abscess
A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether intraoral ultrasound increased the accuracy of diagnosis and the success of aspiration in adults with suspected peritonsillar abscess (quinsy). Using the reported searches, one paper presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of this best paper are tabulated. It is concluded that emergency physician-performed intraoral ultrasound can reliably diagnose peritonsillar abscess and leads to greater success at aspiration when compa...
Source: Emergency Medicine Journal - November 19, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: TB and other respiratory infections, Radiology, Clinical diagnostic tests, Radiology (diagnostics), Ear, nose and throat/otolaryngology Best Evidence Topic Reports Source Type: research

ProCESS trial recalls Sir William Osler's advice
Dear Editor, The ProCESS study1 brings to mind the observation by Sir William Osler that (to paraphrase) one should use a new therapy as often as possible while it still works. I have used Swan Ganz catheters, aminophylline, bretyllium, MAST trousers, nasal intubation, ipecac and neonatal suction bulbs while they worked and abandoned them when they no longer worked. I told parents to put children on their stomachs so they wouldn’t aspirate, and later to put them on their backs so they wouldn't suffocate. I breathed for patients during basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and now wouldn’t because they do be...
Source: Emergency Medicine Journal - November 19, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Murphy, C. E. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Measuring dissimilarity between respiratory effort signals based on uniform scaling for sleep staging
Polysomnography (PSG) has been extensively studied for sleep staging, where sleep stages are usually classified as wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, or non-REM (NREM) sleep (including light and deep sleep). Respiratory information has been proven to correlate with autonomic nervous activity that is related to sleep stages. For example, it is known that the breathing rate and amplitude during NREM sleep, in particular during deep sleep, are steadier and more regular compared to periods of wakefulness that can be influenced by body movements, conscious control, or other external factors. However, the respiratory mo...
Source: Physiological Measurement - November 19, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Xi Long, Jie Yang, Tim Weysen, Reinder Haakma, Jérôme Foussier, Pedro Fonseca and Ronald M Aarts Source Type: research

Incident Pneumonia and Mortality in COPD Patients - A Double-Effect of Inhaled Corticosteroids?
Abstract Inhaled corticosteroids are commonly prescribed for patients with severe COPD. Although their use improves quality of life and reduces exacerbations, it is associated with increased risk of pneumonia. Curiously, their use has not been associated with increased risk of pneumonia-related or overall mortality. We review pertinent literature to further explore the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on incident pneumonia and mortality in patients with COPD. The association of use of inhaled corticosteroids and incident pneumonia is substantial, and has been present in the majority of the studies on the topic. T...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Festic E, Scanlon PD Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

New Risk Factors for Adult Onset Incident Asthma: A Nested Case Control Study of Host Antioxidant Defense.
Conclusions: In this prospective study α-tocopherol, within normal reference ranges, and PAF-AH enzymatic activity, were associated with decreased asthma development. These modifiable risk factors may be an effective strategy to test for primary asthma prevention. PMID: 25408961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Larkin EK, Gao YT, Gebretsadik T, Hartman TJ, Wu P, Wen W, Yang G, Bai C, Jin M, Roberts Ii LJ, Gross M, Shu XO, Hartert TV Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

A Pneumocyte-macrophage Paracrine Lipid Axis Drives the Lung Toward Fibrosis.
Abstract Lipid-laden macrophages "foam cells" are observed in the lungs of patients with fibrotic lung disease but their contribution to disease pathogenesis remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that fibrosis induced by bleomycin, silica dust, or thoracic radiation promotes early and sustained accumulation of foam cells in the lung. In the bleomycin model, we show that foam cells arise from neighboring alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII), which respond to injury by dumping lipids into the distal airspaces of the lungs. We demonstrate that oxidized phospholipids accumulate within alveolar macrophages (AM) a...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - November 19, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Romero F, Shah D, Duong M, Penn RB, Fessler MB, Madenspacher J, Stafstrom W, Kavuru M, Lu B, Kallen CB, Walsh K, Summer R Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Cohort of US Blood Donors: A 20-Year Study.
This study describes the epidemiology of cancer in a cohort of blood donors up to 20 years after blood donation. Records from donors who participated in the Retroviral Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS, 1991-2002) at Blood Centers of the Pacific (BCP), San Francisco, were linked to the California Cancer Registry (CCR, 1991-2010). Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated using standard US 2000 population, and survival analysis used to compare all-cause mortality among donors and a random sample of nondonors with cancer from CCR. Of 55,158 eligible allogeneic blood donors followed-up for 863,902 person-years, 4,236 (7...
Source: Journal of Cancer Epidemiology - November 18, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Tags: J Cancer Epidemiol Source Type: research

The Impact of Human Rhinovirus Infection in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Heart Surgery
Abstract Human rhinovirus (HRV), the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in children, can present as bronchiolitis, pneumonia, or asthma exacerbations. The impact of HRV in infants and toddlers with congenital heart disease is poorly defined. A case–control study was performed to compare the clinical course for 19 young children with respiratory symptoms who tested positive for rhinovirus after heart surgery with that of 56 matched control subjects. The control subjects were matched by surgical repair, age, weight, and time of the year. Patients with known HRVs before surgery and control subjects w...
Source: Mammalian Genome - November 18, 2014 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

The findings of a clinical surveillance bronchoalveolar lavage programme in pre‐school patients with cystic fibrosis
ConclusionsThis study suggests that, in young non‐expectorating children with CF, routine surveillance bronchoscopy allows the detection of significant lower airway pathogens and provides the opportunity for targeted treatment of sub‐clinical infection. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Barry Linnane, Shashi Vaish, Donna Clarke, Niamh O'Sullivan, Paul McNally Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The changing epidemiology of asthma in Shanghai, China
Journal of Asthma, Ahead of Print. (Source: Journal of Asthma)
Source: Journal of Asthma - November 18, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Effect of acute intermittent hypoxia treatment on ventilatory load compensation and magnitude estimation of inspiratory resistive loads in an individual with chronic incomplete cervical spinal cord injury.
This study evaluated the effect of ten days of AIH treatment on ventilatory load compensation and respiratory perceptual sensitivity to inspiratory resistive loads (IRL), in an individual with chronic, incomplete cervical SCI. Methods Case report and literature review. Findings We report a case of a 55-year-old female with a C4 chronic, incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale D). The subject underwent evaluation at four time-points: Baseline, Post Sham, AIH Day 1 and AIH Day 10. Significant improvements in airflow generated in response to applied IRL were found after AIH treatment compared to Ba...
Source: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Orthopaedics Tags: J Spinal Cord Med Source Type: research

Medical and infectious complications associated with pyelonephritis among pregnant women at delivery.
CONCLUSIONS: Pyelonephritis at delivery admissions is associated with significant medical and infectious morbidity. PMID: 24194632 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Source: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology - November 18, 2014 Category: OBGYN Tags: Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research

Status epilepticus in the setting of acute encephalitis.
Authors: Lowenstein DH, Walker M, Waterhouse E Abstract Ms. Q, a 29-year-old woman, began to behave strangely, claiming to see and hear imaginary people. The following day, she was confused and somnolent in the morning. In the late morning, she had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure and was transported to the hospital. Her past medical and developmental histories were unremarkable. She took a daily oral contraceptive and had no drug allergies. She worked as a teacher and had been married for one year. On initial examination, blood pressure was 129/82, pulse 88, respiratory rate 16, temperature 37.5 °C. She was stu...
Source: Epilepsy Currents - November 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Serotonin: The Anti-SuddenDeathAmine?
Authors: Richerson GB Abstract Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is an exceptionally difficult condition to study in humans. Therefore, translational research in animal models has been very important in defining pathophysiological mechanisms of death and identifying potential treatments. These models are helping define whether the primary mechanism of death is cardiac or respiratory. They have also identified a link to the serotonergic system of the brainstem; this, in turn, led to recognition that SUDEP and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may share a common final pathway in the sequence of events tha...
Source: Epilepsy Currents - November 18, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Influenza A/H1N1 Severe Pneumonia: Novel Morphocytological Findings in Bronchoalveolar Lavage.
We present the results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) performed in three patients with severe influenza A/H1N1 pneumonia complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Light microscopy analysis of BAL cytocentrifugates showed the presence of characteristic large, mononuclear, plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like cells never described before. Via transmission electron microscopy, these cells were classified as atypical type II pneumocytes and some of them showed cytoplasmic vesicles and inclusions. We concluded that plasmoblastic/plasmocytoid-like type II pneumocytes might represent a morphologic marker of A/H1N1 in...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Etiology and Outcome of Patients with HIV Infection and Respiratory Failure Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit.
Conclusions. Noninfectious etiologies of respiratory failure account for majority of HIV-infected patients admitted to ICU. Increased mortality was observed among patients with sepsis as etiology of respiratory failure (HIV related and non-AIDS related), in those receiving mechanical ventilation, and in patients with decreased CD4 cell count. Survival was not associated with the use of HAART. Complementary studies are warranted to address the impact of HAART on outcomes of HIV-infected patients with respiratory failure admitted to ICU. PMID: 24065988 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Global fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology and implictions for clinical use.
Authors: Dalhoff A Abstract This paper on the fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology stratifies the data according to the different prescription patterns by either primary or tertiary caregivers and by indication. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone resistance rates increased in the past years in almost all bacterial species except S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections. However, 10 to 30% of these isolates harbored first-step mutations conferring low level fluoroquinolone resistance. Fluoroquinolone resistance increased in Enterobacteriace...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Use of Albuterol in Young Infants Hospitalized with Acute RSV Bronchiolitis.
Conclusions. The use of albuterol does not appear to be useful in the treatment of young infants with RSV bronchiolitis and may actually be harmful, in regards to increased supplemental oxygen need. PMID: 22966227 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research

Intensive Care Usage by HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era.
Authors: Turtle L, Vyakernam R, Menon-Johansson A, Nelson MR, Soni N Abstract In the 1980s the outlook for patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and critical illness was poor. Since then several studies of outcome of HIV+ patients on ICU have shown improving prognosis, with anti-retroviral therapy playing a large part. We retrospectively examined intensive care (ICU) admissions in a large HIV unit in London. Between April 2001 and April 2006 43 patients were admitted to the ICU. The mean age of patients was 44 years and 74% were male. Fifty-six percent of admissions were receiving anti-retrovi...
Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases - November 18, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis Source Type: research