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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 6.

Complicated grief after death of a relative in the intensive care unit
An increased proportion of deaths occur in the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed this prospective study in 41 ICUs to determine the prevalence and determinants of complicated grief after death of a loved one in the ICU. Relatives of 475 adult patients were followed up. Complicated grief was assessed at 6 and 12 months using the Inventory of Complicated Grief (cut-off score >25). Relatives also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 3 months, and the Revised Impact of Event Scale for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at 3, 6 and 12 months. We used a mixed multivariate logistic r...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kentish-Barnes, N., Chaize, M., Seegers, V., Legriel, S., Cariou, A., Jaber, S., Lefrant, J.-Y., Floccard, B., Renault, A., Vinatier, I., Mathonnet, A., Reuter, D., Guisset, O., Cohen-Solal, Z., Cracco, C., Seguin, A., Durand-Gasselin, J., Eon, B., Thirio Tags: Acute lung injury and critical care Original Articles: Critical care Source Type: research

Bacteraemia and antibiotic-resistant pathogens in community acquired pneumonia: risk and prognosis
The sensitivity of blood cultures in the diagnosis of bacteraemia for community-acquired pneumonia is low. Recommendations, by guidelines, to perform blood cultures are discordant. We aimed to determine the incidence, microbial aetiology, risk factors and outcomes of bacteraemic patients with community-acquired pneumonia, including cases with antibiotic-resistant pathogens (ARP). A prospective, observational study was undertaken on consecutive adult patients admitted to the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Barcelona, Spain) with community-acquired pneumonia and blood cultures were obtained. Of the 2892 patients included, bact...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Torres, A., Cilloniz, C., Ferrer, M., Gabarrus, A., Polverino, E., Villegas, S., Marco, F., Mensa, J., Menendez, R., Niederman, M. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Respiratory infections Source Type: research

Incidence of occupational latent tuberculosis infection in South African healthcare workers
The test-specific incidence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in healthcare workers from sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. 505 healthcare workers from South Africa were screened at baseline, and after 12 months, with a questionnaire, the tuberculin skin test (TST), and two T-cell assays (T-SPOT.TB and QuantiFERON-TB Gold-In-Tube). Test-specific conversion rates were calculated. The prevalence of presumed LTBI at baseline was 84, 69 and 62% using the TST, QuantiFERON-TB Gold-In-Tube and T-SPOT.TB, respectively. The annual test-specific conversion rate, depending on the cut-off point used, was as follows: TST 38%; Qu...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Adams, S., Ehrlich, R., Baatjies, R., van Zyl-Smit, R. N., Said-Hartley, Q., Dawson, R., Dheda, K. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Unified baseline and longitudinal mortality prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
The Gender-Age-Physiology (GAP) model is a validated, baseline-risk prediction model for mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Longitudinal variables have been shown to contribute to risk prediction in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and may improve the predictive performance of the baseline GAP model. Our aims were to further validate the GAP model and evaluate whether the addition of longitudinal variables improves its predictive performance. The study population was derived from a large clinical trials cohort of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n=1109). Model performance was determined by improvement in ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ley, B., Bradford, W. Z., Weycker, D., Vittinghoff, E., du Bois, R. M., Collard, H. R. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research

Safety and pharmacokinetics of nintedanib and pirfenidone in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
In conclusion, further study is needed to evaluate the safety and tolerability profile of nintedanib when added to pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a trend toward lower exposure of nintedanib when it was added to pirfenidone. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ogura, T., Taniguchi, H., Azuma, A., Inoue, Y., Kondoh, Y., Hasegawa, Y., Bando, M., Abe, S., Mochizuki, Y., Chida, K., Kluglich, M., Fujimoto, T., Okazaki, K., Tadayasu, Y., Sakamoto, W., Sugiyama, Y. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease, Pulmonary pharmacology and therapeutics Original Articles: Interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research

Oral immunotherapy with type V collagen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. IPF appears to be heterogeneous in pathobiology with ~40% of IPF patients found to have elevated levels of circulating antibodies to the autoantigen type V collagen (col(V)). Following a targeted, precision medicine approach, we conducted a phase 1 study to test the safety and explore potential efficacy of IW001, a col(V) oral immunotherapeutic developed to treat antibody-positive IPF patients. We divided 30 antibody-positive IPF patients into three cohorts for daily dosing over a 24-week period. All patients completed treatment without ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wilkes, D. S., Chew, T., Flaherty, K. R., Frye, S., Gibson, K. F., Kaminski, N., Klemsz, M. J., Lange, W., Noth, I., Rothhaar, K. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Original Articles: Interstitial lung diseases Source Type: research

BioCAST/IFCT-1002: epidemiological and molecular features of lung cancer in never-smokers
We report the main descriptive overall results with a focus on sex differences. 384 patients were included: 65 men and 319 women. 66% had been exposed to passive smoking (significantly higher among women). Definite exposure to main occupational carcinogens was significantly higher in men (35% versus 8% in women). A targetable molecular alteration was found in 73% of patients (without any significant sex difference): EGFR in 51%, ALK in 8%, KRAS in 6%, HER2 in 3%, BRAF in 3%, PI3KCA in less than 1%, and multiple in 2%. We present the largest and most comprehensive LCINS analysis in a European population. Physicians should t...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Couraud, S., Souquet, P.-J., Paris, C., Do, P., Doubre, H., Pichon, E., Dixmier, A., Monnet, I., Etienne-Mastroianni, B., Vincent, M., Tredaniel, J., Perrichon, M., Foucher, P., Coudert, B., Moro-Sibilot, D., Dansin, E., Labonne, S., Missy, P., Morin, F., Tags: Lung cancer Original Articles: Lung cancer Source Type: research

No impact of passive smoke on the somatic profile of lung cancers in never-smokers
EGFR and HER2 mutations and ALK rearrangement are known to be related to lung cancer in never-smokers, while KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations are typically observed among smokers. There is still debate surrounding whether never-smokers exposed to passive smoke exhibit a "smoker-like" somatic profile compared with unexposed never-smokers. Passive smoke exposure was assessed in the French BioCAST/IFCT-1002 never-smoker lung cancer cohort and routine molecular profiles analyses were compiled. Of the 384 patients recruited into BioCAST, 319 were tested for at least one biomarker and provided data relating to passive smoking. Ov...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Couraud, S., Debieuvre, D., Moreau, L., Dumont, P., Margery, J., Quoix, E., Duvert, B., Cellerin, L., Baize, N., Taviot, B., Coudurier, M., Cadranel, J., Missy, P., Morin, F., Mornex, J.-F., Zalcman, G., Souquet, P.-J., onbehalf of the BioCAST/IFCT-1002 s Tags: Lung cancer Original Articles: Lung cancer Source Type: research

The role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of 2–3 years. Although the pathogenic pathways have not been fully elucidated, IPF is believed to be caused by persistent epithelial injury in genetically susceptible individuals. Tyrosine kinases are involved in a range of signalling pathways that are essential for cellular homeostasis. However, there is substantial evidence from in vitro studies and animal models that receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor and fibroblas...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Grimminger, F., Gunther, A., Vancheri, C. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Review Source Type: research

Mode of action of nintedanib in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and ultimately fatal disease characterised by fibrosis of the lung parenchyma and loss of lung function. Although the pathogenic pathways involved in IPF have not been fully elucidated, IPF is believed to be caused by repetitive alveolar epithelial cell injury and dysregulated repair, in which there is uncontrolled proliferation of lung fibroblasts and differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, which excessively deposit extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the interstitial space. A number of profibrotic mediators including platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wollin, L., Wex, E., Pautsch, A., Schnapp, G., Hostettler, K. E., Stowasser, S., Kolb, M. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease, Pulmonary pharmacology and therapeutics Review Source Type: research

Management of bronchiectasis in adults
Formerly regarded as a rare disease, bronchiectasis is now increasingly recognised and a renewed interest in the condition is stimulating drug development and clinical research. Bronchiectasis represents the final common pathway of a number of infectious, genetic, autoimmune, developmental and allergic disorders and is highly heterogeneous in its aetiology, impact and prognosis. The goals of therapy should be: to improve airway mucus clearance through physiotherapy with or without adjunctive therapies; to suppress, eradicate and prevent airway bacterial colonisation; to reduce airway inflammation; and to improve physical f...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chalmers, J. D., Aliberti, S., Blasi, F. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis State of the Art Source Type: research

Influenza virus-induced lung injury: pathogenesis and implications for treatment
The influenza viruses are some of the most important human pathogens, causing substantial seasonal and pandemic morbidity and mortality. In humans, infection of the lower respiratory tract of can result in flooding of the alveolar compartment, development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and death from respiratory failure. Influenza-mediated damage of the airway, alveolar epithelium and alveolar endothelium results from a combination of: 1) intrinsic viral pathogenicity, attributable to its tropism for host airway and alveolar epithelial cells; and 2) a robust host innate immune response, which, while contributing to...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Herold, S., Becker, C., Ridge, K. M., Budinger, G. R. S. Tags: Mechanisms of lung disease, Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Back to Basics Source Type: research

The global epidemiology of chronic cough in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Cough is an essential defence mechanism [1]. However, chronic cough is a significant cause of morbidity, seriously impairing quality of life [2]. Previously, chronic cough was considered a consequence of various diseases, such as asthma/eosinophilic bronchitis, rhinitis and gastro-oesophageal acid reflux disease [3, 4]. Recent evidence, however, suggests that chronic cough is a clinical syndrome with distinct intrinsic pathophysiology characterised by neuronal hypersensitivity [5–7]. Here, we estimated the worldwide epidemiological burden of chronic cough irrespective of putative diagnosis in general adult population...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Song, W.-J., Chang, Y.-S., Faruqi, S., Kim, J.-Y., Kang, M.-G., Kim, S., Jo, E.-J., Kim, M.-H., Plevkova, J., Park, H.-W., Cho, S.-H., Morice, A. H. Tags: Respiratory clinical practice Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Increased serum levels of LL37, HMGB1 and S100A9 during exacerbation in COPD patients
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a severe and progressive lung disease characterised by destruction of lung parenchyma and chronic airway inflammation [1]. A major cause of COPD is chronic exposure to noxious gases and particles, including cigarette smoke. During exacerbation, COPD patients experience a worsening of symptoms that coincides with increased inflammation and accelerated decline in lung function, resulting in a decrease in quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Approximately half of the COPD exacerbations causing hospitalisation are associated with respiratory viral and/or bacterial infe...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pouwels, S. D., Nawijn, M. C., Bathoorn, E., Riezebos-Brilman, A., van Oosterhout, A. J. M., Kerstjens, H. A. M., Heijink, I. H. Tags: COPD and smoking Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Increased expression of granzymes A and B in fatal asthma
Inflammatory mediators other than the classic T-helper cell type 2 (Th2)-related pathway play a role in asthma, especially in severe asthma and in exacerbations [1]. Recent studies have suggested a role for cytotoxic CD8 T-cells in lung function impairment [2], lung function decline [3] and smoking-associated asthma [4]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Annoni, R., Silva, L. F. F., Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Y., van Schadewijk, A., Mauad, T., Hiemstra, P. S., Rabe, K. F. Tags: Asthma and allergy Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Defining the appropriate waiting time between multiple-breath nitrogen washout measurements
Static lung volume measurements allow objective assessment of total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity (FRC) and residual volume, and assist in the diagnosis and management of lung disease [1, 2]. The use of gas dilution techniques, such as multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW), require minimal patient cooperation and allow FRC to be determined in those individuals unable to complete plethysmographic measurements. The MBNW technique is used clinically and for research, and provides accurate and repeatable measures in both children and adults [3, 4]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Salamon, E. R., Gain, K. R., Hall, G. L. Tags: Lung structure and function Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Dual gas techniques for peripheral airway function: diffusing the issues
In the quest to investigate small airway function in a range of lung diseases, multiple-breath washout tests have been applied for their potential to represent the most peripheral air spaces [1, 2]. The aim of reducing the burden on the patient has recently also revived interest in the single-breath washout. A single-breath washout test has now been proposed which involves an inhalation of 5% SF6, 26.3% He, 21% O2 and the balance as N2 in order to obtain a so-called dual gas tracer (DTG) phase III slope [3]. After having been introduced as a practical and promising lung function tool [3] and as an early detection tool in c...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Verbanck, S., Paiva, M. Tags: Lung structure and function Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Inspiratory muscle function, dynamic hyperinflation and exertional dyspnoea in pulmonary arterial hypertension
Despite a preserved forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/vital capacity (VC), patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may dynamically decrease their inspiratory capacity (IC) during cycle exercise (i.e. dynamic hyperinflation) [1–3] and this could increase exertional dyspnoea [1, 3, 4]. Little information is currently available about whether the reduced IC during cycle exercise is related to respiratory mechanics abnormalities or to impaired inspiratory muscle function (fatigue or weakness). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between inspiratory muscle ac...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Laveneziana, P., Humbert, M., Godinas, L., Joureau, B., Malrin, R., Straus, C., Jais, X., Sitbon, O., Simonneau, G., Similowski, T., Garcia, G. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Long-term mortality assessment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients treated with delamanid
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious obstacle to TB control [1]. The disproportionately negative outcomes among patients with drug resistance reflect a strong global need to develop new anti-TB drugs [2, 3]. Delamanid is a novel anti-TB agent that has recently been approved for the management of MDR-TB patients [4]. Treatment of MDR-TB patients with delamanid in combination with an optimised background regimen for 2 months significantly improved 2-month sputum culture conversion (SCC) by ~50%, in comparison to treatment with placebo plus an optimised background regimen [5]. Additionally, compared to ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wells, C. D., Gupta, R., Hittel, N., Geiter, L. J. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Is 1-year follow-up adequate for adult tuberculosis contacts?
To eliminate tuberculosis (TB) on a global scale, the identification and neutralisation of latently infected high-risk individuals is of paramount importance [1]. Active TB contacts are well documented with an increased risk for both latent TB infection (LTBI) and the development of active TB disease [2]. Contact investigation is an important and effective active case-finding strategy, but also requires abundant public health resources [3]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Feng, J.-Y., Chen, S.-C., Lee, M.-C., Fan, W.-C., Su, W.-J., Hu, Y.-W., Yeh, C.-M., Chen, T.-J., Liu, C.-J. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Suboptimal specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF among treatment-experienced patients
The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is strongly recommended by the World Health Organization as an initial diagnostic test for treatment-experienced patients of any retreatment category [1–3]. Yet, retreatment tuberculosis (TB) suspects have been infrequently included in studies of Xpert [4], probably because current-generation PCR-based tests are unable to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability [5]. Indeed, Xpert is known to frequently remain positive at the end of standard short-course therapy [6], with case reports emerging of Xpert false-positivity for up to 5 years post-treatment c...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Metcalfe, J. Z., Makumbirofa, S., Makamure, B., Mutetwa, R., Penaloza, R. A., Sandy, C., Bara, W., Mungofa, S., Hopewell, P. C., Mason, P. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

Cough hypersensitivity syndrome: clinical measurement is the key to progress
The recent European Respiratory Society (ERS) Task Force Report on chronic cough [1] should be commended for drawing attention to a neglected area of respiratory medicine and discussing controversies surrounding the approach to this common clinical problem. Cough hypersensitivity syndrome is proposed as a new shorthand to refer to patient-reported excessive coughing that otherwise evades clinical explanation [1]. As discussed in the report, cough hypersensitivity syndrome may or may not be associated with other causes of chronic cough, and its peripheral and central mechanisms are only partly understood [1]. (Source: Europ...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Turner, R. D., Bothamley, G. H. Tags: Respiratory clinical practice Original Articles: Correspondence Source Type: research

Cough hypersensitivity syndrome: clinical measurement is the key to progress
We thank R.D. Turner and G.H. Bothamley for their supportive comments concerning our task force report on chronic cough [1]. There is much to agree with in their remarks. But perhaps we would differ with respect to their emphasis and reliance on clinical measurement as the cornerstone of diagnosis and management. Understanding a patient's illness requires a careful synthesis of history, examination, and finally, specific investigations. Dependence on a single strand or even several strands decreases the physician's perception of the true nature of the illness. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Morice, A. H., Millqvist, E., Belvisi, M. G., Bieksiene, K., Birring, S. S., Chung, K. F., Dal Negro, R. W., Dicpinigaitis, P., Kantar, A., McGarvey, L. P., Pacheco, A., Sakalauskas, R., Smith, J. A. Tags: Respiratory clinical practice Original Articles: Correspondence Source Type: research

Screening for latent tuberculosis before tumour necrosis factor antagonist therapy
In this study, 353 IGRA-negative patients were commenced on TNF-α antagonists for a variety of inflammatory conditions without further LTBI assessment; one patient subsequently developed active TB. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hewitt, R. J., Singanayagam, A., Sridhar, S., Wickremasinghe, M., Min Kon, O. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Correspondence Source Type: research

Screening for latent tuberculosis before tumour necrosis factor antagonist therapy
We thank Richard Hewitt and colleagues for their comments. Determining the best strategy and combination of tests for detection of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is limited by the lack of gold standard for the diagnosis of LTBI. Increasing the number of tests may improve the sensitivity of latent TB detection, but at the cost of specificity, with an increased false-positive rate. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - April 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Loebinger, M. R., Pozniak, A. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Original Articles: Correspondence Source Type: research