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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 6.

Early treatment in preschool children: an evidence-based approach
Purpose of review: Wheezing is a common symptom in early childhood but only some of these children will experience continued wheezing symptoms in later childhood making the diagnosis and treatment of these children challenging. This review covers recent findings regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of preschool-aged children with asthma. Recent findings: Key characteristics that distinguish the childhood asthma-predictive phenotype include male sex, history of wheezing with lower respiratory tract infections, history of parental asthma, history of atopic dermatitis, eosinophilia, early sensitiza...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: PEDIATRIC ASTHMA AND DEVELOPMENT OF ATOPY: Edited by Carlos E. Baena-Cagnani and Leonard B. Bacharier Source Type: research

Longitudinal assessment of lung function decline in the occupational setting
Purpose of review: Spirometry is performed in the work setting as part of medical surveillance of workers with potentially respiratory hazardous work exposures, to identify early disease and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions. However, many clinicians are not familiar with workplace medical surveillance and how to evaluate longitudinal spirometry over time. Recent findings: A recent American Thoracic Society technical standards report addressed issues related to performing spirometry in the work setting, including the interpretation of longitudinal lung function. Important considerations in assessing lo...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Farm animal models of organic dust exposure and toxicity: insights and implications for respiratory health
This article reviews literature regarding constituents of farm animal production facility dusts, animal responses to production building and organic dust exposure, and the effect of chronic inhalation exposure on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent findings: Porcine models of production facility and organic dust exposures reveal striking similarities to observations of human cells, tissues, and clinical data. Oxidative stress plays a key role in mediating respiratory diseases in animals and humans, and enhancement of antioxidant levels through nutritional supplements can improve respiratory health. Summary:...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Occupational diseases in individuals exposed to metal working fluids
Purpose of review: To examine the current occurrence of respiratory and skin disease in workers who do metal machining with metal working fluids (MWFs), a common work process in manufacturing. Recent findings: A summary of the 27 recognized outbreaks of respiratory disease in workers exposed to MWFs was published. New studies have identified irritative symptoms among workers with low-level exposures. There were review articles discussing the content, measurement and control of microbial agents in MWFs. Summary: The occurrence of work-related asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis appears to have diminished in the last 10 ...
Source: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology - February 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: Edited by Susan M. Tarlo and Piero Maestrelli Source Type: research

Usefulness of Noninvasive Methods for the Study of Bronchial Inflammation in the Control of Patients with Asthma
In conclusion, since asthma is an inflammatory disease, it seems appropriate to try to control it through the study of airway inflammation using noninvasive methods. In this regard, the analysis of induced sputum cells has proved very useful, although the clinical implementation of this technique seems difficult. Other techniques such as temperature measurement, the analysis of FeNO, the analysis of the VOCs in exhaled breath, or the study of certain biomarkers in EBC require further study in order to determine their clinical applicability.Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2015;166:1-12 (Source: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology)
Source: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology - February 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Comparative changes in tissue oxygenation between laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy.
CONCLUSIONS: On AS2, the greater increase in OC-((A-a)DO2) associated with Oct in vol% and SaO2% findings also in OC group suggest that LC might be associated with lower risk for impaired tissue oxygenation. PMID: 25699119 [PubMed] (Source: Clin Med Res)
Source: Clin Med Res - February 27, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Bablekos GD, Michaelides SA, Analitis A, Lymperi MH, Charalabopoulos KA Tags: J Clin Med Res Source Type: research

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis Signaling by the Upregulation of PPARγ Coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in C2C12 Cells
Abstract Along with its effect on body fat reduction, dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to improve physical activity and endurance capacity in mice. It has been suggested these effects may in part be due to physiological changes in skeletal muscle, however, the mode of action is not completely understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the relevant mechanisms of CLA isomers for mitochondrial biogenesis, one of the most important adaptive responses in skeletal muscle. Both cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA isomers increased the expression of peroxisom...
Source: Lipids - February 27, 2015 Category: Lipidology Source Type: research

Is There a Role for Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Heart Failure Management?
Abstract The place of invasive hemodynamic monitoring in patients with acute heart failure is still debated, even though frequently used. Invasive techniques, which include the pulmonary artery catheter and transpulmonary thermodilution, provide important information on cardiac output and intravascular pressures or volume. These techniques should be used in combination with echocardiography and allow nurse-driven semicontinuous hemodynamic monitoring. These techniques are useful not only in the diagnosis of circulatory or respiratory failure but also for the evaluation of the effects of therapies. Admittedly, larg...
Source: Current Heart Failure Reports - February 27, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Lung function following very preterm birth in the era of ‘new’ bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Abstract One of the most significant complications of preterm birth is bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The pathophysiology of BPD has changed in recent years as advances in neonatal care have led to increased survival of smaller, more preterm, infants who display alterations to alveolar and pulmonary microvascular development. It is becoming clear that infants with ‘new’ BPD experience lung disease that persists into later childhood, however, the oldest of these children are just now entering young adulthood and therefore the longer term pulmonary implications remain unknown. The role of lung function testing in the ...
Source: Respirology - February 27, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shannon J. Simpson, Graham L. Hall, Andrew C. Wilson Tags: Invited Review Series: Respiratory Disease: Using Lung Function Measurements to Greater Advantage Source Type: research

Physical activity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
ConclusionsThe modified MRC scale, 6MWT distance, extent of fibrosis on HRCT and serum KL‐6 levels are strongly associated with physical activity. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - February 27, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Masayuki Nakayama, Masashi Bando, Koji Araki, Toshie Sekine, Fumio Kurosaki, Tetsuro Sawata, Shoko Nakazawa, Naoko Mato, Hideaki Yamasawa, Yukihiko Sugiyama Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Endotracheal tube biofilm translocation in the lateral Trendelenburg position
Conclusions: Our findings imply that during the course of invasive MV up to 72 hour, an ETT P.aeruginosa biofilm hastily colonizes the respiratory tract. Yet, the LTP compartmentalizes colonization and infection within the proximal airways and VAP never develops. (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - February 27, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Gianluigi BassiLaia Fernandez-BaratLina SaucedoValeria GiuntaJoan MartiOtavio RanzaniEli XiolMontserrat RigolIgnasi RocaLaura MuñozNestor LuqueMariano EsperattiMaria SacoJose RamirezJordi VilaMiguel FerrerAntoni Torres Source Type: research

Modelling the risk of airborne infectious disease using exhaled air
Publication date: Available online 19 February 2015 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology Author(s): Chacha M. Issarow , Nicola Mulder , Robin Wood In this paper we develop and demonstrate a flexible mathematical model that predicts the risk of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis under steady state and non-steady state conditions by monitoring exhaled air by infectors in a confined space. In the development of this model, we used the rebreathed air accumulation rate concept to directly determine the average volume fraction of exhaled air in a given space. From a biological point of view, exhaled air by inf...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - February 27, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effect of context on respiratory rate measurement in identifying non‐severe pneumonia in African children
ConclusionNoise and other contextual factors may cause a transient increase in respiratory rate and consequently misclassification of non‐severe pneumonia. However, this effect is less pronounced in older children than infants. Respiratory rate is a difficult sign to measure as the variation is large between and within children. More studies of the accuracy and utility of respiratory rate as a proxy for non‐severe pneumonia diagnosis in a busy clinic are needed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health - February 27, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Florida Muro, George Mtove, Neema Mosha, Hannah Wangai, Nicole Harrison, Helena Hildenwall, David Schellenberg, Jim Todd, Raimos Olomi, Hugh Reyburn Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Phosphatidylinositol inhibits respiratory syncytial virus infection [Research Articles]
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nearly all children under age 2, and reinfection occurs throughout life, seriously impacting adults with chronic pulmonary diseases. Recent data demonstrate that the anionic pulmonary surfactant lipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) exerts a potent antiviral effect against RSV in vitro and in vivo. Phosphatidylinositol (PI) is also an anionic pulmonary surfactant phospholipid, and we tested its antiviral activity. PI liposomes completely suppress interleukin-8 production from BEAS2B epithelial cells challenged with RSV. The presence of PI during viral challenge in vitro reduces infection...
Source: The Journal of Lipid Research - February 27, 2015 Category: Lipidology Authors: Numata, M., Kandasamy, P., Nagashima, Y., Fickes, R., Murphy, R. C., Voelker, D. R. Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Phosphoinositide‐dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) mediates potent inhibitory effects on eosinophils
In conclusion, our data illustrate a critical role for PDK1 in transducing inhibitory signals on eosinophil effector function. Thus, our results suggest that PDK1 might serve as a novel therapeutic target in diseases involving eosinophilic inflammation. (Source: European Journal of Immunology)
Source: European Journal of Immunology - February 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Eva M. Sturm, Gerald P. Parzmair, Balázs Radnai, Robert B. Frei, Gunter J. Sturm, Astrid Hammer, Rufina Schuligoi, Irmgard Th. Lippe, Akos Heinemann Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Intensive care unit acquired weakness
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015 Source:Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine Author(s): Robert John , Smita Bapat Intensive care unit acquired weakness is a broad clinical term that describes an acute neuromuscular impairment that commonly affects patients during critical illness. It is prevalent in this cohort of patients, and can be further defined by electrophysiological studies and muscle biopsies. Both limb and respiratory muscles are affected in this condition, which results in a prolonged length of stay, increased mortality and long-term disability. Early mobilization of patients and th...
Source: Anaesthesia and intensive care medicine - February 27, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Sodium butyrate epigenetically modulates high‐fat diet‐induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptation, obesity and insulin resistance through nucleosome positioning
Conclusions and ImplicationsNaB treatment may be an effective pharmacological approach for type 2 diabetes and obesity by inducing −1 nucleosome repositioning within nuclear‐encoded mitochondrial genes, causing skeletal muscle mitochondrial adaptations that result in more complete β‐oxidation and a lean, insulin sensitive phenotype. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - February 27, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tara M Henagan, Barbara Stefanska, Zhide Fang, Alexandra M Navard, Jianping Ye, Natalie R Lenard, Prasad P Devarshi Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Angiotensin-(1-7) improves oxygenation, while reducing cellular infiltrate and fibrosis in experimental Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Conclusions: Angiotensin-(1-7), decreased the severity of acute lung injury and inflammation induced by combined acid aspiration and high stretch ventilation. Furthermore, continuous infusion of Ang-(1-7) reduced lung fibrosis 2 weeks following acid aspiration injury. These results call for further research on Ang-(1-7) as possible therapy for ARDS. (Source: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental)
Source: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental - February 27, 2015 Category: Surgery Authors: Vanessa ZambelliGiacomo BellaniRoberto BorsaFederico PozziAlice GrassiMargherita ScanzianiVittoria CastiglioniSerge MassonAlessandra DecioJohn LaffeyRoberto LatiniAntonio Pesenti Source Type: research

Detection of influenza A and B with the Alere™ i Influenza A & B: a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification assay
ConclusionsAlere™ i Influenza A&B is a promising new rapid influenza diagnostic assay with potential point‐of‐care applications. (Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses)
Source: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses - February 27, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Briony Hazelton, Timothy Gray, Jennifer Ho, V. Mala Ratnamohan, Dominic E. Dwyer, Jen Kok Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Sleep-disordered Breathing in Neuromuscular Disease.
Abstract Sleep-disordered breathing in neuromuscular diseases is due to an exaggerated reduction in lung volumes during supine sleep, a compromised physiologic adaptation to sleep, and specific features of the diseases that may promote upper airway collapse or heart failure. The normal decrease in the rib cage contribution to the tidal volume during phasic REM sleep becomes a critical vulnerability, resulting in saw-tooth oxygen desaturation possibly representing the earliest manifestation of respiratory muscle weakness. Hypoventilation can occur in REM sleep and progress into NREM sleep, with continuous desaturati...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - February 27, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Aboussouan LS Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Blastomonas aquatica sp. nov., a bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacterium isolated from lake water on the Tibaten Plateau, China.
Abstract Yellow or orange to brown pigmented, ovoid or rod-shaped, Gram-negative staining, aerobic strains PE 4-5T and N5-10m-1 were isolated from brackish water lake Peng Co and fresh-brackish water lake Namtso on the Tibetan Plateau, China. BChl α were produced by the isolates. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16:1, C17:1 and C18:1 unsaturated fatty acids, C17:1 ω6c (55.3%), C17:1 ω8c (13.0%) and C18:1 ω7c (10.4%) for PE 4-5T and C18:1 ω7c (54.7%) and C16:1 ω7c (18.0%) for N5-10m-1. The polar lipid profiles of strain PE 4-5T and N5-10m-1 were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - February 27, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Xiao N, Liu Y, Liu X, Gu Z, Jiao N, Liu H, Zhou Y, Shen L Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Longitudinal monitoring for respiratory pathogens in broiler chickens reveals co-infection of Chlamydia psittaci and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.
Abstract Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) is prevalent in chicken broiler production. However, the role of C. psittaci in the respiratory disease complex needs to be clarified. It was our purpose to identify the time point when a C. psittaci infection appeared on a broiler farm and to examine the presence of other respiratory pathogens at that time. We focused on the 'major' respiratory pathogens occurring in Belgian broilers namely Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (O. rhinotracheale), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (M. gallisepticum) and Mycoplasma synoviae...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - February 27, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: De Boeck C, Kalmar I, Dumont A, Vanrompay D Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research

Target visibility enhancement for C-arm cone beam CT-fluoroscopy-guided hepatic needle placement: implementation and accuracy evaluation
Conclusion Visibility of targets in 2D fluoroscopy was enhanced to improve interactive navigation guidance for hepatic needle placement. The target matching accuracy for the C-arm cone beam CT-fluoroscopy-guided hepatic needle targeting was sufficient for clinical use. (Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery)
Source: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery - February 26, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Increased and early lipolysis in children with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency during fast
Abstract Children with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD) have a defect in the degradation of long-chain fatty acids and are at risk of hypoketotic hypoglycemia and insufficient energy production as well as accumulation of toxic fatty acid intermediates. Knowledge on substrate metabolism in children with LCHAD deficiency during fasting is limited. Treatment guidelines differ between centers, both as far as length of fasting periods and need for night feeds are concerned. To increase the understanding of fasting intolerance and improve treatment recommendations, children with LCHAD defic...
Source: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease - February 26, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Graded Shuttle Run Performance by Playing Positions in Elite Female Basketball
Abstract: Štrumbelj, B, Vučković, G, Jakovljević, S, Milanović, Z, James, N, and Erčulj, F. Graded shuttle run performance by playing positions in elite female basketball. J Strength Cond Res 29(3): 793–799, 2015—A graded shuttle run test was used to assess differences in physiological parameters between playing positions in elite female basketball players. Twenty-four female basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 8 centers) who played for the senior national teams of Slovenia and Serbia were tested with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. During the shuttle run, the following physiological parameters wer...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - February 26, 2015 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Interactive Effects of Body Position and Perceived Exertion During Spinning Exercises
This study examined the effects of 3 body positions and 4 levels of perceived exertion (RPE) on cardiorespiratory response and vastus lateralis normalized electromyographical activity (NrmsEMGVL). Eleven participants (24.4 ± 6.3 years) with 3.2 ± 2.2 years of Spinning experience completed twelve 3-minute randomly assigned Spinning conditions across 4 separate testing days after an 8-hour fast. Conditions were determined by body position (seated, running, and standing climb [SC]) and RPE (low, low-medium, medium-high, and high). Cardiorespiratory data and NrmsEMGVL were recorded continuously during each Spinning condition...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - February 26, 2015 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Influence of a Custom-Made Maxillary Mouthguard on Gas Exchange Parameters During Incremental Exercise in Amateur Road Cyclists
Abstract: Piero, M, Simone, U, Jonathan, M, Maria, S, Giulio, G, Francesco, T, Gabriella, C, Laura, A, Eva, B, Gianni, M, Francesco, C, and Giovanni, G. Influence of a custom-made maxillary mouthguard on gas exchange parameters during incremental exercise in amateur road cyclists. J Strength Cond Res 29(3): 672–677, 2015—Mouthguards are frequently used for protection purposes, particularly by athletes competing in contact sports. However, there is increasing evidence supporting their use for improving performance. Studies have focused their use in athletes who do not traditionally use mouthguards and who may be looking...
Source: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research - February 26, 2015 Category: Sports Medicine Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

T cell subsets in human airways prior to and following endobronchial administration of endotoxin
ConclusionsA unique distribution of T cells with little day‐to‐day variation was found in human airways. An increase in Tregs after endobronchial LPS suggests a role for Tregs during early stages of pulmonary inflammation. (Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - February 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Andreas Ronit, Ronni R. Plovsing, Julie C. Gaardbo, Ronan M.G. Berg, Hans J. Hartling, Lars Konge, Martin Iversen, Henrik Ullum, Kirsten Møller, Susanne Dam Nielsen Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Optic Neuropathy Secondary to Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis
We report a 45-year-old man with progressive unilateral visual loss secondary to a retroorbital soft tissue mass with histological features consistent with EAF. The patient experienced marked improvement in vision after endoscopic optic nerve decompression through sphenoethmoidectomy. (Source: Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Ophthalmology - February 26, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Photo Essay Source Type: research

18F-FDG PET/CT lung ‘focalities’ without coregistered CT findings: an interpretative clinical dilemma
Conclusion: In the absence of morphological abnormality, focal pulmonary 18F-FDG activity is very rare (1.5 cases/1000 PET scans) but potentially very ‘dangerous’. Artefact identification during acquisition can lead to late respiratory gated images for more confident interpretation, avoiding erroneous reports or further imaging procedures. (Source: Nuclear Medicine Communications)
Source: Nuclear Medicine Communications - February 26, 2015 Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Sodium balance, not fluid balance, is associated with respiratory dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: a prospective, multicentre study.
CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative positive sodium balance, not the cumulative positive fluid balance, is associated with respiratory dysfunction and an increased length of MV. PMID: 25702758 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Critical Care and Resuscitation)
Source: Critical Care and Resuscitation - February 26, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Tags: Crit Care Resusc Source Type: research

Primary fluid bolus therapy for infectionassociated hypotension in the emergency department.
CONCLUSION: Among ED patients admitted to an Australian teaching hospital with infection, hypotension was uncommon. FBT for hypotension was limited in volumes given and failed to achieve a sustained SBP of > 100mmHg in 40% of cases. In contrast, noradrenaline therapy corrected hypotension in all patients who received it. PMID: 25702756 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Critical Care and Resuscitation)
Source: Critical Care and Resuscitation - February 26, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Tags: Crit Care Resusc Source Type: research

Sleep breathing disorders and nocturnal respiratory pattern in patients with glycogenosis type II.
Authors: Fiorentino G, Annunziata A, Politano L Abstract Patients affected by glycogenosis type II frequently present sleep disordered breathing. The presence of symptoms suggestive of sleep breathing disorders was investigated, by a questionnaire, in 10 patients, affected by adult or juvenile forms of glycogenosis type II. Diurnal respiratory function, diaphragm weakness and nocturnal respiratory pattern were evaluated at the enrolment. In patients presenting sleep disordered breathing, the same parameters were re-evaluated after treatment with assisted non invasive ventilation. Out of 10 patients, 5 presented sym...
Source: Acta Myologica - February 26, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Acta Myol Source Type: research

Pleural subxyphoid drain confers better pulmonary function and clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusion: Subxyphoid pleural drainage in severe Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients determined better preservation and recovery of pulmonary capacity and volumes with lower pulmonary shunt fraction and better clinical outcomes on early postoperative off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Objetivo: Avaliar a função pulmonar e os resultados clínicos em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica grave submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea, com enxerto da artéria torácica interna esquerda, comparando a inserção do dreno pleural intercostal vers...
Source: Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular - February 26, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research

Different duration strategies of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery: an observational study
Conclusions: Reducing the duration of PAB from 56 h to 32 h in adult cardiac surgery patients was not associated with an increase of nosocomial infection rate, but contributes to reduce antibiotic resistance and health care costs. (Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery)
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery - February 26, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Khaled HamoudaMehmet OezkurBhanu SinhaJohannes HainHannah MenkelMarcus LeistnerRainer LeyhChristoph Schimmer Source Type: research

A comparative analysis of 3 sedation guidelines for patients undergoing subarachnoid anesthesia. Randomized, single blind clinical trial
Conclusions The three sedation guidelines presented were effectively used in subarachnoid anesthesia; the results were more favorable with the use of midazolam+fentanyl or midazolam+ketamine. p-2011-1682 Colciencias. Registro # NCT0213664 (clinicaltrials.gov,prospectivo). (Source: Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology)
Source: Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology - February 26, 2015 Category: Anesthesiology Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of hospital-onset Pneumocystis pneumonia and genotypes of Pneumocystis jirovecii in a single tertiary centre in Korea
Conclusions: PCP can be one of the causes of nosocomial pneumonia, although the mode of acquisition and transmission of P. jirovecii remains uncertain. mtLSU genotype 1 is the predominant P. jirovecii strain in Korea. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - February 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tark KimSang-Oh LeeHyo-Lim HongJu LeeSung-Han KimSang-Ho ChoiMi-Na KimYang KimJun WooHeungsup Sung Source Type: research

Mannan adjuvants intranasally administered inactivated influenza virus in mice rendering low doses inductive of strong serum IgG and IgA in the lung
Conclusions: Mixing 100 μg of mannan with 1 μg of inactivated H1N1 adjuvanted the vaccine in mice, such that IN immunisation induced higher serum IgG and respiratory tract IgA than immunisation with virus alone. The serum from mice thus immunised inhibited H1N1-mediated RBC agglutination strongly in vitro. If mannan similarly adjuvants low doses of influenza vaccine in humans, it could potentially be used for vaccine ‘dose-sparing’ in the event that a vaccine shortage arises from an epidemic involving a highly virulent human-to-human transmissable influenza strain. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - February 26, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Owen ProudfootSandra EsparonChoon-Kit TangKaren LaurieIan BarrGeoffrey Pietersz Source Type: research

Predicting mortality following hip fracture: an analysis of comorbidities and complications
Conclusions This study highlights specific patient comorbidities and medical complications that could be used to guide clinical assessment, management and targeted interventions that improve outcomes in this patient group. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science - February 26, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Evaluation of electrolyte imbalance among tuberculosis patients receiving treatments in Southwestern Nigeria
Conclusion Hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia, and hypochloremia characterized some of the electrolyte imbalance among TB patients receiving treatments. The raised level of bicarbonate may be attributed to overcorrection of respiratory acidosis often found in patients with tuberculosis. Monitoring electrolytes is therefore an important component of TB management. (Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine)
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - February 26, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Neural respiratory drive and symptoms that limit exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Publication date: 26 February 2015 Source:The Lancet, Volume 385, Supplement 1 Author(s): Caroline Jolley , Yuanming Luo , Joerg Steier , Karl Sylvester , William Man , Gerrard Rafferty , Michael Polkey , John Moxham Background Exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited by both breathlessness and leg muscle fatigue. Neural respiratory drive, measured as diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) activity expressed as a proportion of maximum (EMGdi%max), quantifies the mechanical load on the respiratory muscles and relates closely to breathlessness. We tested the hypothesis that end-exercise EMGdi%...
Source: The Lancet - February 26, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Respiratory cycle-dependent left atrial tachycardia in a former Tour de France cyclist
(Source: Europace)
Source: Europace - February 26, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mussigbrodt, A., Hindricks, G., Bollmann, A. Tags: CASE EXPRESS REPORTS Source Type: research

Effects of different ventilation strategies on exhaled nitric oxide in geriatric abdominal surgery
Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) has been suggested to be a marker of small airway injury. We investigated the effects of different ventilation strategies on eNO. Sixty-nine patients who received elective open abdominal surgery under general anesthesia with more than 2 h of surgery duration were randomly divided into three groups: high tidal volume of 10–12 ml kg −1 predicted body weight (PBW) with zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) (high V T + ZEEP group); low tidal volume of 6–8 ml kg −1 PBW with 8 cm H 2 O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (low V T + PEEP group); and low tidal volume of 6–8...
Source: Journal of Breath Research - February 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Yinghua Cui, Xin Pi, Changsong Wang, Shujuan Liu, Yulei Gong, Yang Wang, Fan Zhang, Jinghui Shi, Ziwei Lin, Xin Zhang and Enyou Li Source Type: research

Effect of COPD on cognitive functions in patients with heart failure
Publication date: Available online 25 February 2015 Source:Heart & Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care Author(s): Serdar Kalemci , Ibrahim Altun , Kadriye Memiç Sancar , Murat Biteker (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - February 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Perspectives from mechanical circulatory support coordinators on the pre-implantation decision process for destination therapy left ventricular assist devices
Conclusions MCS coordinators endorsed a shared decision-making process that starts early, uses non-biased educational materials, and involves a multidisciplinary team sensitive to the tension between conveying enough detail about the therapy yet not overwhelming patients. (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - February 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Diagnostic yield of sputum microbiological analysis in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in a period of 10 years
Conclusions This study showed an incremental yield with more than one sputum sample. However, overall sensitivity remained low, suggesting a need for new diagnostic strategies and novel and better diagnostic tools. (Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia)
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia - February 26, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research