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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 6.

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in human airway correlates with lung function.
Abstract Nicotine and its derivatives, by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on bronchial epithelial cells, can regulate cellular signaling and inflammatory processes. Delineation of nAChR subtypes and their responses to nicotine stimulation in bronchial epithelium may provide information for therapeutic targeting in smoking-related inflammation in the airway. Expression of nAChR subunit genes in 60 bronchial epithelial biopsies and immunohistochemical staining for the subcellular locations of nAChR subunit expression were evaluated. Seven human bronchial epithelial cell lines (HBECs) were expose...
Source: Am J Physiol Lung Ce... - November 25, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lam DC, Luo SY, Fu KH, Lui MM, Chan KH, Wistuba II, Gao B, Tsao SW, Ip MS, Minna JD Tags: Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol Source Type: research

Neuro-oncological patients admitted in intensive-care unit: predictive factors and functional outcome
Abstract The prognosis of oncology patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is considered poor. Our objective was to analyze the characteristics and predictive factors of death in the ICU and functional outcome following ICU treatment for neuro-oncology patients. A retrospective study was conducted on all patients with primary brain tumor admitted to our institutional ICU for medical indications. Predictive impact on the risk of death in the ICU was analyzed as well as the functional status was evaluated prior and following ICU discharge. Seventy-one patients were admitted to the ICU. ICU admission indic...
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - November 25, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Effect of limited ischemia time on the amount and function of mitochondria within human skeletal muscle cells
Conclusions The use of tourniquet during TKA within a limited time period of 60 min remained without substantial effects on the amount and function of mitochondria within human skeletal muscle cells. (Source: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery)
Source: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery - November 25, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Reversal of phenotypes in MECP2 duplication mice using genetic rescue or antisense oligonucleotides
Nature advance online publication 25 November 2015. doi:10.1038/nature16159 Authors: Yehezkel Sztainberg, Hong-mei Chen, John W. Swann, Shuang Hao, Bin Tang, Zhenyu Wu, Jianrong Tang, Ying-Wooi Wan, Zhandong Liu, Frank Rigo & Huda Y. Zoghbi Copy number variations have been frequently associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. MECP2 duplication syndrome is one of the most common genomic rearrangements in males and is characterized by autism, intellectual disability, motor dysfunction, anxiety, epilepsy, recurrent respiratory tract infections and early death. The broad ra...
Source: Nature AOP - November 25, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Yehezkel SztainbergHong-mei ChenJohn W. SwannShuang HaoBin TangZhenyu WuJianrong TangYing-Wooi WanZhandong LiuFrank RigoHuda Y. Zoghbi Tags: Letter Source Type: research

Hypothiocyanite produced by human and rat respiratory epithelial cells inactivates extracellular H1N2 influenza A virus
Conclusions Differentiated air–liquid interface cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells provide a novel model to study airway epithelium–influenza interactions. The dual oxidase/lactoperoxidase/thiocyanate extracellular oxidative system producing hypothiocyanite is a fast and potent anti-influenza mechanism inactivating H1N2 viruses prior to infection of the epithelium. (Source: Inflammation Research)
Source: Inflammation Research - November 25, 2015 Category: Research Source Type: research

Pulmonary retention of adipose stromal cell following intravenous delivery is markedly altered in the presence of ARDS.
We examined how the presence of ARDS changes retention and organ-specific distribution of intravenously delivered MSC isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASC), cell therapy which was previously shown to ameliorate ARDS pathology. ARDS was triggered by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) aspiration, 4h after which 300,000 murine CRE-positive ASC were delivered intravenously. The distribution of ASC in lungs and other organs was assessed by real-time PCR of genomic DNA. As anticipated, the majority of delivered ASC accumulated in the lungs of both control and LPS-challenged mice, with minor amounts distributed to liver, kidney, ...
Source: Cell Transplantation - November 25, 2015 Category: Cytology Authors: Lu H, Cook T, Poirier C, Merfeld-Clauss S, Petrache I, March KL, Bogatcheva NV Tags: Cell Transplant Source Type: research

Role of CT and PET Imaging in Predicting Tumor Recurrence and Survival in Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Comparison with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma
Conclusions: TDR on CT, SUVmax on PET, and the new histologic classification schemes appear to be promising parameters for the prognostic stratification of patients with lung adenocarcinomas, allowing for the triage of patients who necessitate further staging workup and adjuvant therapy. (Source: Journal of Thoracic Oncology)
Source: Journal of Thoracic Oncology - November 24, 2015 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Evaluating the use of optimally respiratory gated 18F-FDG-PET in target volume delineation and its influence on radiation doses to the organs at risk in non-small-cell lung cancer patients
Conclusion: Compared with nongated 18F-FDG-PET, the TVs obtained with optimally respiratory gated 18F-FDG-PET were significantly smaller, however, without a clinically relevant difference in radiation dose to the OAR. (Source: Nuclear Medicine Communications)
Source: Nuclear Medicine Communications - November 24, 2015 Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Epidemiology of 11 respiratory RNA viruses in a cohort of hospitalized children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - November 24, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Haitham M. Amer, Mohamed S. Alshaman, Mohamed A. Farrag, Moawia E. Hamad, M. M. Alsaadi, Fahad N. Almajhdi Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Avian Soft Tissue Surgery
Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resect...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice - November 24, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: David Sanchez-Migallon Guzman Source Type: research

Diagnostic Imaging of the Lower Respiratory Tract in Neonatal Foals
Diagnostic imaging plays an essential role in the diagnosis and monitoring of lower respiratory disease in neonatal foals. Radiography is most widely available to equine practitioners and is the primary modality that has been used for the characterization of respiratory disease in foals. Computed tomography imaging, although still limited in availability to the general practitioner, offers advantages over radiography and has been used diagnostically in neonatal foals with respiratory disease. Recognition of appropriate imaging protocols and patient-associated artifacts is critical for accurate image interpretation regardle...
Source: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice - November 24, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Kara M. Lascola, Stephen Joslyn Source Type: research

Did studies on HFOV fail to improve ARDS survival because they did not decrease VILI? On the potential validity of a physiological concept enounced several decades ago
Abstract High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) has been the subject of extensive physiological research for 30 years and even more so of an intense debate on its potential usefulness in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This technique has been enthusiastically promoted by some teams until two high-quality randomized clinical trials in adults with ARDS showed that HFOV did not decrease and might have even increased mortality. As a consequence of these results, physiological concepts such as atelectrauma and biotrauma on which ARDS management with HFOV were based should be reexam...
Source: Intensive Care Medicine - November 24, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Source Type: research

Physiological and subjective responses to breathing resistance of N95 filtering facepiece respirators in still-sitting and walking
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of breathing resistance on physiological and subjective responses to N95 filtering facepiece respirators (N95 FFRs) during still-sitting and walking. Fifteen subjects sat for 5 min and walked for 5 min while wearing 2 different models of N95 FFRs, 1 model of which was equipped with exhalation valves (N95 FFR/EV). The subjects were monitored by a modified monitoring garment for respiratory signals (RSP) and surface electromyography (sEMG). Subjects also were asked to complete subjective ratings of overall breathing resistance. The results of the physiological measuremen...
Source: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics - November 24, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 6021-6028: Enterovirus D68 Infection
First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation an...
Source: Viruses - November 24, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Susanna EspositoSamantha BosisHubert NiestersNicola Principi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Real-time quantification of oxidative stress and the protective effect of nitroxide antioxidants
In this study we compared the efficiency of these novel compounds as antioxidant therapies in reducing ROS both in vivo (rat model) and in vitro (661W photoreceptor cells), with the established antioxidant resveratrol. By assessing changes in fluorescence intensity of a unique redox-responsive probe in the rat retina in vivo, we evaluated the ability of antioxidant therapy to (1) ameliorate ROS production and (2) reverse the accumulation of ROS after complete, acute ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R). I/R injury induced a marked decrease in fluorescence intensity over 60 min of reperfusion, which was successfully a...
Source: Neurochemistry International - November 24, 2015 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Differential acute and chronic effects of burn trauma on murine skeletal muscle bioenergetics
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2015 Source:Burns Author(s): Craig Porter, David N. Herndon, Nisha Bhattarai, John O. Ogunbileje, Bartosz Szczesny, Csaba Szabo, Tracy Toliver-Kinsky, Labros S. Sidossis Altered skeletal muscle mitochondrial function contributes to the pathophysiological stress response to burns. However, the acute and chronic impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains poorly understood. Here, we determined the temporal relationship between burn trauma and mitochondrial function in murine skeletal muscle local to and distal from burn wounds. Male BALB/c mice (8–...
Source: Burns - November 24, 2015 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Intra-abdominal hypertension; prevalence, incidence and outcomes in a low resource setting; a prospective observational study
Conclusion: The prevalence and incidence of IAH in the paediatrics and adults group in our study population were high. IAH was associated with mortality in both adult and paediatrics groups and respiratory system dysfunction in adult group. This calls for objective monitoring of intraabdominal pressure in patients undergoing emergency laparotomy with the aim of reducing associated mortality. (Source: World Journal of Emergency Surgery)
Source: World Journal of Emergency Surgery - November 24, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Job KuteesaOlivia KituukaDan NamuguziCynthia NdikunoSamuel KirundaDavid MukunyaMoses Galukande Source Type: research

A 17-Year-Old Female With Respiratory Depression as a Result of Opioid Overdose
Publication date: November–December 2015 Source:Air Medical Journal, Volume 34, Issue 6 Author(s): Michelle M. McLean, Sara Adibi, Ali Ahmed, Charles Lathrop, Michael Kaster, Peter V.R. Tilney (Source: Air Medical Journal)
Source: Air Medical Journal - November 24, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Improved Oxygenation After Transport in Patients With Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure
Conclusion In patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure, Pao2/Fio2 and Pao2 increased after transport by a critical care transport team despite 28.1% of patients desaturating with hypoxemia in transit. (Source: Air Medical Journal)
Source: Air Medical Journal - November 24, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Factors Associated With Complications of Clostridium difficile Infection in a Multicenter Prospective Cohort
Conclusions. CDI complications were associated with older age, abnormal blood tests, and abnormal vital signs. These factors, which are readily available to clinicians at the time of diagnosis, could be used for outcome prediction and risk stratification to select patients who may need closer monitoring or more aggressive therapy. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - November 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abou Chakra, C. N., McGeer, A., Labbe, A.-C., Simor, A. E., Gold, W. L., Muller, M. P., Powis, J., Katz, K., Garneau, J. R., Fortier, L.-C., Pepin, J., Cadarette, S. M., Valiquette, L. Tags: ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES Source Type: research

Intravenous and Intramuscular Formulations of Antiseizure Drugs in the Treatment of Epilepsy
This article reviews the literature and discusses the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use of currently available intravenous and intramuscular ASD formulations as well as the development of new formulations and agents. Intravenous or intramuscular formulations of lorazepam, diazepam, midazolam, and clonazepam are typically used as the initial treatment agents in seizure emergencies. Recent studies also support the use of intramuscular midazolam as easier than the intravenous delivery of lorazepam in the pre-hospital setting. However, benzodiazepines may be associated with hypotension and respiratory...
Source: CNS Drugs - November 24, 2015 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Characteristics of miRNAs and their potential relevance for the diagnosis and therapy of the acute respiratory distress syndrome: from bench to bedside
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers and specific pharmacological treatment of the syndrome are lacking.miRNAs are small (∼19-22 nucleotides) non coding ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules whose function is the regulation of gene expression. Their uncommon biochemical characteristics (e.g. their resistance to degradation due to extreme temperature and pH fluctuations, freeze-thaw cycles, long storage times in frozen conditions and RNAse digestion) as well as their presence in a wide range of different biological fluids and the relatively low...
Source: Translational Research - November 24, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Pablo Cardinal-Fernández, Antonio Ferruelo, Andrés Esteban, José A. Lorente Source Type: research

Clinical Practice Guideline on Adult Domiciliary Oxygen Therapy: Executive summary from the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand
(Source: Respirology)
Source: Respirology - November 24, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Christine F. McDonald, Ken Whyte, Sue Jenkins, John Serginson, Peter Frith Tags: Clinical Practice Guidelines Source Type: research

EsxO (Rv2346c) promotes bacillary survival by inducing oxidative stress mediated genomic instability in macrophages
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives inside the macrophages by modulating the host immune responses in its favor. The 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6; esxA) of Mtb is known as a potent virulence and T-cell antigenic determinant. At least 23 such ESAT-6 family proteins are encoded in the genome of Mtb; however, the function of many of them is still unknown. We herein report that ectopic expression of Mtb Rv2346c (esxO), a member of ESAT-6 family proteins, in non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis strain (MsmRv2346c) aids host cell invasion and intracellular bacillary persistence. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - November 24, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Soumitra Mohanty, Michael Dal Molin, Geetanjali Ganguli, Avinash Padhi, Prajna Jena, Petra Selchow, Srabasti Sengupta, Michael Meuli, Peter Sander, Avinash Sonawane Tags: Mechanisms of Pathogenesis Source Type: research

Critical Care at the End of Life
Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2015; 36: 921-933DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1565254Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is common among patients approaching the end of their lives from acute as well as chronic life-limiting conditions. ICU providers are expected to have basic palliative care skills integrated into their routine practice. Palliative care skills can be applied to all ICU patients, regardless of prognosis, and may improve patient- and family-centered end of life (EOL) care in the ICU. Consultative palliative care models may be required for more complex palliative care needs including symptom management, medical decision m...
Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - November 24, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Akgün, Kathleen M.Kapo, Jennifer M.Siegel, Mark D. Source Type: research

Efficacy of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Patients with COPD Followed in Intensive Care Unit
Conclusion: This study indicates that pulmonary rehabilitation can prevent loss of muscle strength in ICU. Nevertheless, we consider that further studies with larger populations are needed to examine the impact of NMES and/or active and passive muscle training in bedridden ICU patients who are mechanically ventilated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal)
Source: The Clinical Respiratory Journal - November 24, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Olcay Akar, Ersin Günay, Sevinc Sarinc Ulasli, Alper Murat Ulasli, Emre Kacar, Muzaffer Sariaydin, Özlem Solak, Sefa Celik, Mehmet Ünlü Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Association between environmental exposures and granulomatosis with polyangiitis in Canterbury, New Zealand
Conclusion: We have replicated findings from northern hemisphere studies identifying dust exposure as well as farm exposure as risk factors for the development of GPA. We have shown activities associated with exposure to inhaled antigens, in particular those related to farming or gardening activities may increase the risk of GPA. (Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy)
Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy - November 24, 2015 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Lisa StampPeter ChapmanJanine FrancisLutz BeckertChristopher FramptonRichard WattsJohn O¿Donnell Source Type: research

Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis
Abstract Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis is a singular type of progressive chronic interstitial nephritis. The pathogenesis of this disease is unknown. The present study reported the case of a 22-year-old man who presented with a long history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infection episodes secondary to bronchiectasis and with progressive renal failure. Renal biopsy revealed chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and a surprisingly marked karyomegaly specifically of the tubular epithelium. (Source: CEN Case Reports)
Source: CEN Case Reports - November 24, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Simplified sleep restriction impacts objective but not subjective sleep for people with primary insomnia in primary care
Commentary on: Falloon K, Elley CR, Fernando A , et al. Simplified sleep restriction for insomnia in general practice: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract 2015;65:e508–15 . Context Insomnia is a significant health concern with annual incidence rates of approximately 36.6% in its acute and 2.8% in its chronic form.1 Importantly, insomnia is a significant risk factor for the development of several physical and psychological illnesses—most notably major depression.2 3 Despite advances in non-pharmacological insomnia treatments, specifically a 6–8-week course of cognitive-behavioural therapy for ins...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - November 24, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Ellis, J. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), General practice / family medicine, Sleep disorders (neurology), Mood disorders (including depression), Sleep disorders, Sleep disorders (respiratory medicine) Therapeutics/Prevention Source Type: research

Synbiotic yogurt consumption leads to statistical improvements in child health that may not be clinically relevant
Commentary on: Ringel-Kulka T, Kotch JB, Jensen ET, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of synbiotic yogurt effect on the health of children. J Pediatr 2015;166:1475–81 . Context Probiotics, prebiotics and the mixture of both (synbiotics) have potential health benefits because of their immunological effects. Before companies can describe the indications, benefit has to be shown through clinical trials. A clinical trial conducted to evaluate the health benefits of daily consumption of synbiotic yoghurt in children is described. Methods This was a placebo-controlled, randomised and double-blind tr...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - November 24, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Vandenplas, Y. Tags: Neurogastroenterology, Immunology (including allergy), Childhood nutrition, Diet Therapeutics/Prevention Source Type: research

A mandibular advancement device did not affect daytime sleepiness and quality of life in obstructive sleep apnoea
Commentary on: Marklund M, Carlsberg B, Forsgren L, et al. Oral appliance therapy in patients with daytime sleepiness and snoring or mild to moderate sleep apnea: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2015;175:1278–85 . Context Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a sleep-related breathing disorder, characterised by (intense) snoring and recurrent obstructions of the upper airway during sleep. Among other things, OSA is associated with cardiovascular complications and increased mortality.1 Oral appliances that move the mandible into a more anterior position, commonly known as mandibular advancement devices (MAD), have gaine...
Source: Evidence-Based Medicine - November 24, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Doff, M. H. J. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Sleep disorders (neurology), Sleep disorders, Sleep disorders (respiratory medicine), Dentistry and oral medicine Therapeutics/Prevention Source Type: research

Impact of expiratory strength training in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Muscle and Nerve)
Source: Muscle and Nerve - November 24, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Emily K. Plowman, Stephanie A. Watts, Lauren Tabor, Raele Robison, Joy Gaziano, Amanda S. Domer, Joel Richter, Tuan Vu, Clifton Gooch Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

TRPC6 and phagosomal function [Cell Biology]
Defects in the innate immune system in the lung with attendant bacterial infections contribute to lung tissue damage, respiratory insufficiency, and ultimately death in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Professional phagocytes, including alveolar macrophages (AMs), have specialized pathways that ensure efficient killing of pathogens in phagosomes. Phagosomal acidification facilitates... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - November 24, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Riazanski, V., Gabdoulkhakova, A. G., Boynton, L. S., Eguchi, R. R., Deriy, L. V., Hogarth, D. K., Loaec, N., Oumata, N., Galons, H., Brown, M. E., Shevchenko, P., Gallan, A. J., Yoo, S. G., Naren, A. P., Villereal, M. L., Beacham, D. W., Bindokas, V. P., Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

The engineering of biology and medicine [Introductions]
In celebration of the 100th Anniversary of PNAS, this Special Feature summarizes the enormous progress that has been made in the engineering of biology and medicine. In 1915, PNAS published articles, such as “A comparison of methods for determining the respiratory exchange of man,” by T. M. Carpenter (1), “The... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - November 24, 2015 Category: Science Authors: Davis, M. E., Langer, R. Tags: 100th Anniversary, The Engineering of Biology and Medicine PNAS 100th Anniversary Special Feature Source Type: research

Role of brain‐derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory–inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat
Abstract The critical period of respiratory development in rats is a narrow window toward the end of the second postnatal week (P12–13), when abrupt neurochemical, electrophysiological, and ventilatory changes occur, when inhibition dominates over excitation, and when the animals’ response to hypoxia is the weakest. The goal of this study was to further test our hypothesis that a major mechanism underlying the synaptic imbalance during the critical period is a reduced expression of brain‐derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its TrkB receptors. Our aims were to determine (1) that the inhibitory dominance observed in...
Source: Physiological Reports - November 24, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: Xiu‐ping Gao, Hanmeng Zhang, Margaret Wong‐Riley Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 6043-6050: Enterovirus D68 Infection
First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation an...
Source: Viruses - November 24, 2015 Category: Virology Authors: Susanna EspositoSamantha BosisHubert NiestersNicola Principi Tags: Review Source Type: research

Alveolar macrophage inflammatory mediator expression is elevated in the setting of alcohol use disorders
We examined the effect of AUDs on profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in human AMs isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 19 AUD subjects and 20 age-, sex-, and smoking-matched control subjects. (Source: Alcohol)
Source: Alcohol - November 24, 2015 Category: Addiction Authors: Eileen Bock O’Halloran, Brenda J. Curtis, Majid Afshar, Michael M. Chen, Elizabeth J. Kovacs, Ellen L. Burnham Source Type: research

Periodicity during hypercapnic and hypoxic stimulus is crucial in distinct aspects of phrenic nerve plasticity.
This study was undertaken to determine pattern sensitivity of phrenic nerve plasticity in respect to different respiratory challenges. We compared long-term effects of intermittent and continuous hypercapnic and hypoxic stimuli, and combined intermittent hypercapnia and hypoxia on phrenic nerve plasticity. Adult, male, urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to: acute intermittent hypercapnia (AIHc or AIHc(O2)), acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH), combined intermittent hypercapnia and hypoxia (AIHcH), continuous hypercapnia (CHc), or continuous hypoxia (CH). Pea...
Source: Physiological Research - November 24, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: Stipica I, Pavlinac Dodig I, Pecotic R, Dogas Z, Valic Z, Valic M Tags: Physiol Res Source Type: research

Quantifying the image quality and dose reduction of respiratory triggered 4D cone-beam computed tomography with patient-measured breathing.
Abstract Respiratory triggered four dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (RT 4D CBCT) is a novel technique that uses a patient's respiratory signal to drive the image acquisition with the goal of imaging dose reduction without degrading image quality. This work investigates image quality and dose using patient-measured respiratory signals for RT 4D CBCT simulations. Studies were performed that simulate a 4D CBCT image acquisition using both the novel RT 4D CBCT technique and a conventional 4D CBCT technique. A set containing 111 free breathing lung cancer patient respiratory signal files was used to create 111...
Source: Physica Medica - November 24, 2015 Category: Physics Authors: Cooper BJ, O'Brien RT, Kipritidis J, Shieh CC, Keall PJ Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research

Effects of Surface Composition on the Aerosolisation and Dissolution of Inhaled Antibiotic Combination Powders Consisting of Colistin and Rifampicin
In this study, five combination formulations containing colistin (COL) and rifampicin (RIF) were prepared by spray drying. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was measured for the formulation of COL/RIF = 4:1 with relatively high emitted doses (over 80%) and satisfactory fine particle fractions (over 60%). Data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nano-time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) showed the surfaces of particles were mainly covered by rifampicin even for the formulation with a mass ratio of COL/RIF = 4:1. Because colist...
Source: The AAPS Journal - November 24, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A Proteomic Characterization of NTHi lysates
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a ubiquitous bacterial pathogen which accounts for a majority of human upper respiratory tract infections. Laboratory lysate preparations from this bacterium are commonly utilized to investigate the promulgation of inflammatory responses in respiratory and middle ear epithelium both in vivo and in vitro. We undertook an unbiased proteomics based analysis of NTHi lysate preps to: a) identify abundant bacterial proteins present in these lysates that could play a role in NTHi biological effects and b) determine the protein content variability in different lysate prep batches from ...
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - November 24, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Diego Preciado, Marian Poley, Stephanie Tsai, Amarel Tomney, Kristy Brown, Stephanie Val Source Type: research

Sevoflurane and bradycardia in infants with trisomy 21: A case report and review of the literature
We present a 2-year-old girl with trisomy 21 who developed the rapid onset of bradycardia during anesthetic induction with sevoflurane. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - November 24, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Hina Walia, James Ruda, Joseph D. Tobias Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Fibrogenic Lung Injury Induces Non-Cell-Autonomous Fibroblast Invasion.
Abstract Pathologic accumulation of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis appears to depend on their invasion through basement membranes and extracellular matrices. Fibroblasts from the fibrotic lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have been demonstrated to acquire a phenotype characterized by increased cell-autonomous invasion. Here, we investigated whether fibroblast invasion is further stimulated by soluble mediators induced by lung injury. We found that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from bleomycin-challenged mice or patients with IPF contain mediators that dramatically increase the matri...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - November 24, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Ahluwalia N, Grasberger PE, Mugo BM, Feghali-Bostwick C, Pardo A, Selman M, Lagares D, Tager AM Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

miR-27a-3p is a Negative Regulator of Lung Fibrosis by Targeting Myofibroblast Differentiation.
In conclusion, our data suggest that miR-27a-3p functions via a negative feed-back mechanism in inhibiting lung fibrosis. This study also indicates that targeting miR-27a-3p is a novel therapeutic approach to treat fibrotic organ disorders, including lung fibrosis. PMID: 26600197 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - November 24, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Cui H, Banerjee S, Xie N, Ge J, Liu RM, Matalon S, Thannickal VJ, Liu G Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Cigarette Smoke Induces HER2 Dependent Changes in Epithelial Permeability.
Abstract The airway epithelium constitutes a protective barrier against inhaled insults such as viruses, bacteria and toxic fumes including cigarette smoke (CS). Maintenance of bronchial epithelial integrity is central for airway health and defective epithelial barrier function contributes to the pathogenesis of CS-mediated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While CS has been shown to increase epithelial permeability, current understanding of the mechanisms involved in CS-induced epithelial barrier disruption remains incomplete. We have previously identified that the receptor tyrosine ki...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - November 24, 2015 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Mishra R, Foster D, Vasu VT, Thaikoottathil JV, Kosmider B, Chu HW, Bowler RP, Finigan JH Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after discharge from intensive care unit: a protocol for a systematic review
Introduction Treatment on an intensive care unit (ICU) imposes a high treatment burden on patients, as well as an economic burden for the healthcare provider. Many studies have recorded health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients after treatment on an ICU. We propose a systematic review of these studies. Methods We will search the National Library of Medicine's PubMed electronic database (PubMed), the Cochrane database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science and Open Grey to identify papers reporting quality of life after discharge from ICU. We will include papers includin...
Source: BMJ Open - November 24, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Gerth, A. M. J., Watkinson, P. J., Young, J. D. Tags: Open access, Epidemiology, Evidence based practice, Intensive care, Research methods Protocol Source Type: research

Influence of the practice setting on diagnostic prediction rules using FENO measurement in combination with clinical signs and symptoms of asthma
Conclusions FENO results should be interpreted in the context of CSS to enhance their diagnostic value in primary care. The final diagnostic model appears as a sound algorithm fitting well to the established diagnostic rules related to CSS of asthma. FENO appears more effective for ruling in asthma than for ruling it out. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - November 24, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Schneider, A., Wagenpfeil, G., Jörres, R. A., Wagenpfeil, S. Tags: Open access, Respiratory medicine Research Source Type: research

Bone mineral density and fracture risk with long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma: systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions ICS use for ≥12 months in adults or children with asthma was not significantly associated with harmful effects on fractures or bone mineral density. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - November 24, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Loke, Y. K., Gilbert, D., Thavarajah, M., Blanco, P., Wilson, A. M. Tags: Open access, Pharmacology and therapeutics, Respiratory medicine Research Source Type: research