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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 6.

Adolescent and adult perceptions of traditional and novel smokeless tobacco products and packaging in rural Ohio
Conclusions Packaging has a significant role in shaping perceptions of ST and consumer behaviour. Regulation of product packaging such as shape, size and images should be part of comprehensive tobacco control. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Liu, S. T., Nemeth, J. M., Klein, E. G., Ferketich, A. K., Kwan, M.-P., Wewers, M. E. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

The natural history of antismoking advertising recall: the influence of broadcasting parameters, emotional intensity and executional features
Conclusions In order to achieve sufficient levels of population recall of antismoking campaigns, advertisements need to be broadcast at adequate levels in relatively frequent cycles. Advertisements with highly emotional content may offer the most efficient means by which to increase population recall. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Dunlop, S. M., Perez, D., Cotter, T. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Cost effectiveness of full coverage of the medical management of smoking cessation in France
Conclusions Compared to other health measures in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease already covered by SHI, full coverage of smoking cessation is the most cost-effective approach. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Chevreul, K., Cadier, B., Durand-Zaleski, I., Chan, E., Thomas, D. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Growth in Tobacco Control publications by authors from low- and middle-income countries
Conclusions Efforts to expand research by LMIC authors and about LMIC issues have begun to bear fruit, with a recent substantial increase. Still, the centrality of LMICs in the global tobacco pandemic implies that this progress only begins to address the enormous need. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Warner, K. E., Tam, J., Koltun, S. M. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Smoking while driving and public support for car smoking bans in Italy
Conclusions Despite the high percentage of smokers who smoke in private vehicles, the majority of the Italian population (including smokers) support the introduction of a smoking ban in cars, particularly in cars carrying children. Smoke-free laws should therefore be extended to private vehicles, particularly if they are carrying children. Moreover, warning labels on cigarette packages should include information on the increased risk of accidents when smoking while driving. Mass media campaigns should also consider targeting this topic. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Martinez-Sanchez, J. M., Gallus, S., Lugo, A., Fernandez, E., Invernizzi, G., Colombo, P., Pacifici, R., La Vecchia, C. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Tobacco advertising/promotions and adolescents' smoking risk in Northern Africa
Conclusions Tobacco advertising/promotion exposure was highly prevalent and associated with adolescents' smoking risk in these countries. The comprehensiveness and enforcement of advertising/promotion bans needs to be enhanced. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Madkour, A. S., Ledford, E. C., Andersen, L., Johnson, C. C. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Association of cigarette smoking with skin colour in Japanese women
Conclusions These data suggest that smoking is associated with a darker skin colour. If our findings are confirmed by further studies, they could be used in antismoking campaigns or by smoking cessation services. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tamai, Y., Tsuji, M., Wada, K., Nakamura, K., Hayashi, M., Takeda, N., Yasuda, K., Nagata, C. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television
Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lyons, A., McNeill, A., Britton, J. Tags: Open access Research paper Source Type: research

Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure
Conclusions Partial smoking bans in hotels do not protect non-smoking guests from exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Non-smokers are advised to stay in hotels with complete smoking bans. Existing policies exempting hotels from complete smoking bans are ineffective. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Matt, G. E., Quintana, P. J. E., Fortmann, A. L., Zakarian, J. M., Galaviz, V. E., Chatfield, D. A., Hoh, E., Hovell, M. F., Winston, C. Tags: Research paper Source Type: research

The importance of cigarette packaging in a 'dark' market: the 'Silk Cut' experience
In a growing number of countries tobacco companies are severely restricted in how they can legally market their products. In these ‘dark’ markets the role of packaging as a promotional and communications tool becomes more pronounced. How packaging is used for the most expensive cigarette brands in dark markets has received limited attention however, even though these ‘premium’ cigarette brands significantly impact upon the profitability of tobacco companies. We outline, using retail trade press journals, how packaging was used for premium brand ‘Silk Cut’ in the UK from 2004 to 2011, fol...
Source: Tobacco Control - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Moodie, C., Angus, K., Ford, A. Tags: Special communication Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
Don't miss this American Pie This issue coinciding with the ATS meeting in San Diego has a North American theme. In addition to a number of strong research papers, there is a HOT off the breath by Detterbeck (see page 406) on minimising VOMITing in cancer management (see Airwaves passim, or previous issues for the classically challenged) and two great reviews on the genomic origins of asthma from the Channing laboratory (see page 481), and an –omics perspective on sleep disordered breathing in children (see page 474). This last, from a future ATS president, is a really hot topic – snoring is no joke but a clear...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bush, A., Pavord, I. Tags: Airwaves Source Type: research

HRCT-defined emphysema is not COPD to be treated with inhalers
The COPDGene Study1 is providing important new information about the natural history of several chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes.2 This multicentre study enrolled a large number of current and former smokers with a wide range of spirometry results (from normal to very severe airflow obstruction), carefully characterised them during their baseline examination, and has been following them for several important outcome measures. The key phenotypes include (1) chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) defined by a low post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), (2) hig...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Enright, P. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Measuring diaphragm shortening using ultrasonography to predict extubation success
It is estimated that approximately 800 000 US patients annually require mechanical ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure due to medical disorders, trauma or the postoperative period.1 The use of mechanical ventilation is projected to increase significantly in the next few decades due to the impact of aging baby bloomers requiring more critical care resources.2 Although life-saving, the prolonged use of mechanical ventilation is associated with significant complications such as nosocomial pneumonia, barotrauma, patient discomfort, airway complications and respiratory muscle atrophy and accounts for a substanti...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Criner, G. J. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Will SUMMIT reach the peak in COPD?
Introduction The Study to Understand Mortality and Morbidity in COPD (SUMMIT) is a randomised controlled trial conducted in patients with COPD and comorbid cardiovascular disease, designed to assess the ‘impact of Fluticasone Furoate/Vilanterol combination (FF/VI) and its individual components on the survival of patients with moderate COPD and either a history of CVD or at increased risk for CVD’.1 Fluticasone furoate is an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and vilanterol is a long-acting β-agonist (LABA). The trial is enrolling 16 000 such patients with moderate COPD randomly assigned to once daily treatm...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Suissa, S. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: respiratory system HOT off the breath Source Type: research

Overdiagnosis during lung cancer screening: is it an overemphasised, underappreciated, or tangential issue?
The issue of overdiagnosis is frequently raised in the context of lung cancer screening. Two recent papers draw attention to this matter: one by Patz et al,1 which estimates the incidence of overdiagnosis in the experience of the National Lung Screening Trial, and the US Preventative Services Task Force report that recommends screening in an organised programme for individuals at an elevated risk of developing lung cancer.2Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler (Albert Einstein) Overdiagnosis—what is it exactly? There are many definitions. In the Patz paper these are excess cancers identified in the s...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Detterbeck, F. C. Tags: Lung neoplasms, Epidemiologic studies, Lung cancer (oncology), Screening (oncology), Child health, Infant health, Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Screening (epidemiology), Screening (public health) HOT off the breath Source Type: research

Comparison of spirometric thresholds in diagnosing smoking-related airflow obstruction
Conclusions Compared with the fixed ratio, the use of LLN fails to identify a number of patients with significant pulmonary pathology and respiratory morbidity. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bhatt, S. P., Sieren, J. C., Dransfield, M. T., Washko, G. R., Newell, J. D., Stinson, D. S., Zamba, G. K. D., Hoffman, E. A., for the COPDGene Investigators Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Cluster analysis in the COPDGene study identifies subtypes of smokers with distinct patterns of airway disease and emphysema
Background There is notable heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of patients with COPD. To characterise this heterogeneity, we sought to identify subgroups of smokers by applying cluster analysis to data from the COPDGene study. Methods We applied a clustering method, k-means, to data from 10 192 smokers in the COPDGene study. After splitting the sample into a training and validation set, we evaluated three sets of input features across a range of k (user-specified number of clusters). Stable solutions were tested for association with four COPD-related measures and five genetic variants previously associated wi...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Castaldi, P. J., Dy, J., Ross, J., Chang, Y., Washko, G. R., Curran-Everett, D., Williams, A., Lynch, D. A., Make, B. J., Crapo, J. D., Bowler, R. P., Regan, E. A., Hokanson, J. E., Kinney, G. L., Han, M. K., Soler, X., Ramsdell, J. W., Barr, R. G., Forem Tags: Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Measuring respiratory symptoms in clinical trials of COPD: reliability and validity of a daily diary
Conclusions Results suggest the RS-Total is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating respiratory symptom severity in stable COPD. Further study of sensitivity to change is warranted. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Leidy, N. K., Sexton, C. C., Jones, P. W., Notte, S. M., Monz, B. U., Nelsen, L., Goldman, M., Murray, L. T., Sethi, S. Tags: Clinical trials (epidemiology), Open access, TB and other respiratory infections, Bronchitis, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Diaphragm ultrasound as a predictor of successful extubation from mechanical ventilation
Conclusions Ultrasound measures of diaphragm thickening in the zone of apposition may be useful to predict extubation success or failure during SB or PS trials. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: DiNino, E., Gartman, E. J., Sethi, J. M., McCool, F. D. Tags: Editor's choice, Mechanical ventilation, Airway biology, Mechanical ventilation, Radiology (diagnostics) Critical care Source Type: research

Connective tissue disease related interstitial lung diseases and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: provisional core sets of domains and instruments for use in clinical trials
Conclusion Identification of consensus preliminary domains and instruments to measure them was attained and is a major advance anticipated to facilitate multicentre RCTs in the field. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Saketkoo, L. A., Mittoo, S., Huscher, D., Khanna, D., Dellaripa, P. F., Distler, O., Flaherty, K. R., Frankel, S., Oddis, C. V., Denton, C. P., Fischer, A., Kowal-Bielecka, O. M., LeSage, D., Merkel, P. A., Phillips, K., Pittrow, D., Swigris, J., Antoniou Tags: Open access, Interstitial lung disease Source Type: research

Development and validation of a lung transplant-specific disability questionnaire
Conclusions The LT-VLA is a short, easy to administer, valid and responsive disease-specific PCO instrument that may be useful in clinical and research applications for lung transplantation. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Singer, J. P., Blanc, P. D., Dean, Y. M., Hays, S., Leard, L., Kukreja, J., Golden, J., Katz, P. P. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Airway biology, Lung function, Cardiothoracic surgery, Transplantation Lung transplantation Source Type: research

DNA copy number aberrations in endobronchial lesions: a validated predictor for cancer
In conclusion, CNAs prove to be a highly accurate biomarker for assessing the progression risk of endobronchial squamous metaplastic and dysplastic lesions. This classifier could assist in selecting subjects with endobronchial lesions who might benefit from more aggressive therapeutic intervention or surveillance. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: van Boerdonk, R. A. A., Daniels, J. M. A., Snijders, P. J. F., Grunberg, K., Thunnissen, E., van de Wiel, M. A., Ylstra, B., Postmus, P. E., Meijer, C. J. L. M., Meijer, G. A., Smit, E. F., Sutedja, T. G., Heideman, D. A. M. Tags: Cardiothoracic surgery Lung cancer Source Type: research

High treatment success in children treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an observational cohort study
We describe the presentation, treatment and outcome in children treated for severe and non-severe MDR-TB in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study of all children (<15 years) treated for MDR-TB if routinely initiated on treatment between January 2009 and December 2010. Treatment was based on local standard of care, based on international guidelines. Data were collected through family interviews and folder review. Standardised definitions were used for diagnosis, severity of disease, adverse events and outcome. Results Of 149 children started on MDR-TB treatment, the median age...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Seddon, J. A., Hesseling, A. C., Godfrey-Faussett, P., Schaaf, H. S. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, Child health Tuberculosis Source Type: research

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality and prevalence: the associations with smoking and poverty--a BOLD analysis
Conclusions Smoking remains the single most important cause of obstruction but a high prevalence of restriction associated with poverty could explain the high ‘COPD’ mortality in poor countries. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Burney, P., Jithoo, A., Kato, B., Janson, C., Mannino, D., Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, E., Studnicka, M., Tan, W., Bateman, E., Kocabas, A., Vollmer, W. M., Gislason, T., Marks, G., Koul, P. A., Harrabi, I., Gnatiuc, L., Buist, S., for the Burden of Obstructi Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Correction
Ciccone A, Proserpio P, Roccatagliata DV, et al. Wake-up stroke and TIA due to paradoxical embolism during long obstructive sleep apnoeas: a cross-sectional study. Thorax 2013;68:97-104. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-201643. The affiliation of the seventh author, Carolina Lombardi, was incorrect. The author's correction affiliation is 'Department of Cardiology, Sleep Medicine Lab, ‘San Luca’ Hospital, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy'. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Correction Source Type: research

The promise of translational and personalised approaches for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea: an 'Omics' perspective
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can result in significant morbidities including the cardiovascular, metabolic and neurocognitive systems. These effects are purportedly mediated via activation of inflammatory cascades and the induction of oxidative stress, ultimately resulting in cellular injury and dysfunction. While great advances have been made in sleep medicine research in the past decades, there are still wide gaps in our knowledge concerning the exact underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA and consequences. Without resolving these issues, the reasons why patients with a similar severity of OSA can have markedl...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tan, H.-L., Kheirandish-Gozal, L., Gozal, D. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Sleep disorders (neurology), Child health, Sleep disorders, Sleep disorders (respiratory medicine) Review Source Type: research

The genomic origins of asthma
Lung function tracks from the earliest age that it can be reliably measured. Genome wide association studies suggest that most variants identified for common complex traits are regulatory in function and active during fetal development. Fetal programming of gene expression during development is critical to the formation of a normal lung. An understanding of how fetal developmental genes related to diseases of the lungs and airways is a critical area for research. This review article considers the developmental origins hypothesis, the stages of normal lung development and a variety of environmental exposures that might infl...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sharma, S., Chhabra, D., Kho, A. T., Hayden, L. P., Tantisira, K. G., Weiss, S. T. Tags: Asthma, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Review Source Type: research

Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome leads to a functional deterioration of the acinus post lung transplant
ABSTRACT Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) limits long-term survival of lung transplant recipients, and airflow obstruction in these patients likely originates in the small airways. 61 double lung transplant recipients performed multiple breath nitrogen washouts to obtain indices of acinar and conductive ventilation heterogeneity (Sacin, Scond). There was a significant association of BOS status with Sacin (Kruskal–Wallis; p<0.001) but not with Scond (p=0.1). These results demonstrate that it is the structural alteration of the terminal bronchioles, generating ventilation heterogeneity at the level of the dif...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Thompson, B. R., Hodgson, Y. M., Kotsimbos, T., Liakakos, P., Ellis, M. J., Snell, G. I., Verbanck, S. Tags: Bronchiolitis, TB and other respiratory infections, Bronchitis, Interstitial lung disease, Cardiothoracic surgery, Transplantation Research letter Source Type: research

Ambrisentan for pulmonary fibrosis
This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study is one of the largest multicentre studies investigating whether ambrisentan (an endothelin A receptor antagonist) reduces the rate of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) progression. The investigators compared ambrisentan (more commonly used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PH)) with placebo on the basis of preclinical studies suggesting endothelin receptor blockade decreased the severity of pulmonary fibrosis. The primary endpoint was time to IPF progression defined as either death, respiratory hospitalisation or prespecified decrease in lung function (whi...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Punwani, R. Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research

COPD and IPF: it's all about regulation and balance
The dominant theory of Hippocrates was that of the four humours—that when the four humours were in balance health prevailed. Therefore, the main goal of the medical therapy was to restore humoral equilibrium. We read with great interest the article by Hou et al,1 where an imbalance between protective and detrimental subgroups of T regulatory (Treg) cells in patients with COPD is showed. On the contrary with previous studies reporting no significant differences in CD4 foxp3+ T cells between patients with COPD and smokers,2 authors performed an elegant series of experiments and dissected Treg cells into three distinct ...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tzouvelekis, A., Bouros, D. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Answer to 'COPD and IPF: it's all about regulation and balance'
We thank Tzouvelekis and Bouros1 for their interest in our recent article in Thorax.2 The theory of Hippocrates reminds us of the balance theory informing traditional Chinese medicine. Ancient Chinese scholars believed there were two natural, complementary yet contradictory forces in our universe: yin and yang, with the former being feminine or negative and the latter masculine or positive. Both of them are always in a state of dynamic balance. A balanced state of yin and yang means health whereas an excess or deficiency of one or the other usually indicates disease. Ancient scholars in China therefore treated this phenome...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hou, J., Sun, Y., Zeng, H. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Defining obesity hypoventilation syndrome
The definition of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) proposed by Hart et al1 raises two questions that we have tried to answer briefly in this letter. First, previous definitions of OHS included obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA); Hart et al have excluded it. Why? OSA is present in most patients with OHS and is partly responsible for the hypercapnia.2 We believe that it is useful to include it in the definition or classification of the condition in a manner similar to narcolepsy: OHS with OSA and OHS without OSA, as in narcolepsy with cataplexy and narcolepsy without cataplexy. Such classification has mechanistic and thera...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tulaimat, A., Littleton, S. Tags: PostScript Source Type: research

Design of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study (SPIROMICS)
Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) is a multicentre observational study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) designed to guide future development of therapies for COPD by providing robust criteria for subclassifying COPD participants into groups most likely to benefit from a given therapy during a clinical trial, and identifying biomarkers/phenotypes that can be used as intermediate outcomes to reliably predict clinical benefit during therapeutic trials. The goal is to enrol 3200 participants in four strata. Participants undergo a baseline visit and three annual follow-up examinat...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Couper, D., LaVange, L. M., Han, M., Barr, R. G., Bleecker, E., Hoffman, E. A., Kanner, R., Kleerup, E., Martinez, F. J., Woodruff, P. G., Rennard, S., for the SPIROMICS Research Group, Alexis, Anderson, Badr, Basta, Boucher, Carretta, Cooper, Curtis, Doe Tags: Therapeutic trials, Epidemiologic studies Chest clinic Source Type: research

DNA copy number changes as diagnostic tools for lung cancer
Lung cancer usually presents as advanced stage disease and there is a need for early diagnosis so that appropriate treatments can be provided prior to tumour progression. Copy number variation is frequently detected in tumours and can contribute to tumour progression. This is because regions harbouring DNA imbalance can contain genes encoding critical proteins whose altered dosage contributes to the neoplastic process. Three copy number variations (CNVs) from chromosomes 3p26-p11.1 (loss), 3q26.2-29 (gain) and 6q25.3-24.3 (loss) have previously been described in individuals presenting with endobronchial squamous metaplasia...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bowcock, A. M. Tags: Lung neoplasms, Lung cancer (oncology), Lung cancer (respiratory medicine) Chest clinic Source Type: research

COPD, end of life and Ceiling of Treatment
Discussion Death is inevitable. Death is sometimes preventable, but ultimately it is only postponed. This existential truth applies to us all. More immediately, the logic applies to patients with severe COPD just as it does to patients with disseminated malignancy. The only difference between these situations is that... (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Taylor, D. R. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, End of life decisions (geriatric medicine), End of life decisions (palliative care), Hospice, Ethics, Quality improvement Chest clinic Source Type: research

Power injector associated iatrogenic air embolism to the right heart
Air embolism is the entry of air into the vascular system and is usually associated with surgeries, trauma and central lines.1 A patient presented to the clinic with new onset atrial flutter and lower extremity oedema. The patient was admitted and within 24 h, the course became complicated by respiratory failure, requiring intubation and admission to the intensive care unit. A chest CT scan with contrast was ordered for evaluation. Upon acquisition of the images, the patient was found to have at least 50 cc of air to be present in the right atrium and ventricle (figure 1), along with bilateral pulmonary embolism, the ...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jhamnani, S., Panza, J. A. Tags: Images in Thorax, Journalology, Venous thromboembolism, Pulmonary embolism, Radiology (diagnostics), Ethics Chest clinic Source Type: research

What's hot that the other lot got
Muc5b is in mucus regulation Muc5b is known to be involved in mucus regulation though its specific role is unknown. An American group developed a Muc5b deficient mouse (Nature 505:412–16). Muc5b deficiency caused material to accumulate in the upper airway. This subsequently led to chronic infection by multiple bacterial species including Staphylococcus aureus, with associated impaired resolution of inflammation. There was accumulation of apoptotic macrophages, impaired phagocytosis and a reduction in interleukin 23 production. In mice who had oversecretion of Muc5b, macrophage function improved as did airway clearanc...
Source: Thorax - April 12, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Prior, K. Tags: Genetic screening / counselling, Pneumonia (infectious disease), TB and other respiratory infections, Inflammation, Asthma, Pneumonia (respiratory medicine), Radiology (diagnostics) Chest clinic Source Type: research