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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 6.

As the Medical Education Curriculum is Changing, It is Still Good to Train Students and Physicians in Many Different Patient Locations
Abstract Medical teaching methods are changing with students now encouraged to be self-learners, accruing more knowledge themselves, receiving less didactic instruction, utilizing more peer group interactions, and using more portable self-accessible technology to get medical information. Medical school curriculums are adapting with more simulated instruction, group analysis of clinical problems (problem-based learning), earlier exposure to patients and their evaluation, volunteer medical missions, and participation in relevant clinical research. But will these changes, especially the use of portable technology for...
Source: Lung - October 22, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Animal evolution and atmospheric po2: is there a link between gradual animal adaptation to terrain elevation due to ural orogeny and survival of subsequent hypoxic periods?
Considering evolution of terrestrial animals as something happening only on flat continental plains seems wrong. Many mountains have arisen and disappeared over the geologic time scale, so in all periods some areas of high altitude existed, with reduced oxygen pressure (pO2) and increased aridity. During orogeny, animal species of the raising terrain can slowly adapt to reduced oxygen levels.This review proposes that animal evolution was often driven by atmospheric oxygen availability. Transitions of insect ancestors and amphibians out of water are here interpreted as events forced by the lack of oxygen in shallow and warm...
Source: Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling - October 22, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sven Kurbel Source Type: research

Effects of different flow patterns and end-inspiratory pause on oxygenation and ventilation in newborn piglets: an experimental study
Conclusion: The present study showed that there are no differences between SF, DF, SF-EIP and DF-EIP in oxygenation, ventilation, lung mechanics, or hemodynamics in this experimental model of newborn piglets with healthy lungs. (Source: BMC Anesthesiology)
Source: BMC Anesthesiology - October 22, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Carlos FerrandoMarisa GarcíaAndrea GutierrezJose CarbonellGerardo AguilarMarina SoroFrancisco Belda Source Type: research

An infrequent cause of total lung collapse: Endobronchial lipoma
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2014 Source:Alexandria Journal of Medicine Author(s): Fahd Ahmed Suhail , Mohamed Mahmoud El Shafei , Basma Mohamed El.Sabaa , Adel Mohamed Risk , Shadya Halmy Abou Safe Endobronchial lipomas are rare benign tumors of the lung. The reported case was a 46-year-old man who came to our center for follow up of endobronchial lesion and contracted it 5years ago. A fibrobronchoscopy failed to reach the lesion due to narrowing in the upper respiratory tract and the percutaneous sampling (CT-guided FNA) was taken. Histopathological investigation revealed that the tumor was an endobronchi...
Source: Alexandria Journal of Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum as a complication in human bocavirus infection
Abstract The most common causes of spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) in children are asthma attack and respiratory tract infection. Here, we describe a case of SPM in a human bocavirus‐infected 2‐year‐old boy with bronchiolitis. (Source: Pediatrics International)
Source: Pediatrics International - October 22, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Sevgi Pekcan, Bahar Gokturk, Hasibe Uygun Kucukapan, Ugur Arslan, Duygu Fındık Tags: Patient Report Source Type: research

Complications associated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Description and standardized assessment
Conclusions Standardized criteria of surgical complications are necessary. Standardization is possible by combined application of two tools. We believe that this evaluation concept of the surgery morbidity must be used systematically in order to achieve a new standard refined, concise and comparative for reports of adverse perioperative events. (Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas)
Source: Actas Urologicas Espanolas - October 22, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Lung involvement in children with lysinuric protein intolerance
Conclusion PAP is a constant feature in children with LPI and lung involvement. Pulmonary fibrosis is frequent and these two pathologies may develop independently. This study shows the heterogeneity of presentation and outcome. Lung injury could be secondary to impaired phagocytic function and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses intrinsic to the SLC7A7 mutant phenotype. HRCT is recommended to detect lung involvement. (Source: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease)
Source: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease - October 22, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

Combined BNP and Echocardiographic assessment in interstitial lung disease for pulmonary hypertension detection
Natriuretic Peptides (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and NT pro-BNP) are proposed biomarkers to differentiate between cardiac and pulmonary causes of acute dyspnea [1]. Some emerging data proposed the use in respiratory disease and particularly in patients with acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension (PH) [2]. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - October 22, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alberto Palazzuoli, Gaetano Ruocco, Behar Cekorja, Marco Pellegrini, Gabriele Del Castillo, Ranuccio Nuti Tags: Letter to the editor Source Type: research

Sputum club cell protein concentration is associated with pulmonary exacerbation in cystic fibrosis
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients exhibit a progressive decline in lung function accelerated by intermittent pulmonary exacerbations. There are urgent needs for clinically relevant biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and management of a CF pulmonary exacerbation, in addition to providing insight into its pathophysiology. Club cell secretory protein (CCSP) is produced by bronchial epithelial cells, known to have anti-inflammatory properties and may play a role in CF pulmonary exacerbations. Our objective was to measure sputum CCSP concentration during hospitalizations for CF pulmonary exacerbation and during quarterly outpatient...
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - October 22, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Theresa A. Laguna, Cynthia B. Williams, Kyle R. Brandy, Cole Welchlin-Bradford, Catherine E. Moen, Cavan S. Reilly, Christine H. Wendt Source Type: research

The effect of short-term, high-dose oral N-acetylcysteine treatment on oxidative stress markers in cystic fibrosis patients with chronic infection — A pilot study
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection have increased oxidative stress as a result of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species caused by inflammation and their inactivation by the impaired antioxidant systems. Supplementation with anti-oxidants is potentially beneficial for CF patients. (Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis)
Source: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis - October 22, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marianne Skov, Tacjana Pressler, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen, Peter Østrup Jensen, Helle Krogh Johansen, Tavs Qvist, Dorthe Kræmer, Niels Høiby, Oana Ciofu Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Improving mitochondrial bioenergetics under ischemic conditions increases warm ischemia tolerance in the kidney.
IMPROVING MITOCHONDRIAL BIOENERGETICS UNDER ISCHEMIC CONDITIONS INCREASES WARM ISCHEMIA TOLERANCE IN THE KIDNEY. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014 Oct 22; Authors: Szeto HH, Liu S, Soong Y, Birk AV Abstract Ischemia time during partial nephrectomy is strongly associated with acute and chronic renal injury. ATP depletion during warm ischemia inhibits ATP-dependent processes, resulting in cell swelling, cytoskeletal breakdown and cell death. The duration of ischemia tolerated by the kidney depends on the amount of ATP that can be produced with residual substrates and oxygen in the tissue to sustain cell f...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - October 22, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Szeto HH, Liu S, Soong Y, Birk AV Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Calcium Restores the Macrophage Response to Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae in COPD.
Conclusions: Extracellular calcium improved phagocytosis, restored innate cytokine secretion and increased cell surface expression of bacterial recognition receptors, CD16 and MARCO. These observations support the therapeutic use of calcium to improve macrophage function in COPD to decrease exacerbations and chronic bacterial infection. PMID: 25338285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - October 22, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Provost KA, Smith M, Arold SP, Hava DL, Sethi S Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Rho-kinase Mediates Right Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Rats with Chronic Neonatal Pulmonary Hypertension.
Conclusions: Pressure unloading and regressed arterial and cardiac remodeling did not lead to recovery of systolic function while right ventricular Rho-kinase activity remained increased. Right ventricle-specific up-regulation of RhoA/Rho-kinase activity is critical to hypoxia-mediated systolic dysfunction, in part by regulating the activity of phosphodiesterase 5. PMID: 25337652 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - October 22, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Gosal K, Dunlop K, Dhaliwal R, Ivanovska J, Kantores C, Desjardins JF, Connelly KA, McNamara PJ, Jain A, Jankov RP Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Health-care associate transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus, MERS-CoV, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - October 22, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eskild Petersen, Marjorie M. Pollack, Lawrence C. Madoff Source Type: research

The roles of ADAM33, ADAM28, IL-13 and IL-4 in the development of lung injuries in children with lethal non-pandemic acute infectious pneumonia
Pneumonia is a generic term used to described acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract and is a primary cause of hospitalization and death in children under 5 years of age [1–9] worldwide, and viruses and bacteria are the most common etiological agents [5–7]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Virology - October 22, 2014 Category: Virology Authors: Emanuele Baurakiades, Victor Horácio Costa, Sonia Maria Raboni, Vivian Rafaela Telli de Almeida, Kelly Susana Kunze Larsen, Juliana Nemetz Kohler, Priscilla do Carmo Gozzo, Giseli Klassen, Graciele C.M. Manica, Lucia de Noronha Source Type: research

Ethical Dilemmas of Adult ECMO: Emerging Conceptual Challenges
EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION (ECMO) is an invaluable rescue therapy for patients with refractory respiratory or cardiac failure. Recent developments in cardiopulmonary bypass technology, such as miniaturized extracorporeal devices, heparin-coated circuits, and percutaneous cannulation techniques, have facilitated widespread application of ECMO in different clinical situations.1 The decision to initiate ECMO is made more difficult by uncertainties surrounding who might most benefit from it. (Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia)
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - October 22, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Kollengode Ramanathan, Matthew E. Cove, Michael G. Caleb, Kristine L.K. Teoh, Graeme Maclaren Tags: Special Article Source Type: research

Supraglottic epithelial hyperplasia in association with guttate psoriasis
Supraglottic epithelial hyperplasia is rare in the pediatric population, and typically presents in adults as a sequelae of radiation therapy or progressive autoimmune disease. Guttate psoriasis typically presents in young adults following an inflammatory trigger such as an upper respiratory infection or streptococcal pharyngitis. A case of stridorous episodes heralded by flares guttate psoriasis is presented. Pathologic analysis demonstrated supraglottic epithelial hyperplasia. This case demonstrates a rare cause of stridor and upper airway obstruction in children. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra)
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology Extra - October 22, 2014 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Jon Mallen-St. Clair, Fernando Palma-Diaz, Nina L. Shapiro Tags: CaseReport Source Type: research

Factors influencing the outcome of infections bronchitis vaccination and challenge experiments.
Abstract The factors influencing the outcome of infectious bronchitis vaccination and challenge experiments regarding the respiratory and renal systems are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of the available techniques for measuring protection against an IBV challenge are discussed, including the definition of protection itself. Suggestions are made regarding some ways in which progress towards standardisation of a recognised protocol for performing experimental challenge studies can be made and areas where more work is needed are indicated. PMID: 25338230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)
Source: Avian Pathology - October 22, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: de Wit JJ, Cook JK Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Gene Expression in Relation to Exhaled NO Identifies Novel Asthma Phenotypes with Unique Biomolecular Pathways.
Abstract Although asthma is recognized as a heterogeneous disease associated with clinical phenotypes, the molecular basis of these phenotypes remains poorly understood. While genomic studies have successfully broadened our understanding in diseases such as cancer, they have not been widely used in asthma studies. To link gene expression patterns to clinical asthma phenotypes, we utilized a microarray platform to analyze bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC) gene expression in relation to the asthma biomarker fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in 155 asthmatic subjects and healthy controls from the Severe Ast...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - October 22, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Modena BD, Tedrow JR, Milosevic J, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, Wu W, Bar-Joseph Z, Erzurum SC, Gaston BM, Busse WW, Jarjour NN, Kaminski N, Wenzel SE Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Tiotropium may improve asthma symptoms and lung function in asthmatic patients with irreversible airway obstruction: The real life data.
CONCLUSION: Our study has suggested that, for patients with poorly controlled asthma despite of the use of ICS/LABA, the addition of tiotropium to standard care may be beneficial. PMID: 25335652 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - October 22, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Abadoglu O, Berk S Tags: Clin Respir J Source Type: research

Maternal obesity and immune dysregulation in mother and infant: A review of the evidence
Obesity is a worldwide public health epidemic. Increasing numbers of reproductive-age women enter pregnancy overweight or obese and there is now convincing data that this adverse in utero environment impacts both fetal and lifelong development. Epidemiologic evidence has shown a simultaneous increase in obesity and asthma rates in developed countries and maternal obesity is a risk factor for infant asthma and wheeze. Here we review the state of research linking maternal obesity and immunomodulation in both mother and infant, with specific attention to the relationship between maternal obesity and offspring asthma. (Source:...
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - October 22, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Giulia S. Rizzo, Sarbattama Sen Source Type: research

Pulmonary Complications of Abdominal Wall Defects
The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. (Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews)
Source: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews - October 22, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Howard B. Panitch Source Type: research

Medical devices; immunology and microbiology devices; classification of nucleic acid-based devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the genetic mutations associated with antibiotic resistance. Final order.
Abstract The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB-complex) and the genetic mutations associated with MTB-complex antibiotic resistance in respiratory specimens devices into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) because special controls, in addition to general controls, will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID: 25341265 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Fed Regist)
Source: Fed Regist - October 22, 2014 Category: American Health Authors: Food and Drug Administration, HHS Tags: Fed Regist Source Type: research

AMPAkines Have Novel Analgesic Properties in Rat Models of Persistent Neuropathic and Inflammatory Pain
Conclusions: AMPAkines alleviate pain hypersensitivity as well as depression-like behavior associated with long-lasting nerve injury and inflammatory insult. (Source: Anesthesiology)
Source: Anesthesiology - October 21, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Pain Medicine: Basic Science Source Type: research

Pupillary Effects of High-dose Opioid Quantified with Infrared Pupillometry
Conclusions: Opioid administration with significant accompanying hypercarbia and hypoxia results in pupil diameters of 2 to 3 mm and a reduced but quantifiable pupillary light reflex. The authors conclude that the pupillary examination and evaluation of the light reflex remain useful for neurologic assessment during opioid toxicity. (Source: Anesthesiology)
Source: Anesthesiology - October 21, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Critical Care Medicine: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Effects of Neostigmine Reversal of Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Agents on Postoperative Respiratory Outcomes: A Prospective Study
Conclusions: Neostigmine reversal did not affect oxygenation but was associated with increased atelectasis. High-dose neostigmine or unwarranted use of neostigmine may translate to increased postoperative respiratory morbidity. (Source: Anesthesiology)
Source: Anesthesiology - October 21, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Tags: Perioperative Medicine: Clinical Science Source Type: research

Effectiveness of a Dental Care Intervention in the Prevention of Lower Respiratory Tract Nosocomial Infections among Intensive Care Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Wanessa T. Bellissimo-Rodrigues, DDS, PhD; Mayra G. Menegueti, RN, MS; Gilberto G. Gaspar, MD, PhD; Edson A. Nicolini, MD; Maria Auxiliadora-Martins, MD, PhD; Anibal Basile-Filho, MD, PhD; Roberto Martinez, MD, PhD; Fernando Bellissimo-Rodrigues, MD, PhD Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, Volume 35, Issue 11, Page 1342-1348, November 2014. (Source: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol Latest Issue)
Source: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol Latest Issue - October 21, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Tags: article Original Articles Source Type: research

Characterisation of novel linear antigen epitopes on North American-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus M protein
In this study, two different Mab clones targeting the linear epitopes on the PRRSV M protein were generated and characterized. Both Mabs showed binding activity against the native PRRSV virion and recombinant M protein when analyzed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot. The targeted epitope of each Mab was mapped by serial truncation of the M protein to generate overlapping fragments. Fine epitope mapping was then performed using a panel of expressed polypeptides. The polypeptide sequences of the two epitopes recognized by Mabs 1C8 and 3F7 were 3SSLD6 and 155VLGGRKAVK163, respectively, with the former bei...
Source: Archives of Virology - October 21, 2014 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Improving outcomes for people with COPD by developing networks of general practices: evaluation of a quality improvement project in east London.
CONCLUSIONS: Investment of financial, organisational and educational resource into general practice networks was associated with clinically important improvements in COPD care in socially deprived, ethnically diverse communities. Key behaviour change included the following: collaborative working between practices driven by high-quality information to support performance review; shared financial incentives; and engagement between primary and secondary care clinicians. PMID: 25322204 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Primary Care)
Source: Primary Care - October 21, 2014 Category: Primary Care Authors: Hull S, Mathur R, Lloyd-Owen S, Round T, Robson J Tags: NPJ Prim Care Respir Med Source Type: research

Prevalence of inappropriate prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids for respiratory tract infections in the Netherlands: a retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSION: In the Netherlands one-off ICS dispensing in combination with oral antibiotics in subjects without chronic respiratory conditions was considerably lower than in Australia. PMID: 25320938 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Primary Care)
Source: Primary Care - October 21, 2014 Category: Primary Care Authors: Teichert M, Schermer T, van den Nieuwenhof L, De Smet PA, Wensing M Tags: NPJ Prim Care Respir Med Source Type: research

[Series] Emerging novel and antimicrobial-resistant respiratory tract infections: new drug development and therapeutic options
The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens for which diminishing treatment options are available is of major global concern. New viral respiratory tract infections with epidemic potential, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, swine-origin influenza A H1N1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, require development of new antiviral agents. The substantial rise in the global numbers of patients with respiratory tract infections caused by pan-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, ...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alimuddin Zumla, Ziad A Memish, Markus Maeurer, Matthew Bates, Peter Mwaba, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, David W Denning, Frederick G Hayden, David S Hui Tags: Series Source Type: research

[Series] Emerging viral respiratory tract infections—environmental risk factors and transmission
The past decade has seen the emergence of several novel viruses that cause respiratory tract infections in human beings, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, an H7N9 influenza A virus in eastern China, a swine-like influenza H3N2 variant virus in the USA, and a human adenovirus 14p1 also in the USA. MERS-CoV and H7N9 viruses are still a major worldwide public health concern. The pathogenesis and mode of transmission of MERS-CoV and H7N9 influenza A virus are poorly understood, making it more difficult to implement intervention and preventive measures. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Philippe Gautret, Gregory C Gray, Remi N Charrel, Nnanyelugo G Odezulu, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Alimuddin Zumla, Ziad A Memish Tags: Series Source Type: research

[Series] Rapid point of care diagnostic tests for viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections—needs, advances, and future prospects
Respiratory tract infections rank second as causes of adult and paediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Respiratory tract infections are caused by many different bacteria (including mycobacteria) and viruses, and rapid detection of pathogens in individual cases is crucial in achieving the best clinical management, public health surveillance, and control outcomes. Further challenges in improving management outcomes for respiratory tract infections exist: rapid identification of drug resistant pathogens; more widespread surveillance of infections, locally and internationally; and global responses to infections with pan...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Alimuddin Zumla, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Virve I Enne, Mike Kidd, Christian Drosten, Judy Breuer, Marcel A Muller, David Hui, Markus Maeurer, Matthew Bates, Peter Mwaba, Rafaat Al-Hakeem, Gregory Gray, Philippe Gautret, Abdullah A Al-Rabeeah, Ziad A Memish, V Tags: Series Source Type: research

[Articles] Ribavirin and interferon alfa-2a for severe Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection: a retrospective cohort study
In patients with severe MERS-CoV infection, ribavirin and interferon alfa-2a therapy is associated with significantly improved survival at 14 days, but not at 28 days. Further assessment in appropriately designed randomised trials is recommended. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ali S Omrani, Mustafa M Saad, Kamran Baig, Abdelkarim Bahloul, Mohammed Abdul-Matin, Amal Y Alaidaroos, Ghaleb A Almakhlafi, Mohammed M Albarrak, Ziad A Memish, Ali M Albarrak Tags: Articles Source Type: research

[Comment] Investment in pneumonia and pneumococcal research
The worldwide burden of pneumonia is high—the disease caused 1·2 million deaths in 2010, mostly in children younger than 2 years. In the same year, at least 76·7 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were attributed to pneumonia and pneumococcal disease, although DALYs are inevitably increased in diseases that mostly affect young children. Infections of the lower respiratory tract (many of which are probably pneumonia-related) were the single largest cause of worldwide DALYs in children younger than 1 year. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Michael G Head, Joseph R Fitchett, Marie-Louise Newell, J Anthony G Scott, Stuart C Clarke, Rifat Atun Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Treating MERS-CoV during an outbreak
When a new virus emerges, health-care systems face major challenges, not least of which is deciding which treatments to use. The drug development process, from novel compound screening to final approval, can take more than 10 years to complete and cost hundreds of millions of dollars. By contrast, viruses can emerge rapidly, spread widely, and pose a substantial, immediate threat to public health. For example, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first reported in November, 2012, and, as of September, 2014, cases have been reported in 21 countries, with 837 confirmed cases and 319 deaths. (Source: Th...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Christopher M Coleman, Matthew B Frieman Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Editorial] Enterovirus D68: the unexpected guest
Reports of increasing numbers of children admitted to hospital with severe respiratory illness and associated muscle weakness and paralysis in the USA and Canada have caused alarm. Enterovirus D68—a member of the enterovirus genus that also includes rhinoviruses, coxsackieviruses, and polioviruses—is believed to be the most likely cause of this outbreak. Infections caused by this virus are rarely reported (only 79 cases were recorded between 2009 and 2013 in the USA) and they normally involve mild respiratory symptoms similar to a cold, but these can become severe in children with underlying problems such as asthma. (S...
Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases - October 21, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: The Lancet Infectious Diseases Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Early activation of pro-fibrotic WNT5A in sepsis-induced acute lung injury
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the WNT/?-catenin signaling pathway is activated very early in sepsis-induced ARDS and could play an important role in lung repair and fibrosis. Modulation of this pathway might represent a potential target for treatment for septic and ARDS patients. (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - October 21, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Jesús VillarNuria Cabrera-BenítezÁngela Ramos-NuezCarlos FloresSonia García-HernándezFrancisco ValladaresJosefina López-AguilarLluís BlanchArthur Slutsky Source Type: research

Electrogram-Gated Radiofrequency Ablations With Duty Cycle Power Delivery Negate Effects of Ablation Catheter Motion [Original Articles]
Conclusions— (1) Lesion depth decreases and length increases in conventional ablations with greater degrees of lateral catheter movements; (2) electrogram-gated pulsed radiofrequency delivery negated the effects from lateral catheter movement by creating consistently deeper lesions irrespective of the degree of catheter movement; and (3) target lesion depths were reached significantly faster in electrogram-gated than in conventional ablations. (Source: Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology)
Source: Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology - October 21, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chik, W. W. B., Barry, M. A., Pouliopoulos, J., Byth, K., Midekin, C., Bhaskaran, A., Sivagangabalan, G., Thomas, S. P., Ross, D. L., McEwan, A., Kovoor, P., Thiagalingam, A. Tags: Ablation/ICD/surgery Original Articles Source Type: research

Analysis of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants from residents in Gayasan National Park (Korea)
Conclusion: The results of the inter-network analysis will provide a suitable plan for sustainable preservation of the national park through a continued study of the data. Particular species of medicinal plants need to be protected for a balanced plant ecosystem within the park. Consequently, through further studies using these results, proper steps need to be established for preparing a wise alternative to create a sustainable natural plant ecosystem for Gayasan National Park and other national parks. (Source: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine)
Source: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine - October 21, 2014 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Mi-Jang SongHyun KimByoung-Yoon LeeHeldenbrand BrianChan-Ho ParkChang-Woo Hyun Source Type: research

Using Medicaid and CHIP Claims Data to Support Pediatric Quality Measurement: Lessons From 3 Centers of Excellence in Measure Development
Conclusions Our experience constructing quality measure specifications using claims data suggests that it will be challenging to measure key quality of care constructs for Medicaid-insured children at a national level in a timely and consistent way. Without better data to underpin pediatric quality measurement, Medicaid and CHIP will have difficulty using some existing measures for accountability, value-based purchasing, and quality improvement both across states and within states. (Source: Academic Pediatrics)
Source: Academic Pediatrics - October 21, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Soft palatal webbing flap palatopharyngoplasty for both soft palatal and oropharyngeal lateral wall collapse in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea: a new innovative technique without tonsillectomy
Conclusion Soft palatal webbing flap palatopharyngoplasty provided objective clinical improvement of OSA in adults with soft palatal and lateral pharyngeal wall collapse and has the potential to serve as an effective alternative for these cases. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - October 21, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of Laparotomy on the Swallow–Breathing Relationship in the Cat
Abstract Swallow occurs predominantly in the expiratory phase (E) of breathing. This phase preference is thought to contribute to airway protection by limiting the passage of material through the pharyngeal airway with little or no inspiratory (I) airflow. This phase preference is attributed to central interactions between the swallow and breathing pattern generators. We speculated that changes in peripheral mechanical factors would influence the respiratory phase preference for swallow initiation. We induced swallowing in anesthetized spontaneously breathing cats by injection of water into the oropharynx. In anim...
Source: Lung - October 21, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Protective Association of TIM1−1454G>A Polymorphism with Asthma in a North Indian Population
Conclusions This is the first study conducted in India conferring −1454G>A polymorphism provides resistance toward asthma while lack of association was found between −416G>C polymorphism and asthma in the studied North Indian population. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 21, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Evaluation of High-Sensitivity Serum CRP Levels Compared to Markers of Airway Inflammation and Allergy as Predictors of Methacholine Bronchial Hyper-Responsiveness in Children
Conclusions hs-CRP levels were not helpful, while FeNO, IgE, and eosinophils were useful in the prediction of methacholine bronchial hyper-responsiveness in our group of children. (Source: Lung)
Source: Lung - October 21, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research