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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 7.

The Effects of Polymyxin B-immobilized Fiber Hemoperfusion on Respiratory Impairment in Endotoxemic Pigs.
Conclusion: PMX-DHP is effective for treating respiratory impairment and contributes to the decreased mortality rate in the endotoxemic pigs. PMID: 24998959 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Nippon Medical School)
Source: Journal of Nippon Medical School - July 9, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Koami H, Sakamoto Y, Miyasho T, Itami T, Tamura J, Ishizuka T, Kawamura Y, Nakamura K, Miyoshi K, Yamashita K Tags: J Nippon Med Sch Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate 100 mug and 200 mug once daily in the treatment of moderate-severe asthma in adults and adolescents: a 24-week randomised study
This study was performed to descriptively assess the efficacy and safety of two doses of FF, with no planned formal statistical hypothesis testing. Methods: This was a 24-week double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group study (NCT01431950). Patients aged >=12 years with moderate-severe persistent asthma and uncontrolled on mid-high dose ICS were stratified by baseline FEV1 and randomised (1:1) to treatment with FF 100mug or 200mug once daily in the evening. The primary endpoint was change from baseline trough FEV1 after 24 weeks; secondary and other endpoints included peak expiratory flow (PEF) and rescue- and symptom-free 2...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - July 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ashley WoodcockJan LötvallWilliam BusseEric BatemanSally StoneAnna EllsworthLoretta Jacques Source Type: research

COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils
Conclusions: Macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils is impaired in COPD and is related to the severity and frequency of COPD exacerbations. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - July 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Osama EltboliMona BafadhelFay HollinsAdam WrightBeverley HargadonNeeta KulkarniChristopher Brightling Source Type: research

Galactomannan in the Bronchoalveolar Lavage for Diagnosing Invasive Fungal Disease.
Conclusions: Galactomannan in the BAL had modest agreement with EORTC/MSG criteria for diagnosing invasive fungal disease in immunocompromised patients with a high degree of antifungal exposure. PMID: 25007380 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Crit Car...)
Source: Am J Respir Crit Car... - July 9, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Affolter K, Tamm M, Jahn K, Halter J, Passweg J, Hirsch HH, Stolz D Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Electronic Cigarettes: A Position Statement of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies.
Conclusions: The health and safety claims regarding electronic nicotine delivery devices should be subject to evidentiary review. The potential benefits of electronic cigarettes to an individual smoker should be weighed against potential harm to the population of increased social acceptability of smoking and use of nicotine, the latter of which has addictive power and untoward effects. As a precaution, electronic nicotine delivery devices should be restricted or banned until more information about their safety is available. If they are allowed, they should be closely regulated as medicines or tobacco products. PMID: 25...
Source: Am J Respir Crit Car... - July 9, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Schraufnagel DE, Blasi F, Drummond MB, Lam DC, Latif E, Rosen MJ, Sansores R, Van Zyl-Smit R, on behalf of the Forum of International Respiratory Societies Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Association between helicopter with physician versus ground emergency medical services and survival for adults with major trauma in Japan
Conclusions: Among patients with major trauma in Japan, transport by helicopter with a physician may be associated with improved survival to hospital discharge compared with ground services, after controlling for multiple known confounders. (Source: Critical Care)
Source: Critical Care - July 9, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Toshikazu AbeOsamu TakahashiDaizoh SaitohYasuharu Tokuda Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic neurological disorders
Paraneoplastic Neurological Disorders (PND) are uncommon but important because they frequently present before a cancer is diagnosed and because they cause severe neurological disability. Current thinking is that they are caused by an autoimmune response to ‘onconeural’ antigens, shared by the tumour and the nervous system, although the precise immunopathogenic mechanism is unknown. It is likely that there is an important cellular immune response as evidenced by the presence of lymphocytic infiltration and activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes, found in the CSF of affected patients. PND may affect any part of the ne...
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - July 9, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Rees, J. Tags: Immunology (including allergy), Brain stem / cerebellum, Coma and raised intracranial pressure, Drugs: CNS (not psychiatric), Infection (neurology), Neuromuscular disease, Radiology, Disability, Radiology (diagnostics) NEUROPSYCHIATRY RESEARCH UPDATE Source Type: research

Mutation analysis of a large cohort of GNE myopathy reveals a diverse array of GNE mutations affecting sialic acid biosynthesis
Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis of a large single-ethnic cohort of GNE myopathy is expected to lead to personalised rational therapy. GNE myopathy, which is also called distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles, Nonaka distal myopathy, quadriceps sparing myopathy, and hereditary inclusion body myopathy (hIBM or IBM2), is a late-onset autosomal recessive myopathy characterised by progressive distal muscular atrophy and weakness. Disease onsets are largely in the second and third decades of life with weakness in anterior tibial muscles. Upper limbs are affected in late stages, while quadriceps muscles as well as facial, o...
Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry - July 9, 2014 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Ohno, K. Tags: Genetics, Immunology (including allergy), Muscle disease, Neuromuscular disease, Musculoskeletal syndromes Editorial commentaries Source Type: research

Combination of meal and exercise timing with a high-fat diet influences energy expenditure and obesity in mice.
Abstract In mice, obesity has been observed not only in those freely fed a high-fat diet (HFD) but also in those fed while physically inactive. In contrast, a HFD during physically active periods protects against obesity and the impairments in the circadian rhythm induced by free feeding of a HFD. Although exercise is known to be effective for obesity prevention and management, the optimal timing of exercise has not yet been determined. In the present experiments, we aimed to determine the best combination of daily timing of HFD consumption and exercise for the prevention of HFD-induced weight gain in mice. In this...
Source: Chronobiology International - July 9, 2014 Category: Biology Authors: Sasaki H, Ohtsu T, Ikeda Y, Tsubosaka M, Shibata S Tags: Chronobiol Int Source Type: research

IHG-1 Increases Mitochondrial Fusion and Bioenergetic Function.
Abstract Increased in high glucose-1 (IHG-1) is a conserved mitochondrial protein associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) that amplifies profibrotic TGF-β1 signaling and increases mitochondrial biogenesis. Here we report that inhibition of endogenous IHG-1 expression results in reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, ATP production and mitochondrial fusion. Conversely, overexpression of IHG-1 leads to increased mitochondrial fusion and also protects cells from reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis. IHG-1 forms complexes with known mediators of mitochondrial fusion - mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2, and enhan...
Source: Diabetes - July 9, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hickey FB, Corcoran JB, Griffin B, Bhreathnach U, Mortiboys H, Reid HM, Andrews D, Byrne S, Furlong F, Martin F, Godson C, Murphy M Tags: Diabetes Source Type: research

Agents that increase AAM differentiation blunt RSV-mediated lung pathology.
We reported that alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) mediate resolution of RSV-induced pathology. AAM differentiation requires macrophage-derived IL-4 and -13, autocrine/paracrine signaling through the type I IL-4 receptor, and STAT6 activation. Based on these findings, we reasoned that it would be possible to intervene therapeutically in RSV disease by increasing AAM differentiation, thereby decreasing lung pathology. Mice treated with the IL-4/anti-IL-4 immune complexes, shown previously to sustain levels of circulating IL-4, increased the RSV-induced AAM markers arginase-1 and mannose receptor and decreased the l...
Source: Journal of Leukocyte Biology - July 9, 2014 Category: Hematology Authors: Shirey KA, Lai W, Pletneva LM, Finkelman FD, Feola DJ, Blanco JC, Vogel SN Tags: J Leukoc Biol Source Type: research

Region specific mitochondrial impairment in mice with widespread overexpression of alpha-synuclein.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons leading to motor deficits. The mechanisms underlying the preferential vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in PD remain poorly understood. Recent evidence supports a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress in PD pathogenesis. Genetic and pathological studies also point to alpha-synuclein as a critical factor in both familial and sporadic forms of the disease; alpha-synuclein pathology affects mitochondrial function but is widespread in PD brain, raising th...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - July 9, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Subramaniam SR, Vergnes L, Franich NR, Reue K, Chesselet MF Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research

Development of the e-Baby Serious Game With Regard to the Evaluation of Oxygenation in Preterm Babies: Contributions of the Emotional Design.
Abstract The present study aimed to describe the development process of a serious game that enables users to evaluate the respiratory process in a preterm infant based on an emotional design model. The e-Baby serious game was built to feature the simulated environment of an incubator, in which the user performs a clinical evaluation of the respiratory process in a virtual preterm infant. The user learns about the preterm baby's history, chooses the tools for the clinical evaluation, evaluates the baby, and determines whether his/her evaluation is appropriate. The e-Baby game presents phases that contain respiratory...
Source: Computers, Informatics, Nursing : CIN - July 9, 2014 Category: Nursing Authors: Fonseca LM, Dias DM, Góes FD, Seixas CA, Scochi CG, Martins JC, Rodrigues MA Tags: Comput Inform Nurs Source Type: research

Rtp801 Suppression of Epithelial mTORC1 Augments Endotoxin-Induced Lung Inflammation.
Abstract The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator of cellular responses to environmental stress. mTOR (and its primary complex mTORC1) is, therefore, ideally positioned to regulate lung inflammatory responses to an environmental insult, a function directly relevant to disease states such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our previous work in cigarette smoke-induced emphysema identified a novel protective role of pulmonary mTORC1 signaling. However, studies of the impact of mTORC1 on the development of acute lung injury are conflicting. We hypothesized that Rtp801, an endogenous in...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - July 9, 2014 Category: Pathology Authors: Nadon AM, Perez MJ, Hernandez-Saavedra D, Smith LP, Yang Y, Sanders LA, Gandjeva A, Chabon J, Koyanagi DE, Graham BB, Tuder RM, Schmidt EP Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research

Intraoperative apnea in children after buffered 5% povidone‐iodine site sterilization for strabismus surgery
ConclusionsApnea at the time of ocular preparation with buffered 5% povidone‐iodine solution is common. The precise mechanism of this response is unknown. (Source: Pediatric Anesthesia)
Source: Pediatric Anesthesia - July 9, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: John D. Emhardt, Kathryn M. Haider, David A. Plager, Dava L. Grundhoefer Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of fluticasone furoate 100 ¿g and 200 ¿g once daily in the treatment of moderate-severe asthma in adults and adolescents: a 24-week randomised study
This study was performed to descriptively assess the efficacy and safety of two doses of FF, with no planned formal statistical hypothesis testing. Methods: This was a 24-week double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group study (NCT01431950). Patients aged >=12 years with moderate-severe persistent asthma and uncontrolled on mid-high dose ICS were stratified by baseline FEV1 and randomised (1:1) to treatment with FF 100mug or 200mug once daily in the evening. The primary endpoint was change from baseline trough FEV1 after 24 weeks; secondary and other endpoints included peak expiratory flow (PEF) and rescue- and symptom-free 2...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - Latest articles - July 9, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Ashley WoodcockJan LötvallWilliam BusseEric BatemanSally StoneAnna EllsworthLoretta Jacques Source Type: research

Intraoperative apnea in children after buffered 5% povidone-iodine site sterilization for strabismus surgery.
CONCLUSIONS: Apnea at the time of ocular preparation with buffered 5% povidone-iodine solution is common. The precise mechanism of this response is unknown. PMID: 25040554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia)
Source: Paediatric Anaesthesia - July 9, 2014 Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Emhardt JD, Haider KM, Plager DA, Grundhoefer DL Tags: Paediatr Anaesth Source Type: research

The Effects of Extrafine Beclometasone/Formoterol (BDP/F) on Lung Function, Dyspnea, Hyperinflation, and Airway Geometry in COPD Patients: Novel Insight Using Functional Respiratory Imaging
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery , Vol. 0, No. 0. (Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery)
Source: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Dose Escalated Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy at the Mean Respiratory Position
Purpose: The dosimetric impact of dose probability based planning target volume (PTV) margins for liver cancer patients receiving stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was compared with standard PTV based on the internal target volume (ITV). Plan robustness was evaluated by accumulating the treatment dose to ensure delivery of the intended plan.Methods and Materials: Twenty patients planned on exhale CT for 27 to 50 Gy in 6 fractions using an ITV-based PTV and treated free-breathing were retrospectively evaluated. Isotoxic, dose escalated plans were created on midposition computed tomography (CT), representing the me...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - July 8, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Michael Velec, Joanne L. Moseley, Laura A. Dawson, Kristy K. Brock Tags: Physics Contributions Source Type: research

Time-Adjusted Internal Target Volume: A Novel Approach Focusing on Heterogeneity of Tumor Motion Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Imaging for Radiation Therapy Planning of Lung Cancer
Conclusions: The TTV images reflected nonuniform tumor motion, and they revealed the tumor motion pattern features, suggesting that the TTV concept may facilitate various aspects of radiation therapy planning of lung cancer while incorporating respiratory motion in the future. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - July 8, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Ikuno Nishibuchi, Tomoki Kimura, Takeo Nakashima, Yusuke Ochi, Ippei Takahashi, Yoshiko Doi, Masahiro Kenjo, Yuko Kaneyasu, Syuichi Ozawa, Yuji Murakami, Koichi Wadasaki, Yasushi Nagata Tags: Physics Contributions Source Type: research

Parameters of lung inflammation in asthmatic as compared to healthy children in a contaminated city
Conclusions: Cys-LTs levels are higher in asthmatic children than in healthy children in a contaminated city and its levels are also associated with passive smoking. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations - July 8, 2014 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Benigno Linares SegoviaGabriela Cortés SandovalNorma Amador LiconaJuan Manuel Guízar MendozaEstela Núñez LemusDiana Olivia Rocha AmadorXóchitl Sofía Ramírez GómezRebeca Monroy Torres Source Type: research

The impact of home-based HIV counseling and testing on care-seeking and incidence of common infectious disease syndromes in rural western Kenya
Conclusions: Large scale HBCT enabled a large number of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons to know their HIV status, leading to a change in care seeking behavior and ultimately a decrease in incidence of common infectious disease syndromes through appropriate treatment and care. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - July 8, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Godfrey BigogoManase AmollohKayla LasersonAllan AudiBarrack AuraWarren DalalMarta AckersDeron BurtonRobert BreimanDaniel Feikin Source Type: research

Putative roles of Ca2+‐independent phospholipase A2 in respiratory chain‐associated ROS production in brain mitochondria: influence of docosahexaenoic acid and bromoenol lactone
Abstract Ca2+‐independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) is hypothesized to control mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Here, we modulated the influence of iPLA2‐induced liberation of non‐esterified free fatty acids on ROS generation associated with the electron transport chain. We demonstrate enzymatic activity of membrane‐associated iPLA2 in native, energized rat brain mitochondria (RBM). Theoretically, enhanced liberation of free fatty acids by iPLA2 modulates mitochondrial ROS generation, either attenuating the reversed electron transport (RET) or deregulating the forward electron transport of ele...
Source: Journal of Neurochemistry - July 8, 2014 Category: Neurology Authors: Caroline Nordmann, Mikhail Strokin, Peter Schönfeld, Georg Reiser Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Bilateral monosymptomatic optic neuritis following Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: A case report and literature review
Wei-Yu Chiang, Hsiu-Mei HuangIndian Journal of Ophthalmology 2014 62(6):724-727Herein, we report the clinical findings, treatment choice, and clinical course of a rare case of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection with the sole manifestation of optic neuritis (ON). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case presenting monosymptomatic visual loss without papillitis, neurological symptoms, and abnormal findings on brain imaging. Related articles about ON after M. pneumoniae infection were reviewed to summarize the clinical presentation, possible mechanisms, clinical survey, treatment, and prognosis of thi...
Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology - July 8, 2014 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wei-Yu ChiangHsiu-Mei Huang Source Type: research

Highlights from this issue
Maybe Bill Clinton was right after all? When he said he did not inhale, he may have avoided more trouble than he realised. A unique and aggressive form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) was first described in children; in this issue we publish the results of epidemiological and pathological investigations in adults (see pages 703, 694 with an editorial by Tony Pickering see page 692). All three are our Hot Topic package this month. In children (in whom this ILD was first described) and in adults, shrewd detective work enabled humidifier disinfectant to be pinpointed as the cause, and crucially, the John Snow effect (not t...
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bush, A., Pavord, I. Tags: Airwaves Source Type: research

Exacerbations in non-COPD patients: recognition?
COPD is a progressive lung disease that leads to significant impairment of quality of life and is the third leading cause of death worldwide.1 It is principally caused by tobacco smoking over many years through airway inflammation and oxidative stress to lung tissue. Patients exposed to smoke or occupational dusts are diagnosed with the disease when their post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio falls to <0.7.2 Disease severity is assessed differently by expressing the measured FEV1 as a percentage of the expected value for normal, healthy people of similar sex, age and height. The threshold value of <0.7 for the FEV1/FVC ...
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Donaldson, G. C. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Airborne dissemination of transmissible bacterial species in cystic fibrosis
Delivery of multidisciplinary care by experienced teams in specialist units has conferred considerable benefits in care for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), with significant improvements in clinical outcome and survival figures. However, one particular concern of congregating patients at specialist CF centres is the potential for cross-infection. Over the past decade, the emergence and spread of clonal (transmissible) Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains among patients with CF has become an international problem.1–3 Case series suggest that initial infection with clonal P. aeruginosa strains may be more difficult to ...
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jones, A. M. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Humidifiers: the use of biocides and lung disease
Over the last two decades several publications have reported outbreaks of interstitial lung disease caused by inhalational exposure to a chemical, usually at work, but occasionally in a domestic situation. These outbreaks frequently follow a change in formulation, which may be minor,1 of a chemical already being used in the workplace, or a change in process leading to its aerosolisation. In 2006, paediatricians in South Korea became aware of a severe, rapid-onset interstitial pneumonitis in young children and infants; the disease responded very poorly to treatment, and mortality rates were close to 50%.2 Its seasonal prese...
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Pickering, C. A. C. Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

A cluster of lung injury associated with home humidifier use: clinical, radiological and pathological description of a new syndrome
Conclusions This case series report showed that lung injury and respiratory failure can occur as a result of inhaling humidifier disinfectants. This emphasises the need for more stringent safety regulations for potentially toxic inhalants that might be encountered in the home. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hong, S.-B., Kim, H. J., Huh, J. W., Do, K.-H., Jang, S. J., Song, J. S., Choi, S.-J., Heo, Y., Kim, Y.-B., Lim, C.-M., Chae, E. J., Lee, H., Jung, M., Lee, K., Lee, M.-S., Koh, Y., Korean Unknown Severe Respiratory Failure Collaborative, the Korean Study Tags: Adult respiratory distress syndrome, Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases, Mechanical ventilation, Cardiothoracic surgery, Transplantation Critical care Source Type: research

A cluster of lung injury cases associated with home humidifier use: an epidemiological investigation
Conclusions Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that the lung injury outbreak was caused by humidifier detergent use at home. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Kim, H. J., Lee, M.-S., Hong, S.-B., Huh, J. W., Do, K.-H., Jang, S. J., Lim, C.-M., Chae, E. J., Lee, H., Jung, M., Park, Y.-J., Park, J.-H., Kwon, G.-Y., Gwack, J., Youn, S.-K., Kwon, J.-W., Yang, B.-G., Jun, B.-Y., Kim, Y., Cheong, H.-K., Chun, B. C., Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Drugs: infectious diseases Respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Dupilumab in persistent asthma with elevated eosinophil levels
Monoclonal antibodies are an effective treatment for a number of inflammatory autoimmune conditions, particularly those refractory to first-line medications. In asthma, airway inflammation may be associated with Th2 cell overactivity and raised eosinophils in up to 50% of cases. Th2 activation leads to the release of interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-4, which mediate their effects via receptors containing the IL-4 α subunit. Dupilumab is an IL-4 α subunit inhibitor aiming to block both signalling pathways and reduce airway inflammation. The authors conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to eval...
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bhadresha, R. Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research

Exacerbation-like respiratory symptoms in individuals without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a population-based study
Conclusions Events similar to exacerbations of COPD can occur in individuals without COPD or asthma and are associated with significant health and socioeconomic outcomes. They increase the respiratory burden in the community and may contribute to the false-positive diagnosis of asthma or COPD. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tan, W. C., Bourbeau, J., Hernandez, P., Chapman, K. R., Cowie, R., FitzGerald, J. M., Marciniuk, D. D., Maltais, F., Buist, A. S., O'Donnell, D. E., Sin, D. D., Aaron, S. D., for the CanCOLD Collaborative Research Group, Samet, Puhan, Hamid, Hogg, Bourbe Tags: Health policy, Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Editor's choice, Asthma, Health service research Respiratory epidemiology Source Type: research

Coronary artery calcification is increased in patients with COPD and associated with increased morbidity and mortality
Conclusions Patients with COPD have more CAD than controls and this is associated with increased dyspnoea, reduced exercise capacity and increased mortality. These data indicate that the presence of CAD in patients with COPD is associated with poor clinical outcomes. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Williams, M. C., Murchison, J. T., Edwards, L. D., Agusti, A., Bakke, P., Calverley, P. M. A., Celli, B., Coxson, H. O., Crim, C., Lomas, D. A., Miller, B. E., Rennard, S., Silverman, E. K., Tal-Singer, R., Vestbo, J., Wouters, E., Yates, J. C., van Beek, Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Ischaemic heart disease, Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Structure-function relationship in COPD revisited: an in vivo microscopy view
Conclusions This is the first FCFM study to describe in vivo microscopic changes in the airways and alveoli of patients with COPD that are related to lung function impairment. These findings open the possibility of assessing the in vivo effects of therapeutic interventions for COPD in future studies. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Cosio, B. G., Shafiek, H., Fiorentino, F., Gomez, C., Lopez, M., Rios, A., Kersul, A., Togores, B., Palmer, J., Sauleda, J., Agusti, A. Tags: Airway biology, Lung function, Cardiothoracic surgery, Radiology (diagnostics), Health education, Smoking, Tobacco use Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Determinants and outcomes of physical activity in patients with COPD: a systematic review
Conclusions Physical activity level in COPD is consistently associated with mortality and exacerbations, but there is poor evidence about determinants of physical activity, including the impact of treatment. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gimeno-Santos, E., Frei, A., Steurer-Stey, C., de Batlle, J., Rabinovich, R. A., Raste, Y., Hopkinson, N. S., Polkey, M. I., van Remoortel, H., Troosters, T., Kulich, K., Karlsson, N., Puhan, M. A., Garcia-Aymerich, J., on behalf of PROactive consortium Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Open access, Inflammation, Internet Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Source Type: research

Viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cough aerosols generated by persons with cystic fibrosis
Conclusions Viable P aeruginosa in cough aerosols travel further and last longer than recognised previously, providing additional evidence of airborne transmission between patients with CF. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Knibbs, L. D., Johnson, G. R., Kidd, T. J., Cheney, J., Grimwood, K., Kattenbelt, J. A., O'Rourke, P. K., Ramsay, K. A., Sly, P. D., Wainwright, C. E., Wood, M. E., Morawska, L., Bell, S. C. Tags: Open access, Cystic fibrosis Source Type: research

Pulmonary function, CT and echocardiographic abnormalities in sickle cell disease
Conclusions Abnormalities in pulmonary vascular volumes may explain some of the lung function abnormalities and the decline in lung function seen in adults with SCD. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lunt, A., Desai, S. R., Wells, A. U., Hansell, D. M., Mushemi, S., Melikian, N., Shah, A. M., Thein, S. L., Greenough, A. Tags: Airway biology, Lung function, Radiology (diagnostics) Respiratory physiology Source Type: research

Observational study of the effect of obesity on lung volumes
Conclusions Obese subjects have markedly increased gastric and oesophageal pressures, both when upright and supine, causing dramatically reduced FRC and ERV, which increases work of breathing. (Source: Thorax)
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Steier, J., Lunt, A., Hart, N., Polkey, M. I., Moxham, J. Tags: Epidemiologic studies, Airway biology, Lung function, Health education, Obesity (public health) Respiratory physiology Source Type: research

Use of glucocorticoids and risk of venous thromboembolism
In this Danish population-based case-control study, the association between use of glucocorticoids and risk of venous thromboembolism was studied. The study included 38 765 cases of venous thromboembolism and 387 650 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression, adjusted for risk factors for venous thromboembolism, was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% CI for glucocorticoid users versus non-users. Diagnoses were retrieved from the Danish national Registry of Patients, and controls were identified from the Danish Civil Registration System. Glucocorticoid use was estimate...
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jonsson, E. W. Tags: Miscellanea Source Type: research

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung development and disease: does it exist and is it important?
Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process when epithelial cells gradually transform into mesenchymal-like cells losing their epithelial functionality and characteristics. EMT is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of numerous lung diseases ranging from developmental disorders, fibrotic tissue remodelling to lung cancer. The most important question—namely what is the importance and contribution of EMT in the pathogenesis of several chronic lung conditions (asthma, COPD, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and lung fibrosis)—is currently intensely debated. This review gives a brief insight i...
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bartis, D., Mise, N., Mahida, R. Y., Eickelberg, O., Thickett, D. R. Tags: Lung neoplasms, Bronchiolitis, Clinical genetics, TB and other respiratory infections, Lung cancer (oncology), Asthma, Bronchitis, Lung cancer (respiratory medicine), Interstitial lung disease Review Source Type: research

Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH): a new UK register
Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare interstitial lung disease of unknown aetiology. We aimed to characterise a UK-wide cohort of patients with PLCH and compare diagnostic and management methods in specialist and non-specialist centres. 106 cases (53 hospitals) identified. Complete data received in 67 cases (53.7% female, age 37.1±14.4 years). 96% current or ex-smokers. Treatment; smoking cessation (79%), corticosteroids (30.6%), cytotoxic therapy (26.9%) and lung transplant (6%). Patients at specialist centres received cytotoxic drugs more often (p=0.0001) and survival appeared higher. This...
Source: Thorax - July 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Mason, R. H., Foley, N. M., Branley, H. M., Adamali, H. I., Hetzel, M., Maher, T. M., Suntharalingam, J. Tags: Chemotherapy, Interstitial lung disease, Cardiothoracic surgery, Transplantation, Health education, Smoking, Smoking cessation, Tobacco use Research letter Source Type: research