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Respiratory Medicine

This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 8.

Small mine size is associated with lung function abnormality and pneumoconiosis among underground coal miners in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia
Conclusions More than one in four of these miners had evidence of CWP, abnormal lung function or both. Although 96% of miners in the study have worked exclusively under dust regulations implemented following the 1969 Federal Coal Mine Safety and Health Act, we observed high rates of respiratory disease including severe cases. The current approach to dust control and provision of safe work conditions for central Appalachian underground coal miners is not adequate to protect them from adverse respiratory health effects. (Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - September 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Blackley, D. J., Halldin, C. N., Wang, M. L., Laney, A. S. Tags: Editor's choice, Respiratory Workplace Source Type: research

Dampness, bacterial and fungal components in dust in primary schools and respiratory health in schoolchildren across Europe
Conclusions Health effects of moisture and microbial exposures may vary between countries, but this requires further study. (Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine)
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - September 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Jacobs, J., Borras-Santos, A., Krop, E., Taubel, M., Leppanen, H., Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U., Pekkanen, J., Hyvarinen, A., Doekes, G., Zock, J.-P., Heederik, D. Tags: Environment Source Type: research

This article included some errors, they are listed below: In Abstract, in the sentence which begins "Mortality from COPD was significantly elevated among ever smokers and former smokers...", the word ‘ever’ should be ‘never’. The sentence correctly reads: "Mortality from COPD was significantly elevated among never smokers and former smokers...". And the upper limits of the confidence intervals for the hazard ratio for average cohort exposure to respirable silica associated with mortality from pneumoconiosis and COPD were incorrectly reported as 1.33 and 1.52 respectively. The correct confidence limi...
Source: Occupational and Environmental Medicine - September 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS) for Clinical Detection of Influenza in Children
Conclusions. CARIFS cannot discriminate between FLU and non-FLU infection in ED children with influenza-like infection. (Source: Clinical Pediatrics)
Source: Clinical Pediatrics - September 8, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Fischer, J. B., Prasad, P. A., Coffin, S. E., Alpern, E. R., Mistry, R. D. Tags: Articles Source Type: research

Quantitative susceptibility mapping in the abdomen as an imaging biomarker of hepatic iron overload
Conclusion: We have developed and demonstrated initial validation of QSM in the abdomen as an imaging biomarker of hepatic iron overload. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - September 8, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Samir D. Sharma, Diego Hernando, Debra E. Horng, Scott B. Reeder Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research

Spirometry and regular follow‐up do not improve quality of life in children or adolescents with asthma: Cluster randomized controlled trials
ConclusionsThe findings do not support more widespread use of spirometry for the management of childhood asthma in general practice, unless it is integrated into a complete management model. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - September 8, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Michael J. Abramson, Rosa L. Schattner, Christine Holton, Pam Simpson, Nancy Briggs, Justin Beilby, Mark R. Nelson, Richard Wood‐Baker, Francis Thien, Nabil D. Sulaiman, Eleonora Del Colle, Rory Wolfe, Alan J. Crockett, R. John Massie Tags: Original Article: Asthma Source Type: research

Helminths in the lungs
Summary Parasitic helminths infect well over one billion people and typically cause chronic and recurrent infections that exert a considerable toll on human health and productivity. A significant number of important intestinal‐ and tissue‐dwelling helminth parasites have evolved a scripted migration through select organ systems. Of specific interest here are the helminth parasites that interact with respiratory tissues and the pulmonary immune system. This review will consider the nature of the interactions between helminth parasites and the lung environment, as well as the consequences of these interactions on the evo...
Source: Parasite Immunology - September 8, 2014 Category: Parasitology Authors: J. M. Craig, A. L. Scott Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells attenuate inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome
Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most common cause of respiratory failure among critically ill patients. Novel treatment strategies are required to address this common clinical problem. The application of exogenous adult stem cells was associated with a beneficial outcome in various pre-clinical models of ARDS. In the present study we evaluated the functional capacity and homing ability of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (BMDPC) in vitro and investigated their potential as a treatment strategy in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS. Results: Evaluation of the BMDPC showed functional capa...
Source: BMC Research Notes - September 8, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Neysan RafatChristine DachoGregor KowanetzChristian BetzenBurkhard TönshoffBenito YardGrietje Beck Source Type: research

Colwellia aquaemaris sp. nov., isolated from the Cynoglossus semilaevis culture tank in a recirculating mariculture system.
Abstract A Gram-staining-negative, heterotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, designated S1T, was isolated from the Cynoglossus semilaevis culture pond in a recirculating mariculture system in Tianjin, China. The taxonomy of strain S1T was studied by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain S1T were non-spore-forming, curved rods with 0.4-0.6 μm wide and 1.2-2.0 μm long, motile by means of a single polar flagellum. It was positive for oxidase and catalase activities. Strain S1T was able to grow at 4-30 oC (optimum, 25 oC), at pH 5.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.5) and in the presence of 1-5 % (w/v) NaCl (o...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - September 8, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Liu Y, Liu LZ, Zhong ZP, Zhou YG, Liu Y, Liu ZP Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Sphingobacterium gobiense sp. nov., isolated from soil of the Gobi Desert.
Abstract A Gram-stain-negative, short rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterial strain, designated H7T, was isolated from the Gobi desert, Xinjiang Province of China. The temperature, NaCl and pH ranges for growth were 8-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), NaCl 0-5% and pH 6-10 (optimum, pH 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain H7T belonged to the genus Sphingobacterium and showed highest sequence similarity (91%) to Sphingobacterium composti DSM 18850.The DNA G+C content (44.3 mol%), MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c, i...
Source: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology - September 8, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Zhao P, Zhou Z, Chen M, Lin W, Zhang W, Wei G Tags: Int J Syst Evol Microbiol Source Type: research

Beta-Blockers in Children with Duchenne Cardiomyopathy.
Abstract Respiratory failure and heart failure are inevitable complications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Respiratory failure and heart failure undergo simultaneously and affect each other. After dissemination of mechanical ventilation, heart failure is the main cause of death in DMD. Regular assessment of cardiopulmonary function, early introduction of cardioprotective therapy and intensive respiratory care are the key issues in medical managements of DMD. In DMD, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) are used as the first line drugs. Beta-blocker...
Source: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials - September 8, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Matsumura T Tags: Rev Recent Clin Trials Source Type: research

[New techniques and potential benefits for radiotherapy of lung cancer.]
Abstract Radiotherapy is used for inoperable lung cancers, sometimes in association with chemotherapy. Outcomes of conventional radiotherapy are disappointing. New techniques improve adaptation to tumour volume, decrease normal tissue irradiation and lead to increasing tumour dose with the opportunity for improved survival. With intensity-modulated radiation therapy, isodoses can conform to complex volumes. It is widely used and seems to be indicated in locally advanced stages. Its dosimetric improvements have been demonstrated but outcomes are still heterogeneous. Stereotactic radiotherapy allows treatment of smal...
Source: Cancer Radiotherapie - September 8, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Lefebvre L, Doré M, Giraud P Tags: Cancer Radiother Source Type: research

Quantitative susceptibility mapping in the abdomen as an imaging biomarker of hepatic iron overload.
Conclusion: We have developed and demonstrated initial validation of QSM in the abdomen as an imaging biomarker of hepatic iron overload. Magn Reson Med, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID: 25199788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)
Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine - September 8, 2014 Category: Radiology Authors: Sharma SD, Hernando D, Horng DE, Reeder SB Tags: Magn Reson Med Source Type: research

Respiratory failure after treatment of pneumothorax.
Abstract A 40-year-old man presented with an eight day history of left-side pleuritic chest pain and dyspnea. Chest examination revealed decreased air entry at the left lung. Chest X-ray examination revealed a large pneumothorax and a chest tube was successfully placed. Two hours after the procedure, auscultation revealed crackles over the left lung and oxygen saturation was 88% on room air. Chest radiography was repeated and showed a fully expanded left lung with alveolar-interstitial infiltrates. PMID: 25214007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine)
Source: European Journal of Internal Medicine - September 8, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Baldessari EM, Arceluz MJ, Mendez-Villarroel A Tags: Eur J Intern Med Source Type: research

Pro-oxidant effect of ALA is implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction of HepG2 cells.
Abstract Heme biosynthesis begins in the mitochondrion with the formation of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). In acute intermittent porphyria, hereditary tyrosinemia type I and lead poisoning patients, ALA is accumulated in plasma and in organs, especially the liver. These diseases are also associated with neuromuscular dysfunction and increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Many studies suggest that this damage may originate from ALA-induced oxidative stress following its accumulation. Using the MnSOD as an oxidative stress marker, we showed here that ALA treatment of cultured cells induced ROS production...
Source: Biochimie - September 8, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Laafi J, Homedan C, Jacques C, Gueguen N, Schmitt C, Puy H, Reynier P, Carmen Martinez M, Malthiery Y Tags: Biochimie Source Type: research

Is our heart a well-designed pump? The heart along animal evolution
A carrier system for gases and nutrients became mandatory when primitive animals grew larger and developed different organs. The first circulatory systems are peristaltic tubes pushing slowly the haemolymph into an open vascular tree without capillaries (worms). Arthropods developed contractile bulges on the abdominal aorta assisted by accessory hearts for wings or legs and by abdominal respiratory motions. Two-chamber heart (atrium and ventricle) appeared among mollusks. Vertebrates have a multi-chamber heart and a closed circulation with capillaries. Their heart has two chambers in fishes, three chambers (two atria and o...
Source: European Heart Journal - September 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bettex, D. A., Pretre, R., Chassot, P.-G. Tags: SPECIAL ARTICLE Source Type: research

Architecture of mammalian respiratory complex I
Nature advance online publication 07 September 2014. doi:10.1038/nature13686 Authors: Kutti R. Vinothkumar, Jiapeng Zhu & Judy Hirst (Source: Nature AOP)
Source: Nature AOP - September 7, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Kutti R. VinothkumarJiapeng ZhuJudy Hirst Tags: Article Source Type: research

Pulmonary embolism and stroke associated with mechanical thrombectomy
Mechanical thrombectomy offers the advantage of rapid removal of venous thrombi. It allows venous obstructions to be removed and requires shorter duration of infusion of thrombolytic agents. However, aspiration of thrombi can lead to complications, particularly pulmonary embolism and hemolysis. The validity of using vena cava filters during thrombectomy in order to avoid embolism has not yet been established. The authors report a case of massive pulmonary embolism associated with ischemic stroke in a patient with a hitherto undiagnosed patent foramen ovale. The patient developed respiratory failure and neurological deficit...
Source: Jornal Vascular Brasileiro - September 6, 2014 Category: Surgery Source Type: research

Low tidal volume pressure support versus controlled ventilation in early experimental sepsis in pigs
Conclusions: In a porcine model of sepsis-induced mild ARDS immediate PSV was not superior to VCV. This contrasts with several experimental studies from non-septic mild to moderate ARDS. The present study therefore assumes that not only severity, but also etiology of lung injury considerably influences the response to early initiation of PSV. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - September 6, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Alexander ZiebartErik K HartmannRainer ThomasTanghua LiuBastian DuengesArno SchadMarc BodensteinSerge C ThalMatthias David Source Type: research

The biguanides metformin and phenformin inhibit angiogenesis, local and metastatic growth of breast cancer by targeting both neoplastic and microenvironment cells
Abstract The human white adipose tissue (WAT) contains progenitors with cooperative roles in breast cancer (BC) angiogenesis, local and metastatic progression. The biguanide Metformin (Met), commonly used for type 2 diabetes, might have activity against BC and was found to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo. We studied Met and another biguanide, Phenformin (Phe), in vitro and in vivo in BC models. In vitro, biguanides activated AMPK, inhibited complex 1 of the respiratory chain and induced apoptosis of BC and WAT endothelial cells. In co‐culture, biguanides inhibited the production of several angiogenic proteins. In vivo, bigu...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - September 6, 2014 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Stefania Orecchioni, Francesca Reggiani, Giovanna Talarico, Patrizia Mancuso, Angelica Calleri, Giuliana Gregato, Valentina Labanca, Douglas M. Noonan, Katiuscia Dallaglio, Adriana Albini, Francesco Bertolini Tags: Cancer Cell Biology Source Type: research

The effect of CSF-1 administration on lung maturation in a mouse model of neonatal hyperoxia exposure
Background: Lung immaturity due to preterm birth is a significant complication affecting neonatal health. Despite the detrimental effects of supplemental oxygen on alveolar formation, it remains an important treatment for infants with respiratory distress. Macrophages are traditionally associated with the propagation of inflammatory insults, however increased appreciation of their diversity has revealed essential functions in development and regeneration. Methods: Macrophage regulatory cytokine Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) was investigated in a model of neonatal hyperoxia exposure, with the aim of promoting macropha...
Source: Respiratory Research - September 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Christina JonesMaliha AlikhanMegan O¿ReillyFoula SozoTimothy WilliamsRichard HardingGraham JenkinSharon Ricardo Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effects of methadone and tramadol on postoperative analgesia and serum interleukin-6 in dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery
Background: Acute postsurgical pain is of great interest due to potential risk of becoming chronic if not treated properly, worsening patient?s recovery and quality of life. Twenty-eight dogs with ruptured cruciate ligaments were divided into three groups that received intramuscular injections of 4?mg/kg of tramadol (TRA), 0.5?mg/kg of methadone (MET0.5), or 0.7?mg/kg of methadone (MET0.7). Physiological parameters (heart and respiratory rates and blood pressure) were evaluated at specified times: baseline (TBL), 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4), 6 (T6), and 24 (T24) hours after premedication. Pain scores were described by visual an...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Latest articles - September 6, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Larissa CardozoLourenço CotesMarcia KahvegianMaria RizzoDenise OtsukiCassio FerrignoDenise Fantoni Source Type: research

Halomonas shantousis sp. nov., a novel biogenic amines degrading bacterium isolated from Chinese fermented fish sauce.
Abstract A Gram-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium, designated SWA25(T), was isolated from Chinese fermented fish sauce in Shantou, Guangdong Province, China. Strain SWA25(T) was moderately halophilic, formed colourless colonies and grew at 10-45 °C (optimum, 37 °C) and pH 4-9 (optimum, 6-7) in the presence of 0.5-22.5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3 %). The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were identified as C18:1 ω7C, C16:0, C16:1 ω7c, and C19:0 cyclo ω8c, and the predominant respiratory ubiquinone was Q-9. The genomic DNA G+C content was 61.3 ± 2.1 mol %. Phylogenetic analy...
Source: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek - September 6, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Jiang W, Li C, Xu B, Dong X, Ma N, Yu J, Wang D, Xu Y Tags: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek Source Type: research

Litoribrevibacter albus gen. nov. sp. nov., isolated from coastal seawater, Fujian province, China.
Abstract A Gram-stain negative, short rod-shaped aerobic bacterium with flagella, designated strain Y32(T), was isolated from coastal seawater in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that strain Y32(T) is a member of the family Oceanospirillaceae, forming a distinct lineage with species of the genus Litoribacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain Y32(T) and other strains were all less than 94.0 %. Strain Y32(T) was found to grow optimally at 28 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 4-5 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were identified as Summed ...
Source: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek - September 6, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Li Y, Zhu H, Lai Q, Lei X, Zhang H, Chen Z, Zheng W, Tian Y, Xu H, Zheng T Tags: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek Source Type: research

The potential role of nano- and micro-technology in the management of critical illnesses.
Abstract In recent years nanomedicine has become an attractive concept for the targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to injured or inflamed organs. Nanoscale drug delivery systems have the ability to improve the pharmacokinetics and increase the biodistribution of therapeutic agents to target organs, thereby resulting in improved efficacy and reduced drug toxicity. These systems are exploited for therapeutic purposes to carry the drug in the body in a controlled manner from the site of administration to the therapeutic target. The mortality in many of the critical illnesses such as sepsis and ac...
Source: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews - September 6, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sadikot RT Tags: Adv Drug Deliv Rev Source Type: research

Neuroprotective agents target molecular mechanisms of disease in ALS.
Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating disease characterized by progressive loss of voluntary motor neurons leading to muscle atrophy, weight loss and respiratory failure. Evidence suggests that inflammation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, glutamate excitotoxicity and proteasomal dysfunction are all responsible for ALS pathogenesis. We review neuroprotective agents with the ability to reduce ALS-related bodyweight loss, summarize the various therapies tested on animal models targeting the proposed molecular mechanisms, compare their effects on bodyweight loss, muscle...
Source: Drug Discovery Today - September 6, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zhu Y, Fotinos A, Mao LL, Atassi N, Zhou EW, Agondal S, Guan Y, Berry JD, Cudkowicz ME, Wang X Tags: Drug Discov Today Source Type: research

[Analysis of coinfections detected among respiratory syncytial virus subtypes and other respiratory viruses.]
PMID: 25205177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Anales de Pediatria)
Source: Anales de Pediatria - September 6, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Reina J, Ferrés F, Rubio R, Rojo-Molinero E Tags: An Pediatr (Barc) Source Type: research

Factors associated with depression and severe depression in patients with COPD
Depression is very prevalent in COPD and may be associated with poor clinical outcomes. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - September 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Marc Miravitlles, Jesús Molina, José Antonio Quintano, Anna Campuzano, Joselín Pérez, Carlos Roncero, DEPREPOC study investigators Source Type: research

Relationship between human LTA4H polymorphisms and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an ethnic Han Chinese population in Eastern China
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) gene were reported to be associated with protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in Vietnamese population. But these associations were not found in the Russians. To investigate the association of LTA4H polymorphisms with tuberculosis in a Han Chinese population in Eastern China, we genotyped 5 SNPs of LTA4H gene in 743 of pulmonary tuberculosis patients, 372 of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 888 of healthy controls individuals. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - September 6, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Jinghui Yang, Jin Chen, Jun Yue, Lirong Liu, Min Han, Hongxiu Wang Tags: Host genetics of susceptibility Source Type: research

[Correspondence] Is respiratory protection appropriate in the Ebola response?
We write to express our concern about one aspect of the response to the current epidemic of Ebola that has, so far, received little attention, lacks an evidence base, and might be counterproductive. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - September 5, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Jose M Martin-Moreno, Gilberto Llinás, Juan Martínez Hernández Tags: Correspondence Source Type: research

[Comment] Project flu buster
As a sixth form student at King Edward Five Ways School in Birmingham, UK, I devised and led Project Flu Buster, a local campaign to encourage good respiratory and hand hygiene practices among primary school children in the local area. The inspiration for this project came as a result of my work experience placement at a general practice during the influenza season. (Source: LANCET)
Source: LANCET - September 5, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Wakaas Janjua Tags: Comment Source Type: research

[Comment] Child death in high-income countries
Although high-income countries have made substantial progress towards reducing child mortality, rates vary markedly between and within countries,) and we describe contributory factors across four broad domains—biological and psychological factors, the physical environment, the social environment, and service delivery. In this Comment, we draw on the conclusions of these three reports and make practical recommendations on strategies in three key areas with perhaps the greatest potential to reduce child mortality further in high-income countries—perinatal causes, particularly preterm birth; acquired natural causes, such ...
Source: LANCET - September 5, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Stavros Petrou, James Fraser, Peter Sidebotham Tags: Comment Source Type: research

Timing of elective cesarean singleton delivery and neonatal respiratory outcomes at a Japanese perinatal center.
Abstract The present study examined the relation between the timing of elective cesarean delivery at term and neonatal respiratory outcomes at our institution. From 2005 through 2013, 1,951 elective cesarean singleton deliveries were performed at term. Of the neonates, 141 (7%) had respiratory disorders requiring oxygen supplementation. In comparison to the incidence of respiratory disorders in neonates delivered at full term (39-40 weeks), the incidences in neonates delivered at ≤38+1/7 weeks' and at 41 weeks' gestation were significantly higher. Uncomplicated elective cesarean singleton delivery should be avoid...
Source: Journal of Nippon Medical School - September 5, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Terada K, Ito M, Kumasaka S, Suzuki S Tags: J Nippon Med Sch Source Type: research

Efficacy of tracheostomy for central alveolar hypoventilation syndrome caused by lateral medullary infarction.
We describe 2 patients with CAHS-LMI and review the case reports for 17 previously described patients. Patient 1 was a 78-year-old man who was referred to our hospital because of dizziness. After admission, Wallenberg syndrome developed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed left LMI. He had hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis the next afternoon and temporarily received mechanical ventilation. A tracheotomy was performed on the 12th hospital day, and the patient was weaned from the ventilator on the 18th hospital day. Patient 2 was 72-year-old man who was referred to our hospital because of dizziness and gait disturbance. Wal...
Source: Journal of Nippon Medical School - September 5, 2014 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Mishina M, Ohkubo S, Kamiya N, Abe A, Suda S, Sakamaki M, Kominami S, Mizunari T, Kobayashi S, Katayama Y Tags: J Nippon Med Sch Source Type: research

Inhaler device technique can be improved in older adults through tailored education: findings from a randomised controlled trial.
Conclusion:The provision of active device technique education improves device technique in older adults. Passive education alone fails to achieve any improvement in device technique. PMID: 25188403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - September 5, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Crane MA, Jenkins CR, Goeman DP, Douglass JA Tags: NPJ Prim Care Respir Med Source Type: research

Associations and outcomes of septic pulmonary embolism.
CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of septic pulmonary embolism has broadened over the past decade with an increase in identified extrapulmonary, non-cardiac sources. In the context of an extrapulmonary infection, clinical features of persistent fever, bacteremia and pulmonary complaints should raise suspicion for this syndrome, and typical findings on the chest CT scans confirm the diagnosis. Antibiotics, local drainage procedures and increasingly, anticoagulation are keys to successful outcomes. PMID: 25184008 [PubMed] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - September 5, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Goswami U, Brenes JA, Punjabi GV, LeClaire MM, Williams DN Tags: Open Respir Med J Source Type: research

Effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the liver after injury caused by the hepatic ischemia-reperfusion process.
CONCLUSION: The use of hyperbaric oxygen after I/R improved in a relative manner both the production of energy and the effects on the mitochondrial wall. PMID: 25185053 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Cirurgica Brasileira)
Source: Acta Cirurgica Brasileira - September 5, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Silveira MR, Margarido MR, Vanni JC, Nejo Junior R, Castro-E-Silva Od Tags: Acta Cir Bras Source Type: research

Is it feasible to identify preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome for early extubation to continuous positive airway pressure post‐surfactant treatment during retrieval?
ConclusionFiO2 on stabilisation post‐surfactant treatment has a weak predictive value and may not be adequate to be used as sole criteria to extubate to CPAP prior to transport. FiO2 at stabilisation should be included as an eligibility criteria for a randomised trial of INSURE during retrieval, but other clinical assessments are needed. (Source: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health)
Source: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health - September 5, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Archana Priyadarshi, Wei Shern Quek, Melissa Luig, Kei Lui Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Chiari Syndrome and Respiratory Failure: A Literature Review
Conclusions: Patients with CMs can have repeated extubation failures. Some of these patients have normal neurological examinations and studies and are not identified until they have an MRI study. Clinicians need to consider this possibility in patients who are difficult to wean. (Source: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine)
Source: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine - September 5, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Kijsirichareanchai, K., Limsuwat, C., Mankongpaisarnrung, C., Nantsupawat, N., Nugent, K. Tags: Analytic Reviews Source Type: research

Chlorate reduction in Shewanella algae ACDC is a recently acquired metabolism characterized by gene loss, suboptimal regulation and oxidative stress
Summary Previous work on respiratory chlorate reduction has biochemically identified the terminal reductase ClrABC and the chlorite detoxifying enzyme Cld. In Shewanella algae ACDC, genes encoding these enzymes reside on composite transposons whose core we refer to as the chlorate reduction composite transposon interior (CRI). To better understand this metabolism in ACDC, we used RNA‐seq and proteomics to predict carbon and electron flow during chlorate reduction and posit that formate is an important electron carrier with lactate as the electron donor, but that NADH predominates on acetate. Chlorate‐specific transcr...
Source: Molecular Microbiology - September 5, 2014 Category: Microbiology Authors: Iain C. Clark, Ryan A. Melnyk, Anthony T. Iavarone, Pavel S. Novichkov, John D. Coates Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Ethical considerations with the management of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome
Summary Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a well‐recognized disorder of the autonomic nervous system caused by mutations in the PHOX2B gene. The most characteristic feature is failure of ventilatory control, resulting in the need for respiratory support while asleep, and in some cases when awake also. Most cases present in infancy or early childhood. Technological advances allow patients with mild to moderate phenotypesto receive adequate support by non‐invasive ventilation (NIV), or diaphragm pacing (or combination of the two) avoiding the need for long‐term ventilation by tracheostomy. Daytime f...
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - September 5, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: John Massie, Lynn Gillam Tags: Original Article: Sleep & Breathing Source Type: research

Predicting preload responsiveness using simultaneous recordings of inferior and superior vena cava diameters
IntroductionEchocardiographic indices based on respiratory variations of superior and inferior vena cava diameters (?SVC and ?IVC, respectively) have been proposed as predictors of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients but they have never been compared simultaneously in the same patient sample. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of these echocardiographic indices when concomitantly recorded in mechanically ventilated, septic patients. Methods: Septic shock patients requiring hemodynamic monitoring were prospectively enrolled over a 1-year period in a mixed medical surgical ICU of a...
Source: Critical Care - September 5, 2014 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Hélène CharbonneauBéatrice RiuMatthieu FaronArnaud MariMatt KurrekJean RuizThomas GeeraertsOlivier FourcadeMichèle GenestalStein Silva Source Type: research

Optimizing 4DCBCT projection allocation to respiratory bins.
Abstract 4D cone beam computed tomography (4DCBCT) is an emerging image guidance strategy used in radiotherapy where projections acquired during a scan are sorted into respiratory bins based on the respiratory phase or displacement. 4DCBCT reduces the motion blur caused by respiratory motion but increases streaking artefacts due to projection under-sampling as a result of the irregular nature of patient breathing and the binning algorithms used. For displacement binning the streak artefacts are so severe that displacement binning is rarely used clinically. The purpose of this study is to investigate if sharing proj...
Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology - September 5, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: O'Brien RT, Kipritidis J, Shieh CC, Keall PJ Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid Genes and the Developmental Origins of Asthma Susceptibility and Treatment Response.
Conclusions: Glucocorticoid genes are over-represented among genes implicated in fetal lung development. These genes influence asthma susceptibility and treatment response suggesting their involvement in the early ontogeny of asthma. PMID: 25192440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - September 5, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Sharma S, Kho AT, Chhabra D, Qiu W, Gaedigk R, Vyhlidal CA, Leeder JS, Barraza-Villarreal A, London SJ, Gilliland F, Raby BA, Weiss ST, Tantisira KG Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

MicroRNAs in Pulmonary Hypertension.
Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease without effective treatment. Despite decades of research and development of novel treatments, PAH remains a fatal disease, suggesting an urgent need for better understanding of the pathogenesis of PAH. Recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) are dysregulated in patients with PAH and in experimental pulmonary hypertension. Furthermore, normalization of a few miRNAs is reported to inhibit experimental pulmonary hypertension. We have reviewed the current knowledge about miRNA biogenesis, miRNA expression pattern, and their roles in regulati...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology - September 5, 2014 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Zhou G, Chen T, Raj JU Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research