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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 8.
Cryptococcal meningitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans genotype AFLP1/VNI in Iran: a review of the literature
Summary Cryptococcal meningitis is the most important opportunistic fungal infection with a high mortality in HIV‐patients in less developed regions. Here, we report a case of cryptococcal meningitis in a 49‐year‐old HIV‐positive female due to Cryptococcus neoformans (serotype A, mating‐type alpha, genotype AFLP1/VNI) in Sari, Iran. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests showed MICs of isavuconazole (0.016 μg ml−1), voriconazole (0.031 μg ml−1), posaconazole (0.031 μg ml−1), itraconazole (0.063 μg ml−1), amphotericin B (0.125 μg ml−1) and fluconazole (8 μg ml−1). Despite immediate antifungal t...
Source: Mycoses - October 1, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Hamid Badali, Shahriar Alian, Hamed Fakhim, Mahsa Falahatinejad, Ali Moradi, Mehrnaz Mohammad Davoudi, Ferry Hagen, Jacques F. Meis Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen in Respiratory Failure
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 373, Issue 14, Page 1373-1375, October 2015. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - September 30, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research
Diagnostic accuracy of capnography during high‐frequency ventilation in neonatal intensive care units
ConclusionsOur prospective study suggests that continuous dCap in infants ventilated with HFV may be helpful for trends and alarm for unsafe levels of PaCO2. dCap is only a complimentary tool and cannot replace PaCO2 sampling because the agreement between these measurements was less than adequate. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Amir Kugelman, Ruben Bromiker, Arieh Riskin, Irit Shoris, Michal Ronen, Nelly Qumqam, David Bader, Agenta Golan Tags: Original Article: Neonatal Lung Disease Source Type: research
Different Severity and Severity Predictors in Early-Onset and Late-Onset Asthma: A Taiwanese Population-Based Study
Conclusions: In adults, late-onset asthma was more severe than early-onset asthma. Severity, as indicated by SABA and ICS use, was positively associated with allergic rhinitis in early-onset asthma and negatively associated with dehumidifier use in late-onset asthma.Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
The Utility of Hybrid SPECT/CT Lung Perfusion Scintigraphy in Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis
Conclusions: We conclude that hybrid SPECT/CT(Q) imaging has a high diagnostic efficacy in the diagnosis of PE. Lung perfusion scintigraphy performed with a hybrid SPECT/CT device has a significantly higher sensitivity and specificity than scanning performed with the planar or SPECT technique.Respiration (Source: Respiration)
Source: Respiration - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Pp-16 weak acid reflux a trigger for recurrent respiratory diseases in children
Introduction: The main advantage of multichannel intraluminar impedance (MII) compared with pH monitoring is its ability to detect both acid and non-acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and to determine the characteristics of reflux (liquid or gas). Aim: To compare the value of pH monitoring and MII for diagnosis of GER in children who present with refractory respiratory symptoms. Materials: A prospective study that included 37 patients, aged 4.25 +/- 3.15 years, using combined MII-pH monitoring was performed. Patients were referred for investigation because of suspected GER as the etiology of recurrent respiratory diseases,...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - September 30, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Meeting Abstracts Source Type: research
Randomised control trial of humidified high flow nasal cannulae versus standard oxygen in the emergency department
ConclusionsThe use of high flow nasal cannula oxygenation was associated with improved respiratory state in selected patients presenting to the ED with acute undifferentiated shortness of breath. (Source: Emergency Medicine Australasia)
Source: Emergency Medicine Australasia - September 30, 2015 Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Nerida Bell, Claire L Hutchinson, Timothy C Green, Eileen Rogan, Kendall J Bein, Michael M Dinh Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
Anti-bovine herpesvirus and anti-bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody responses in pregnant Holstein dairy cattle following administration of a multivalent killed virus vaccine.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Titers of antibodies against viral respiratory pathogens were significantly enhanced in both serum (BHV-1 and BVDV type 2) and colostrum (BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2) in cattle receiving a killed virus vaccine (with no adverse reactions) before parturition. To maximize protection of bovine neonates, this method of vaccination should be considered. PMID: 26413830 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - September 30, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Smith BI, Rieger RH, Dickens CM, Schultz RD, Aceto H Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research
Acute cardiac injury events ≤30 days after laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection among U.S. veterans, 2010–2012
Conclusion: Among veterans with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and cardiac biomarker testing ≤30 days after influenza testing, approximately 25 % had evidence of ACI, the majority within 3 days. Approximately half were myocardial infarctions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering ACI associated with influenza infection among patients at high risk, including this older population with prevalent CVD risk factors. (Source: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders)
Source: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders - September 30, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alison LudwigCynthia Lucero-ObusanPatricia SchirmerCarla WinstonMark Holodniy Source Type: research
Acute cardiac injury events ≤30 days after laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection among U.S. veterans, 2010–2012
Conclusion: Among veterans with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and cardiac biomarker testing ≤30 days after influenza testing, approximately 25 % had evidence of ACI, the majority within 3 days. Approximately half were myocardial infarctions. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering ACI associated with influenza infection among patients at high risk, including this older population with prevalent CVD risk factors. (Source: BioMed Central)
Source: BioMed Central - September 30, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Alison LudwigCynthia Lucero-ObusanPatricia SchirmerCarla WinstonMark Holodniy Source Type: research
Nurses' documentation of physiological observations in three acute care settings
ConclusionsThere was variability in the number of parameters documented and frequency of physiological observations documented by nurses. Relevance to clinical practicePhysiological abnormalities that do not necessarily fulfil rapid response team activation criteria are common in acute care patients and provide nurses with an opportunity for early recognition of deteriorating patients. (Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing)
Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing - September 30, 2015 Category: Nursing Authors: Julie Considine, Carissa Trotter, Judy Currey Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is independently associated with obstructive sleep apnea: evidence from a large-scale cross-sectional study
Conclusions We demonstrated that patients with OSA had a higher percentage of dyslipidemia than subjects without OSA. Of the various components in serum lipid, only LDL-C was independently associated with OSA. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Source: Sleep and Breathing - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Multidisciplinary care of children with repaired esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula
ConclusionAlthough all children had persistent aerodigestive symptoms, over 50% had not been seen by an appropriate subspecialist in the year prior to the clinic visit. The multidisciplinary evaluation resulted in new diagnoses of bronchiectasis and active reflux, which can both lead to long‐term morbidity and mortality. Children with TEF require evaluation by multiple subspecialists to manage not only current symptoms but also long term risks. Ongoing care should be guided by protocols based on known risks. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Emily M. DeBoer, Jeremy D. Prager, Amanda G. Ruiz, Emily L. Jensen, Robin R. Deterding, Joel A. Friedlander, Jason Soden Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
MicroRNA expression profiling in children with different asthma phenotypes
Summary An improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms in asthma through exploring the role of microRNAs may offer promise to reveal new approaches for primary prevention and identification of new therapeutic targets in childhood asthma. The primary goal of this study is to identify the microRNAs that play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma in pediatric age group. The secondary goal is to analyze these microRNAs according to the asthma phenotype, atopic status, and severity of the disease exacerbation. To our knowledge, this is the first research project in the literature which studies the relationship between mic...
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Levent Midyat, Figen Gulen, Emin Karaca, Ferda Ozkinay, Remziye Tanac, Esen Demir, Ozgur Cogulu, Asli Aslan, Cihangir Ozkinay, Huseyin Onay, Mesude Atasever Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Validation of the Brazilian version of the childhood asthma control test (c‐ACT)
ConclusionThe Brazilian version of the Childhood Asthma Control Test proved to be valid and reliable in children aged 4–11 years. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Suelen G. Oliveira, Edgar E. Sarria, Cristian Roncada, Renato T. Stein, Paulo M. Pitrez, Rita Mattiello Tags: Asthma Source Type: research
Lung function comparison between two decades in cystic fibrosis children: A single centre study
ConclusionsOur results show that pulmonary function has clearly ameliorated over a decade in young CF patients, in a period during which several significant therapeutic changes have been introduced, such as dornase alfa, tobramycin and hypertonic saline. To our knowledge this is the first study showing a cohort effect in patients diagnosed after neonatal screening. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015;9999:1–7. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatric Pulmonology)
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Gloria Tridello, Sonia Volpi, Baroukh M. Assael, Ilaria Meneghelli, Marianna Passiu, Maria Circelli Tags: Original Article: Cystic Fibrosis Source Type: research
Real life management of community-acquired Pneumonia in adults in the Gulf region and comparison with practice guidelines: a prospective study
Conclusion: Compliance with established guidelines should be encouraged in order to improve the management of the disease in this region. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Bassam MahboubAshraf Al ZaabiOla Al AliRaees AhmedMichael NiedermanRania El-Bishbishi Source Type: research
Plasma Chemokine signature correlates with lung goblet cell hyperplasia in smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by lung and systemic inflammation as well as airway goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH). Mucin production is activated in part by stimulation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor pathway through neutrophils and macrophages. How circulating cytokine levels relate to GCH is not clear. Methods: We performed phlebotomy and bronchoscopy on 25 subjects (six nonsmokers, 11 healthy smokers, and eight COPD subjects FEV 1 30–60 %). Six endobronchial biopsies per subject were performed. GCH was measured by measuring mucin volume dens...
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Victor KimWilliam CornwellMichelle OrosHeba DurraGerard CrinerThomas Rogers Source Type: research
Serum B cell–activating factor (BAFF) level in connective tissue disease associated interstitial lung disease
Conclusion: These finding suggest that BAFF may be a useful marker for distinguishing CTD-ILD from CFIP. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tsutomu HamadaTakuya SamukawaTomohiro KumamotoKazuhito HatanakaGo TsukuyaMasuki YamamotoKentaro MachidaMasaki WatanabeKeiko MizunoIkkou HigashimotoYoshikazu InoueHiromasa Inoue Source Type: research
Changes in PH in exhaled breath condensate after specific bronchial challenge test in patients with chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a prospective study
Conclusion: EBC pH may be useful in interpreting SIC results in patients with HP, especially in those patients exposed to molds. Further studies are now required to test the validity of these proposals. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: I. OjangurenM CruzA. VillarM. Sanchez-OrtizF. MorellX. Munoz Source Type: research
Mycobacterium gordonae-induced humidifier lung
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of humidifier lung induced by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Although nontuberculous mycobacteria are well-known to be agents of hot tub lung or metal working fluid lung, physicians should also consider the pathogen as a cause of hypersensitivity lung reaction associated with humidifier use. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Harue UtsugiYutaka UsuiFuyumi NishiharaMinoru KanazawaMakoto Nagata Source Type: research
Implementation of a pain management algorithm in intensive care units and evaluation of nurses' level of adherence with the algorithm
Conclusions ICU nurses can use a pain management algorithm consistently. Findings from this study suggest that a pain management algorithm is a useful tool to increase ICU nurses' adherence with pain assessment. (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)
Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Real-time characterization of risks of death associated with the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in the Republic of Korea, 2015
In a statistical model, the risk of death from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is associated with older age and treatment for underlying illness, highlighting the need for enhanced infection control measures to avoid MERS transmission among high-risk groups. (Source: BMC Medicine)
Source: BMC Medicine - September 30, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Kenji MizumotoAkira EndoGerardo ChowellYuichiro MiyamatsuMasaya SaitohHiroshi Nishiura Source Type: research
Acute respiratory failure in patients with hematological malignancies: outcomes according to initial ventilation strategy. A groupe de recherche respiratoire en réanimation onco-hématologique (Grrr-OH) study
Conclusions: In hematology patients with acute respiratory failure, initial treatment with NIV did not improve survival compared to oxygen only.Clinical trial.gov number NCT 01172132 (Source: Annals of Intensive Care)
Source: Annals of Intensive Care - September 30, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Virginie LemialeMatthieu Resche-RigonDjamel MokartFrederic PèneAntoine RabbatAchille KouatchetFrançois VincentFabrice BruneelMartine NyungaChristine LebertPierre PerezAnne-Pascale MeertDominique BenoitSylvie ChevretElie Azoulay Source Type: research
Cohort Profile: The Barwon Infant Study
The modern environment is associated with an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mounting evidence implicates environmental exposures, experienced early in life (including in utero), in the aetiology of many NCDs, though the cellular/molecular mechanism(s) underlying this elevated risk across the life course remain unclear. Epigenetic variation has emerged as a candidate mediator of such effects. The Barwon Infant Study (BIS) is a population-derived birth cohort study (n = 1074 infants) with antenatal recruitment, conducted in the south-east of Australia (Victoria). BIS has been designed to facilitate a ...
Source: International Journal of Epidemiology - September 30, 2015 Category: Epidemiology Authors: Vuillermin, P., Saffery, R., Allen, K. J., Carlin, J. B., Tang, M. L., Ranganathan, S., Burgner, D., Dwyer, T., Collier, F., Jachno, K., Sly, P., Symeonides, C., McCloskey, K., Molloy, J., Forrester, M., Ponsonby, A.-L. Tags: Cohort Profiles Source Type: research
[Research Articles] Human IFNAR2 deficiency: Lessons for antiviral immunity
Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) is a fundamental antiviral defense mechanism. Mouse models have been pivotal to understanding the role of IFN-α/β in immunity, although validation of these findings in humans has been limited. We investigated a previously healthy child with fatal encephalitis after inoculation of the live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. By targeted resequencing, we identified a homozygous mutation in the high-affinity IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR2) in the proband, as well as a newborn sibling, that rendered cells unresponsive to IFN-α/β. Reconstitution...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - September 30, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Duncan, C. J. A., Mohamad, S. M. B., Young, D. F., Skelton, A. J., Leahy, T. R., Munday, D. C., Butler, K. M., Morfopoulou, S., Brown, J. R., Hubank, M., Connell, J., Gavin, P. J., McMahon, C., Dempsey, E., Lynch, N. E., Jacques, T. S., Valappil, M., Cant Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
Loss of Hif-2α Rescues the Hif-1α Deletion Phenotype of Neonatal Respiratory Distress In Mice
by Yogesh Saini, Steven P. Proper, Peter Dornbos, Krista K. Greenwood, Anna K. Kopec, Scott G. Lynn, Elizabeth Grier, Lyle D. Burgoon, Timothy R. Zacharewski, Russell S. Thomas, Jack R. Harkema, John J. LaPres Hypoxia is a state of decreased oxygen reaching the tissues of the body. During prenatal development, the fetus experiences localized occurrences of hypoxia that are essential for proper organogenesis and survival. The response to decreased oxygen availability is primarily regulated by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), a family of transcription factors that modulate the expression of key genes involved in glycolysis...
Source: PLoS One - September 30, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yogesh Saini et al. Source Type: research
Relationship between serum cortisol levels and some physiological parameters following reining training session in horse
Abstract The changes of cortisol, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were evaluated after a reining training session in eight Quarter Horses. All parameters were measured before exercise (T0), immediately after exercise (T1), 1 h after exercise (T2), 2 h after exercise (T3) and 24 h after exercise (T4). One‐way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures, followed Bonferroni's post hoc test, showed a significant effect of the reining training session (P < 0.0001) on cortisol, RBC, Hb, Hct, HR, RR and RT. Simple linear regr...
Source: Animal Science Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Zoology Authors: Stefania Casella, Irene Vazzana, Elisabetta Giudice, Francesco Fazio, Giuseppe Piccione Tags: Original article Source Type: research
Kommerell Diverticulum Should Be Removed in Children With Vascular Ring and Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery
Conclusions Translocation of the aberrant left subclavian artery with diverticulum resection and ligamentum division is an efficient procedure for symptom relief. Profound wall abnormalities such as medial necrosis in at least 50% of the analyzed diverticula encourage us to maintain this strategy, to reduce the risk of aneurysm formation and dissection. (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - September 30, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
Starting out - Mary showed me that a smile and kind gesture does make a difference.
Abstract At the start of my third year of nurse training, I had a clinical placement on a respiratory medicine ward. Patients with a variety of respiratory conditions and comorbidities were treated on the ward, and I had many opportunities to develop my clinical skills. PMID: 26419154 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)
Source: Nursing Standard - September 30, 2015 Category: Nursing Authors: Hitchen J Tags: Nurs Stand Source Type: research
Salivary botulinum toxin injection may reduce aspiration pneumonia in neurologically impaired children
This study evaluates whether this intervention affects the frequency and duration of respiratory infections including aspiration pneumonia and hospitalizations in neurologically impaired children. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology - September 30, 2015 Category: ENT & OMF Authors: John Faria, Jennifer Harb, Aaron Hilton, Dean Yacobucci, Michael Pizzuto Source Type: research
An Unusual Case of Colonic Hemorrhage
Question: A previously healthy 58-year-old Caucasian man was transferred from a community-based hospital to a tertiary, academic medical center 2 weeks after the onset of severe biliary pancreatitis. The patient presented with systemic inflammatory response syndrome complicated by respiratory failure, acute kidney injury requiring dialysis, and hemodynamic instability intermittently requiring inotropic support. Before transfer, the patient was managed with bowel rest, antibiotics, total parental nutrition, and renal replacement therapy including the use of rectally administered electrolyte-binding resins to manage hyperkal...
Source: Gastroenterology - September 30, 2015 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gabrielle Cervoni, Steven J. Hughes Tags: Electronic Clinical Challenges and Images in GI Source Type: research
The influence of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization on the clinical outcome of the respiratory tract infections in preschool children
Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPn) is an important pathogen causing a variety of clinical manifestations. The effects of SPn nasopharyngeal colonization on respiratory tract infections are poorly studied. We evaluated the association of SPn colonization with features of respiratory tract infections. Methods: Children under the age of 6 years who visited a primary care physician because of respiratory tract infections were enrolled in the study. History was taken, children were clinically assessed by the physician, and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained and cultured for SPn. Positive samples were serotyped. Associa...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - September 30, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sigita PetraitieneTomas AlaseviciusIndre StacevicieneDaiva VaiciunieneTomas KacergiusVytautas Usonis Source Type: research
Clinical value of lncRNA MALAT1 as a prognostic marker in human cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions MALAT1 may potentially be used as a new prognostic marker to predict poorer survival of patients with cancer. More clinical studies on the different types of human cancer not yet investigated need to be conducted. (Source: BMJ Open)
Source: BMJ Open - September 30, 2015 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tian, X., Xu, G. Tags: Open access, Evidence based practice, Oncology Research Source Type: research
Organizing Pneumonia/Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia Overlap is associated with Unfavorable Lung Disease Progression
Overlapping forms of interstitial pneumonia have been recognized, but are likely underappreciated, and their clinical, radiologic, and histologic characteristics are not well-defined. (Source: Respiratory Medicine CME)
Source: Respiratory Medicine CME - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Nevins W. Todd, Ellen T. Marciniak, Ashutosh Sachdeva, Seth J. Kligerman, Jeffrey R. Galvin, Irina G. Luzina, Sergei P. Atamas, Allen P. Burke Source Type: research
ERJ October Podcast: new guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension
As part of the October issue, the European Respiratory Journal presents the latest in its series of podcasts, in which deputy chief editor Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan discusses the new ESC/ERS guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension with Prof. Marc Humbert. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Electronic Resources Source Type: research
The 2015 ESC/ERS Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension: a practical chronicle of progress
The first World Health Organization (WHO) Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension was held in 1973 in response to the sudden increase in the number of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) . This epidemic was related to the intake of appetite-suppressing drugs and only 17 clinicians and scientists convened at the landmark first WHO meeting. Back then, PPH was a mysterious condition without any known therapy. Two decades later, in 1993, the first consensus guideline on PPH endorsed by a specialist society was published . The chairman of the 1993 consensus document, Lewis Rubin (University of California, San D...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Lau, E. M. T., Tamura, Y., McGoon, M. D., Sitbon, O. Tags: Pulmonary vascular disease Editorials Source Type: research
The 2015 guidelines for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an important chapter in the evolution of the management of patients with IPF
During the past 15 years, clinical practice guidelines have evolved from the consensus-based opinions of experts to evidence-based documents developed using a rigorous systematic approach. In 2000, a selected panel of international experts in the field of interstitial lung diseases developed a guideline for the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) . The guideline was based upon the consensus opinions of the few expert panel members; the panel members' decisions were not informed by a systematic review of the literature, meaning that there was no formal synthesis of the evidence or apprais...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Wilson, K. C., Raghu, G. Tags: Interstitial and orphan lung disease Editorials Source Type: research
Classification of antituberculosis drugs: a new proposal based on the most recent evidence
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) (resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin), with >480 000 cases in 2013, 10% of them being affected by extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB (MDR-TB with additional resistance to any fluoroquinolone, and to injectable second-line drugs (SLDs) (capreomycin, kanamycin or amikacin)), continues to represent a real threat to TB control [1–4]. In some high MDR-TB burden countries, the prevalence of MDR-TB among new cases exceeds 20% and among retreatment cases, reaches almost 50% [1, 5]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Caminero, J. A., Scardigli, A. Tags: Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Editorials Source Type: research
Multitasking basal cells: combining stem cell and innate immune duties
The airway epithelium, which covers the luminal surface of the tracheobronchial tree, is a primary barrier that protects the lung from pathogens, irritants, toxic substances and other stressors present in the ~10 000 L of air flowing through the airways every day. This barrier function is normally mediated by differentiated ciliated and secretory cells strategically positioned in the apical layer to interact with the luminal content. Via production of mucus and antimicrobial substances, and continuous beating of the cilia to remove mucus-trapped bacteria and other airborne particles from the airways, these cells prote...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shaykhiev, R. Tags: Mechanisms of lung disease Editorials Source Type: research
The double-edged sword of neutrophilic inflammation in bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that is increasingly acquiring a greater epidemiological importance . Its pathogenesis has two main characteristics: bronchial infection and bronchial inflammation. Although bronchial inflammation is mostly (but not always) caused by the bronchial infection, bronchial inflammation is an essential precondition for the development of bronchiectasis. On the cellular level, the inflammation predominantly comprises neutrophils . The main molecules involved in the recruitment of neutrophils to the bronchial mucosa and the pulmonary parenchyma are interleukin (IL)-1&be...
Source: European Respiratory Journal - September 30, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Martinez-Garcia, M. A., Sanchez, C. P., Moreno, R. M. G. Tags: CF and non-CF bronchiectasis Editorials Source Type: research