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This page shows you the most recent publications within this specialty of the MedWorm directory. This is page number 8.

Management of Infections with Drug-Resistant Organisms in Critical Care
Infections with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are common in critically ill patients and are challenging to manage appropriately. Strategies that can be used in the treatment of MDRO infections in the intensive care unit (ICU) include combination therapy, adjunctive aerosolized therapy, and optimization of pharmacokinetics with higher doses or extended-infusion therapy as appropriate. Rapid diagnostic tests could assist in improving timely appropriate antimicrobial therapy for MDRO infections in the ICU. (Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine)
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sergio E. Trevino, Marin H. Kollef Source Type: research

A Tuberculosis Ontology for Host Systems Biology
A major hurdle facing tuberculosis (TB) investigators who want to utilize a rapidly growing body of data from both systems biology approaches and omics technologies is the lack of a standard vocabulary for data annotation and reporting. Lacking a means to readily compare samples from different research groups, a significant quantity of potentially informative data is largely ignored by researchers. To facilitate standardizing data across studies, a simple ontology of TB terms was developed to provide a common vocabulary for annotating data sets. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Source: Tuberculosis - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: David M. Levine, Noton K. Dutta, Josh Eckels, Charles Scanga, Catherine Stein, Smriti Mehra, Deepak Kaushal, Petros C. Karakousis, Hugh Salamon Tags: Immunological Aspects Source Type: research

Daily respiratory training with large intrathoracic pressures, but not large lung volumes, lowers blood pressure in normotensive adults
Publication date: 15 September 2015 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Volume 216 Author(s): Jennifer R. Vranish , E.Fiona Bailey (Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology)
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

The sensing of respiratory gases in fish: Mechanisms and signalling pathways Mechanisms of chemoreception in fish
Publication date: Available online 27 June 2015 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): S.F. Perry , V. Tzaneva Chemoreception in fish is critical for sensing changes in the chemical composition of the external and internal environments and is often the first step in a cascade of events leading to cardiorespiratory and metabolic adjustments. Of paramount importance is the ability to sense changes in the levels of the three respiratory gases, oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3). In this review, we discuss the role of piscine neuroepithelial cells (NEC), putative peripheral chemorece...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in rats with polycystic ovaries breathing control in PCOS
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2015 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Luis Henrique Montrezor , Débora de Carvalho , Mirela B. Dias , Janete A. Anselmo-Franci , Kênia C. Bícego , Luciane H. Gargaglioni In female rats, a single injection of estradiol valerate (EV) results in effects that are similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesized that EV-induced PCOS affects breathing control based on evidence showing an influence of sex hormones on ventilation. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of EV treatment on the ventilation ...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Abraham Guz Memorial: Still unresolved hypotheses: Lung reflexes and perceptions of breathing
This article constitutes a review of the studies performed by the group of the late A. Guz and other authors on the subjects of lung reflexes and perceptions of respiration. The experimental data suggest that the lung inflation and deflation reflexes are present in man, mediated by large myelinated afferent nerve fibres in the vagus nerves, but that the inflation reflex is weaker than in animals, possibly due to central neuronal inhibition. The authors of animal results on the deflation reflex differ as to the afferent fibres involved in the vagi, but it is argued, on the basis of the data, that the preferred hypothesis is...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Hemodynamic effects of high intensity interval training in COPD patients exhibiting exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation
Publication date: Available online 23 June 2015 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): I. Nasis , E. Kortianou , Vasilopoulou Μ. , S. Spetsioti , Z. Louvaris , G. Kaltsakas , C. Davos , S. Zakynthinos , N.G. Koulouris , I. Vogiatzis Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) has a significant adverse effect on cardiovascular function during exercise in COPD patients. COPD patients with (n=25) and without (n=11) exercise-induced DH undertook an incremental (IET) and a constant-load exercise test (CLET) sustained at 75% peak work (WRpeak) prior to and following an interval cycling exercise training regime (set a...
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

One-year experience with an ARDS standard operating procedure on ICU
Mortality in ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) patients remains unacceptable high and there is substantial variation in the diagnostic and management strategies employed. We recently established a standardized algorithm for the early identification and guideline conform therapy of ARDS on intensive care units (ICU). We here present the results of a first-year observatory period after implementation of the ARDS bundle on our ICU. (Source: Journal of Critical Care)
Source: Journal of Critical Care - June 29, 2015 Category: Intensive Care Authors: Peter Luedike, Matthias Totzeck, Christos Rammos, Detlef Kindgen-Milles, Malte Kelm, Tienush Rassaf Source Type: research

Unbiased metagenomic sequencing complements specific routine diagnostic methods and increases chances to detect rare viral strains
Multiplex PCR assays for respiratory viruses are widely used in routine diagnostics, as they are highly sensitive, rapid and cost effective. However, depending on the assay system, cross-reactivity between viruses that share a high sequence homology as well as detection of rare virus isolates with sequence variations can be problematic. Virus sequence-independent metagenomic high-throughput sequencing allows for accurate detection of all virus species in a given sample, as we demonstrate here for Human Enterovirus and Rhinovirus in a lung transplant patient. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)
Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease - June 29, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Dagmara W. Lewandowska, Osvaldo Zagordi, Andrea Zbinden, Macé M. Schuurmans, Peter Schreiber, Fabienne Desirée Geissberger, Jon B. Huder, Jürg Böni, Christian Benden, Nicolas J. Mueller, Alexandra Trkola, Michael Huber Source Type: research

A Molecular Biomarker to Diagnose Community-acquired Pneumonia on Intensive Care Unit Admission.
CONCLUSIONS: CAP and no-CAP patients presented shared and distinct blood genomic responses. We propose the FAIM3:PLAC8 ratio as a candidate biomarker to assist in the rapid diagnosis of CAP on ICU admission. PMID: 26121490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Scicluna BP, Klein Klouwenberg PM, van Vught LA, Wiewel MA, Ong DS, Zwinderman AH, Franitza M, Toliat MR, Nürnberg P, Hoogendijk AJ, Horn J, Cremer OL, Schultz MJ, Bonten MJ, van der Poll T Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Dialysis in Severe Sepsis.
CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis in patients with severe sepsis has increased over time, conversely associated mortality has declined. The likelihood of demise from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis in patients with severe sepsis has also declined. PMID: 26120892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sakhuja A, Kumar G, Gupta S, Mittal T, Taneja A, Nanchal RS Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.
Abstract Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection has recently spread to Korean Republic (KOR), China, and Thailand. The outbreaks in Korean Republic are characterised by super-spreading events involving several healthcare facilities. The factors leading to the major nosocomial outbreaks in KOR include unfamiliarity among the clinicians with MERS-CoV infection, poor infection control and prevention measures, overcrowding in emergency rooms and medical wards, doctor shopping and invitation of family members and friends to stay in already crowded hospital environment. The role of environmenta...
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Hui DS, Peiris M Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

Matrix Metalloproteinases As Therapeutic Targets For Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a restrictive lung disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Current medical therapies are not fully effective at limiting mortality in IPF patients and new therapies are urgently needed. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteinases that, together, can degrade all components of the extracellular matrix and numerous non-matrix proteins. MMPs and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of IPF based upon the results of clinical studies reporting elevated levels of MMPs (including MMP-1, MMP-7, ...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Craig VJ, Zhang L, Hagood JS, Owen CA Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Contribution of Fetal but Not Adult Pulmonary Mesothelium to Mesenchymal Lineages in Lung Homeostasis and Fibrosis.
Abstract The lung is enveloped by a layer of specialized epithelium, the pulmonary mesothelium. In other organs, mesothelial cells undergo EMT and contribute to organ stromal cells. The contribution of pulmonary mesothelial cells (PMCs) to the developing lung has been evaluated with differing conclusions. PMCs have also been indirectly implicated in lung fibrosis in the progressive, fatal lung disease idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We used fetal or postnatal genetic pulse-labeling of PMCs to assess their fate in murine development, normal lung homeostasis, and models of pulmonary fibrosis. We found that most ...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: von Gise A, Stevens SM, Honor LB, Oh JH, Gao C, Zhou B, Pu WT Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

Neonatal Pulmonary Macrophage Depletion Coupled to Defective Mucus Clearance Increases Susceptibility to Pneumonia and Alters Pulmonary Immune Responses.
Abstract Resident immune cells [e.g., macrophages (MΦ)] and airway mucus clearance both contribute to a healthy lung environment. To investigate interactions between pulmonary MΦ function and defective mucus clearance, a genetic model of lysozyme M (LysM) promoter mediated MΦ-depletion was generated, characterized, and crossed with the Scnn1b-Tg mouse model of defective mucus clearance. Diphtheria toxin A (DTA) -mediated depletion of LysM+ pulmonary MΦ in wild-type mice with normal mucus clearance resulted in lethal pneumonia in 24% of neonates. The pneumonias were dominated by Pasteurella pneumotropica and acc...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Saini Y, Wilkinson KJ, Terrell KA, Burns KA, Livraghi-Butrico A, Doerschuk CM, O'Neal WK, Boucher RC Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

The Coagulant Factor Xa Induces PAR-1 and Annexin A2-dependent Airway Smooth Muscle Cytokine Production and Cell Proliferation.
In this study, the potential role of PAR-1 in mediating the effects of FXa on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell cytokine production and proliferation was investigated. FXa (5-50 nM), but not FX, stimulated increases in ASM interleukin-6 (IL-6) production and cell number after 24 and 48 h incubation respectively (P<0.05, n=5). FXa (15 nM) also stimulated increases in the levels of mRNA for cytokines (IL-6), cell cycle-related protein (cyclin D1) and pro-remodeling proteins (FGF-2, PDGF-B, CTGF, SM22 and PAI-1) after 3 h incubation (P<0.05, n=4). The actions of FXa were insensitive to inhibition by hirudin (1 U mL-...
Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol... - June 29, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Schuliga M, Royce SG, Langenbach S, Berhan A, Harris T, Keenan CR, Stewart AG Tags: Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol Source Type: research

New insights on the viral and host factors contributing to the airway pathogenesis caused by the respiratory syncytial virus.
Abstract The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most prevalent etiological agent of lower respiratory tract infections and the first cause of hospitalization in infants due to respiratory disease worldwide. However, efforts to develop safe and effective vaccines and antivirals have been challenged by an incomplete understanding of the RSV pathogenesis and the host immune response to RSV infection in the airways. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the interaction between RSV and the epithelium to induce pathogenesis in the airways, such as the role of the RSV NS2 protein in the airway epithelium...
Source: Critical Reviews in Microbiology - June 29, 2015 Category: Microbiology Authors: Lay MK, Bueno SM, Gálvez N, Riedel CA, Kalergis AM Tags: Crit Rev Microbiol Source Type: research

Dietary protein intake may reduce hospitalisation due to infection in Māori of advanced age: LiLACS NZ.
CONCLUSIONS: Protein intake may have a protective effect on the nutrition-related morbidity of older Māori. Improving dietary protein intake is a simple strategy for dietary modification aiming to decrease the risk of infections that lead to hospitalisation and other morbidities. PMID: 26121996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health)
Source: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health - June 29, 2015 Category: Global & Universal Authors: Wham C, Baggett F, Teh R, Moyes S, Kēpa M, Connolly M, Jatrana S, Kerse N Tags: Aust N Z J Public Health Source Type: research

Parents, Teach Your Children Well.
PMID: 26113567 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Boone E Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

AARC Clinical Practice Guideline: Effectiveness of Pharmacologic Airway Clearance Therapies in Hospitalized Patients.
Abstract Aerosolized medications are used as airway clearance therapy to treat a variety of airway diseases. These guidelines were developed from a systematic review with the purpose of determining whether the use of these medications to promote airway clearance improves oxygenation and respiratory mechanics, reduces ventilator time and ICU stay, and/or resolves atelectasis/consolidation compared with usual care. Recombinant human dornase alfa should not be used in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients without cystic fibrosis. The routine use of bronchodilators to aid in secretion clearance is not recommended. ...
Source: Respiratory Care - June 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Strickland SL, Rubin BK, Haas CF, Volsko TA, Drescher GS, O'Malley CA Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Mechanical Insufflation-Exsufflation: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
PMID: 26113568 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Willis LD, Berlinski A Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

A Paradox Defined?
PMID: 26113569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Shipe RG Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Are New Devices for Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy Really Needed? Yes.
PMID: 26113571 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Vargas M, Servillo G, Pelosi P, Kacmarek RM Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Are New Airway Devices for Percutaneous Dilatational Tracheostomy Really Needed?
PMID: 26113570 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Sangwan YS Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Editor's Commentary.
Authors: PMID: 26113572 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Respir Care Source Type: research

Association between prehospital vitamin D status and incident acute respiratory failure in critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: Prehospital 25(OH)D was associated with the risk of acute respiratory failure in our critically ill patient cohort. PMID: 26113982 [PubMed] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Source: Respiratory Care - June 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Thickett DR, Moromizato T, Litonjua AA, Amrein K, Quraishi SA, Lee-Sarwar KA, Mogensen KM, Purtle SW, Gibbons FK, Camargo CA, Giovannucci E, Christopher KB Tags: BMJ Open Respir Res Source Type: research

Has the airway microbiome been overlooked in respiratory disease?
Editorial summary The respiratory disease field is changing because of recent advances in our understanding of the airway microbiome. Central to this is dysbiosis, an imbalance of microbial communities that can lead to and flag inflammation in the airways. The increasing momentum of research in this area holds promise for novel treatment strategies. (Source: Genome Medicine)
Source: Genome Medicine - June 28, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Airway Remodeling in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Asthma: the Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9
Abstract Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are both associated with airflow restriction and progressive remodeling, which affect the respiratory tract. Among various biological factors involved in the pathomechanisms of both diseases, proteolytic enzymes—matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)—play an important role, especially MMP-9. In this review, the authors discuss the current topics of research concerning the possible role of MMP-9 in both mentioned diseases. They include the analysis of protein levels, nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP-9 gene and their possible correlation with asthma and C...
Source: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis - June 28, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Acute exacerbations of COPD are associated with significant activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 irrespectively of airway obstruction, emphysema and infection
Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that during AE-COPD increased expression of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and MMP-9 and activation of MMP-9 may be persistent aggravating factors associated with airway remodeling and obstruction, suggesting a pathway connecting frequent exacerbations to lung function decline. (Source: Respiratory Research)
Source: Respiratory Research - June 28, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Eleni PapakonstantinouGeorge KarakiulakisSpyros BatziosSpasenija SavicMichael RothMichael TammDaiana Stolz Source Type: research

The Lung Immune Response to Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (Lung Immunity to NTHi).
Authors: King PT, Sharma R Abstract Haemophilus influenzae is divided into typeable or nontypeable strains based on the presence or absence of a polysaccharide capsule. The typeable strains (such as type b) are an important cause of systemic infection, whilst the nontypeable strains (designated as NTHi) are predominantly respiratory mucosal pathogens. NTHi is present as part of the normal microbiome in the nasopharynx, from where it may spread down to the lower respiratory tract. In this context it is no longer a commensal and becomes an important respiratory pathogen associated with a range of common conditions in...
Source: Journal of Immunology Research - June 27, 2015 Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: J Immunol Res Source Type: research

Asymptomatic Right Circumflex Aortic Arch Associated with Ventricular Septal Defect and Biscuspid Aortic Valve.
CONCLUSIONS: Previous reports have described the association of circumflex aortic arch with VSD, but there is no previous report of its association with VSD and bicuspid aortic valve. Patients are usually symptomatic either preoperatively, or after VSD repair. For this reason, division of the ligamentum arteriosum, to open the vascular ring and free the trachea and esophagus from compression, should be performed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for associated malformations. PMID: 26115157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Heart Surgery Forum)
Source: The Heart Surgery Forum - June 27, 2015 Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Authors: Tissot C, Didier D, Beghetti M, Kalangos A, Myers PO Tags: Heart Surg Forum Source Type: research

Investigation of Lung Involvement in Connective Tissue Disorders
Lung involvement in connective tissue disorders (CTDs) may present as pleomorphic since any lung compartment may be involved such as airways, exocrine secretory and alveolar epithelia, interstitial lung structure, pulmonary vasculature and pleura as well as, in specific disorders, several tissues of the thoracoabdominal ventilator pump. Any combination of the above anatomic structures may be involved concomitantly although some specific combinations may include a determinant of rheumatic disorders. The diagnosis of a specific CTD requires the fulfilment of clearly defined clinical and laboratory criteria including in most ...
Source: Respiration - June 27, 2015 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research